Nurturing Talented But Troubled Children and Youth Ken W. McCluskey and Don ald J. Treffinger The authors draw on extensive careers working with gifted and at-risk youth to identify the needs of this pop ulation. High-risk gifted students often become dropouts in spite of their great talents. The article identifies practical strategies for reclaiming these "lost prizes. " I . .' "• t is often assumed that children or youth with special talents "have it made." Certainly, in his pioneering longitudinal work, Terman demonstrated that many high-ability young people do become successful, produc tive adults (Terman, 1925; Terman & Oden, 1947, 1959). It is not surprising, then, that educators have often voiced the feeling that it is a waste of time and effort to devote special attention or programming to those who have tremendous natural advantages and who, supposedly, can make it on their own. However, this type of laissez-faire attitude might better be d escribed as "lazy-unfair" (McCluskey & Walker, 1986, p. 4). Talents do not appear magically and grow of their own accord; they must be rec ognized, nurtured, and developed. A young plant will wither and die if left unattended, and a human limb will atrophy and be-come useless if kept immobile. A talented golfer must continually hone and fine-tune his or her skills; a premier ballerina will not remain premier for very long if she stops practicing and extending her expertise. And misdirected talent can be dangerous; how many unsolved crimes are committed by extremely bright peo ple (who make it on their own all right, but not precisely in a desirable fashion)? Thus, we propose that children and youth who manifest early indications of talent (in per formance or potential) should be challenged and stimulat ed to help them grow into creatively productive adults. . .. .'. Talented Individuals Have Problems, Too Researchers in gifted education have long been concerned about the plight of talented children whose needs are not met. Terman himself found that a certain proportion of high-ability individuals were far from making their mark in the world; some even developed emotional problems and ended up as outcasts or criminals (Terman & Oden, 1947). Carlson (1947) believed that a large number of bright children grow up to become emotionally immature, pp. 2 1 5-2 1 9 , 226 .... RECLAIMING CHILDREN AND YOUTH ineffectual, and useless members of society. Strang (1951) suggested that many bright youth fail to develop to their potential because, in an effort to be more like their less able age-mates, they hesitate to use their true abilities. Further more, because some very precocious children have a diffi cult time forming relationships with other youngsters, loneliness has been identified as a potential issue (Kaiser & Berndt, 1985). In other words, talented children and youth do not always have an easy time of it (d. Bur roughs, 1977; Rowlands, 1974). Outstanding ability or tal ent has been called a "doubtful gift" (McCluskey & Walker, 1986, p. 13). Turning Off and Dropping Out Underachievement among high-ability students is a major concern (Gallagher, 1975), for some clearly "tune out" and underperform. Many simply leave the educational system. Despite the common misconception that the bulk of our dropout population represents below-average students, there is a large body of evidence to suggest that academi cally able students, as well as those with considerable tal ent in a variety of specific domains, are at risk as well (e.g., Rimm, 1987). There can be no doubt that we are "losing" some talented students who should not be lost. A survey by Statistics Canada (1991 ) made it abundantly clear that bored, alienated talented students can be very much at risk under certain conditions. It found that many high-risk students who left school had the ability to suc ceed but did not or could not apply themselves. In fact, over 30% of the noncom pIeters were carrying A or B aver ages, and only 8% reported problems with schoolwork as the most important reason for leaving school. Fortune, Bruce, Williams, and Jones (1991) noted that students iden tified the feeling of not belonging as the major reason for quitting school. Many dropouts mentioned their sense of VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4 WINTER 1998 .... 