Prepaid Energy Meter Report

Energy Meter ”
Bachelor of Engineering
( Electronics Engineering )
Submitted by
Mr. Shrikar Umarji,
Mr. Bharat Kumar
Mr. Ayush Tiwari
Under the guidance of
Prof. S. M. Labde
Department of Electronics Engineering
Dr. D. Y. Patil Group’s
Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology
Nerul, Navi Mumbai – 400706
(University of Mumbai)
OCT– 2010
Energy Meter”
Bachelor of Engineering
( Electronics Engineering )
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of University of Mumbai
For the Degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
( Electronics Engineering )
Mr. Shrikar Umarji ,
Mr. Bharat Kumar
Mr. Ayush Tiwari
Under the guidance of
Prof. S. M. Labde
Department of Electronics Engineering
Dr. D. Y. Patil Group’s
Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology
Nerul, Navi Mumbai – 400706
(University of Mumbai)
OCT – 2010
This is to certify that
Mr. Shrikar Umarji
Mr. Bharat Kumar
Mr.Ayush Tiwari
has satisfactorily completed the requirements of the PROJECT ‘A’ entitled
“Prepaid Energy Meter”
as prescribed by the University of Mumbai Under the guidance of
Prof. S. M. Labde
Project Guide
: 1.
Project Coordinator
Head of the Dept.
Prof. S. J. PETKAR
Prof. M. D. PATIL
Company/organization letterhead
This is to certify that the report titled
“…PROJECT ‘A’….title……”
records the bonafide work carried out by
Mr./Ms. ……name1……,
Mr./Ms. ……name2……
Mr./Ms. ……name3……
the students of Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology, Nerul , NaviMumbai, of Electronics Engg. Department has successfully completed
project in our organization under my guidance and supervision.
Signature of the External
List of figure with page number
Literature survey
Study and analysis
Proposed Work
Proposed Methodology
System Requirements
Working Principle
Market Drivers
Market Restraints
We owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported us during
the writing of this report
Our deepest thanks to Prof M Labde the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting
various documents of ours with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the
project and make necessary correction as and when needed.
We express our gratitude to our head of the Department Prof. M. D. Patil for his
invaluable support and encouragement at every stage.
Our deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Rakesh Verma (Director), Veritek Engineering Pvt.
Ltd, support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people at Veritek
Engineering Pvt. Ltd., for their support.
We also express our thanks to the Principal Dr.S.R. Devane, Ramrao Adik Institute of
Technology, Nerul, for his constant support and encouragement.
We would also thank our Institution and the faculty members without whom this project
would have been a distant reality
A scheme of Electricity billing system called PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH
TARIFF INDICATOR can facilitate in improved cash flow management in energy
utilities and can reduces problem associated with billing consumer living in isolated area
and reduces deployment of manpower for taking meter readings.
Every consumer can buy a memory card (is nothing but an EEPROM IC) with a
password stored inside it using a MC program. The memory card is available at various
ranges (i.e. Rs 50, Rs 100, Rs 200 etc).In our project we have given the name for memory
card as smart card.
When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected in prepaid
energy meter with tariff indicator kit. The card reader will read the stored information
and delete the information from the EEPROM IC(smart card) using the MC program. So
that the smart card cannot be reused by others. Suppose if a consumer buys a card for
Rs.50/- so on. He / She can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid
energy meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated. According to the power
consumption the amount will be reduced. When the amount is over, the relays will
automatically shutdown the whole system. In our project we also have a provision to give
an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced.
List of Figures:
Page no.
Fig (3.1.1) Block Diagram of Prepaid Energy Meter
Fig (3.1.2) Circuit Diagram of Prepaid energy meter
Fig ( LCD Display
Fig ( LDR
Fig ( Voltage Regulator
Fig ( Power Relays
1.1 Literature Survey:
Over 40 countries have implemented prepaid meters in their markets. In United Kingdom
the system, has been in use for well over 70 years with about 3.5 million consumers. The
prepaid program in South Africa was started in 1992, since then they have installed over
6 million meters. Other African counties such as Sudan, Madagascar are following the
South African success. The concept has found ground in Argentina and New Zealand
with few thousands of installations.
The Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd (SESB), Malaysia, has awarded a contract to a local
manufacturer to supply 1,080 prepaid meters.
Countries such as Thailand, Bangladesh, Singapore, and Iran have been showing
increased interest in adopting prepaid system.
In India, the State of West Bengal has decided to introduce the smart card operated
prepaid energy meters in remote islands of Sunderbans. In Mumbai, pre-paid power is
provided by the Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport (BEST) Undertaking.
Tata Power plans to introduce pre-paid electricity in Delhi. Tata Steel is likely to install
prepaid electricity meters at its employee township in Jamshedpur.
1.2 Study and Analysis:
Over the last few years, Prepaid Energy Meter has been proposed as an innovative
solution aimed at facilitating affordability and reducing the cost of utilities. This
mechanism, essentially, requires the users to pay for the electricity before its
consumption. In this way, consumers hold credit and then use the electricity until the
credit is exhausted. If the available credit is exhausted then the supply of electricity is cut
off by a relay.
But their use is still controversial. On the one hand, those that support the diffusion of
prepaid meters claim that they benefit both consumers and utilities because they help
users to consume more efficiently and to improve the management of their budget, while
allowing firms to reduce financial costs, as well as the costs of operation and bad debts.
On the other hand, those that are against prepaid meters argue that their adoption is
expensive for firms and risky for low income consumers, as the insecurity and volatility
of their income may force them to make little use of the service, or ultimately, bring
about involuntary self-disconnection.
Prepaid meters are usually installed by electricity supplier, if it feels that the customer
cannot keep up payments on their energy bill. However, they can also be requested by the
customer themselves - and are often seen as a good method of budgeting. Generally
speaking they are used by lower income households, such as people on welfare benefits,
lone parents or those with no bank account.
From a technological point of view, the prepayment system consists of three well
differentiated components. The first is a service meter installed at the unit where energy
will be consumed, such as a household dwelling or a store. In general, these meters are of
the “two-gang” type, and consist of a user’s interface unit and a current measuring set.
The interface unit is a device installed inside the building, which allows the user to
“interact” with the meter. The metering unit, on the other hand, is the intelligent
component that stores credit and consumption information, and makes up the element
that either clears or switches off electricity supply. The second component of the system
is the so-called credit dispensing unit, which is the vending machine where consumers
can purchase electricity credit. In general, these sales outlets are located at the utility’s
commercial offices, as well as in stores with long opening hours. The third component is
the supporting device that links the various sales outlets to the utility’s management
2. Proposal
2.1 Proposed work:
At first an energy meter is to be made. The output of the energy meter works as the
input to the next circuit for prepaid services. The prepaid circuit consist of a
Microcontroller and a memory reading circuit.The memory reading circuit is for putting
in the credit.
The microcontroller will act as the brain of the circuit.It will constantly check the credit
and accordingly provie the power
2.2 Proposed Methodology:
At first we will get a PCB layout f the whole circuit and the layout will be etched
on to the PCB.We will be using the Proteus software to create the layout.
Once the PCB is etched we will mount the components checking regularly for the
Once all components are mounted correctly we will test the circuit.
2.3 System Requirement:
The system requirements are
2.3.1 Components Used: Hardware Used:
1. Microcontroller AT89S52
2. Energy Metering IC AD7752
4. Voltage Regulator
5. Relays
6. LDR
7. LCD display
8. Relay Driver IC ULN2003
Microcontroller AT89S52:
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K
bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the
industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.
1) 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
2) Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
3) 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
4) 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
5) 32 Programmable I/O Lines
6) Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
7) Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Vital role of Micro controller-AT89S52:
1) It will acts a master to communicate with memory
2) Whenever command is sent to reset the memory ,controller resets the memory
3) Controller takes the pulses from the energy meter and increments the Unit which
depends upon the calculations and stores in memory.
