menorah THE MAGAZINE FOR THE ARMED FORCES JEWISH COMMUNIT Y Autumn 2014 Afghanistan for the final time... The First World War Centenary Jewish Military Contribution Armed forces Day 2014 Hartwig Care is a London-based homecare agency established in 1999 by Nadja Shaw. Nadja’s vision was that all clients could be able to live just like everyone else, with independence and dignity while staying in control of their lives and their care. We now manage a wide variety of clients from all walks of life and with a broad range of conditions, from the elderly and frail to clients coping with physical conditions and mental health issues. We provide homecare - from full-time, livein assistance to support for clients who can fundamentally manage on their own, but need a little support to maintain their independence. We choose our staff carefully and make sure that they are continuously trained. They are here to support and advice our clients on all aspects relating to care. Our care workers are reliable, discreet, friendly and committed to the wellbeing of every one of our clients. All care workers are vetted before joining the team. We take no shortcuts when it comes to our clients. If you would like to discuss what ‘Care’ could look like for you, your family, or friend please feel free to drop by our office or let us know if you would like us to visit you. Contact us on 020 7916 7270, by email [email protected] or simply visit our website www.hartwigcare.co.uk Hartwig Care Ltd, 5 Ella Mews, London, NW3 2NH Tel: 020 7916 7270 Email: [email protected] menorah THE MAGAZINE FOR THE ARMED FORCES JEWISH COMMUNIT Y From the Editor Col Martin Newman DL FCIPR T he past few months have been difficult and often uncomfortable for members of the Jewish communities throughout the world, and particularly in Europe. Without entering into a discussion about the politics of the Middle East and the recent hostilities, it has created a situation where many opponents of Israel feel they are able to comment without differentiating between Jews and the Government of a country with whom they do not see eye to eye. We have even seen it on the streets of the UK; Hitler salutes, desecration of Jewish Cemeteries, anti-Semitic posters, damage to Jewish owned shops and businesses and elderly Jews attacked on the street. Comments that would have been subdued in the past are now creeping out at fashionable cocktail parties. The media often fails to disguise poorly reported bias. We are in danger of returning to the days of Oswald Mosley with anti-Semitism becoming acceptable again. We are fortunate in the Armed Forces, an organisation where racism is not tolerated and where people of all faiths and none, occasional black humour and banter apart, mix well as an extended community. We have proved that you can be both a proud Brit and a proud Jew. One hundred years ago the Jewish Chronicle heralded ‘Britain has been good to the Jews. Jews will be good for Britain’. The now famous recruiting message was taken up by the Chief Rabbi and some 60,000 Jews answered the call to arms. Our numbers serving MENORAH | 4 Contents 30 were disproportionately high, as were deaths, casualties and decorations. The same applied to WWII. Three Jewish Battalions of the Royal Fusiliers (the Judeans) were formed from volunteers to serve in the Middle East. As a faith we earned our spurs. In the following pages you will read of the five Jewish VCs won valiantly during WWI in addition to splendid related articles by Elkan Levy and Padre Reuben Livingstone. It was the first time we saw Jewish chaplains in uniform on the front line. Next year sees the 100th anniversary of Gallipoli and the formation of the Zion Mule Corps, the forerunner of the Judeans and the 70th Anniversary of the Liberation of Belsen by British Troops. We are in the process of arranging commemorations for those these events including services in London and Hohne. Full information will be circulated in sufficient time for our community members to become involved alongside the veterans of AJEX. As our veterans grow older the baton is being passed to those of us who are still in uniform and it is increasingly important that we support AJEX in flying the flag. Finally I must congratulate our chaplain, Rabbi Reuben Livingstone on successfully completing his PQO course at Sandhurst. As we approach Rosh Hashana and the High Holydays the Honorary Officers of the Jewish Committee for HM Forces and the Friends of Jewish Servicemen and Women wish you and your families a very happy, peaceful and fulfilling New Year. Autumn 2014 From the Editor.....................04 Another Amport success......06 Lessons of history.................06 Padre’s Corner.......................07 The first world war centenary the Jewish military contribution ..........................08 British Jewry in the great war................................12 1914-1918 The five Jewish VCs of WWI...........................16 A subbie with style................19 Revision’s Batlskin is the future for total head and face protection.......................20 In Focus..................................22 Afghanistan for the final time... probably.............24 New historical Sefer Torah for armed forces ...................28 Diary dates 2014...................28 More kosher ratpacks...........29 A Jewish serviceman of two world wars remembered.......29 Get cooking apple cinnamon cake......................31 The liberation of Bergen-Belsen........................32 Armed Forces Day 2014........34 22 34 32 22 08 menorah THe mAGAZINe for THe Armed force s JeWIsH commUNIT y The Menorah Team Submissions On the Cover… Editor: Col Martin Newman DL FCIPR Associate Editor: Rabbi R Livingstone CF Designer: Rowena Wilson Advertising: Tammie Ridler (01536 526667) [email protected] Publisher: Lance Publishing Ltd First Floor Tailby House, Bath Road, Kettering, Northants, NN16 8NL Print: Lance Print Ltd Unit 3, Houghton Hill Industries, Houghton Hill Farm, Houghton, Huntingdon, Cambs, PE23 2DH Write: The Editor Menorah Magazine 12 Conisborough Place Whitefield, Manchester, M45 6EJ Email: [email protected] Tel: 07717 717981 Remembering the Fallen Hard copy may be sent by post. For digital submissions, please use Word or plain text documents and send all images clearly captioned, and in as high a resolution as possible. All photographs will be edited and colour corrected by the designer. AUTUmN 2014 AfGHANIsTAN for THe fINAl TIme... Sponsors Menorah Magazine gratefully thanks all the sponsors, donors and contributors who have made this edition of the magazine possible. THe fIrsT World WAr ceNTeNAry JeWIsH mIlITAry coNTrIbUTIoN Armed forces dAy 2014 MENORAH | 5 PADRE's Corner By Rabbi Reuben Livingstone CF LESSONS OF HISTORY I © By David Bentata (Gibraltar 2014) Another Amport success The annual Armed Forces Jewish Families Weekend and reunion was again a resounding success and a complete sell-out. G uest speakers this year included Colonel Richard Kemp, a great friend of our community and Yanky Fachler, author, military historian and experts on Jewish military history. Interesting explanatory Shabbat services were conducted by our padres, Rabbis Reuben Livingstone and Simon Taylor and Colonel (Rabbi) Menachem Sebbag of the Netherlands ~ the Geordie Dutchman. We were joined for Shabbat dinner by the Chaplain General and the Chaplain-in-Chief of the RAF was our guest at our post Shabbat regimental dinner. The chairman, Colonel Martin Newman presented both our guests with frames Judeans uniform prints and then the tables were turned when PMC, Major Danny Sharpe presented him with a framed original Judeans Fusilier cap badge, a particularly rare item. Again we were entertained by the band of Hampshire and Isle of Wight Army Cadet Force. The weekend also offered an valuable opportunity to discuss matters of importance to all and meet fellow military Jews in a convivial and informative environment. Our chaplains and the committee are now working on January 2015 and wee look forward to meeting more new faces over the weekend 9-11 January 2015. Stop it!…. Enough!.... No more! So much violence, so much killing In the name of any god, any faith Brought to man by some demonic wraith With actions so graphic, so chilling No more news… no more Wars No more politics of violent madness While the life of so many is ended By those who claim to be so offended Bringing down only death and sadness We measured the world by our yardstick Freedoms we assume from birth Won by the struggles of past generations Creating tolerance as the main foundations Yes… we thought democracy had worth But forgot the lessons of History Was not Rome the height of culture? Yet a man considered a savage With elephants and army did ravage And Rome fell to this bearded vulture There is no redemption, no mercy When fighting against the fanatic Who values death by bullet or knife Far more than you value your own precious life I see this new horror has become systematic Rosh Hashana Wisdom Rosh Hashanah is not only the New Year but also the day of judgement. As such, it is the time for us to reevaluate and reflect on our lives and to confront ourselves and ask questions. n the prayers we ask a question: Im kevanimIm ka’avadim. Are we to be considered proud children of G-d, or are we merely servants? Are we the masters of our own choices, or are we the victims of bad choices? We are accustomed to highlight the antiquity of the Jew. We are an ancient people, sometimes called Historicissimus - the most historical of nations. No other people has lived as long as Israel, nor contributed in the same way to the treasures of civilisation; nor suffered such calamities in every epoch of its existence! We are proud of our resilience. We have outlived our persecutors. What is the secret of our survival? What is the source of our strength? Some maintain that, paradoxically, relentless oppression and anti-Semitism have ensured our longevity. According to this view, had we not so often been rendered avadim – servants and slaves, we might have ceased to be banim - children who are worthy survivors and scions of our heroic ancestors. The Israelites followed Moses out of Egypt because they were persecuted by Pharaoh. One thousand years later, in Persia, Queen Esther revealed her Jewish identity and our nation was salvaged. Why? Because Haman threatened to exterminate us. On this view, both Hitler and Bevin contributed – unintentionally – to the survival of our people. Yes, Jews do shine spiritually in adversity. If you stopped any Jew a hundred years ago on the muddy, impoverished, decrepit streets of Galicia and asked him ‘Vos macht a yid?’ –‘How’s life?’ He would defy the odds and respond optimistically, ‘Baruch Hashem!’ ‘Thank G-d.’ But the problem is that this thinking is negative. It asserts that the bad things we have endured - anti-Semitism, poverty, and the hardships of Jewish survival are a vital element in Jewish life. They are the sharp prod by which the Jew is kept Jewishly alive - otherwise he would sink into a state of fatal spiritual atrophy and be lost. There is merit in this view. But there is also great danger. It implies that Judaism has no positive content and no significant comment for our current life and its issues. It is but a defence against tragic outside forces. This idea - usually expressed implicitly rather than explicitly – subtly dispirits the Jewish heart which longs for a bright positive attitude to life. It seeks a plan of action; an optimistic alternative to the spiritual malaise all around. People cry out for a vibrant, relevant faith - for without that, life becomes a void. And all that this view says to them is, Es is shver tzu zein a Yid. Yes, we are avadim - slaves to the idea of Jewish suffering and misery! We must change our attitudes toward Judaism. Let us cease being slaves to a defensive religion. Let us proudly declare that our survival is due to an exalted Jewish ethos! We play into the hands of our oppressors when we make them the centre of Jewish thought. Even if antiSemitism did not exist, the world would still desperately need the ideals, values, and standards of the Torah! So, let us refrain from emphasising the antiquity of Judaism. Rather, we should proudly stress the modernity of Jewish teaching. Judaism, as a moderate, tolerant, and profoundly grounded faith has a vital word for our times, for our problems, for the dangers – moral and physical - that threaten us today. Shana Tovah to all our military community – keep safe and have a terrific year! We have played the false friend Slyly arming opposing factions Thinking this was the way From our comfort to hold sway While TV news brought us the actions Gird your loins for the battle It is but a few miles away It may even be closer Home-grown like any friendly poser Biding time for the black flag day And even as I write these words I hope I am mistaken And all humans will see sense So men of peace will soon commence Ending war until violence is forsaken David Bentata is a designer, poet and former member of the Gibraltar Regiment. MENORAH | 6 MENORAH | 7 The First World War Centenary The Jewish Military Contribution Rabbi Reuben Livingstone LLM CF, Jewish Chaplain to HM Forces The centenary commemoration of the First World War marks not only an important milestone in modern history but also the tumultuous beginning of a century that would change the face of Europe and the world. F rom a Jewish perspective, the Great War - the so called ‘war to end all wars’ - would also sow the seeds of the Holocaust and of the utter upheaval of Jewish life on the Continent. But there is another parallel and more optimistic British Jewish story - that of proud service and sacrifice for King and country; and of exemplary commitment and citizenship. The number of identified Jews who served during WWI based on British military records was around 50,000. But then, as now, it was not entirely uncommon to be reticent in declaring one’s Jewish identity. Many Jews also changed their names for fear of antiSemitism in the ranks. These factors mean that the actual number was likely higher. Five Jewish soldiers won the Victoria Cross awarded for valour “in the face of the enemy”. The courage shown by Sergeant Issy Smith (Shmulevitch), Captain Robert Gee, Lieutenant Frank Alexander de Pass, Private Jack White (Weiss), and Lance Corporal Leonard Maurice Keysor still resonates in the annals of Army history. No less than fifty Jewish soldiers received the Distinguished Service Order. In addition, Jews formed their own unit, the Zion Mule Corps, fighting at Gallipoli and the Dardanelles in 1915. The Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Battalion went on to fight with distinction in Palestine. In 1918, three Jewish units, the 38th, 39th and 40th battalions of the Royal Fusiliers were part of the Jewish Legion under General Sir Edmund Allenby in Palestine. These unique regiments were disbanded after the First World War. Many Eastern European Jews served in the Pioneer Corps, working as labourers on the infamous trenches. The number of such foreign Jews in the Labour Corps is estimated (from the British Jewry Book of Honour) at over 4,600, including those who served in the Middlesex Alien Companies and the Egyptian Labour Corps. Jews, in fact, have a very long and distinguished tradition of military service that goes back to the Torah itself and continues prominently in the State of Israel. But even our history in the British Forces goes back over three hundred years. A common European anti-Semitic fabrication was to accuse Jews of being unwilling to join the military - but the facts tell a different story. During World War I, a census instituted by the German Military High Command known as Judenzahlung (literally ‘Jew-count’) was carried out to substantiate claims that Jews were under-represented in the German Military and thus unpatriotic. Though suppressed and never publicised, the results roundly disproved the claims. The Jewish authorities who had conducted a parallel census and found the statistics of Jewish involvement to be very high, were denied access to the official archives. Remarkably, thousands of men of Jewish descent and hundreds of what the Nazis called ‘full Jews’ served in the German military with Hitler’s knowledge and approval. Cambridge University researcher Bryan Rigg has traced the Jewish ancestry of more than 1,200 of Hitler’s soldiers, including two field marshals and fifteen generals (two full generals, eight lieutenant generals, five major generals (“men commanding up to 100,000 troops”). In approximately 20 cases, Jewish soldiers in the Nazi army were awarded Germany’s highest military honour, the Knight’s Cross. Professor Derek Penslar of St Anne’s College, Oxford University of Toronto, has done extensive research into Jewish military service in the 19th century. He notes that, based on archives, it can be seen that in France, Austro-Hungary, Italy, and several other countries during the Victorian era, between 4-18% of military officers were Jewish; hugely more than the proportion of Jews in the wider populations. In Russia, under different conditions, the same situation prevailed. This was partly because a military career offered Jews greater equality of opportunity - especially in technical areas such as engineering, artillery, and logistics - where they excelled. It also gave them the means to shine as men and put to rights the noxious stereotype of the passive Jew. In the late 19th century the famous Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan of Radin, known as the Chafetz Chaim, wrote a guidebook for Jewish soldiers called Machane Yisrael. It is highly significant that, despite offering special leniencies for serving personnel, nowhere in the work does he say that Jews should not serve or that fighting is prohibited. On the contrary, the author reaches out to these men and attempts to recognise their importance Jews, in fact, have a very long and distinguished tradition of military service that goes back to the Torah itself and continues prominently in the State of Israel. But even our history in the British Forces goes back over three hundred years. and integrate them into the traditional Jewish world. Later, during WWII, out of a Jewish population in Britain estimated at only 400,000, approximately 65,000 Jewish men and women served in all three services of the British Armed Forces. As in WWI, British Jews bore more than their full share of the War effort in operations around the globe - on sea, land, and in the air – and won three Victoria Crosses. They continued to do so in later conflicts including Malaya, Kenya, Korea, Northern Ireland, the Falklands, Iraq and Afghanistan. In the same way, American Jews served in disproportion to their numbers: nearly 250,000 in WWI and well over 400,000 in WWII. The very same phenomenon was true in the Soviet Red Army. Remarkably, nearly 200,000 Polish Jews fought against Nazi Germany in the ranks of the Polish Armies - on Polish soil and in exile. Despite this tremendous contribution to the war effort, the official Polish historical bibliography of WWII shamefully ignores this contribution [particularly as there were nearly 5,000 Jewish officers]. Jewish military chaplaincy in the British Armed Forces under the authority of the Chief Rabbi, has been the sustaining spiritual force behind Jewish service for nearly 120 years. It’s unique history was very much forged out of the experience of the First World Continued overleaf © KenDrysdale / shutterstock JEWISH CHAPLAINS SERVING IN ARMY CHAPLAINS’ DEPARTMENT 1914-1918 1. Rev Michael Adler, Senior Jewish Chaplain , Deployed January 1915 to France 2. Rev. A Barnett - 30 March 1916 - France MENORAH | 8 3. Rev. I Brodie - 8 January 1918 - France 4. Rev. L Falk - 25 January 1918 - Palestine 5. Rev. I Frankenthal - 11 June 1916 6. Rev. J Geffen - 21 August 1917 - France 7. Rev. M Gallop - 26 March 1917 – Salonika, Greece 8. Rev. N Goldstone - 4 February 1918 9. Rev. D Hirsch - 14 August 1917 - France 10. Rev. W Levin - 27 October 1918 - Italy, Egypt, Palestine 11. Rev. N. Levine - 9 July 1918 - France 12. Rev. E Levy - June 1917 France 13. Rev. B Lieberman -16 January 1917 France 14. Rev. S Lipson - 22 January 1915 15. Rev. L Morris - 22 January 1915 - France,Italy 16. Rev. H Price - 23 October 1917 - France 17. Rev. V Simmons - 24 August 1915 - France MENORAH | 9 War when Jewish Chaplains first formed part of the British Army on active service. Jews were officially recognised in the British Armed Forces as a distinct religious body from 1889. The Visitation Committee of the United Synagogue had been responsible for the religious and spiritual welfare of Jews in public institutions. It decided to extend the scope of its activities to serving members of the Forces and applied to the War Office for the formal appointment of a Jewish Chaplain. This request was granted in 1892 and the Rev Francis L. Cohen, Minister of the Borough Synagogue in London, was appointed as the first Jewish Chaplain to HM Forces. In 1897 Rev Cohen obtained the sanction of the British Admiralty and the War Office for a special annual service for Jewish men in the Forces. Every year the event was attended by important representatives of the Fighting Services, including the Chaplain General and senior members of the Army Chaplains Department. The Honorary Officers of the United Synagogue also attended. In those days the order for this parade was “Dress as for Church Parade”, i.e. Helmet and Side-Arms. Every Unit turned out in “Full Dress” filling the Synagogue with varied coloured uniforms of all types, with all kinds of head-dress including bearskins, busbies, shakos, and helmets. The officers were accommodated in front of the Ark, and the rank and file in the main ground floor of the building. The public, which included friends and family of those present, occupied the gallery. For all civilians admission was by ticket only. The whole parade would form up under the supervision of a prominent