215 truth, troubled, talented students tend to be given short shrift and left out of the mix almost entirely. Imagine the frustration of capable young people whose talents are not recognized. These students are often offered very little encouragement or opportunity to grow, blossom, or use their abilities positively. Turning Things Around Drawing by Daun Pechawis, age 1 8, a student at Won-Ska Cultural School, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Used with permission. neglect or isolation, and several reported that they did not get along with peers or staff. Some schools were perceived as uncaring and restrictive, with inflexible attendance and discipline policies that virtually pushed certain students out the door (Radwanski, 1987). The phenomenon of dropping out is accompanied by a substantial cost, which has been estimated at $71 billion in lost tax revenue, $3 billion in increased costs due to wel fare and unemployment, and $3 billion in costs related to crime (Forbis-Jordan & Lyons, 1992) . Furthermore, the true "cost" of talent delayed or denied is virtually impossible to discern. What is the cost of a symphony unwritten, a cure not discovered, a breakthrough not invented? In today's complex world, and in preparing for tomorrow's certainly more complex one, we can scarcely afford such waste of "talent capital" and human potential. Most educators would admit that school routines, tests, and daily life are designed for, and biased in favor of, stu dents who are well behaved, strong academically, and will ing to work. Unfortunately, at-risk individuals don't quite fit in here. Enrichment programs have typically not accom modated the "tough bright" (Peterson, 1997, p. 121). In 216 .6. RECLAIMING CHILDREN AND YOUTH There are encouraging examples of bright but conflicted individuals who have reversed their tides of misfortune. John Seita (Seita, Mitchell, & Tobin, 1996) and WaIn Brown (1983), both for mer troubled delinquents, tell poignant tales of how they moved from foster homes, correctional facilities, and treatment centers in childhood to productivity and the rarefied atmosphere of acad eme as adults. On a more global scale, the Lost Prizes project made a real difference for many trou bled high-ability youth (McCluskey, Baker, O'Ha gan, & Treffinger, 1995; McCluskey, McCluskey, Baker, & O'Hagan, 1997). In that program, educators identi fied a number of at-risk talented high school dropouts who had been lost to the system. Their talents notwith standing, the young people in question were, in the best cases, floating aimlessly; in the worst cases, they were in serious trouble with the law. In an attempt to reconnect with these at-risk individuals and awake dormant poten tial, staff gave them training for a month in Creative Pro blem Solving (CPS) and other areas. Then, matching the students' interests with workplace opportunities, each stu dent was paired with a mentor in the business community who offered them the opportunity to try out newfound skills in a real-life setting. Students who completed both phases of the program earned two high school credits. Of the 88 at-risk students initially enrolled, 57 (65%) have been successful, where success is measured by returning to and doing well in high school, going on to postsecondary train ing at a university or community college, or obtaining and holding a full-time job. Another project, Second Chance, dealt with an even higher risk population who had fallen further through the cracks. This initiative compared the recidivism rates of two groups of Native Canadian inmates in the provincial jails. Offen ders in the control group received no special prerelease sup port; that is, they were "warehoused" through the prison system in traditional fashion and, at sentences' end, simply released into society to fend for themselves. In contrast, inmates in the experimental group were given intensive support, including counseling, CPS training, career aware ness sessions, and on-the-job experience. The results were powerful: More than 90% of the individuals in the control group reoffended within a year, whereas less than 40% did so in the experimental condition (Place, McCluskey, McClus key, & Treffinger, in press). Reclaiming O ur Present and Future "Lost Prizes" If we are to give at-risk talented students a fighting chance, it is necessary to create a "reclaiming environment" (Brend tro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1990, p. 56) . We present 10 broad proposals for making such efforts successful: � c;; Abandon traditional narrow conceptions of "gift_ edness" in favor of attention to special talent strengths. Many theorists and researchers now agree that "intelli gence" is a broad and varied construct, and that the cur rent state of the art extends well beyond traditional IQ-centered conceptions (Neisser et al., 1996) . In gifted education, there is also a growing trend to move toward more contemporary, multidimensional views of abilities and talents. Gardner (1983) proposed seven different "intelligences," or varied dimensions of human talent and ability. Feldhusen (1995) emphasized the importance of not only responding to the needs of students with exceptional ability or talent in specific areas, but also look ing closely at the strengths and talents of all students. Feldhusen's Talent Identification and Development in Education (TIDE) approach focuses on talent in several domains, including academic-intellectual (science, math, social studies, English, languages); artistic (dance, music, drama, sculpture, photography); vocational-technical (home