Means and method of refrigeration

Oct. 11, 1932.
Filed April 29. 1930
2 Sheets-Sheet
Filed April 29. 1930
2 Sheets-Sheet
Patented Oct. 11, 1932
Application ?led April 29, 1930. Serial No. 448,276.
My invention relates to means and method by the cooling water, and the evaporation of
of refrigeration and the object is to devise ammonia in the‘evaporator will absorb heat,
an absorption method and an apparatus the evaporator thus functioning as a means
suitable to carry out this method. The meth to‘ produce refrigeration.
‘ 5 od is based upon the principle of absorption
In \Fig. 2, ‘I illustrate in diagrammatic
of a gas in a liquid and'the accompanying form an apparatus wherein the above prin
generation of heat. According to this prin- , ciple is applied, the operation being contin
ciple, during the absorption of agas in a
liquid, heat is generated, and this heat equals
10 the heat absorbed during the separation of
the said gas from the said liquid.
To apply the above principle, I connect
two vessels, one which may be called an evap
orator and another which may be called an
15 absorber. In the absorber, I cause absorp
tion of a, gas in a liquid, and in the evapo
rator I cause separation from or evaporation
of a gas out of a' liquid. In the absorber,
uous. The illustration is diagrammatic and '
the apparatus may be constructed in many
different ways, the diiferent parts being 1
standard conventional articles now used in
refrigerating apparatus of the absorption
type. I include in my invention any and all
arrangements of an apparatus wherein my
method may be carried out. I include any i
and all ‘means and methods to produce the
necessary heat energy to operate my appa~
ratus and any and all means and methods
heat is generated, and in the evaporator to produce cooling of such parts as‘ require
20 heat is absorbed.
The accompanying drawings are purely a In‘ the illustration, l is the generator
diagrammatic and no attempts have been heated by flame 1a. Ifit is assumed that
made to show’ apparatus in detail. Each part the mediums used are ammonia and water,
is conventional and may be constructed in and that the generator is ?lled with a rich
' 25 many ‘different ways.
/ Fig. 1 of the accompanying drawings fur
solution, then by applying sufficient heat to 75
thepgenerator, the ammonia may be entirely,
ther illustratethe principle upon which my or nearly so, separated from the water.
invention is based. In this Fig. 1, A is the ' The liberated‘ammonia vapor will pass up
generator,‘ partially ?lled -with a concen wards, carrying the water along through
30 trated solution of a gas absorbed in a liquid. pipe 2, vapor and liquid discharging into 80
Assume this solution _to be ammonia in receiver 3. ‘ By maintaining su?iciently high -
temperature, the water will be kept separate
“ Generator A connects with the absorber from the ammonia vapor in this receiver,
B. This absorber is, surrounded by’ cooling the Water passingdownwards While the am
35. jacket D, allowing for cooling water to enter monia‘vapor will continue through pipe 8 95
' at E and to discharge at F. ‘
to ?rst absorber 9. The vapor is cooled dur
With a certain ‘concentration of ammonia ing the passage through pipe 8 by air or
in water in'the evaporator A, the space-above
the liquid surface, including the absorber,
water as desired.
The water is cooled in cooler 4, passing
40 will be ?lled with ammonia vapor under a through coil‘5 enclosed in said cooler. From 90
certain pressure, corresponding to the tem this cooler, the water continues in two direc
perature. If now, through pipe O, a" stream tions; through pipe 6 to second absorber '14,
of water is permitted to enter the absorber and through pipe 7 to ?rst absorber 9.. The
B, the ammonia: vapor present will be ab ?ow is created by the raising of the water
45._sorbed. The absorption of such vapor will level in receiverB.
cause a lowering of the vapor pressure in the
In'the absorber 9, the down?owing water
evaporator, which in turn‘ will cause evapo meets the up?owing ammonia vapor and ab
ration of ammonia from ‘the solution.‘
‘The absorption of ammonia in the ab
‘ sorbs same, ‘forming a“ rich solution at the
lower part of this absorber. Ba?ie plates 9a
50 sorber will generate heat, which is removed will assist to break up the water into a ?ne
spray and the cooling water in cooling jacket so that the heat may be applied at ordinary
10 will remove the heat generated, this cool room temperature. The only other require
ing water entering through 10a and discharg ment now will be that the temperature of the
ing through 10?).
cooling water shall be lower than the room
The rich solution formed in absorber 9 temperature so that heat units may be re 70
passes through pipe 11 into evaporator 12. moved by this water. _ The actual heat ab
This evaporator is ?tted with baf?e plates 12a sorbed by any ordinary refrigeration method
to assist in breaking up the down-?owing is the heat absorbed by the cooling water in
rich solution.
a conventional condenser. Nomatter what
The second absorber 14 is surrounded by heat is given the medium in a compressor or 75
jacket 15, allowing for cooling by Water, the in a generator, it is the heat removed by the
cooling water entering at ‘15a and discharg cooling medium which later is realized by
ing at 156. Absorber 14 is also ?tted with absorption of heat in an evaporator.