senior officer and, headed by a Regimental Band, would march ceremoniously into synagogue. Personnel included representatives of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Army, Militia, Army Cadets, Volunteers, Yeomanry, British Red Cross and St. John Ambulance Detachments; as well as veterans of all the campaigns in India, Egypt, Africa and Canada. The Metropolitan Police were represented. Encouraged by the Honorary Officers of the United Synagogue this Parade became an annual event and, for some years, was commanded by Colonel David de Lara Cohen, V.D. The adjutant was one of his regimental officers, Major Gordon Kennard, and the R.S.M. was SergeantInstructor J. H. Levy of the Scots Guards (said, at one time, to have ‘the loudest word of command in the Brigade of Guards’). The latter becoming Lieutenant Colonel, with D.S.O. and O.B.E. - having been mentioned in despatches seven times. This august event was the precursor to what has become the annual Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen Parade at the Cenotaph. When Rev Cohen was called to become Chief Rabbi of Sydney, Australia in 1904, he was succeeded by a remarkable man - Rev Michael Adler, Minister of the Hammersmith Synagogue. After the War Rev Arthur Barnett CF, wrote of Michael Adler: At the outbreak of the first World War he was the only Jewish Chaplain to have held His Majesty’s Commission in the Army. He was faced now with the tremendous task of organising an adequate Jewish Chaplaincy for work in the field as well as at home. The peculiar problems of the Jewish Serviceman scattered in almost every army unit were well-nigh insurmountable. In addition, the War Office was at a loss to know what to do with a Jewish Chaplain in the field and refused to allow Adler to go overseas. It was only his persistence and tenacity which finally overcame the objection, and in January 1915, for the first time in the history of the British Army, a Jewish Chaplain was ministering to Jewish troops in the field...It is not possible here to continue the story of how he built up the Jewish Chaplaincy during the war. Suffice it to say that it was a creatio ex nihilo. With no precedent to guide him, with nothing but his own forcefulness of purpose and growing experience, he organised the department with such efficiency that before the war was over he had received promotion in rank, a twofold mention-in-dispatches and the signal honour of the D.S.O. He was indefatigable in his energies, infectious in his enthusiasm, dynamic in his influence on his colleagues, and impressive in his devotion to the Jewish soldier’s well-being. Many thousands of Jews will remember him with gratitude and honour. During those tragic years he made Jewish history... E ventually, there were 17 uniformed Jewish Chaplains who served in the Army Chaplains’ department between 1914 and 1918 in all theatres of war. By the Second World War, there were at least 38 - including LieutenantColonel Israel Brodie who would later become Chief Rabbi. One hundred years on, we are all connected to the First World War, either through our own family history, the heritage of our local communities - or because of its long-term impact on society and the world we live in today. From 2014 to 2018, across the world, nations, communities and individuals of all ages will come together to mark, commemorate and remember the lives of those who lived, fought, and died in the Great War. The Jewish community will play its full part in the proud knowledge that it made a significant contribution. That selfless commitment continues unto this very day through those numbers of Jews, current members of The Armed Forces Jewish Community, that serve with devotion and sacrifice in Her Majesty’s Armed Forces. Jewish Chaplains World War II 11. Rev. E M Davis 1. Rev. S Amias 12. Rev. L I Edgar 2. Rev. A Berman 13. Rev. M Elton 3. Rev. M Berman 14. Rev. B Epstein 4. Rev. C M Bloch 15 .Rev. I N Fabricant 5. Rev. I Brodie 16. Rev. J Gill (Lifschitz) 6. Rev. S Brown 17. Rev. M Gollop 7. Rev. B M Casper 18. Rev. B Greenberg 8. Rev. T Chait 19. Rev. E T Hamburger 9. Rev. B Cherrick 20. Rev. L H Hardman 10. Rev. P Cohen 21. Rev. B Hooker 22. Rev. S Hooker 23. Rev. S Isaacs 24. Rev. J Israelstam 25. Rev. M A Jaffe 26. Rev. I Levy 27. Rev. M A Lew 28. Rev. B Lucki 29. Rev. S Margulies 30. Rev. A A W Miller 31. Rev. W Morein [Died on Active Duty] 32. Rev. A D S Pimontel 33. Rev. H J Rabonwitz 34. Rev I Rapaport 35. Rev. E E Urbach 36. Rev. M Wagner 37. Rev. J Weintrobe 38. Rev. H Bornstein [Died on Active Duty] Jews were officially recognised in the British Armed Forces as a distinct religious body from 1889. The Visitation Committee of the United Synagogue had been responsible for the religious and spiritual welfare of Jews in public institutions. MENORAH | 10 MENORAH | 11 BRITISH JEWRY IN THE GREAT WAR Elkan D Levy The Board of Deputies met for its regular meeting on 19 July 1914 and passed a resolution “to send an address of sympathy to the Emperor of Austria on the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.” Lord Chief Justice of England, Rufus Isaacs was the first Jew to hold the position. Below them was the mass of middle-class Jews, mostly professional and mercantile, who formed a large part of the organised community although not yet in its leadership. First or second generation English born, and increasingly anglicised, they formed the backbone of the United Synagogue and the franchise of the Board of Deputies. Finally there were the Jews The Jewish population of Great Britain at this time was about 350,000 of whom about three fifths lived in London. Provincial Jewry was divided into a mass of small communities with the great industrial towns – Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and Glasgow – as the main centres. © Willequet Manuel, Sandra Cunningham / shutterstock F ew people at that meeting thought that the Sarajevo killing would be any different from the various political assassinations that had occurred in Europe. Within three weeks war had broken out. The Jewish population of Great Britain at this time was about 350,000 of whom about three fifths lived in London. Provincial Jewry was divided into a mass of small communities with the great industrial towns – Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and Glasgow – as the main centres. There were also small communities in the mining areas of South Wales and the mining and shipbuilding towns of the North East. The community was still ruled by a number of related families, known to historians as the Cousinhood. The first Lord Rothschild still presided over New Court with his brothers and ruled the community as a benevolent though much feared despot. Representatives of this group were making their way in English life; Herbert Samuel was in the Liberal cabinet formed by Asquith at the beginning of the war and his cousin Edwin Montagu joined him there soon after. The of London’s East End and the other ghettos of Britain. The immigrants formed an almost self-contained artisan community of their own. Religiously they were more positively orthodox than the United Synagogue but maintained a grudging admiration and respect for the institutions of AngloJewry. The more assimilated Jews in return had made the cause of the immigrants their own and devoted their talents and energies towards the Anglicisation of the East End and the amelioration of the conditions of the ghetto. Major institutions including the Chief Rabbinate, the United Synagogue, the Board of Deputies and the Board of Guardians all tended to keep the community together despite the latent fissiparous tendencies of Jewish organisational life. A most powerful common denominator was the Jewish Chronicle, by then a very Zionist paper. Widely read in upper class Jewish homes it also engendered queues of readers in the Whitechapel Public Library. So highly was it regarded that a ghetto teacher, attempting to instil the glorious moments of English naval history into his small pupils asked how Nelson gave his famous message at Trafalgar. Back came the answer “Please Sir he put it in the Jewish Chronicle!” Sentiment in the community was firmly against Britain’s entry into the war, and especially against Britain’s alliance with Russia, the arch persecutor of the Jews at that time. The Jewish Chronicle’s first editorial after the outbreak of war hurriedly reversed its policy and spoke of “the futility of those who cry peace, peace, when there is no peace.” One of the immediate problems which faced the community was the nationality of the large number of immigrants. Passports were rarely carried or held and often the immigrant Jew had no evidence of citizenship. Britain was embarked on her first continental war in a century and foreigners were immediately suspected of being enemy. German and Austrian citizens were interned, mainly in the Isle of Man, as were Turkish nationals. There was at one time a separate Jewish internment camp, and two of those who died there still repose in a Manx churchyard. By the beginning of 1915 anti-foreign attitudes had considerably diminished only to be revived after the torpedoing of the Lusitania on 7th May. The Board of Deputies declined to get involved in exempting Jewish enemy aliens from internment or repatriation because it regarded the whole question as not being specifically Jewish, and attempted to pass its responsibilities onto one of the friendly societies. The Jewish Chronicle, and its correspondence columns, attacked this attitude with great vigour, describing the board’s attitudes as “ridiculously Gilbertian” and the provincial councils stepped in vigorously where the Board had failed to act. The outbreak of war was seen by the Jewish Chronicle, undoubtedly reflecting the predominant sentiment of the community, as a chance for Anglo-Jewry to repay England for her kindness and hospitality. “England has been all she could be to Jews, Jews will be all they can to England” was the slogan in their opening wartime editorial. This slogan was painted on a large sign board outside the JC offices in Finsbury Square and remained there throughout the war. At Whitechapel recruiting station on Wednesday 5th August the great crowd included over 500 young Jews and the community encouraged enlistment. Chief Rabbi Hertz issued a recruiting message “Israel expects every son of Israel to do his duty” and synagogues throughout the land held recruiting meetings. There was a popular belief that Jews did not make good soldiers, which in due course led Chief Rabbi Hertz to pay an official visit to the Western front. Sir John French, the commander-in-chief, in a despatch gratifyingly mentioned “the large Jewish community now serving with the Army in the field”. At this stage about 40% of Jewish recruits were rejected on health grounds, although towards the end of the war Col JH Patterson, commanding 38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers, The Judeans. standards were lowered. The war produced an unusually virulent