Chapter 21 Civil Rights Review Worksheet—ANSWERS

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Chapter 21 Civil Rights Review Worksheet—ANSWERS
Person, Place, Date,
refer to and study
“Civil Rights
Alphabet Soup”
Dred Scott vs.
Sanford (1857)
Dred Scott was a slave who sued
unsuccessfully for his freedom in the famous
lawsuit Dred Scott v. Sandford
Provision that exempts certain people from a
law on the basis of previously existing
Laws enacted by Southern state and local
governments to separate white and black
people in public and private facilities;
An annual tax that had to be paid before
qualifying to vote—African Americans and
poor white citizens were often too poor to
pay the poll tax;
which bears his name—The court ruled 7 to 2 against Scott, stating that slaves were property , and the court could not deprive
people of their property without due process of law according to the Fifth Amendment
Grandfather clause
—especially a clause formerly in some Southern states ’ cons titution s that exempted whites from the strict vo ting requirements used to keep African Amer icans from the polls
Jim Crow Laws
named after a popular old minstrel son g that ended in the
words “Jump, Jim Crow”
Poll Tax
to reinstate white voters who cou ld no t pay the poll tax, several Southern states added the grandfather clause which allowed citizens to still vo te if their grandfath ers were able to vote
287 & 290
Plessy v Ferguson
What were some of the actions taken by President Truman as a result of the Committee on Civ il Righ ts ?
Thirteenth Amendment
Amendment (1868)
Fifteenth Amendment
Affirmed the legality of racial segregation (“separate but equal”); In 1890, the State of Lou isiana had passed a law that required separ ate accommodations for Blac ks and Whites on railroads. Homer Plessy , who was one -eighth African, had taken a seat in the whites only railway car, he was asked to vacate it and sit in stead in the "blac ks on ly " car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. In 1896, the
Supreme Court ruled by a 7-1 decision in th is case that the separation of races in public accommodations was legal and d id no t vio late the Fo urteenth Amendment as long as the accommodations were equal; decision establis hed the doctrine of “separate but equal” which allowed states to maintain segregated facilities.
Based on the committee’s finding s, Truman urged Confess to pass an anti-ly nching law and an anti-p oll-tax measure to end discrimination in federal agencies and the military . He issued executive orders banning racial discrimination in the military and in federal hiring. He also too k steps to end employ ment discriminati on by companies holding government contracts.
Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Con stitutio n recognized former slaves as citizens.
Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Co nstitution
abolished slavery.
The amendment states:
Section 1. All person s born or na tura lized in the United Sta tes, and subject to the ju risd iction thereof, a re citizens of the Un ited States and of the State wherein they reside.
grants voting rights regardless of
The amendment states:
Section 1. The righ t of citizens of the Un ited S tates to vote shall not be denied or a brid ged by the United States or by any State on account of r ace, color, or previous cond itio n of servitude.
prohibits both Congress and the states from
putting restrictions (poll tax, literacy test,
etc.) on the right to vote in federal elections.
Section 2. The Con gress sh all have power to enforce th is ar ticle by appr opria te legis lation.
Amendment (1964)
Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution
The amendment states:
Section 1. The righ t of citizens of the United S tates to vote in a ny primary o r other election fo r Presiden t or V ice Preside nt, for electors for P resident o r Vice Presiden t, or for Sena tor or Representative in Co ngress, shall not be den ied or ab ridged by the United S tates o r any Sta te by reason o f fa ilure to pa y poll tax
or other tax.
A test that judged the reading of voters to
determine if they could vote or not; African
Americans were often given more difficult
Section 2.The Cong ress sh all h ave power to enforce this article by appro pria te legislatio n.
Literacy test
questions than white,
Racial prejudice or discrimination
Linda Brown’s parents sued the school
Warren Court handed down a unanimous
9-0 decision which stated, in no uncertain
terms, that "separate educational facilities
are inherently unequal." This ruling
eliminated the doctrine of "separate but
The decision gave legal support of the
African American struggle for civil rights.
or given a test in a foreign language in the end thou gh it was white officials that graded it and they could pass or fail applicants as they wished
Brown v. Board of
Education (1954)
In Topeka, Kansas,
for not allowing their daughter to attend a better all-white school miles closer to their h ome and than the segregated elementary school she was assigned to (Linda Brown—7 y ears-old—had to walk a mile through a dangerous train switching y ard to g et to a bus to ta ke her to her school rather than attending a school several bloc ks from her home); on
17 May 1954 the
Some border states integrated their sch ools, but the Sou th remained segregated. The governor of Virginia threatened to clo se the state ’s pu blic schoo ls and send white children to private schools. A group of Southern members of Congress signed a “Sou thern Manifesto,” wh ich called the court’s ruling “a clear abuse of judicial power” and pledged use of “all lawful means to bring abou t a reversal of this
Discuss three results
of the Brown v.
Board of Education
Thurgood Marshall
How did events during World War II lay the groundwork for African Americans to fight for civil rights in the 1950s ?