economics, trade-industrial, agricultural, business office, computers and technology); and interpersonal social (leadership, care-giving, human services). Throughout his analysis, Feldhusen emphasized that students must learn to recognize their own strengths and to become involved in taking ownership for developing those strengths. However, to help young people reach that point, it is critical that someone along the way recognize and respond to their talents. There is a need for educators and other caregivers in a variety of settings to be sensitive, to be on the lookout for sustained interests and strengths, and to be willing and able to respond in ways that help students' develop and apply their talents productively. Treffinger and Feldhusen (1996) referred to "talent devel opment" as the prospective successor to gifted education. They argued that the "use of the term 'gifted' as a specific category or type of child is untenable or indefensible," and that education should focus on "the identification and development of talent in all youth, with appropriate atten tion to varied levels and domains" (p. 184) . �c;; Place more emphasis on talent development than on selecting and labeling students. We propose that it is more important to emphasize instruc tional programming, or efforts to nurture and develop stu dents' strengths, talents, and sustained interests, than it is simply to label and categorize students. Aptitude alone is seldom enough to insure performance at a high level, and placing students in a specific category on the basis of arbi- trary criteria does little to guarantee that instruction will be appropriate and challenging (or that the person will respond to the challenges of translating potential into per formance). Most educators, employers, and coaches can tell tales of students who never moved from potential to productivity, and of others with much more modest natur al aptitudes who built upon motivation, a strong and dis ciplined work ethic, and high levels of energy to become outstanding performers. Our challenge is not simply to identify students, or "sort" them into groups, but to work toward helping all children and youth maximize their tal ents and potentials. �c;; Engage students, teachers, parents, and other community members in "talent spotting." Our third proposal involves moving away from viewing identification as a formal assessment or testing process, driven primarily (or even exclusively) by quantitative data. We suggest instead that identification be a rich, on going process of understanding a student's strengths, needs, and learning characteristics. The purpose of identi fication should not simply be to characterize the student as a certain kind of person with a certain level of ability; we need to begin framing it as a diagnostic process, a way of preparing for the best and most challenging instructional opportunities we can design and offer. Viewed this way, identification is a flexible and ongoing process. Valuable information can be obtained from many people and sources of data, and students themselves should be in volved in taking stock of their own personal strengths and needs. The primary question is not "Is this student gifted or not?" but, rather, "What kinds of teaching and learning activities and experiences (in school or elsewhere) will be most appropriate and challenging for him or her, based on current individual learning profiles?" �c;; Restructure schools, change goals, and attend to the "ecology of learning." Feldhusen (1995), Renzulli (1994), and Treffinger (1995, 1996, in press) have all argued that we need to make schools more accommodating places for talent development, both for students in general and for those with outstanding strengths in many areas. When the school's mission and goals include these challenges, new opportunities will be created for defining and pursuing continuous improvement, quality in education, and innovation. School improvement has too often been viewed primarily as "fixing up" dimen sions of education that are lacking or inadequate (e.g., rais ing subpar test scores to more acceptable levels, or reducing discipline problems). We propose that schools must also establish and pursue with energy a commitment to excel lence and to finding and nurturing the strengths and talents of all students. The vision of talent development as a core educational goal should not be limited to a view that equates educa tion only with what occurs in schools. There are many VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4 WINTER 1998 .... 