strain of anti-foreign feeling. The Times throughout the war maintained a policy of using the terms “German” and “Jew” synonymously. Many leading figures in English life came under suspicion. Sir Alfred Mond received an official call at his London home asking why he kept carrier pigeons in his garden. They were Hyde Park pigeons which gathered there because they were fed. The Sephardi community, in an excess of patriotic Englishness, developed a dislike of Ashkenazi Jews because they were German, and even considered withholding funds from the Judith Montefiore college at Ramsgate in case any of those studying were enemy aliens. The United Synagogue, being full of many Ashkenazim of fairly recent Continued overleaf MENORAH | 12 MENORAH | 13 immigration avoided antiGerman hysteria, although one of its ministers questioned the fact that it maintained the “German-Polish ritual”. Those with German names often considered a change; the Minister of the Liverpool Old Hebrew Congregation in Princes Road abandoned his surname of Friedberg in favour of Frampton, a Dorset village. Economically the beginning of the war brought hardship among immigrant workers. Food prices rose rapidly, and the JC complained that while the price of the bagel remained stationary “its circumference has become suspiciously less”. However the expansion of the Armed Forces meant huge clothing contracts of which the East End and other immigrant areas received a fair share. One little pageboy at a ghetto wedding arrived in an officer’s uniform, complete to the smallest detail, which his father had no doubt fashioned from khaki clippings! Manchester Jewry supplied most of the army’s ground sheets and the khaki boom generally brought prosperity to the tailoring and dressmaking trades. The Board of Guardians found its support much in demand, but generally helped to alleviate the most severe poverty without receiving help either from government or national funds. Most charities however found their income falling, the demand for their assistance rising, and the position made worse MENORAH | 14 by a shortage of voluntary workers. Some 3500 Belgian Jewish refugees came to Britain at the beginning of the war, many of whom had been very prosperous but now needed assistance. Most Synagogue bodies waived contributions from men on active service while the Federation of Synagogues relieved all those on active service of their subscriptions to the Burial Society while the nation, conscious of its huge losses in the incredible slaughter of the Western front and the general failure of such slaughter to produce any positive reactions, looked for fresh sources of manpower. Almost the only unwounded young men in London by then were the young Jews of Whitechapel who were not liable for English conscription and, as Herbert Samuel told the House of Commons, there Jewish Officers and men, Hammersmith in training November 1914 still receiving the benefits! The senior Jewish chaplain, the Rev Michael Adler, was in civilian life the Minister of the Central Synagogue in Great Portland Street. In January 1915 he went to France and a number of Anglo Jewish ministers served as chaplains in the field. In 1916 Rabbi A I Kook, formerly Chief Rabbi of Jaffa, who had been stranded in Switzerland by the outbreak of war became the Rav of the Machzike Hadass Synagogue in Brick Lane. By the summer of 1916 was a distinct feeling that allied subjects of military age “ought either to serve in the army of the country of their birth or in the army of the country of their adoption.” The feeling was so strong that anti-Jewish riots broke out in the summer of 1917. These lasted three days in Leeds in June, and there were a further two days in Bethnal Green in September. Senior figures within Anglo-Jewry hoped that if the law was changed to allow friendly aliens to volunteer for the British forces the ghetto would volunteer before it was conscripted. A small number of Jews returned to Russia to fight with Kerensky’s government, but the majority refused, no doubt influenced by the heavy casualty figures whose existence could no longer be denied. Fearful of further anti-Jewish riots, Samuel persuaded the government to bring in compulsory conscription for non-British nationals in the summer of 1917. Before the outbreak of the war the immigrant populations which vastly outnumbered the indigenous and acculturated Jews had relied upon them to represent their views and their requirements to wider society whose language they did not speak and whose attitudes they did not comprehend. By the summer of 1916 all had changed. Before the war most of the acculturated members of the community had sent their sons to public school. With the rapid expansion of the army at the outbreak of war and the need for junior officers, public schoolboys received an automatic commission and subsequently the junior officers bore the brunt of casualties. By the summer of 1916 many of the younger members of the community who had devoted time and effort to the immigrants were dead. At the same time the increase in wartime regulations, and the close relationship between the immigrants and the government on matters such as clothing contracts gave the ghetto increasing confidence in its dealings with the outside non-Jewish world. Suddenly they realised that they could survive without the Jews of the West End. In many ways the year of 1917 was viewed by the community as an annus mirabilis. Since the early days of the war it had been clear to the British government that an attack on the Ottoman Empire would both take pressure off the Western front and bring many other benefits to the war effort. Two attempts to defeat the Turkish armies at the first and second battles of Gaza in April 1917 had failed miserably, and Prime Minister Lloyd George felt that a muchneeded military success would come in the Middle East far sooner than in France. One of his most successful generals was Allenby and in June 1917 he was sent to the Middle East. Allenby neither underestimated the Turks nor dismissed the problems of the theatre of war. Having made careful preparations, and having received an instruction from the Prime Minister to “give Jerusalem to the British people as a Christmas present” Allenby attacked at the end of October and on 9 December Jerusalem surrendered. This was the first major success of British arms in the whole war. Relations between the Jewish community and the government particularly in respect of Jewry in foreign countries had been handled since 1878 by the Conjoint Foreign Committee a joint organisation of the Board of Deputies and the Anglo Jewish Association. The presidents of the two bodies, D L Alexander KC and Claude G Montefiore were assisted by supporters within upperclass Jewry on the one hand, and the acculturated Jewish community which feared that the Zionism would destroy its hard-won standing and privileges in English society on the other. Matters came to a head in May 1917 when the president of the Board of Before the war most of the acculturated members of the community had sent their sons to public school. With the rapid expansion of the army at the outbreak of war and the need for junior officers, public schoolboys received an automatic commission and subsequently the junior officers bore the brunt of casualties. Lucien Wolf secretary of the committee, considered by the Foreign Office as spokesman of the Jews. All three shared an inability to understand or appreciate the immigrant or Jewish nationalist viewpoint. By the early summer of 1917 the government was considering a declaration in support of Zionist aims. On this the community was split between the immigrants and their few Zionist Deputies and the president of the Anglo Jewish Association wrote a letter to The Times in an attempt to strangle the declaration before its birth. With great courage Chief Rabbi Hertz wrote a letter in strong refutation and the president of the Board of Deputies was forced to resign. On 2 November 1917 the Balfour Declaration was duly issued to wild rejoicing among the pro-Zionist sections of the community. At the same time the community was grappling with the question of a specifically Jewish military unit. Attempts to form such a unit had been resisted both by the War Office and by the community itself, but the formation of the Zion Mule Corps, and its record at Gallipoli had somewhat weakened the opposition. There was real concern in the community at how such a unit might behave under fire; there had after all been no Jewish military units since the Maccabees. It was therefore agreed that they would become the 38th Royal Fusiliers, despite which the unit was always known as “the Judeans”. Subsequently the 39th was raised in Palestine and the 40th in New York. All three battalions fought creditably and are commemorated on the Royal Fusiliers Memorial in Holborn, the only war memorial in the UK which contains the word “Jewish”. The war dragged on to its miserable end in November 1918. The vast social changes which it had brought within British society were reflected in the Jewish community. Old certainties had gone, the old leaders were weary, many of the younger men who would be expected to take their place were dead, the East End was no longer subservient to the West End and British Jewry along with its non-Jewish counterparts faced with uncertainty the problems of the interwar years. MENORAH | 15 Captain Robert Gee VC MC MP THE FIVE JEWISH VCs of WWI Leonard Maurice Keysor VC Jack White VC was born Jacob Weiss in Leeds, Yorkshire, on 23 December 1896 into a Jewish family. After finishing his education, he joined the family business, a waterproofing company. When the First World War broke out, he returned home from a business trip and volunteered for active service with the King’s Own Royal (18 September 1890 – 11 September 1940) was a British-Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross. In recognition of his VC, he was also awarded the French Croix de Guerre and Russian Cross of St. George (4th class) by the respective governments. Born Ishroulch Shmeilowitz in Egypt, Smith travelled to Britain as a child stowaway and first remained with the battalion through the Gallipoli campaign. Eventually, he and his unit were ordered to join the Tigris Corps, attempting to relieve the Siege of Kut. After the failure of the relief effort, White’s unit participated in the counter-offensive in 1917. It was during the 13th Division’s crossing of the Diyala River that he earned the Victoria Cross. During an attempt to cross a river he saw the two Pontoons ahead of him come under heavy machine- Regiment (Lancaster). Originally assigned to a battalion destined for France, he missed the battalion’s deployment while home on compassionate leave to attend the death of his father. Instead, he was transferred to the 6th King’s Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster). The 6th King’s Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster) was attached to the 13th (Western) Division. Originally ordered to Gallipoli, he volunteered to serve in the British Army in 1904. As a sergeant in the 1st Battalion, The Manchester Regiment, Smith was engaged in the Second Battle of Ypres. On 26 April 1915, Smith, on his own initiative, recovered wounded soldiers while exposed to sustained fire and attended to them “with the greatest devotion to duty regardless of personal risk”. His conduct secured a recommendation for the Victoria Cross, which was awarded to Smith in August 1915. Frank Alexander de Pass VC (April 26, 1887 November 25, 1914) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the first person of the Jewish faith and the first Indian Army officer to receive the VC during World War I. He was 27 years old, and a Lieutenant in the 34th Prince Albert Victor’s Own Poona Horse, and was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 24 November 1914 near Festubert, France. He was killed in battle the next day, 25 November. Lieutenant de Pass entered a German sap and destroyed a traverse in the face of the enemy’s bombs. Subsequently he rescued, under heavy fire, a wounded man who was lying exposed to enemy bullets in the open. Lieutenant de Pass lost his life in a second attempt to capture the sap which had been reoccupied by the enemy. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the National Army Museum in Chelsea, London. gun fire, with disastrous results. When his own Pontoon had reached midstream, with every man except himself either dead or wounded, finding that he was unable to control the Pontoon, Pte. White promptly tied a telephone wire to the Pontoon, jumped overboard, and towed it to the shore, thereby saving an officer’s life and bringing to land the rifles and equipment of the other men in the boat, who were either dead or dying. © V.J.Matthew / shutterstock. Wikimedia (3 November 1885 – 12 October 1951). Born in England, Keysor emigrated to Australia shortly before the outbreak of the First World War. He enlisted in the First Australian Imperial Force in August 1914 and served in Egypt before landing at Gallipoli, Turkey at the beginning of the campaign. On 7 August 1915 at Lone Pine, while serving as an acting lance-corporal, 29 year-old Keysor performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. Later in the war he took part in the fighting in France, serving in the trenches along the Western Front. He would later achieve the rank of lieutenant before being discharged from the army on medical grounds at the end of the war. (7 May 1876 – 2 August 1960) Born in Leicester, he was 41 years old, and a temporary captain in the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers, when he was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 30 November 1917 at Masnières and Les Rues Vertes, France: An attack by the enemy captured brigade Issy Smith VC headquarters and ammunition dump. Captain Gee, finding himself a prisoner, managed to escape and organised a party of the brigade staff with which he attacked the enemy, closely followed by two companies of infantry. He cleared the locality and established a defensive flank, then finding an enemy machinegun still in action, with a revolver in each hand he went forward and captured the gun, killing eight of the crew. He was wounded, but would not have his wound dressed until the defence was organised. MENORAH | 16 MENORAH | 17 You could be in the Algarve, relaxing in the sun... A SUBBIE WITH STYLE Two weeks in the life of Lt John Cvancara as a NATO Delegation Liaison Officer. A n Email from my Training Major started the ball rolling. “Do you speak any languages? Would you like to be a DLO?” As usual, I said yes, then decided to have a look and see what a DLO is. Very difficult to nail it down, and had to wait until the admin order came through. The role was to be a Liaison Officer for a Delagation at the NATO Summit. Still as clear as mud. The first week was held in Lancaster House, just across the road from The Boss. Somehow the FCO managed to cram an hour’s work into four days, but it did give ample opportunity to do the tourist bit going to work. The second week was down in sunny Cardiff. Consisted of collection passes, recce of the Celtic Manor Resort to orientate ourselves, and liaising with the Delegation Foreign office teams. I was embedded with the German team, and was responsible for the Defence Minister, Ursula von der Leyen, and her MA, Colonel Heico Hubner. My role was to guide, locate, troubleshoot and generally be a ‘there for Situated on the top floor of a three storey block the apartment has its own residents’ swimming pool. It has the advantage of being away from the bustle of the town centre but within walking distance (10 minutes to the marina and another 5 to the town centre). It has a twin bedroom, open plan kitchen and lounge. The kitchen has a 4-ring hob, oven, microwave, toaster, fridge freezer and washing machine. There is a family sized bathroom. The lounge has a sofa (which converts into two more single beds) and a table to seat four. A TV, DVD ,CD player and WiFi are also available. Both the lounge and bedroom have patio doors which open onto the balcony offering views over the swimming pool and across Lagos. There is ample car parking space in front of the building. www.algarveestatemanagement.co.uk apt meia Prices: To book accommodation please contact Judith Hall on 01536 711884 Apartments can also be booked very competitively at [email protected] © Jiri Flogel / shutterstock Nov to Mar £190 Apr & Oct £255 May & Sept £290 June £330 July & Aug £410 all’ for the team. Seemed like it might be a dogsbody job at first, but turned out to be a definite highlight in my military career. Two of the busiest days of my life. Booking rooms for meetings, sorting out passes, arranging vehicles, and generally ensuring that the team were in the right place, at the right time, with the right people. The German delegation were a John’s staff car... getting ideas above his station. and dinners, but a constant line of meetings, press conferences, and eating on the move. Angela Merkel was a very down to earth person, with no airs and graces, Obama was a genuine character. Tiring, very warm in SD The DLO and the German delegation super bunch, all very friendly and chatty, and a perfect example of a classless team. Rubbing shoulders with the leaders of the world, getting an insight into how the powers that be run things. I came to realise that summits are not all shiny lights and medals, and my feet were aching on Friday evening, but an opportunity that I’d take again and again. Highlight of the two weeks? If you’ve never been in a convoy with 12 police outriders stopping everything for you to fly through, you haven’t lived. If you haven’t had a chauffeur driven BMW 7 Series, with a personal protection officer in the front, while you lounge in the back, you’ve missed out. And all those so called stars who say they get bored of people waving and taking pictures of them, swap with me, because it’s great. But my real highlight was down at Cardiff docks. (No Martin, not that type of highlight!) The area was fenced off, with security and police everywhere. A lady from outside the fence asked if it would be ok for her to take a picture of me. It came out badly, so I coerced the security team to let me outside the cordon. Ten minutes later, and one very happy chat, and lots of pictures were taken with the family. There followed, a line of families asking if they could have there picture taken with me. All in a days work for some people, but it was a definite “Andy Warhol 15 minute moment “ for me. Note: John has failed to say that he is now the proud owner of the NATO mountain of freebies ranging from mugs, pens and pencils, bottleopeners and note pads to miniature jars of jam! Well done John and equally well done on your appointment as secretary of Army Reserves Basketball (Ed). The German delegation were a super bunch, all very friendly and chatty, and a perfect example of a classless team. MENORAH | 19 THE ULTIMATE HEAD PROTECTION REVISION'S BATLSKIN IS THE FUTURE FOR TOTAL HEAD & FACE PROTECTION Revision Military, the people who provide the British Armed Forces with eye protection have now diversified with a greater range of personal soldier protection equipment. BATLSKIN VIPER LONG RAIL SYSTEMS Allowing the integrated head protection system to be scalable and adaptable to any mission, the new Batlskin Viper Long Rails offer a system upgrade, enabling quick and easy attachment of cameras, lights, and other head borne accessories, allowing the user to focus on their mission. The Interlocking Long Rails seamlessly integrate with the Front Mount and can be used in conjunction with the Batlskin Visor and Mandible MENORAH | 20 Guards. The Standalone Long Rails are freestanding and can be used independently with commonly used NVG mounts. BATLSKIN VIPER FRONT MOUNT Revision’s lightweight, multipurpose Front Mount now features an interchangeable center piece system. The slim and easy to use design, allows the user to swap the receiver component to accommodate various NVG interface plates for compatibility with commonly used NVGs. Most notably, the Front Mount acts as the MPAS platform, enabling seamless integration of the Batlskin Interlocking Long Rails, Visor and Mandible Guards, offering the crucial ability to up armour when needed to maximum breathability: locked, vented or up. The visor offers quality high-impact protection, flawless optics and maximum field-of-view while remaining scratch, fog and chemical resistant. Ready for battle, the visor system includes an optional gasket which provides a seal between the helmet and Visor. BATLSKIN VIPER MANDIBLE GUARDS The updated Mandible Guard provides best-in- The ultimate protection from trauma— Blunt force, blast and ballistic. With a lightweight wearability… INTRODUCING BATLSKIN Designed with the end user in mind, the threeposition visor clips into the Front Mount with a simple one-handed movement. The visor can be worn three ways from maximum coverage ™ THE WORLD’S FIRST FULLY INTEGRATED, FULLY MODULAR HEAD PROTECTION SYSTEM. More science. More technology. More protection. Less weight. And you can tailor the system to the mission. So a soldier can do what a soldier does. BATLSKIN VIPER VISOR SYSTEM That allows for peak performance. © Alexander Smulskiy/ shutterstock I n addition to lightweight new body armour plates and personal rechargeable energy storage systems Revision’s innovative Batlskin helmet is set to change the whole concept of total head and face protection. Revision’s versatile and adaptable Batlskin Viper A1 and P2 High Cut Helmets are designed for optimal compatibility with communications headsets allowing for increased situational awareness. With the seamless integration of Revision’s newest products, the Interlocking and Standalone Long Rail Systems, and our helmet manufacturing experience and stringent quality standards, Revision is ready to meet operators’ demands for high cut helmets on a global scale. class lower-face protection in a strapless design that’s lightweight, quick to fit without tools and quick to remove. Available in ballistic and wire configurations to suit the mission at hand, each Mandible Guard attaches without tools to the Batlskin Front Mount, providing rapid attachment and removal of the face guard. These guards are easily tilted downwards in varying degrees for improved sight compatibility, eating and drinking. Pushing the mandible against the chest– a quick, hands-free operation - brings it back to the original position. revisionmilitary.com/batlskin © 2011 REVISION MILITARY INC. BATLSKIN™ IS A TRADEMARK OWNED BY REVISION MILITARY S.A.R.L. AND USED UNDER LICENSE BY REVISION MILITARY INC. BE REVISION READY.