African Americans had experienced better job opportunities; many veterans who had fought racist Germans wanted to resis t racist Americans; civil rights groups had s taged some successful protests
Leading civil rights attorney In total, Marshall
won twenty-nine out of the thirty-two
The nine African American students who
attempted to enroll at Central High School in
Little Rock, Arkansas
In response to
many whites resisted
desegregation and in many places the Ku
Klux Klan reappeared;
school desegregation be implemented “with
all deliberate speed”
Nine black students (“The Little Rock
Nine”) seeking to enter Little Rock Central
High School were stopped by Governor
Orval Faubus, the National Guard, and angry
white segregationists. These actions forced
President Eisenhower to intervene.
A document signed by a group of 101
southern members of Congress
pledged use of “all lawful means to bring
about a reversal of this decision”
he argued before the Supreme Court (inclu ding Brown v Board of Educatio n); On J une 13, 19 67, President Jo hnson app ointed Marshall to the Supreme Court say ing that th is was "the righ t thing to do, the rig ht time to do it, the righ t man and the right place." He was the first African-American to hold the po sition.
“Little Rock Nine”
Brown II
the Brown v Board of Ed ucation decision,
in response, the Supreme Court handed down a second ru ling ( kn own as Brow n II) that
Little Rock Crisis
Wednesday , Sept. 4, 1957,
He federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sen t in 1, 000 paratroopers to pro tect
the students and to allow them to enter. Studen ts attended for that y ear then Faubus shut down Central High rather than let in tegration continue.
Southern Manifesto
which called the Cour t’s ru ling of Brown v Board of Educa tion “a clear abuse of judicial power” and
Why weren’t schoo ls in all regions desegregated immediately after the Brown II decision ?
Some Southern whites and s tate officials resis ted integratio n, and neither the president nor Congress force d them to act quic kly
Explain the pr imary effect of the bus boy cott in Montgomery , Alabama, on the bus company and the community .
African American passengers who regulary used the buses for transportation b oy cotted them. Because a majority of the regular bus riders were African Americans, the bus company lost much of its bu siness. The boy cott eventually forced the bus company to desegragete buses.
Put under the jurisdiction of the federal
A boycott of public transportation in
Montgomery, Alabama in response to Rosa
Parks being arrested;
the boycott lasted for 381 days until
the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation
Refusal to obey an unjust law
Protests where demonstrators did not used
any kind of force or violence no matter what
was said or done to them;
Protested segregation through everyday acts
all her life; through planning with NAACP,
she refused to give up her seat to white
passenger and ignited the Civil Rights
visit relatives
murdered by
Klux Klan
chose to have the casket open at his funeral,
showing the beating
picture of
his corpse appeared in a magazine
Martin Luther King, Jr. was the instrumental
leader of the civil rights movement; he
believed in non-violence and civil
disobedience; he was head of the
Montgomery Improvement Association
(MIA) and then the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference (SCLC);
probably most
remembered for his famous “I have a
Dream” speech which came at the conclusion the Civil Rights March on
—during the Civil Rig hts Movement, the president often federalized state Natio nal Guardsmen until federal troops could arrive
Montgomery Bus
the boy cott was organized by the MIA and led by Martin Luther King, Jr.; many African Americans chose to walk for miles rather than ta ke the bus— in many cases people organized car pools; do nations were
taken up to purchase “boy cott taxies” to pic k up and dr ive walkers;
What effect do y ou think television coverage of the Little Roc k incident had on the natio n?
What was the Montgomery Improvement Association
Civil disobedience
How did many African Americans react to the death of Martin L uther King Jr.?
Non-violent Protest
Television allowed the people to see the white separatists ’ cruel treatm ent of the African American students—this helped them relate and cause sy mpathy for the cause and anger towards the segregation list
The MIA was a group of local civil righ ts leaders wor king for fair condition s for minorities in Mo ntgomery and around the nation. It was formed to organize the Montg omery Bus Boy cott.
Many African Americans were outraged. Within ho urs of th is death, African American neighborhoods across the country exploded in v iolence. A week of rioting left 46 dead and thousands injured.
became a staple of the early Civil Rig hts Movement under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.; K ing go t the idea from Mohandas Gandhi who u sed the techniq ue to help
India overthrow British ru le
Rosa Parks
He was a seamstress and an NAACP officer. Jo Ann Robinson and NAA CP leader E.D. Nixon helped Parks p lan the boy cott; O n December 1, 1955 she was arrested for refusing to give up he r seat which had become part of “white only ” section after the front of the bus had been filled; For
What did the experiences of Martin L uther King Jr. in Chicago sh ow?
Emmett Till Case
381 day s, African Americans refused to ride the buses in Montgomery ; Finally , in 1956, the Su preme Court outlawed bu s segrega tion
King’s experiences showed that signif icant obstacles to full equality remained and that the fight agains t racial discriminatio n in the North did not draw support from white Americans in the way that demonstration s against southern segregatio n had done a few y ears earlier.
