120 Chapter Reviews

Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
SUMMER SCHEDULE
Required Reading: Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus
Due Week 2:
Review Test Chapter 3 – Shielded Metal Arc Equipment, Setup and Operation (30 points).
Review Test Chapter 4 – Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Plate (25 points).
Review Test Chapter 25 – Welding Metallurgy (41 points).
Due Week 3:
Review Test Chapter 21 – Fabricating Techniques and Practices (25 points).
Review Test Chapter 22 – Welding Codes and Standards (11 points).
Review Test Chapter 23 – Testing and Inspection of Welds (39 points).
Due Week 4:
Review Test Chapter 5 – Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Pipe (20 points).
Review Test Chapter 6 – Advanced Shielded Metal Arc Welding (23 points).
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 3
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 3)
Review Test Chapter 3 answer all questions 1 through 30 Total Points (30)
1. Describe the welding current
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What produces the heat during a shielded metal arc weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Voltage can be described as?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Amperage can be described as?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Wattage can be described as?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What determines the exact temperature of the shielded metal welding arc?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Does all of the heat produced by an SMA weld stay in the weld? Why or why not?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. What do the following abbreviations mean: AC, DCEN, DCEP, DCSP, and DCRP?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. Sketch a welding machine, an electrode lead, an electrode holder, an electrode, a work lead, and work
connected for DCEN welding. See Figure 3-6.
10. Sketch a welding machine, an electrode lead, an electrode holder, an electrode, a work lead, and work
connected for DCEP welding. See Figure 3-7.
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 3
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
11. Why is SMA welding current referred to as constant current?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. What is the higher voltage at the electrode before the arc is struck called? What is its advantage to
welding?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. Referring to the graph in Figure 3-9, what would the voltage be for the CC power supply at 110 amps?
What would the watts be?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. How does arc blow affect welding?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. How can arc blow be controlled?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. How does a welding transformer work?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. What are taps on a welding transformer?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. What would the approximate amperage setting be if a welder were set to the high range (150 to 350
amps) and the fine adjustment knob were pointing at 5 on a 10-point scale?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What are the advantages of the inverter-type welding power supply?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20. What is the difference between the welding current produced by alternators and by generators?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. What are the advantages of alternators over generators?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 3
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
22. What must be checked before using the 110-volt power plug on a portable welder?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. What is meant by a welder’s duty cycle?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. Why must a welding machine’s duty cycle never be exceeded?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25. Why is copper better than aluminum for welding cables?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
26. A splice in a welding cable should never be any closer than __________ to the electrode holder.
27. Why must the electrode holder be correctly sized?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
28. What can cause a properly sized electrode holder to overheat?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
29. What problem can occur if welding machines are stacked or placed too closely together?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
30. Why welding cables must never be tied to scaffolding or ladders?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 4
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 4)
Review Test Chapter 4 answer all questions 1 through 25 Total Points (25)
1. Describe two or more methods of striking an arc with an electrode.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Why is it important to strike the arc only in the weld joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. What problems may result by using an electrode at too low a current setting?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What problems may result by using an electrode at too high a current setting?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. According to Table 4-1, what would the amperage range be for the following electrodes?
a. 1/8 in. (3.2 mm), E6010 ______________
b. 5/32 in. (4 mm), E7018
______________
c. 3/32 in. (2.4 mm), E7016 ______________
d. 1/8 in. (3.2 mm), E6011 ______________
6. What makes some spatter “hard”?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Why should you never change the current setting during a weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. What factors should be considered when selecting an electrode size?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What can a welder do to control overheating of the metal pieces being welded?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 4
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
10. What effect does changing the arc length have on the weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. What arc problems can occur in deep or narrow weld joints?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. Describe the difference between using a leading and a trailing electrode angle.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. Can all electrodes be used with a leading angle? Why or why not?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. What characteristics of the weld bead does weaving of the electrode cause?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. What are some of the applications for the circular pattern in the flat position?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. Draw two complete lines of the weave patterns you are most comfortable making.
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 4
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
17. Why is it important to find a good welding position?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. Which electrodes would be grouped in the following F numbers: F3, F2, F4?
a. F3 _______________
b. F2 _______________
c. F4 _______________
19. Give one advantage of using electrodes with cellulose-based fluxes.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20. What are stringer beads?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. Describe an ideal tack weld
_____________________________________________________________________________________
22. What effect does the root opening or root gap have on a butt joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. What can happen if the fillet weld on a lap joint does not have a smooth transition?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. Which plate heats up faster on a tee joint? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25. Can a tee weld be strong if the welds on both sides do not have deep penetration? Why or why not?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 25
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 25)
Review Test Chapter 25 answer all questions 1 through 41 Total Points (41)
1. What gives metals their desirable properties?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What is heat?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. What are the basic units of measure for heat?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What is sensible heat?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. What is latent heat?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What does the color of light given off from a hot object indicate?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. What is a crystal lattice?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Why does metal not form into one large, single crystal?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What is an alloy?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 25
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
10. Using Figure 25-14, answer the following questions:
a. At approximately what temperature does a 70% lead and 30% tin mixture become solid?