® AND REVISION® ARE TRADEMARKS OF REVISION MILITARY. REVISION MILITARY BV, WEENA 327, 3013 AL ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS. In Focus Around the camps © Cpl Jamie Peters Capt Andy Holsgrove shows the Silver Torah breastplate presented to Manchester’s United Synagogue (Meade Hill Shul) in 1917 in memory of Cpl Laurence Boodsman of the Manchester Regiment. Cpl Boodsman was killed in action at Gallipoli 99 years ago. The breastplate is always used on Armed Forces Shabbat and the Shabbat closest to Remembrance Day. Jewish members of Middlesex & North West London Army Cadet Force on annual camp are pictured during a Havdala ceremony in the field, saying farewell to the Sabbath and the start of a new week. Padre Simon Taylor found a small Jewish Community at Middlesex an NW London ACF’s Annual Camp. THANK YOU STUART AND SANDRA Welcome home to Padre Reuben Livingstone. Just in time for the High holydays after a month at BATUS with 1 YORKS. A Euan moves on I t’s always good to hear from Euan Sandison. Since leaving the Army the former REME and Mercian Regiment captain has settled into a new career in the oil industry working out of Baku and announced his marriage to Marina Reizman in Scotland. The happy couple have bought an apartment in Modiin Israel where a Chuppah will be held shortly. And he’s grown a beard! I know the whole community wishes them well for the future and a hearty mazel tov. Not sure about the beard though. MENORAH | 22 Army medical officer, Capt Laurence Baum, a member of the Armed Forces Jewish Community treats an elderly lady in Kenya The Army and the RAF were represented by Col Martin Newman DL, Wg Cdr Roy Catterall DL and Capt Andy Holsgrove of the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment at the stone setting of WWI and WWII veteran Jacob Silverberg (see full article in this magazine). The Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment is now the custodian of two Jewish VCs, Sgt Issy Smith and Pte Jack White. Padre Simon looks for potential recruits W hen Army Reserves from The London Regiment (Princess of Wales Royal Regiment) of Edgware were recruiting in Canons Park in a predominantly Jewish area, they were quick to take up the offer of support from Padre Simon Taylor, chaplain to Middlesex and North West London Army Cadet Force. ‘There was a lot of interest from the community and I think it was helpful for the unit to have someone on hand who knew and understood them. What better than a Rabbi in uniform?” he said. big thank you to Chief Engineer Stuart and Sandra Rose who always seem to be walking, swimming or cycling for some worthy cause or other. Our Sefer Torah appeal is about £250 better off thanks to them participating in a gruelling bicycle ride around Paris. Sandra said: “This was the hardest challenge we’ve undertaken so far. This appeal was important to us and our Armed Forces Jewish Community. We did it. So go to the Smart Giving website and give.” Sweet tooth? Gibraltar Cadet's GCSE hen the good news is that that sticky success T toffee pudding is being retained in the Kosher operational ration packs. Note the letter K. That’s you’re assurance that it’s a kosher ration M azeltov to Cadet Samuel Marrache of the Gibraltar Cadet Force. Samuel, who passed out as top cadet of last year’s intake has now achieved nine A* passes in this year’s GCSE examinations. Well done. Padre Simon Taylor represented the Armed Forces Jewish Community when he attended and participated in the AJEX annual Remembrance Service at Willesden Cemetery. He is pictured with Rev Alan Greenblat. MENORAH | 23 By Flight Lieutenant Justin Salmon RAF I spent a long time thinking how best to relate my recent deployment to Afghanistan – it seemed such a huge subject to try and tackle in an article, and there were inevitable sensitivities too. I decided a series of vignettes might work best. I was deployed to Afghanistan for my second and undoubtedly final operational tour from 14 September 2013 to 29 March 2014, doing an information operations role embedded with a US team – broadly, information operations involve influencing target audience behaviour without using traditional kinetic means (that is, blowing The Suicide Car Bomb One morning I happened to be at my desk, checking Facebook of all things, when suddenly there was a colossal boom, and the somewhat flimsy (and it turns out quite exposed) 2-storey building I was in certainly reinforced why the safe minimum distance from a car bomb is taught as 400m (not 200m)! Annoyingly I’ve still got a feeling of over-pressure in my left ear from the explosion, for which the initial prescription from the US med centre was the phlegm-releasing expectorant Mucinex, somewhat randomly. It’s still not right. However, to my surprise, application of anti-biotic ear spray recently has helped enormously – evidently a lengthy infection was caused by dust being forced into the ear by the blast. First time going outside the wire on an op We were attached to a US Army unit to support a major clearance operation – quite a rare event by that stage of the campaign. This would be a first for me and my two colleagues. We were up very early that morning, while it was still dark and the mess hall was still closed – for breakfast I had the first of what would be many, many Clif bars over the next few days… The Forward Operating Base (FOB) was blacked out at night and no white light was allowed, so it was extremely dark as we gathered our kit and went to meet our point of contact. There was a lot of waiting around. We felt a bit self-conscious as outsiders. Finally someone told us to go out to where all the vehicles were formed up and being prepared, and told to go find the Sergeant First Class we would be riding with. The sun was now coming up, and all around US soldiers prepped their Stryker vehicles, engineer vehicles and so on. Engines were running in the half-light, troops now shuttling to the mess hall to get takeout breakfasts. I took a final opportunity for a nervous toilet break. We had our “warry” photos taken in front of our vehicle, feeling a little selfconscious about it, hoping not to give too much an impression of “newbies” to the platoon we would be riding with. As we got closer to the departure time, there was more standing around and waiting, chatting. Everyone was very interested in the rifle I had, it being a novelty among all the M4s. The verdict was that it was quite heavy! We had another brief and then finally we were told to mount up. We put our protective gear on, including our “combat nappies” (or my Tier 2 groin protection), climbed up the ramp and strapped in. The ramp closed – quite an ominous experience – and suddenly the only view I had of the outside world was through the gunner’s screen. The noise of the engines increased and we lurched forward, bit by bit, heading for the gate of the FOB. I was both nervous and excited. © msiudmak, Alexander Smulskiy / shutterstock Afghanistan for the final time... probably things up). Rather nicely, I was temporarily promoted as an acting Squadron Leader for the duration of the tour, and came back with a US Meritorious Service Medal awarded for my efforts. So here goes… felt like it flew to pieces, bits of the ceiling crashing down, fittings like air conditioning units on the walls flying off, things knocked over all over the place, and a choking cloud of dust. Then there felt like a moment’s stillness, enough for me to announce a surprised “F- me” to my colleagues, before someone shouted to take cover and the fire alarm started going (presumably from all the dust in the air). It felt like the building had been hit by a rocket, but we gradually started finding out that it was a suicide car bomb which had rammed into the back of an ISAF convoy entering the gate to camp – the detonation was about 200m away (sounds far, but it wasn’t), and could be clearly seen through our fire exit, with direct line of sight over all the blast walls. Charred debris from the vehicle and – grimly – even body parts from the attacker lay all around us outside. Unhelpfully, the first announcement by jittery and non-English speaking security forces was that it was an insider attack – when a disgruntled individual shoots another from the same side, and normally they don’t consist of a massive explosion. Anyway, it changed our response somewhat, and dragged out the incident well past its conclusion – all the while my Facebook page sat open in the tumbled confusion of my desk, somewhat surreally. This was one of the more dramatic moments of the tour, and Continued overleaf MENORAH | 24 MENORAH | 25 Getting my own Black Hawks journey away from the airfield. It would prove to be a tough, occasionally nerve-wracking and occasionally grim, but almost always interesting 10 days as we supported another big clearance operation. Driving through Kabul Driving through Kabul was always an experience, and something I never got tired of. This proved to be a regular reminder of ordinary life in Afghanistan, and some of the sights were genuinely surprising. In one part of the city, goats would rummage through rubbish by the side of the road, with legless men Annoyingly I’ve still got a feeling of over-pressure in my left ear from the explosion, for which the initial prescription from the US med centre was the phlegm-releasing expectorant Mucinex, somewhat randomly. It’s still not right. hobbling by on crutches, with roads barely worthy of the name. Elsewhere, huge, flashy, brightly lit “Wedding Halls” dominated, resembling Las Vegas casinos in their ostentation and flashiness – weddings are evidently a big deal in Afghanistan. In one part of town, a small boy angrily threw a metal bolt at our vehicle, though it bounced off harmlessly. I had seen him weighing something in his hand as we approached, then recognised the shape of the chunk of metal as he eyed us sullenly and I guessed his intent, then laughed at his brazenness as he hurled the thing at us. Needless to say we just drove on. Most of the time, Afghans would seem to just be ambivalent towards us and generally ignored us. Sometimes we’d get flashes of anger at the inconvenience we caused. Occasionally someone would give us a friendly greeting. Traffic was always busy and chaotic, and we would