In August 1 955, went to
a group called the “uptown
near Money , Mis siss ippi. There he was
”. Emmett Till, a fourteen y ear old boy from Chicago visiting relatives in Money , was killed by a group called the “ up town Ku K lux Klan” for allegedly
whistling at a wh ite woman in a store, His
that had been inflicted on her son by his tw o white abductors before he was shot. Th ousands were expose d to this site when a
. The murder and subsequent acquittal galvanized op inion in the Nor th in the same way that the
long campaign to free the "Scottsboro Boy s" had in the 193 0s. Th is case shoc ked both whites and blac ks for the cruelty of the killing. It prompted blac ks to become more involved with protes ts.
Martin Luther King,
was born in Atlan ta, Georgia to the Rev. Martin Luther Kin g, Sr. and A lberta Williams King. (King was born
Michael but in 1934 his father— Rev. Michael Kin g, Sr. —returned home from Europe where he had toured the site where Martin Luther had begun the Protestant Reformation and upon returnin g home he changed his name as well as his s ons.) He graduated from Morehouse Co llege in 1 948 at age nineteen and earned his Ph.D. in Theology from Boston University in 1955. King married Coretta Scott o n
June 18, 195 3 and they had four children. While at Cro zer Theological Seminary , King first became acquainted with the ideas of Mohandas Gandh i, which influenced him greatly in his future y ears. In 1953, King became the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Mon tgomery , Alabama. He was selected to lead the 1955 Mon tgomery Bus Boy cott. He was then in strumental in the foundin g of the
Southern Chris tian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Kin g led the SCL C in a number of triumphs over racial injustices and became a symbol of the Civil Rights Movement. His is
wh ich he had spearheaded. King was assass inated on April 4, 19 68 in Memphis, Tennessee while he stood on his hotel balcony . James Earl Ray was arrested and convicted of the crime. In 1986, a U.S. national ho liday was established in honor of Martin L uther King Jr., wh ich is called Martin Lu ther King Day . It is ob served on the th ir d Monday of
January each year, around the time of King's birth day . On January 18, 1993, for the first time, Martin Luther Kin g Day was officially observed in all 50 U. S. states. In add ition, many U.S. cities have officially renamed one of their streets to honor K ing. Since his death, Coretta Scott King has followed her husband's foots teps and is active in matters of social justice a nd civil righ ts. The same y ear Martin
Luther King was assass inated, Mrs. King es tablished the King Center in A tlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy a nd the work of championin g nonv iolent conflict resolu tion and tolerance worldwide.
Form of protest where protesters would sit
down at segregated lunch counters and
refuse to leave until they were served
; the first sit-ins were organized by CO RE to protest segregatio n in the
What was the Chris tian Leadership Conference, and what did it seek to achieve?
Why did Martin Luther King Jr. move his family into a Chicago slum apartment in 1966 ?
What accomplishments of the civil rig hts movement were achieved through nonviolent means? Why , despite these
accomplishments, did some African Americans come to reject nonviolence? (Thin k Abou t: accomplishments in education, vo ting,
and use of public facilities; w hat was required of nonviolent pro testers; difference between de facto and de jure se gregation)
What strategies made the Montgomery Bus Boy cott a success ?
Civil Rights Act of
Freedom Riders
Freedom Summer
North in the 1940s ; the tactic became popular and effective in the 1960s when film crews would cover such protests and the world got to see the ug ly face of racism as whites would beat, jeer at, and pour food over students who refused to strike bac k
The Christian Leadership Co nference was an alliance of church-based African American organizations ded icated to ending discriminatio n throug h nonv iolent resistance in protes ts
King hoped to draw attentio n to the hous ing prob lems African Americans faced in the urban North.
Accomplishments achieved through non violen t means included the desegregation of schools and public facilities, such as buses and lunch coun ters, the abolition of literacy tests and poll taxes that had prevented African Americans in the South from voting, and the passage of laws that expanded hous ing, e mploy ment, and educational opportunities for African Americans. The nonviolent approach required
patience and personal sacrifice. Some African Americans were unwilling to con tinue to wait, or sacrifice more than they already had, for right they deserved. Some African Americans felt that nonviolence was not an effective means of ending de facto segregation, which had led to the concentration of urb an African Americans in slums with little hope of improving their economic and social statu s.
African Americans used nonvio lence and economic strategies such as the bus b oy cott to war down op position and insp irational, charismatic leadership to keep the community from losing heart
The first civil rights law since
 Established federal Commission on
Civil Rights
 Established a Civil Rights Division in
the Justice Department to enforce civil
rights laws
 Enlarged federal power to protect
voting rights
James Farmer, director of CORE, called for
a movement (the Freedom Riders) to test
racial discrimination in bus stations and
terminal she sent 400 US marshals to protest
the riders on their trip and (freedom riders
led to) banned segregation in all interstate
travel facilities, including waiting rooms,
restrooms, and lunch counters.
Freedom Summer—CORE, SNCC project to
register blacks to vote in MS; Volunteers
beaten, killed; businesses, homes, churches
With help of Kennedy and federal marshals,
he integrated University of Mississippi, later
In June of 1964, three civil rights wor kers disappeared in Nesho ba Coun ty , Miss issippi—It was later learned that Klansmen and local po lice had murdered the men, two of whom were white (investigation is por tray ed in the movie Missis sipp i Burn ing.