_________________
b. What crystal structure is formed first when a 20% lead and 80% tin mixture cools down from a
100% liquid phase?
_________________
11. What is a eutectic composition?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. Using Table 25-3, what are the lowest and highest carbon contents of iron-carbon alloys?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. Approximately how many degrees wide is the transition range at the 0.1% carbon alloy?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. Referring to Figure 25-16, what color would low carbon steel appear when it is in the transition
range?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. Referring to Figure 25-16, what is the approximate temperature of the lower transformation
temperature?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. What three factors affect the size and type of crystals formed in an iron-carbon alloy?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. Referring to Figure 25-16, above what temperature is a 0.1% iron-carbon alloy nonmagnetic?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. What is the most significant factor that affects how much of an alloying element remains trapped in
the iron-carbon crystals?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What is known as the critical temperature of iron-carbon alloys?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews Page 12 of 29
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 25
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
20. Can a metal have all the mechanical properties at ideal levels? Why or why not?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. What other properties can a metal’s hardness reveal?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
22. Which property, brittleness or ductility, will let a metal deform without breaking? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. What is toughness?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. What are the common types of strength measurements?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25. What is a major advantage of solid-solution-strengthened alloys?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
26. What are the three steps in precipitation hardening?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
27. How do ferrite and cementite work together to form a strong ductile steel?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
28. Why is brine quenching faster than water quenching?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
29. What can be done to speed up the quenching rate in any liquid?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
30. Why is the formation of martensite a problem when welding on high carbon steels?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 25
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
31. How can the effects of cold working be removed?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
32. How can large-grain crystals be made into smaller sizes?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
33. Referring to Figure 25-16, what would the preheat temperature range be for an iron-carbon alloy with
0.6% carbon?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
34. Why must the stress-relieving temperature be kept below the critical temperature of the plate?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
35. What properties can annealing produce in metals?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
36. How long does it take the weld metal to go through its thermal cycle during a weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
37. What are some sources of hydrogen that can contaminate a weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
38. How can nitrogen get into an SMAW weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
39. What are some of the problems that oxygen can cause in welds?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
40. When do cold cracks develop?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
41. What is carbide precipitation?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 21
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 21)
Review Test Chapter 21 answer all questions 1 through 25 Total Points (25)
1. List precautions you must take when welding around workers who are not welders.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What is a cost advantage of using preformed parts in a fabrication?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Why is a prototype custom fabricated before producing multiple weldments?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. How would a small or tight tolerance affect the layout?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. How can circles, arcs, and curves be laid out?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Which cutting process does not produce a kerf space?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. What is kerf space?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Which of the cutting processes can leave the smallest kerf?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What are two common ways to provide for the kerf spacing?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
10. What can a template be made of?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 21
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
11. What is the difference between plate and sheet material?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. What is a part’s tolerance?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. What can you do to make parts fit without having to recut or regrind them?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. Why should you avoid re-cutting or grinding parts whenever possible?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. What problem can result if the root opening of a weld is too wide?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. What is the benefit of identifying a single part as the base during assembly?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. List three types of clamps used to temporarily hold parts in place so that they can be tack welded.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. What makes some C-clamps better for welding than others?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What is a simple way of correcting slight alignment problems?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20. What precautions should be taken if a hammer is used to shift a part into alignment?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. What is the purpose of tack welds?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 21
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
22. How many tack welds should be used on thin metal compared to thicker metal parts?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. Does it matter if one of the tack welds breaks during welding and why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. Why is it important not to strike the arc outside of the weld joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25. What can happen if a grinding stone with a lower-rated RPM than the grinder is used?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 22
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 22)
Review Test Chapter 22 answer all questions 1 through 11 Total Points (11)
1. Why is it important to select the correct welding code or standard?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What are codes and standards?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the difference between welding codes or standards and welding specifications?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What might influence the selection of a particular code or specification for welding?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. As stricter standards are applied to the welding process, what happens to the cost of the weldment?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What can happen if welding standards are lax?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. What are three commonly used codes?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. What is a WPS?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 22
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
9. What information should be included in a WPS?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
10. What is the form called that records the parameters used to produce a test weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. Who should witness the test welding being performed for a tentative WPS?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 23
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 23)
Review Test Chapter 23 answer all questions 1 through 39 Total Points (39)
1. Why are all welds not inspected to the same level or standard?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Why is the strength of all production parts not known if a sample number of parts is mechanically
tested?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Why is it possible to do more than one nondestructive test on a weldment?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What is a discontinuity?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. What is a defect?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What is tolerance?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. What are the 12 most common discontinuities?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. How can porosity form in a weld and not be seen by the welder?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What welding process can cause porosity to form?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 23