get stuck in it like everyone else. Often Afghans would take their lives in their hands as they attempted to cross the road. I remember one time a young woman in a headscarf struggling to make her way between the cars across the multi-lane road. A keen-eyed Afghan traffic cop, in his characteristic white hat and blue uniform, spotted her distress and advanced into the melee of cars with a real air of nobility, lifting his hand to stop the traffic to allow her to cross. That gave me hope for the future of Afghanistan. Readjustment Months on, I still think of Afghanistan almost every day. Occasionally I dream about it. This tour was more intense, more interesting and much more satisfying than my previous tour. I actually miss it terribly, and it felt like it took a long time to settle down after getting back, feeling very restless. Decompression in Cyprus helped a lot with the transition, where I managed to do some dinghy sailing and rode a horse for the first time in my life, in a lovely short Mediterranean respite. Spending 3 weeks in Japan during my post-operational tour leave also helped a great deal, but then I felt crushed by the comparative mundaneness of work after that. I volunteered for another tour in Afghanistan for September, but they decided not to continue that post. At last I feel like I’m settling down from the tour, but I miss the camaraderie, the excitement, the sense of purpose and the satisfaction of working on something important. I miss the people I worked with – I often wonder where they are and what they’re up to. I’m still in touch with some, including one American from the “Jewish Sabbath Fellowship” at my base, for which I briefly became the lay leader (the first time I went, not long after arrival, I was slightly surprised that our group should consist of a Brit, a German and an American). I miss the exoticness of Afghanistan and working alongside other nations. I even miss the food sometimes – a Turkish cookhouse that I sometimes frequented served some of the best food I’ve ever had, and it was free! I miss the scenery, and never tired of that while I was there, with Afghanistan’s imposing and dramatic mountain ranges – it could be a beautiful tourist destination one day. © Nate Derrick / shutterstock It was a very cool experience the first time I rode in US Black Hawk helicopters. I had two, just for me! I was in a new part of the country, which was novel in itself, but in trying to make my way out to a small camp to the south, I discovered that I would be the only passenger on the Black Hawks picking me up. It was a fairly leisurely pre-flight process – they took my blood group and identity details, and fortunately I had the presence of mind to ask the crew chief which was the best seat to sit in. He pointed and explained that if I sat there, I’d get a good view and also have the heaters blowing in my face. Later in the flight, I was very grateful for the heater, though it did nothing for my then frozen legs and backside. Eventually the engines started up and the rotors started turning. The crew strapped on their armoured faceplates, which gave them a sinister ninja appearance with just their eyes showing behind ballistic eye protection, and after a short delay and final preparations, we lifted off. To my surprise, we taxied like regular aircraft, but about 3 metres off the ground, though we quickly gained altitude when we eventually “took off”. Lights went out, and for about an hour and a half, we flew over snowcapped ridges and mountain tops lit by the eerie light of a full moon. Occasionally there were lights from buildings or compounds, including one which appeared to be surrounded by multi-coloured bright Christmas lights – somewhat psychedelic, and an odd sight in the otherwise dark Afghan mountains. I looked for the other Black Hawk, but could not see it until we descended to our destination airfield, where I was deposited with my pack, and found myself being picked up in a gator and taken to a somewhat forlorn and lonely tent; the consequence of the drawdown was that the airfield was mostly rubble bulldozed flat and utterly dark at night. Travelling alone in unfamiliar places where there were no Brits could often be a taxing experience, but to my relief it wasn’t long before my ride turned up for yet another interesting journey through the night to my final destination – my final surprise being that it was a MENORAH | 26 MENORAH | 27 Torah to complement the full size Paul Mervis Memorial Scroll which will continue to live at Amport House for use at our major services. The new scroll is perfectly portable and will allow Padre Simon and me to arrange services wherever needed and where duty takes us. “We are grateful to all those who generously donated, including many of our own members, and to Stuart and Sandra Rose who undertook a NEW HISTORICAL SEFER TORAH FOR ARMED FORCES T hanks to the generosity of the Western Charitable Foundation, the Western Marble Arch Synagogue, associated individuals and members of our own military community we have taken on charge an historical Sefer Torah which has now been fully refurbished, has been declared kosher and is now usable. It will soon be adorned with a new purple mantle emblazoned with our crest. sponsored bike ride in France to raise funds towards our costs.” It has been decided to keep the appeal open to raise more funds to build an Ark for Amport House to hold both our Torah scrolls. Anyone can donate conveniently through Smart Giving… Just go to https://smartgiving.org.uk/ event/friends-of-jewishservicemen-?preview=1. Hopefully they will soon give us an easier link to use! More Kosher Ratpacks As we go to press Padre Reuben Livingstone will just have returned from a month long deployment to Suffield in Canada with 1 YORKS. H The scroll was originally part of a collection presented to Czar Nicholas II by a Russian Jewish community and it is unlikely to have been used for many years. The parchment itself is little over 12 inches high and will enable our chaplains to use it on their travels around our dispersed communities. Rabbi Reuben Livingstone, Jewish chaplain to HM Forces, who sourced the scroll and arranged its refurbishment, said: “I am delighted that we now have this beautiful Sefer 9 November Remembran ce Shabbat S er v ice R ichmond Sy nagogue 10 Novembe r Remembran ce Sunday 11 Novembe r A rmistice D ay 15 Novembe r A JE X Shabb at Ser v ice St John’s W ood Sy nagogu e MENORAH | 28 16 Novembe r A JE X Natio nal Remembran ce Ser v ice & Parade W hitehal l 2015 9-11 January A rmed Forc es Jew ish Weekend A m port Hou 5 March Purim 4-11 April Passover se © Rhonda Roth / shutterstock DIaRY DATES 2014 e probably needed the exercise as his previous task was to oversee, and no doubt test, the production of 30,000 kosher operational ration packs. He said: “Remarkably, over the last three years we have munched our way through many, many thousands of these. Apparently the Halal eaters also rather like them. Lots of taste tweaks and excellent lean quality Gilbert’s meat, which is certified as Halal as well as Kosher, will make these the best ever - and top of the line in Ratpack terms! Anyway, the guy on the right of the photo in the ridiculous face-rig is the shomer.” We are incredibly fortunate to have MOD funding and support for Kosher ORP’s. The over runs can be absorbed into the wider system and kosher is also Halal for Muslims (the fairly anonymous ‘K’ designation is rather helpful in contrast to Halal meals which have a specific religious logo). Padre Reuben continued: “It is absolutely essential to indent for these using the NSN number and not to take no for an answer. If we don’t use a bulk of the ORP’s ourselves then this massive amenity may not be extended to us! There will be a significant number of these (around 3,000) depoted at Bicester and available through the system for anyone who asks.” You can demand kosher ORPs through your unit. Make sure your QM is aware of the NSN number 8970-99-190-6873. A Jewish serviceman of two world wars remembered W hile Joe Silver, the membership officer of the Friends of Jewish Servicemen and Women was researching his family history, especially the military connections, he realised that his late uncle, Jacob Silverberg, his father’s brother, was buried in Failsworth Jewish Cemetery in Manchester but had no headstone. Jacob Silverberg’s service was unusual. He joined the Royal Lancaster Regiment in July 1916 and two months later he was fighting in Arras and Ypres where he was wounded and evacuated back home. On recovery he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps, to become the RAF, and served on London Defences until he was demobilised in 1919. He rejoined the RAF in WWII and spent four years in the UK and South Africa. Joe felt his memory had to be recorded and a headstone was commissioned and unveiled during Armed Forces Week in the presence of Col Martin Newman, in his capacity as Deputy Lieutenant of Greater Manchester, Wing Commander Roy Catterall DL of the RAF, Captain Andy Holsgrove of the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment, representatives of AJEX and their standards and members of the Silver family who travelled from all over the UK and from overseas. The service was conducted by Rabbi Yanky Prijs of The Meade Hill Synagogue , the Last Post was sounded by a synagogue member and Col Newman recited Kaddish on behalf of the family. Joe said: “It was right and proper that Jacob’s memory is perpetuated and I would like to thank everyone involved for making the moving ceremony possible.” MENORAH | 29 Ray Park • Boiler • Repairs • Installations • Gas • Electrical • Plumbing To advertise in the next issue of this publication, Mobile: 07944 028416 07960 044185 Home: 020 8381 4384 Apple Cinnamon Cake please contact Tammie Tel: 01536 526667 From allrecipes.com By Lisa Chernin Newman Email: [email protected] As you all know, it’s traditional to eat sweet treats for the Jewish New Year in order to insure that you enjoy a sweet year. This recipe for a rich apple cinnamon cake has been making the rounds on Facebook just in time for Rosh Hashanah and will guarantee your year gets off to a sweet start. To make it parve rather than dairy, simply substitute margarine for the butter and soy or almond milk for the dairy milk. It’s perfect for Rosh Hashanah, but a slice would be lovely with a nice cup of tea or coffee at any time of the year. Think Print Lance Print is an established printers based in Huntingdon near Cambridge. At Lance we combine skill, experience & knowledge to provide a complete professional service. We aim to fill our clients with confidence in the knowledge that any work undertaken by us, will be completed to the highest possible standard. Call Today: (01480) 492183 ts cked) n sugar (not pa ow br p 1/3 cu on ound cinnam 1 teaspoon gr e sugar 2/3 cup whit , softened 1/2 cup butter 2 eggs act s vanilla extr 1 1/2 teaspoon r l-purpose flou 1 1/2 cups al der s baking pow 1 3/4 teaspoon 1/2 cup milk and