James Meredith
In September 1962, a federal court ordered the University of Missis sipp i to accept James Meredith, a twenty -eight-y ear-old Air Force Veteran, much to the consternation of segregationis ts; G overnor Ros s Barnett said he would never allow the schoo l to be integrated; After day s of violence and rioting by whites, Meredith, President Kenne dy ordered federal
What did the freedom riders hope to achieve?
Violence in Birmingham
Ernest Withers
Birmingham Church Bombing (16th Street Baptis t Church Bombing)
Civil Rights Act of
marshals to escort James Meredith to the Un iversity ; In 1966 Meredith began a 220-mile "March Against Fear" from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jac kson, Mis siss ippi —he hoped to demonstrate a positive change in the racial climate, but he was s hot s oon after he commenced the march; Civil righ ts leaders rallied to the cause and came to continue the march from the point at which Meredith fell.
They hoped to call attention to the Sou th ’s refusal to abandon segregation so as to pressure the federal government to enforce the Supreme Court’s desegregation ru lings
Birmingham , Alabama was a city known for its strict enforcement of total segregation in pub lic life; Martin Lu ther King Jr. and the SCLC went to Birmingham to desegregate it b ut after day s of protesting, Martin Lu ther King arrested, writes “Letter from Birmingham Jail”; More than a thousand African- American children took to the s treets in protes t, police com missioner Eugene “Bull” Connor ’s men
arrested 959 of them and a day later attacked them with fire hoses, dogs, and clubs— TV cameras captured all of it, and millions of viewers heard the children screaming; Con tinued pro tests, economic boy cott, ba d press end segregation
An African American photographer who was an important part of the Civil Righ ts Movement; he believed that if the stru ggle for equality could be sh own to people then thing s would change
Occurred only two weeks after King’s his toric speech; On Su nday , September 15, 1963, Ku Klux Klan members Bobby Frank Cherry and Robert Edward Chambliss (a. k.a. Dynamite Bob) p lanted 19 stic ks of dy namite in the basement of the Church. At abou t 10 :25 AM, they exploded. Fo ur y oung girls — Addie Mae Collins , Carole Robertson, Cy nthia Wesley and Denise McNair — were killed in the
blast, while 22 more were injured; Outrage at the bombing and the grief that followed helped ensure the pas sage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 ; Chambliss was initially acquitted of the murder charge s, but y ears later it was found that the FBI had accumulated evidence against the b ombers that had not been revealed to the prosecutors, by order of FBI director J. Edgar Hoo ver—But in 19 77
Chambliss was con victed for the murders and sentenced to several terms of life imprisonment. He died in prison in 19 85; After reopening the case several times, in 2000 the FBI as sisted the state author ities in bring ing charges against Cherry and Thomas Blanton— they were convicted by state court juries and sentenced to life in prison
Proposed by President Kennedy on June 19, 1963. It was the most sig nificant piece of legis lation to date, and it has had a las ting effect in the elimination of d iscrimination and segregation. President J ohnson signed the bill in to a law in July 2, 1964.
 Banned most discrimination in
employment and in public
 Enlarged federal power to protect
voting rights and speed up school
 Established Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission to insure
fair treatment in employment.
Explain why Malcolm X was not a s upporter of the March on Wash ingto n.
Malcolm X criticized K ing ’s decis ion to allow this as he believed that Kennedy was attempting to ta ke over and orchestrate the march. Malcolm X was to nic k-name the march "The Farce on Washington ".
University of
June 11, 1963, two students escorted by federal marshals attempted to enroll for class at the
University of Alabama (an all-white university); they were barred from doing so when Alabama
Governor George Wallace made his
infamous "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door”
in an attempt to prevent racial integration of
Alabama schools—
ordered the troops to make
sure African Americans were allowed to
Planning for the event
among the
“big six”;
Kennedy eventually endorsed the march
when it was agreed that the federal
government could have an input into it.
The march
ended with Dr. King’s “I have a dream”
Was a Jewish-American civil rights activist
who was murdered by gunshot in 1964 while
trying to register voters as part of Freedom
was a civil rights worker who was murdered
by gunshot in 1964 while trying to register
voters as part of Freedom Summer
Was a Jewish-American civil rights activist
who was murdered by gunshot in 1964 while
trying to register voters as part of Freedom
On March 7, 1965, about 600 protesters set
out on a 50-mile protest march from Selma,
Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery.
Wallace said, “I say , Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever”; After try ing to get Wallace to back d own v oluntarily
federalized the Alabama National Guard and
Wallace backed down and the Un iversity of Alabama was integrated
March on
The march was initiated by A. Philip Randolph.
was complicated by differences
members but eventually agreed upon. Known in the press as "the big six”; T he 1963 March on Washingto n was in itially opposed by Kennedy as he believed that any march during his presidency would ind icate that the leaders of the civil rig hts campaign were critical of his s tance on civil rights. Kennedy also felt
that the march could antagonize.