4) Microcontroller also switches off the energy meter whenever the command is sent
from the server. This happens when the owner has not paid the bill.
External EEPROM memory (2/4/8/32/64 Kbytes)
These memory devices are used to store the data for off line process. The AT24C02A /
04A/ 08A/ 32/64 provides 2048/4096/8192/32,768/65,536 bits of serial electrically
56/512/1024/4096/8192 words of 8 bits each. The device is optimized for use in many
industrial and commercial applications where low power and low voltage operation are
essential. The AT24C02A/04A/08A is available in space saving 8-pin PDIP.
Internally Organized 256 x 8 (2K), 512 x 8 (4K) or 1024 x 8 (8K)
2-Wire Serial Interface (I2C protocol)
High Reliability
Vital role of External EEPROM memory:
1) Used to store the amount of unit the user consumed.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display):
LCD’s can add a lot to your application in terms of providing a useful interface for the
user, debugging an application or just giving it a "professional" look. The most common
type of LCD controller is the Hitachi 44780, which provides a relatively simple interface
between a processor and an LCD. Inexperienced designers do often not attempt using this
interface and programmers because it is difficult to find good documentation on the
interface, initializing the interface can be a problem and the displays themselves are
LCD has single line display, Two-line display, four line display. Every line has 16
Vital role of LCD:
Used to display the status of device
Relay Driver IC ULN2003:
The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays.
It consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with
common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current Rating
of a single darlington pair is 500mA. The darlington pairs May be paralleled for higher
current capability. Applications include Relay drivers, hammer drivers, lamp drivers,
display drivers (LED gas discharge), line drivers, and logic buffers. The ULN2003 has a
2.7k series base resistor for each Darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or
5VCMOS devices.
500mA rated collector current (Single output)
High-voltage outputs: 50V
Inputs compatible with various types of logic.
Relay driver application
Role of Relay Driver:
1) To control the triggering of the Relays
2.3.2 Software Used:
1. Keil u-Vision
2. PRO51 Programmer Software
3. Proteus Software
Kiel u-Vision:
Keil Software is used provide you with software development tools for 8051 based
microcontrollers. With the Keil tools, you can generate embedded applications for
virtually every 8051 derivative. The supported microcontrollers are listed in the µ-vision.
(Fig 2.1) LCD Display
Referred from
(Fig 2.2) LDR
Referred from
(Fig 2.3) Voltage Regulator
Referred from
(Fig 2.4) Power Relay
Referred from
2. Planning and formulation
First we visited the VERITEK ENGG. Pvt Ltd. And decided the project
Next week we visited the manufacturing site at Veritek and learnt about the
various methods of making an Energy meter.
Next two weeks we worked upon the IC AD7752 and learnt its characteristics
and uses.
Worked on the circuit diagram of the respective project.
Learnt PCB itching method using PROTEUS software.
We met Mr. Giradkar ( Marketing Sales Manager) at MSEB HeadOffice, Bandra,
regarding the market study of our project .
We had been to L&T for market research and learning the technicalities of our
3. System Design
3.1 Working Principle
Every consumer can buy a memory card (is nothing but an EEPROM IC) with a
password stored inside it using a MC program. The memory card is available at various
ranges (i.e. Rs 50, Rs 100, Rs 200 etc).In our project we have given the name for memory
card as
smart card.
When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected in prepaid
energy meter with tariff indicator kit. The card reader will read the stored information
and delete the information from the EEPROM IC (smart card) using the MC program. So
that the smart card cannot be reused by others. According to the power consumption the
amount will be reduced. When the amount is over, the relays will automatically shutdown
the whole system.
Microcontroller AT89S52 acts as the primary controller. The primary controller collects
information from energy meter as well as from the smart card which is IC AT24C02
(EEPROM chip). Smart card gives information about the limitation of units. The energy
meter reading is compared with the smart card information by the primary controller.