chopped 1 apple, peeled Ingredien www.lanceprint.co.uk it’s all about the Charities we support! ALL ABOARD’s achievements are unique. We raise the money without buying in any merchandise, by collecting directly from donors, and without trading on Saturdays or Jewish Holidays – quite unusual in the world of retailing! It is YOU our Jewish Community donors, whose generosity in donating your goods keeps us motivated to do more. It was YOU who helped these charities by opening your wardrobes and cupboards, but again uniquely, not your wallets. We aim to generate the most money we possibly can from your no-longer loved, required or wanted items. And even better, we have now signed up over an amazing 10,000 Gift Aid donors, enabling us to claim money from the HMRC on the sale of these donors’ goods. If you would like to become involved at ALL ABOARD – by donating your personal or company’s goods, by volunteering at one of the shops or at Head Office, or if you would simply like to be kept informed of our progress, you can contact us via the website, email or by phone. We are proud to be a service “for the Community, by the Community, in the Community”, says Carol Marks, the organisation’s chief executive, who commends her volunteers, staff and Trustees for their hard work, dedication, loyalty, commitment and innovation as well as thanking the donors and customers for the part they all play in this communal endeavour. ALL ABOARD SHOPS LIMITED www.allaboardshops.com [email protected] 0208 381 1717 our a 9 x rease and fl G s. wl e re g e Cd her in a bo 350 F / 175 amon toget to n n n e g ci v n o d si n u at a l e r bow 1. Preh n suga gether in a to . Mix brow r e, n e a m tt p u ti f b a a d lo at gar an ggs, 1 5-inch y. Beat in e eat white su B m a e. e d cr si a d t n and se l smooth a mixer unti er bowl; stir la extract. an electric d; add vanil her in anoth te et g ra o to r rp e d co w l smooth. g po until in batter unti r and bakin to u o in fl e k e il in m b ix add half th re. M 2. Com tter mixtu f pan. Next u a b lo d e d at m re p a a y e p ightl into cr the pre mixture. L e batter into r cinnamon a g su Pour half th n w g half the bro h remainin apples and yer; top wit into batter. la re le at p p tu p y a ix tl r m e h . Lig apple batter ov on mixture g remaining ar/cinnam g apples usin su h n 3. Pour the g w u ro ro b th re re o m tu d ix ad rm apples and rown suga ter; swirl b at b to in s apple rted in the on. othpick inse o to sp a r l o ti r n e g u a fin ed oven 0 minutes. the preheat an, 30 to 4 e cl t 4. Bake in u o s e e loaf com centre of th tion Prepara © mythja, Digivic, RTimages / shutterstock In 2013, ALL ABOARD raised funds for more than 50 charitable causes, each of whom were desperate for the financial help, following government funding cuts and difficult financial times for many of their staunch supporters. We were able to do this by turning unwanted items into money and we intend to go from strength to strength in the coming years. Wishing you all a delicious New Year! MENORAH | 31 The Liberation of The British army torch the huts of Bergen-Belsen following the liberation Bergen-Belsen was originally a prisoner of war camp, established in a huge military complex in the North of Germany. In 1943 part of the camp was taken over by the Nazi SS to become a ‘holding camp’, intended for Jews who could be exchanged for German civilians held by enemy powers. P risoners suitable for exchange were usually citizens of an Allied country or had emigration papers from the British authorities in Palestine. Living conditions were initially better than at other concentration camps, and prisoners were allowed personal belongings and to wear their own clothes. However, only 2560 Jewish prisoners were released from Bergen-Belsen prior MENORAH | 32 to the liberation. By March 1944, the camp had expanded to house male prisoners no longer able to work to recuperate before being sent back to other camps to work as forced labourers. Thousands of them died at Bergen-Belsen of disease, starvation and exhaustion. From August 1944, a woman’s camp was created. Those who could work were quickly moved on to other slave labour camps, but many remained including Anne Frank and her sister Margot who died in March 1945. The SS began to move prisoners from the front lines during 1944. From December 1944, over 85,000 adults and children were brought to Bergen-Belsen by transport in cattle cars or on death marches which could last for weeks. The camp became increasingly over-crowded, there was little or no food and epidemics began to break out among prisoners A British soldier talks to an emaciated prisoner. The prisoner, Louis Bonerguer, was also British and had been dropped by parachute to work in German occupied territory in 1941. After his capture, he was interned at Belsen. with no attempt at medical help from the SS. As late as April 1945, thousands more prisoners were brought to the camps and at the time of the © Ronald Wilfred Jansen, Patricia Hofmeester, Yakovlev Sergey/ shutterstock BergenBelsen liberation there were at least 53,000 people housed there. British troops entered Bergen-Belsen on 15th April 1945. They found over 13,000 unburied bodies and many more severely ill and starving inmates. Richard Dimbleby accompanied the liberating forces, and his comments were broadcast on the BBC: ‘Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people... Norman and Gena Turgel Gena’s wedding dress was made of British parachutes. The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them ... This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.’ Harold Burgh, a British Jewish soldier, was only 21 when he entered BergenBelsen in 1945. As the seventy year anniversary of the liberation of the camp approaches, he still remembers the stench of bodies awaiting burial that pervaded the surrounding countryside. He saw local German men and women brought in to move the piles of corpses, while pleading that they had no idea of what had happened so close to their homes. Burgh remembers hundreds of people dying from food brought by the liberating army. Fresh bread and meat was too much for already starving people, left without food and water for days due to the Allied advance. At the end of each day all of the British soldiers stripped and were sprayed with pesticides, then given fresh uniforms. This was to prevent the spread of typhus, which was rampant in Reverend Isaac Levy’s dress uniform, on the camp display in the Jewish and claimed Military Museum the lives of many prisoners and some of the medical staff who came to help them. Over 14,000 of the liberated prisoners had died by June 1945. Two Jewish Chaplains were crucial to the liberation of the camp, Reverend Isaac Levy and Reverend Leslie Hardman. They worked tirelessly, bringing hope to survivors, holding services and undertaking mass funerals in cooperation with the Royal Engineers who used bulldozers to bury the bodies. Reverend Levy had previously been serving in the Middle East, where he was captured by the Afrika Corps. At Bergen-Belsen he worked tirelessly with the former prisoners, speaking of their incredulous reaction on seeing the Star of David on the cap of an army officer. One of the first liberators at the camp was Sergeant Rev Leslie Hardman CF, Senior Jewish Chaplain 2nd Army was present at the liberation Norman Turgel. He was shown around the hospital by Gena, a survivor of Polish ghettos who came to Belsen via Buchenwald. Six months later, the two were married by the Reverend Hardman who described the wedding as ‘a symbol of hope after so much death’. Roz Currie Curator at the Jewish Military Museum MENORAH | 33 Meade Hill Synagogue in Manchester hosted a special Shabbat service attended by serving and AJEX members. The Chief Rabbi’s Prayer for our Armed Forces was recited throughout the country. Col Martin Newman said: “Armed Forces Day is an opportunity for the whole Service family, from veterans, serving regular and volunteer personnel, members of the Jewish members of HM Forces took part in Armed Forces Day celebrations throughout the UK. T he main Jewish event, organised by AJEX, was held at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire where the reviewing officer was Lt Col Simon Soskin, Brigade Major of the Household Division. Wreaths were laid on behalf of AJEX by Jeffrey Fox, the AJEX National Chairman and Brian Bloom, Lt Col Soskin along with some Normandy veterans and by Col Martin Newman for the Armed Forces cadet forces, their friends, supporters and families, to join forces while the country pays tribute to the work and sacrifices made by those men and women who have served, are serving or who will serve in the future. “I would like to express my thanks to AJEX for taking the lead in so many of these events. It is always a delight to march alongside our veterans.” Stephanie and Stuart Ronson wish you a safe, speedy return to your native land Tel: 01923 850100 Email: [email protected] AJEX is here for them, for you and for the future… • AJEX Remembrance • Jewish Community. Two moving ceremonies were held, first at the AJEX Memorial and then at the Normandy Veterans’ site. Jeffrey Fox welcomed the participants and guests, which included local school and college students, and said how pleased he was to have such a senior Jewish officer in such a high profile post taking the salute. On Armed Forces Shabbat – Armed Forces Day itself – members of the community in uniform attended morning services at their local synagogues. In London Padre Reuben Livingstone and AFJC secretary, Brian Bloom led the now traditional walk about visiting synagogues in North West London. The A JE X in the you to jo Invites ranch, B s Force Armed urrent ng of c consisti rs. membe Jewish for e serving c ffi Head O ll a c e s Plea on. formati more in For the sacrifices of the past and the present • AJEX Welfare • Offers help to ex-servicemen and women and their dependents in need • AJEX Education • Wide reaching programmes in conjunction with our Jewish Military Museum The wreath party at the Normany Veterans’ Memorial EST. SINCE 1960 Solomon Levy FRICS Estate Agents • Property Consultants • Valuers & Auctioneers www.gibestateagents.com [email protected] “The longest established Estate Agent practising in Gibraltar” Whether looking to buy, sell or rent property in Gibraltar or Southern Spain, with over fifty years experience, at Solomon Levy FRICS we are here to help you in whatever way possible. Sole Director, S. Levy MBE EDJP Lt Col Soskin, the Reviewing officer MENORAH | 34 Wishing all the Ajex readers a Happy & Kosher Passover 3 Convent Place, Gibraltar • Phone: (+350) 20077789 or (+350) 20042818 AJEX Head Office and Jewish Military Museum Shield House, Harmony Way, London, NW4 2BZ Head Office Tel: 020 8202 2323 Museum Tel: 020 8201 5656 Email: [email protected] Visit: www.ajex.org.uk We buy your old Jewish and Zionist books, Manuscripts, Letters, Silverware etc.
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