Malcolm X criticized King ’s decision to allow this
as he believed that Kennedy was attempting to ta ke over and orchestrate the march. Malcolm X was to nick-name the march "The Farce on Washington ". His torians now view the march as a great success for both King and the federal gove rnment as it went well in all aspects - peaceful, informative, well or ganized etc. The rumors that federal representatives would cu t off the PA sy stem if the speeche s
became too rabble-raising have not been proved. A ugust 28, 196 3, more than 250,00 0 demonstrators—includin g 45,00 0 whites— marched to the nation ’s capital to demand for equality . They assembled at the Lincoln Memorial and listened to spea kers dema nd the immediate passage of the civil rights bill.
This speech was one of the most important speeches in history . It gave hope to many blacks around the nation.
What effect do y ou think the March on Washing ton had on the passage of the Civ il Righ ts Act of 19 64?
Andrew Goodman
James Chaney
Michael Schwerner
Fannie Lou Ham er
Why did Civil Rights groups organize Freedom Summer?
“Bloody Sunday”—
The Selma Campaign
The March on Washingto n provided civil rig hts leaders with the chance to deliver their message to a national audience. After hearing moving and elo quent speeches such as the “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King Jr., members of Congress my have been more compelled to pass the Civ il rig hts Act more quickly than they might have otherwise.
Was the daughter of a Miss iss ippi s harecropper and became the voice of the SNCC organized Mis siss ippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP); she spoke at the 1964 Democratic National Convention and in a televised s peech that shoc ked the convention and v iewers nationwide—Hamer described how she was jailed for registering to vote in 1962 : “The first [pr isoner] began to beat [me], a nd I wa s beat
by the firs t until he was exhaus ted. . . . The second [p risoner ] began to beat. . . .I began to scream and o ne white man go t up an d began to beat me in my head and tell me to „hus h.‟ . . .All of this on account we wa nt to regis ter, to become first-clas s citizens, and if the Freedom Democratic Par ty is n ot seate d now, I ques tion America.”
They hoped to call attention to the lack of votin g rights in segregationis t stron ghold s and to promote passage of a federal voting rights act
where state and local lawmen
attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas
and drove them back into Selma.
The marchers headed east out of Selma on U.S. H ighway 80 but on ly got as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six bloc ks away ,
King leads 600 pro test marchers; TV shows po lice violen tly stop them. Second march, with federal
protection, swells to 25,000 people
Describe the even in Selma, Alabama, that helped spur the passage of the Votin g Rights Ac t of 1965.
Voting Righ ts Act: 1965
De facto segregation
De jure segregation
Police attacked activis ts pro testing the vio lence used to prevent African Americans from registering to vote. Public outrage over the attacks help lead to the passage of the Vo ting Rights Act just five months later.
In response to “Bloody Sunday ”—President Johnso n delivered a nationw ide speech to congress as king for the passage of the Votin g Rights Act of 1965. E ventually it was approved.
Eliminated voter literacy tests
Enabled federal examiners to register voters
Segregation that exists by practice, custom;
problem in North
Segregation required by law; problem in
Hough Riots
What were some of the causes and effects of the urban riots of the mid-196 0s?
Explain some of the most important factors that led to the develo pment of a Black Power movement in the mid-1960s. (Thin k
About: de jure segregation versus de facto segregation, gains African Americans had made by the mid-1960s, and the treatment of
African Americans by law officers in Northern cities)
Race Riots in Cleveland, Ohio; s tarted on July 18 and lasted for 6 day s after a white dinner owner refused to given an Africa n American a glass of water—By the end of the riots, four peop le were killed. Abou t 240 fires were reported during the riots.
African American frustrations with con tinu ing d iscrimination and the prevalence of white racism helped trigger the riots . The riots caused death and destructio n and left wh ite and blac k Americans more polarized than before.
Accomplishments achieved through non violen t mans included the desegregation of schools and pub lic facilities, such as bu ses and lunch cou nters, the abolitio n of literacy tests and poll taxes that had prevented Af rican Americans in the Sou th from voting, and the passage of laws that expanded hou sing, em ploy ment, and educational opportun ities for African Americans. The nonviolen t approach required
patience and personal sacrifice. Some African Americans were unwilling to con tinue to wait, or sacrifice more than they alre ady had, for rights they deserved. Some African Americans felt that nonviolence was no t effective means of ending de facto segregation which had led to the concentration of urban African Americans in slums with little ho pe of improving their economic and social statu s.
How did the message of Malcolm X differ from that of other civil r ights leaders in the early 1960s?
Malcolm X advocated African American separatism and called for freedom to be brought about “by any means possible.” Th is ph iloso phy differed greatly from other leaders, who strove to achieve racial inte gratio n throug h peaceful means.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X (dropping what he called his
“slave name”) was a minister and national
spokesman for the Nation of Islam; but
eventually broke ties with the Nation of
led by Elijah Muhammad and appealed to
African Americans to embrace the Islamic
faith and preached black nationalism;
ideas were popularized by
one of their leaders known as Malcolm X
militant Black Power groups; They
used guns and violence to confront police
and law, and to give more power to blacks;
They preached ideas of Mao Zedong
provided social services to the ghettos and
won popular support because of this.
because: he learned that Elijah Muhammad had broken his own rules by committing adultery and after pilgrimage to Mecca and learning that Islam really preached r acial equality —he began to push for in tegration; A t a spea king engagement in the Ma nhattan's Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965 three gunmen rushed Malcolm on stage and shot
him 15 times at close range—it was believed that he was killed by the Nation of Islam for speaking ou t against their views b ut th is was never proven
Nation of Islam
(Black Muslims)
Their philo sophy advocated for African Americans to separate
themselves from whites and from their own self-governing communities b lacks separate from whites—believed whites source of black problems; Their
Black Panthers
Black Panther Party was the most famous of the
and had violent confrontatio ns with police; They
What were some of the positive aspects of the Blac k Power movement?