Depending on the result the Primary Controller will activate the buzzer if the credit is low
and the Controller will trigger the Relay if the credit goes very low.
Once the Relay is triggered, the electricity Supply will be cut. The supply will start again
only when the meter is recharged with enough credit. The Block diagram is shown in
figure 2.1 and the circuit diagram is shown is figure 2.2
3.2 Advantages of Prepaid Energy Meters:
Pay before use
Recover money owed (debt)
Lower Overheads
No bill production
No bill distribution
No need to chase payments
No further actions such as disconnections
3.3 Disadvantages:
1.) The main disadvantage of the system is, because of huge electronic hardware involved
in the system, the overall system consumes more electric energy
Remedy: When the system is converted into engineering module, the bulky hardware
can be converted into a small-integrated chip. When the hardware is minimized naturally
the system consumes less power.
2.) Since it is a prototype module, because of huge hardware the system occupies more
3.) The consumer or the electrical department has to spend more amounts for installing
this kind of smart energy meters. Economically it is not advised.
3.4 Applications:
1.) In Homes
2.) In Festivals where electricity is required just for a few days.
3.) Rental accommodation
4.) Industries and Factories
5.) In Malls
Energy Meter
Digital Display
Microcontroller Unit
Smart Card
Power Supply
(Figure 3.1.1) Block Diagram
(Figure 3.1.2) Circuit Diagram
Referred from
4. Market Study
4.1 Market Drivers
4.1.1 Power sector reforms:
The upcoming competitive and customer focused deregulated power distribution market
will force the market participants to make the existing metering and billing process more
competent. This is likely to drive the prepaid market.
4.1.2 Increasing non-technical losses:
Metering errors, tampering with meters leading to low registration and calibration related
frauds are some of the key components of non-technical losses. India reports greater than
10 percent of non-technical losses. It has been reported that prepaid meters control nontechnical losses better than conventional ones.
4.1.3 Opportunities in the emerging electrifying markets:
Most of the Asian countries do not have 100 percent electrification; hence new markets
are being created by the increasing generating capacity. Prepaid systems can be more
easily introduced in such new markets rather than the existing ones.
4.2 Market Restraints
4.2.1 Consumer behavior:
Consumers have not had any major problems with the existing post-paid system, and
hence it is likely to be difficult to convince them to change over to prepaid system.
Consumers might not appreciate the concept of "pay and use" as far as electricity is
concerned because it might be perceived as an instrument to control common man’s life
4.2.2 Initial investment:
Utilities might be discouraged by the huge initial investment, which includes the cost of
instrument, marketing campaign, establishing distribution channel, and other
management costs.
4.2.3 Rapid technology changes:
The rapid technology changes happening in the metering market are expected to delay the
decision to go for prepaid system.
4.2.4 Uncertainty over the success:
Prepaid system is not as proven a concept in all the markets as South Africa; hence there
is bound to be uncertainty over its success, if implemented. The success of the system
depends on the commitment by utilities and for this they need to get convinced on the
real benefits of prepaid meters
5. Conclusions
Prepayment systems have been proposed as an innovative solution to the problem of
affordability in utilities services. In spite of being a popular system in European and
African countries, the use of such mechanisms remains controversial. Among the main
arguments in favor of its dissemination are the advantages concerning lower costs of
arrears, running costs and finance charges for the service provider and the better
allocation of resources it implies for users. The arguments against prepaid meters are
based on the higher cost of the technology and the possibility of self-disconnection of
low-income users.
The monopolistic power distribution market in Asia is gradually transforming into a
competitive marketplace. Differentiation in service is going to be the key competitive
factor to improve market share in the deregulated power markets. Prepaid meters with
their advantages over conventional ones are likely to help power distributors to
differentiate and offer value-added services to consumers. Encouraging consumers to opt
for prepaid meters on a voluntary basis and offering tariff or non-tariff incentives to those
consumers who prepay their power charges, would help the utilities to implement this