217 institutions and organizations in a community that con tribute to the education of today's young people. We would do well to consider education as taking place with in an "ecosystem of learning," in which many components contribute to the goals of success and productivity and interact in interdependent ways. In addition to schools and classrooms, education is influenced by what happens in homes; at computers on the Internet; in community workplaces; in churches, museums, and theaters; on ath letic fields; and in correctional facilities, youth homes, and health-care centers. ®<;; Offer a variety of flexible programming options. Our view of educational programming for talent devel opment must move away from reliance on a single, fixed gifted program, and move toward an approach that incor porates a variety of activities and services. Feldhusen (1995) and Renzulli (1994) described, for example, different teaching and learning activities and services that can be used in talent development programming at varying age or grade levels. Treffinger (1986; in press) suggested a levels-of-service approach involving four levels: a variety , of appro-priate services for all students, self-selected opportunities for many students, carefully designed advanced learning opportunities for some students, and extensive programming modifications for a few students. The levels-of-service concept was also incorporated into McCluskey, Treffinger, and Baker 's (1995) Amphitheater Model and extended to consider several important ways to differentiate and assess instruction for all students. Flexible strategies may include innovative time-tabling (Renzulli, 1994), early admission and acceleration (Feld husen, 1992), and curriculum compacting to allow stu dents to move more quickly through subjects and grades (Reis, Bums, & Renzulli, 1992) . Alternative programs, fre quently held off site, address students' social and emo tional needs, as well as challenging them academically . (Hahn, 1987) . E xtracurricular activities can also be used to increase self-concept and sense of belonging. In particular, work experience serves to connect students with the com munity, make curricula more relevant, and develop func tional skills to prepare students for the labor market (Baker, 1991). ®<;; Allow f o r and celebrate diversity in styles. Although learning styles/modality theory has generated many different opinions and findings in the literature, it surely makes sense to recognize that different people learn differently. It would be terribly boring if we were all the same; there is room for many assorted types of teachers and learners in our systems. Narrow-mindness and "group think," where creativity is almost obliterated, result when all group members think alike-we should be actively searching for others whose points of view may be radical ly different from our own. And we should be sure to seek out and nurture the talents of our oft-neglected at-risk 218 .. RECLAIMING CHILDREN AND YOUTH populations. Seeking a better match between teaching and learning styles (with material selected to recognize stu dents' diverse needs) is one means of meeting the needs of talented students (Dunn, Dunn, & Treffinger, 1992) . (j <;; Hang in there patiently. Serious problems do not arise overnight, so it cannot be expected that they will be solved magically by one-shot cure-aIls. Too often, with the best will in the world, short term solutions are offered enthusiastically by educators and caregivers. When a troubled /troubling student does not respond immediately, there is a tendency to become resentful, to react, and often to abandon the attempt and the individual. It is much more helpful, from the outset, to take a long-haul approach. Caring and helping take time, and this is doubly true when working with young people who have long been disillusioned, disenchanted, and dis connected. In short, superficial quick fixes have very little chance of working with seriously at-risk children and teens-we must be prepared to hang in there for the duration. What's nega tive in childhood can become positive in adulthood: It's a small step from daydreaming to philosophical thinking, from stubbornness to determination, and from overactive, disruptive behavior to productive energy (McCluskey & McCluskey, 1996). Given the time, guidance, and support, high-ability troubled young people will mature, evolve, and learn to channel their talents productively. ®<;; Provide special skills training to address issues. Several generic programs for at-risk students focus on con flict resolution, anger management, and the like. One exam ple, the Skills Training and Achieving Resilient Students (STARS) program, offers units on learning about anger, getting along with others, respect, self-awareness, and drugs and alcohol (Stewart, in press). For more in-depth work with behaviorally disruptive/ emotionally fragile chil dren and youth, Life Space Intervention (LSI)-which views conflict as an opportunity for problem solving rather than a crisis-has proven extremely effective (Wood & Long, 1991). Creative Problem Solving (Isaksen, Dorval, & Treffinger, 1994; Treffinger, Isaksen, & Dorval, 1 994) and other strategies for productive thinking are also imp ortant com ponents of any contemporary programming for talent development. Students who know and can apply a variety of