What were the goals of the Blac k Panther Party ? What were the methods they advocated in their attempt to achieve these goals ?
Why was the public reaction to the Back Panthers mixed ?
Civil Rights Act of
Kerner Commission
The Black Power Movement had many positive aspects, includ ing an emphasis on racial pride and an interest in African culture and heritage.
The Black Panther Party wanted “land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace” as well as the freedom to dete rmine their own destiny . The group be lieved that it sho uld arm itself in order to defend the blac k community from “racist police oppressio n.”
Americans feared the Black Panther’s rhetoric and their in volvement in v iolence; however, some poor African Americans benefited from their community programs
 Prohibited discrimination in the sale or
rental of most housing
 Strengthened anti-lynching laws
 Made it a crime to harm civil rights
Commission found “white racism” as the
main cause of urban violence
; The Kerner Commission was the popu lar name given to the National A dvisory Commissio n on Civil Dis orders; The 11-member commission
White Flight
was created in July , 1967 by President Ly ndon B. Joh nson to inves tigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States. The commission's report, usually called the "Kerner Report," wa s released on February 29, 1968. T he report named one main cause for urban violence: White Racism; the report sa id, “Our nation is moving toward two societies, on blac k, one white—separate but equal; the report
called for the nation to create new jobs, construct new housing , and end de facto segregation in order to wipe ou t the des tructive ghetto environment—the Johnso n administration ig nored many of the recommendations because of white oppo sition to such sweeping changes.
White flight is a term for the demographic trend of white people, generally but no t alway s upper and middle class, moving awa y from increasingly and predominantly non-white areas, finding new homes in nearby suburbs; Prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 , due to racist real-estate covenants and o ther discriminatory practices, non-white people were almost never afforded the same opportunities to move
away from the cities, even when they may have been economically able to do so.
Affirmative Action
Affirmative action programs
involve making special efforts to hire or
enroll groups that have suffered
criticize action programs as “reverse
discrimination” that set minority hiring or
enrollment quotas and deprived whites of
Marshall, as the head of the NAACP’s team
of lawyers, argued many important civil
rights cases before the Supreme Court. In
winning Brown, he gave all AfricanAmerican children the opportunity to
succeed and achieved an important first step
in the complete abolishment of segregation.
King, as the head of the SCLC, provided
leadership. His love, courage, patience,
optimism, and integrity made him an
example to all Americans. He inspired those
on the front lines of the moment to persevere
and those outside the moment to sympathize
with, and participate in the movement.
Malcolm X helped African Americans to
take pride in themselves and their race. The
changes he underwent—from a criminal to a
Nation of Islam preacher of black separatism
and hatred of whites to a more tolerant
Muslim civil rights organizer—made him a
powerful role model for young African
many colleges and alm ost all companies that do b usines s with the federal government adopted such programs. But in the late 1970s,
people began to
Compare what
Thurgood Marshall,
Martin Luther King,
Jr., and Malcolm X
achieved for African
Americans. (Think
About: the
importance of
changing unjust laws,
effective protests and
demonstrations in the
South, and African
Americans’ attitude
toward themselves)
Describe three factors
responsible for discontent
among African Americans
during the 1960s.
African Americans wanted an end to discrimination, better jobs, better income, and better places to
Explain some of the
most important
factors that led to the
development of the
civil rights movement
in 1950s and 1960s.
World War II created opportunities for
African Americans that they were unwilling
to give up after the war ended. Many
African-American soldiers returned from
(Think About:
economic gains made
by African
Americans during
World War II,
participation of
African Americans in
the war, early efforts
by civil rights
organizations, early
success in the courts)
How did the civil
rights movement
evolve from the mid1950s to the late
1960s? Discuss
changes in the goals,
tone, and leadership
of the movement
during this period.
(Think About: de
jure versus de facto
contributions of
major leaders,
objectives and
strategies of various
civil rights
World War II determined to fight for their
won freedom. The groundwork for a civil
rights movement was laid by organizations
that, during the war, fought against Jim
Crow laws and voting restrictions. The
NAACP adopted a successful strategy for
fight civil rights in the courts. The most
important victory was the Supreme Court’s
groundbreaking decision in Brown v. Board
of Education, which finally declared separate
schools for black unconstitutional. This
important blow to de jure segregation helped
strengthen the efforts of civil right
The movement at first focused on
segregation enforced by law and later turned
to fundamental economic and social
inequalities. Early leader Thurgood
Marshall of the NAACP won several key
Supreme Court cases including the landmark
Brown v. Board of Education, which made
segregated schools unconstitutional. Martin
Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks challenged
segregation on buses in the South using
boycotts. King and others founded the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference,
which stressed nonviolent tactics such as sitins to protest segregation in public facilities.