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
10. How is piping porosity formed?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. What are inclusions, and how are they caused?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. When does inadequate joint penetration usually become defective?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. How can a notch cause incomplete fusion?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. How can an arc strike appear on a guided-bend test?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. What is overlap?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. What is undercut?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. What causes crater cracks?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. What is underfill?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What is the difference between a lamination and a delamination?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews Page 22 of 29
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 23
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
20. How can stress be reduced through a plate’s thickness to reduce lamellar tearing?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. What would be the tensile strength in pounds per square inch of a specimen measuring 0.375 in. thick
and 1.0 in. wide if it failed at 27,000 lb?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
22. What would be the elongation for a specimen for which the original gauge length was 2 in. and final
gauge length was 2.5 in.?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. How are the results of a stress test reported?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. What would be the transverse shear strength per inch of weld if a specimen that was 2.5 in. wide
withstood 25,000 lb?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25. What would be the longitudinal shearing strength per millimeter of a specimen that was 50.8 mm
wide and 116 mm long and withstood 23,200 kg?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
26. What are the three methods of destructive testing of a welded butt joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
27. How are the specimens bent for a guided-, root-, face-, and side-bend test?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
28. How wide should a specimen be if the material thickness is
_____________________________________________________________________________________
29. Why are guide lines drawn on the surface of a free-bend specimen?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
30. What part of a fillet weld break test is examined?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Ch. 23
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
31. What can happen if acids are handled carelessly?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
32. What information about the weld does an impact test provide?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
33. Which nondestructive test is most commonly used?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
34. List the five steps to be followed when using a penetrant test.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
35. What properties must metal have before it can be tested with the MT process?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
36. Why will some flaws appear larger on an X ray than they are in the weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
37. How is the size of a flaw determined using ultrasonic inspection?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
38. What is the major limitation of eddy current inspection?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
39. What information does a hardness test reveal?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 5
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 5)
Review Test Chapter 5 answer all questions 1 through 20 Total Points (20)
1. List some applications that use low-pressure piping.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. List some applications that use medium-pressure piping.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. List some applications that use high-pressure piping.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Describe the differences between pipe and tubing.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. What are the advantages of welded piping systems over other joining methods?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Why must the ends of pipe be beveled before being welded?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. How can the ends of a pipe be beveled?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Why is the end of a pipe beveled at a 37 1/2° angle?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What causes root suck back or a concave root face?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 5
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
10. Why are arc strikes outside the welding zone considered a problem on pipe?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. What are the purposes of backing rings?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. What is the purpose of a hot pass?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. Why must the weld crater be cleaned before starting a new electrode?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. What is the maximum width of the cover pass? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. When is the 1G welding position used?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. How can the start of a weld be made less narrow and more uniform?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. What supports the welds on a 2G pipe joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18. On 5G welds, what usually determines the direction of the root pass?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What three welding positions are incorporated in the 6G welding position?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20. Why are small multi-pass stringer beads best for 6G welds?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews Page 26 of 29
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 6
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
Required Reading: (Welding Principals and Applications 7th Edition Larry Jeffus Chapter 6)
Review Test Chapter 6 answer all questions 1 through 23 Total Points (23)
1. Why are some weld joints grooved?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Sketch four of the standard grooves used for welded joints.
3. Why are some backing strips removed from the finished weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Why are backing tapes used on some joints?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Why is it very important to make a weld with a good root surface?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What are the two common methods of making a root pass on an open root joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 6
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
7. How can small gaps between the weld plate and backing strip be closed?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8. What effect does changing from a trailing angle to a leading angle have on a weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. What benefit would there be to the root pass if the electrode holder were rocked back and forth while
keeping the electrode tip in the joint?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
10. What might cause the bright color on the flux as a weld cools?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. What can happen if the molten weld pool becomes too large on a root weld?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. What can be done to increase the amount of high-strength welding electrode in the final weld if the
root weld was made with a low-alloy electrode?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. What is the purpose of the hot pass?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14. Why should a filler weld pass not have deep penetration?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
15. Why is it important to have a good cover pass?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16. What can watching the back edge of a weld pool help you determine?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
17. Other than penetration, why would thick butt joints be grooved on both sides?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews Page 28 of 29
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Weld 120 SMAW Review Test Chapter 6
Name: _______________________________________
Date: _____________
18. List the things that a weld must be inspected for before it is ground for bend testing.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
19. What determines the acceptance or rejection of a bend specimen?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20. What technique can be used to make restarting weld beads easier and more uniform?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
21. Why should some weldments be preheated before welding starts?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
22. What is post heating used for?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
23. How can a wide gap in a joint be closed by welding?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Weld 120 SMAW Chapter Reviews Page 29 of 29
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