structured tools and methods for creative and critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making can become more effective in dealing with opportunities, chal lenges, and concerns they encounter, both in academic set tings and in their lives away from school. The impact of productive thinking tools on at-risk populations and the value of combining approaches have been described else where (d. McCluskey, Baker et al., 1995). ®I;i Rememb er the power of kindness and altruism. In today's rush-to-get-ahead world, the therapeutic power of kindness is sometimes forgotten (Long, 1997). How often in our quest to teach talented troubled children and youth about the "real world" do we draw lines in the sand and inexorably push them over? And how often, in our pursuit of material success and the bottom line, do we neglect to provide the most important ingredient of all good old-fashioned tender, loving care? If we hope to help nurture their talents, we must take the time to work sensi tively and altruistically with troubled students, no matter how difficult it may be. Furthermore, because valuable lessons can be learned from behaving compassionately and altruistically, we must provide opportunities for at-risk stu dents to help others (Curwin, 1992). � @I;i Build long-term, mutually supportive, men toring relationships. In the late 19th century, Grey Owl made a statement to the following effect: "A mentor is a person whose hindsight can become your foresight" (and goodness knows, several 'troubled children and teens of our acquaintance could benefit from learning something about foresight). Many researchers have stressed the importance of establishing informal or formal mentoring relationships to acknowl edge and develop the talents of children and youth, includ ing those at risk (d. Noller & Frey, 1994) . Philanthropic mentors in the education, business, and social service com munities can make a tremendous contribution by bonding with, guiding, and encouraging needy young people. In closing, we must take care not to turn our backs on the talents of at-risk troubled /troubling youth. Perhaps more than any other group, this population needs support, nur turing, and opportunity. Indeed, as noted by practitioners in one treatment facility (Laferriere, Bastable, & McClus key, in press), rather than discarding them, it is about time to begin "polishing our bad apples." Ken McCluskey, PhD, is director of special programs with Lord Selkirk School Division, Manitoba, and has well over 20 years ' experience as a school psychologist and administrator. In 1 996 he received the "Spotlight on Excellence Award" from Reclaim ing Children and Youth, and he is also recipient of the Canadian Council for Exceptional Children 's "Joan Kershaw Publications Award" for his work with talented at-risk youth. Donald J. Treffinger, PhD, is president of the Center for (:rea tive Learning, Inc., in Sarasota, Florida, and professor emeritus of Creative Studies at Buffalo State University College. Dr. Treffinger taught previously at the University of Kansas, at Purdue University, and in the public schools. The first author can be contacted at: Lord Selkirk School Division, Human Re source Centre, 2 1 1 Main St., Selkirk, MB, RIA lR7, Canada (Phone: 204/ 785-8224; Fax: 204/ 482-3033 e-mail: [email protected]). REFERENCES Baker, R. (1991). Meeting the school dropout phenomenon: School policies and prevention program strategies. The High School Journal, 74(4}, 203-210. Brendtro, 1. K, Brokenleg, M., & Van Bockern, S. (1990). Reclaiming youth at risk: Our hope for the future. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Brown, W (1983). The other side of delinquency. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Burroughs, M. C. (1977). Restraints on excellence: Our waste of gifted children. Hingham, MA: Teaching Resources. Carlson, E. E (1947). Problen;ls in educating the highly endowed. Journal of Exceptional Children, 13, 201-204. Curwin, R 1. (1992). Rediscovering hope: Our greatest teaching strategy. Bloom ington, IN: National Educational Service. Dunn, R, Dunn, K., & Treffinger, D. J. (1992) . Bringing out the giftedness in your child. New York: Wiley. Feldhusen, J. E (1992, March/April). Early admission and grade advancement for young gifted learners. Gifted Child Today, pp. 45-49. Feldhusen, J. E (1995). Talent identification and development in education (2nd ed.). Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning. Forbis-Jordan, K, & Lyons, S. (1992). Financing public education in an era of change. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation. Fortune, J., Bruce, A., Williams, J., & Jones, M. (1991). What does the evaluation of your dropout prevention program show about its success? Maybe not enough. The Hig� School Journal, 74, 225-23l . Gallagher, J . J. (1975) . Teaching the gifted child. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books. Hahn, A. (1987). Reaching out to America's dropouts: What to do? Phi Delta Kappan, 69, 256-263. Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (1994). Creative approaches to prob lem solving. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Kaiser, C. E, & Berndt, D. J. (1985). Predictors of loneliness in the gifted adoles cent. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 74-77. Laferriere, S., Bastable, R G., & McCluskey, K W. (in press). Polishing bad apples: A full-circle approach to reclaiming at-risk children and youth. Winnipeg, MB: Associates for Creative Education. Long, N. J. (1997). The therapeutic power of kindness. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 5, 242-246. McCluskey, K W, Baker, P. A., O'Hagan, S. c., & '['reffinger, D. J. (Eds.). (1995). Lost prizes: Talent development and problem solving with at-risk populations. Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning. McCluskey, K W, & McCluskey, A. 1. A. (1996). Butterfly kisses: Amber's journey through hyperactivity. Queenston, ON: Marvin Melnyk Associates. McCluskey, K W., McCluskey, A. 1. A., Baker, P. A., & O'Hagan, S. C. (1997). Reclaiming lost prizes. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 5, 235-238. McCluskey, K W, Treffinger, D. J., & Baker, P. A. (1995). Talent recognition and development: Challenges for schools of tomorrow. Illinois Association for Gifted Journal/Portfolio, Article 10, 1-5. McCluskey, K W., & Walker, K D. (1986). The doubtful gift: Strategies for educat ing gifted children in the regular classroom. Kingston, ON: Ronald P. Frye & Company. Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, 5., Halpern, D., I.,oehlin, J., Perloff, R, Sternberg, R., & Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51 (2), 77-101. Noller, R. B., & Frey, B. R (1994). Mentoring: An annotated bibliography (1 982-1 992). Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning. Peterson, J. C. (1997). Bright, tough, and resilient-and not in a gifted program. The Journal for Secondary Gifted Education, 8(3}, 121-136. Place, D. J., McCluskey, A. 1. A., McCluskey, K W., & Treffinger, D. J. (in press). The Second Chance Project: Creative approaches to developing the talents of at-risk native inmates. Journal of Creative Behavior. Radwanski, G. (1987). Ontario study of the relevance of education and the issue of dropouts. Toronto, Canada: Ministry of Education. Reis, S. M., Bums, D. E., & Renzulli, J. S. (1992). Curriculum compacting: The com plete guide to modifying the regular curriculum for high ability students. Mans field Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Renzulli, J. S. (1994). Schools for talent development: A practical plan for total school improvement. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Rimm, S. (1987). Underachievement syndrome: Causes and cures. Watertown, WI: Apple. Rowlands, P. (1974). Gifted children and tl1eir problems. London: J.M. Dent and Sons: Seita, J., Mitchell, M., & Tobin, C. (1996). In whose best interest? One child's odyssey, a nation's responsibility. Elizabethtown, PA: Continental Press. ("Nurturing Talented But Troubled Children and Youth " continues on p. 226) VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4 WINTER 1998 .... 219 They already feel different and isolated from their peers. Once they are given information about their skills and potential, they better understand why they feel isolated and can often be assisted in developing coping mechanisms to deal with situations where they feel they don't fit comfort ably with peers. Gifted children have both a need to be dif ferent and a need to be accepted. They need outlets for their different ways of thinking and functioning, yet they fear isolation and loneliness. Jason's emotional and behavioral problems, if they contin ue, can further limit his development because he may miss important classroom instruction. In addition, he will sure ly miss out on opportunities to develop teamwork and leadership skills. Postscript This evaluation and feedback took place in the fourth quarter of the 1996-1997 school year. It was agreed that counseling would be postponed until summer vacation, when the grandparents could bring Jason to the city for counseling sessions. During a recent follow-up phone call between Jason's grandmother and the therapist, it was agreed that counsel ing could be postponed indefinitely because Jason is doing very well. He has been accepted into the gifted program for the fall semester (after the school personnel performed their own testing to make the identification), he is participating in a summer reading program, and he is attending summer enrichment classes in science and computer sciences, which his grandmother said, "he loves." His maternal grandfather is also making a point to spend more time with Jason, teach ing him about tools and home repairs. Behavior problems at school diminished significantly during the last few months of the school year, following a school-wide emphasis on reducing fighting and conflicts. Family stress is subsiding. Jason's stepfather is recovering and responding well to treatment for the tumor in his leg, and he has resumed full-time work. The family has just moved to a neighborhood where there are children with ("Nurturing Talented But Troubled Children and Youth " continued from p. 219) Statistics Canada. (1991). School leavers survey. Ottawa, ON: Employment and Immigration Canada. Stewart, J. (in press). STARS (Skills Training and Achieving Resilient Students). Toronto: Guidance Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Strang, R (1951). Mental hygiene of gifted children. In P. Witty (Ed.), The gifted child. Boston: D.C. Heath. Terman, 1. M. (1925). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. 1. Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Terman, 1. M., & aden, M. H. (1947). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. IV. The gifted child grows up. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Terman, 1. M., & aden, M. H. (1959). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. V. The gifted group at midlife. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 226 ... RECLAIMING CHILDREN AND YOUTH whom Jason can play. He has a computer to work on at home. Jason has also been able to have visits with his father, who has returned home, and he has regular contact with his father 's extended family. His maternal grandpar ents say he is like a different child-much happier and excited about learning. His parents and grandparents feel that the evaluation and identification process resulted in people perceiving Jason in a different and more positive light. He in turn is responding to their new perceptions with a better attitude and more appropriate behavior. Caryln L. Saunders, PhD, is director of the Communication Skills Center in Kansas City, Missouri, and is a licensed psycholo gist and counselor. She has worked extensively with underachiev ing adolescents and has a special interest in counseling for talent ed and gifted students. She can be contacted at: Communication Skills Center, 7611 State Line Road, Suite 140, Kansas City, MO 64114. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Burks, H. F. (1977). Burks' behavior rating scales. Los Angeles: Western Psych ological Services. Colangelo, N., & Zaffrann, R T. (1979). New voices in counseling the gifted. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Conners, C. K. (1989a). Conners' parent rating scales (CPRS-93). North Tona wanda, NY: MultiHealth Systems, Inc. Conners, C. K. (1989b). Conners' teacher rating scales (CTRS-28). North Tona wanda, NY: MultiHealth Systems, Inc. Ford, M. A. (1989). Students' perceptions of affective issues impacting the social emotional development and school performance of gifted/ talented young sters. Roeper Review, 11, 131-134. Geroski, A. M., Rogers, K. S., & Breen, D. T. (1997). Using the DSM-IV to enhance collaboration among school counselors, clinical counselors, and primary care physicians. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75, 231-239. Kline, B. E., & Short, E. B. (1991). Changes in emotional resilience: Gifted ado lescent boys. Roeper Review, 13, 184-187. Rimm, S. (1986). Underachievement syndromes: Causes and cures. Watertown, WI: Apple Publishing. Supplee, P. 1. (1989). Students at risk: The gifted underachiever. Roeper Review, 11, 163--1 66. Tidwell, R, & Garrett, S. C. (1994) . Youth at risk: In search of a definition. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 444-445. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Third edition (WISC-III). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp. Whitmore, J. R (1980). Giftedness, conflict and underachievement. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). Wide range achievement test-1993 edition (WRAT-3). Wilmington, DE: Wide Range, Inc. Treffinger, D. J. (1986). Blending gifted education with the total school program. Buffalo, NY: OaK. Treffinger, D. J. (1995). School improvement, talent development, and creativi ty. Roeper Review, 18(2), 93-97. Treffinger, D. J. (1996). Using creative problem solving in school improvement. Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning. Treffinger, D. J. (in press). From gifted education to programming for talent development. Phi Delta Kappan. Treffinger, D. J., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1996). Talent recognition and development: Successor to gifted education. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19(2), 181-193. Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., & Dorval, K. B. (1994) . Creative problem solving: An introduction (2nd ed.). Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning. Wood, M. M., & Long, N. J. (1991). Life space intervention: Talking with children and youth in crisis. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
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