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee engaged in sit-ins but also used
more confrontational tactics. Nonviolent
protests eventually led to the passage of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting
Rights Act of 1965. By the late 1960s,
however, anger and frustration over the
continuing high rate of poverty and
unemployment for blacks gave rise to a new
militancy among African Americans,
especially in the North. Malcolm X of the
Nation of Islam, Stokely Carmichael of
SNCC, and the political party the Black
Panthers urged blacks to defend themselves
against white violence and called for “Black
Power.” Clashes between blacks and white
authorities led to riots in many large cities.
King’s assassination in 1968 marked a
turning point for the movement and a low
point in race relations for the nation.
The number of African American—owned
businesses rose greatly. The income gap
between white Americans and African
Americans narrowed. In addition, increased
enrollment in colleges and universities
ensured that more African Americans would
gain better paying jobs.
In what ways did
African Americans’
economic situations
improve during the
Los Angeles riots
(LA Riots or the
Rodney King riots)
Sparked on April 29, 1992 when a mostly white jury acquitted four police officers accused in the
videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King. Thousands of people in Los Angeles, mainly
young black and Latino males, joined in what has often been characterized as a race riot, involving
mass law-breaking, including looting, arson and murder. In all 50 to 60 people were killed during the
What did the civil
rights movement
accomplish? Would
you describe the
movement as a
success? (Think
About: political
gains, social and
economic gains)
The civil rights movement brought about
important political gains. It eliminated de
jure segregation: the Civil Rights Act of
1964 ended segregation in public facilities,
the Voting Rights Act of 1965 made literacy
tests and poll taxes illegal, and the Civil
Rights Act of 1968 ended discrimination in
housing. In addition, millions of African
Americans were registered to vote, and more
blacks were elected to political office.
Social and economic gains were more
What effects did the
civil rights have on
many women?
What rights did
President Kennedy
want African
Americans to gain
through civil rights
What role did
violence and
nonviolence play in
the struggle for civil
rights? How did each
help and hurt the
elusive. In the late 1960s, African
Americans still faced housing and job
discrimination, unequal schools because of
white flight to the suburbs, and poverty rate
much higher than whites. The movement,
however, did lead to affirmative action
programs designed to equalize education and
job opportunities. Nonviolent protests led
by Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as his
personal integrity and philosophy, inspired
many whites to sympathize with African
Americans. The movement also brought
many blacks and whites together to work
toward common goals. Students who
described the movement as a success may
say that the legal and political advances
represented a great leap forward, since no
civil rights legislation had been passed since
Reconstruction. Those who disagree may
stress that much remains to be accomplished
in realms of education, job opportunity, and
income equality.
It spurred women to demonstrate for equality
by both inspiring them to act and opening
their eyes to their unequal treatment
He wanted African Americans as well as all
other Americans to have the “right to be
served in facilities which are open to the
public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail
stores and similar establishments.”
White racist violence against nonviolent
protesters and demonstrators outraged many
Americans and hastened the political process
of change. Some African Americans came
What strides did
African Americans
make in politics in
the 1970s?
What were some of
the ways in which the
civil rights movement
changed between
1960 and 1975?
Why did organizers
have such a difficult
time registering
African American
voters during the
early stages of the
civil rights
Why did young
people in SNCC and
the MFDP feel
betrayed by some
to see nonviolent protest as an ineffective
tool once a certain level of rights had been
achieved. On the other hand, violence by
African Americans in the form of urban riots
hurt the movement by polarizing society.
By the end of the 1970s more than 4,500
African Americans held elected office. The
roster of elected black officials in 1978
included 16 members of the House of
Gains made through nonviolent protests
staged by groups such as the SCLC during
the early stages of the civil rights movement,
and then contrast the shift toward violence
and more radical rhetoric. Students should
point out how some African American
leaders called for separation from white
Americans, whereas earlier activists called
for racial equality and integration.
Achievements include gaining enforceable
voting rights, desegregation of public places
and schools, and better economic
opportunities. Perhaps the most dramatic
achievement of the movement was the large
number of African Americans elected to
public office.
Activists who attempted to register voters
continually faced from white racists. Many
African Americans refused to register
because they were threatened with the loss of
their jobs or physical harm if they did so.
Because the leaders agreed to compromise
with the Johnson administration that kept
most MFDP delegates from the Democratic
civil rights leaders?
Why do you think so
many people disliked
affirmative action and
Amendment (1865)
Busing made parents angry about having to
send their children outside of their own
neighborhoods to get schooling. Many
people disliked affirmative action because
they believed it was a form of reverse
Desegregation busing, also known as forced
busing, is the concept of achieving racial
and/or economic integration in public
schools by transporting schoolchildren to
schools outside their area of residence; The
Supreme Court, in Swann v. CharlotteMecklenburg Board of Education, upholds
busing as a legitimate means for achieving
integration of public schools; Busing led to
further “White Flight” into the suburbs and
other areas; Combined with changes in
housing patterns, forced busing programs
were gradually eliminated during the 1990s
as the courts nationwide released districts
from orders under old lawsuits.
Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth
Amendment) of the United States
Constitution abolished slavery. The
amendment states:
 Section 1. Neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the
party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the
United States, or any place subject
to their jurisdiction.
 Section 2. Congress shall have
What did the Civil
Rights Act of 1957
César Estrada Chávez
power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.
It made it a federal crime to prevent
qualified persons from voting. It also set up
the federal Civil Rights Commission ot
investigate violations of the law.
Ability to speak two languages; the LULAC
pushed to have schools taught in Spanish as
well as in English
Founded the National Farm Workers
Association (NFWA) that later became the
United Farm Workers. In 1965, Chávez and
the NFWA led a strike of California grapepickers to demand higher wages. In addition to the strike,
they encouraged all Americans to boycott table grapes as a show of support. The strike lasted five
years and attracted national attention. When the U.S. Senate Subcommittee looked into the situation,
Robert Kennedy gave Chávez his total support. In the early 1970s, the UFW organized strikes and
boycotts to get higher wages from grape and lettuce growers. During the 1980s, Chávez led a boycott
to protest the use of toxic pesticides on grapes. He again fasted to draw public attention. These strikes
and boycotts generally ended with the signing of bargaining agreements.
What problems did
different groups of
Latino immigrants
Dolores Huerta
Prejudice, job and housing discrimination,
high unemployment, and poverty
The co-founder and First Vice President
Emeritus of the United Farm Workers of
America, AFL-CIO(UFW). As an advocate
for farm worker rights Dolores has been arrested twenty-two times for
non-violent peaceful union activities. Even though Dolores has invested a great deal of time, sweat
and tears and has been a big part of the United Farm Workers movement, she still does not receive
the recognition she deserves for her hard work and dedication. To this day at her elder age she is
working hard for the rights of farm workers
What impact did the
grape boycott have?
Declaration of Indian
Indian Civil Rights
It hurt the grower’s revenue as well as their
public image and forced them to negotiate
with the UFWOC; it thus enabled the union
to win better wages and working conditions
Was a bill of rights for Native Americans
they was written in 1961 by more than 400
representatives of 67 Native American
nations who met in Chicago
An act passed by Congress in 1968 which
Why did Native
Americans resist
Russell Means
What tactics did AIM
use in its attempts to
gain reforms?
Betty Frieden
The Feminine
guaranteed Native American reservation
dwellers some of the rights provided to other
citizens under the Bill of Rights
Some viewed white culture as shallow and
Is one of contemporary America's bestknown and prolific activists for the rights of
American Indians. He argues that, "Indian
people are dying of sympathy. What we
want is respect." Means has also pursued
careers in politics, acting, and music; he
joined the American Indian Movement and
quickly became one of its most prominent
leaders. He was appointed the group's first
national director in 1970. Later that year,
Means was one of the leaders of AIM's
takeover of Mount Rushmore. In 1972, he
participated in AIM's takeover of the Bureau
of Indian Affairs office in Washington, DC,
and in 1973 he led AIM's occupation of
Wounded Knee, which became the group's
most celebrated action.
AIM used confrontational and sometimes
violent tactics, such as occupying the Bureau
of Indian Affairs and taking hostages during
a protest at Wounded Knee
Woman feminist who wrote The Feminine
Mystique and helped form NOW; she
galvanized the movement
Women activist
Treating people different because of their
Book written by Betty Friedan that rejected
the notion that the destiny of women was
only to be wives and mothers; book was a bestseller and helped
galvanize women across country
Gloria Steinem
National Women’s
Political Caucus
What prompted
women to establish
Explain the primary
reason whey the
Equal Rights
Amendment was not
Phyllis Schlafly
What concerns
motivated those who
opposed the ERA?
Shirley Chisholm
Is a Jewish American feminist and journalist
and a spokeswoman for women's rights. She
is the founder and original publisher of Ms.
magazine. In 1971 Steinem founded the
National Women's Political Caucus and the
Women's Action Alliance. In 1972 she
founded the feminist magazine Ms. and
wrote for the magazine until it was sold in
1987. In 1974 Steinem founded the
Coalition of Labor Union Women.
was formed in 1971 with a goal of increasing
the number of women involved in politics,
including running for office and serving as
delegates to national conventions. Gives
money and support to all pro-choice female
Their dissatisfaction with the EEOC and the
need for a more organized effort to combat
As a result of a viogurs campaign by STOP
ERA and other groups, the Eual Rights
Amendment failed to obtain the votes
needed for ratification.
She founded STOP ERA to fight ERA
believing it would force women to give up
their traditional roles as wives and mothers,
and that they would lose certain legal protections in the family and in the workplace
Fear of change and the perceived drastic
effects the amendment might have had on
traditional family life
In 1968, she became the first AfricanAmerican woman in the United States House
of Representatives
Civil Rights Act of
 The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a
United States statute that was passed in
response to a series of United States
Supreme Court decisions limiting the
rights of employees who had sued their
employers for discrimination. The 1991
Act combined elements from two
different civil rights acts of the past: the
Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Civil
Rights Act of 1964.