It is therefore not contrary to known laws
ba?les 14a to break up the down-?owing wa
15_ ter entering through pipe 6.
and practice to devise a refrigeration machine 80
The rich solution entering evaporator
> where no compressor‘ is used nor any heat ap
through pipe 11 from ?rst absorber 9 will plied by such means as a ?ame, electric cur
create a certain ammonia vapor pressure, the rent, or steam, but‘ where the entire reliance
ammonia vapor ?lling evaporator 12, con is laid upon removal of heat in a condenser
20 nection 13 and second absorber 14. This or in an absorber by‘ the cooling medium.
vapor pressure will be a function of tempera
I may use in my apparatus sulphur dioxide
ture and concentration of solution coming and ether. I may use pressures to allow
from absorber 9.
-Now, when water enters through pipe 6
25 into the space ?lled with ammonia vapor, an
vaporization in the generator.
In Fig. 3 I illustrate in diagrammatic form
a modi?cation of my apparatus.
absorption will take place, and with this ab— notations in Fig. 3 refer to similar‘ parts as
sorption a lowering. of the ammonia vapor shown in Fig. 2.
pressure. WVith this lowering of ammonia
In modi?cation, Fig. 3, I heat the medium
vapor pressure, further evaporation of am
sui?ciently high to vaporize not only the
monia from the rich solution coming from gaseous medium but also part of the liquid
absorber 9 will occur, as this solution falls medium. Space above liquid in 3 is therefore
downwards into evaporator. The solution a mixture of vapors which may be assumed to
reaching the lower ‘end of the evaporator will be ammonia and water vapors. In cooling
be changed to a weak solution, this change. this mixture in absorber 9, the condensed wa
taking place gradually as the liquid passes ter Will absorb ammonia vapors, forming a
very highly concentrated solution, which then
In the absorber, an opposite effect takes issues in 12 through perforated funnel 126.
place, in that the water entering through pipe In this case I do not need water injection
6 will gradually increase in concentration, sov in 9 and have therefore eliminated vconnec- .
that the liquid in the lower end of same'ab tion 7. Water entering through funnel 146 ios
sorber will be rich solution.
in 14 will be practically pure water, the tem
The absorption will generate heat and the‘ perature being maintained in 3 to keep the
There is thus
generated being equal to the amount absorbed. an ideal condition for heat transfer; with a
By removing the heat generated in absorber very highly concentrated solution entering
14, the evaporator 12 will act as a refriger into '12 and nearly pure water entering into
ating element, it being understood that re
frigeration means removal of heat to a tem
Having thus described my invention, what
perature below that of the available cooling I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
evaporation will absorb heat, the amount ‘ ammonia out of the liquid.
50 water or air andnot necessarily the reduction Patent is:
of the temperature to a point 01' freezing a
liquid to a solid form.
110 \
1. A process of refrigeration consisting of,
by the application of heat, separating a gas;
[The rich solution from absorber 14 passes in solution with a liquid from said liquid;
through pipe 16 and mixes with weak solu reabsorbing the separated gas into part of
tion from evaporator 12 passing through pipe the liquid, forming a highly concentrated so, 120
17, the mixture passing through pipe 18 back lution; introducing said concentrated solu
to generator 1.
tion into a space and introducing the balance
‘ In Fig. 2 and the above description, I show of the liquid into another space in communi
and describe application of heat to the gen cation with the ?rst-mentioned space, the in
60 erator 1 by a ?ame 1a, and I have also men
troduction of the liquid in the said second 125
tioned that the heating means may be devised space by the absorption of the said gas con
tained therein' creating a reduction. of pres
_I may arrange the apparatus and employ sure su?icient to cause separation of said gas
in many ways.
certain mediums where the heat necessary for from said concentrated solution in said ?rst
vaporization in a generator is sufficiently low
_ 1,882,283
3 .
2. That improvement in the. art of refrig bringing same in contact with a similar but
eration employing a solution of a gas in a li- less concentrated solution.
quid as medium, by the application of heat _ 7. In a refrigerating apparatus, a boiler
vaporizing part of said solution forming a and heating means ‘in connection with said
mixture of vapors on one hand and a weak. boiler said ‘heating means causing vaporiza 70
ened solution on the other ‘hand, changing tion of a part of a solution of a gas in a liquid
. said mixture ofyapors into a highly concen-v forming a mixture of gas and vapor, a. con-._
trated, solution by condensation and reab ~denser and’ communication means ‘between
m sorption, then bringing said highly 'ooncen-, said condenser and said boiler, said condenser
trated solution into the presence of the weak
causing condensation of said vapor and ab
ened solution in such a manner as to cause .
sorption of said gas into said condensate
evaporation of the absorbed gas outoof the forming a rich\ solution, an evaporati
highly concentrated solution and absorption chamber andan absorption chamber, ‘com?
of said evaporated gas into said weakened munication means between said evaporating
solution with accompanied absorption‘ and chamber and said absorption chamber, means
generation of heat.
‘to transfer said rich solution from said con
-3. In a refrigerating‘apparatus, a'closed' denser .to said evaporating chamber and
and sealed circulating system containing a means to transfer the balance of the solution
refrigerating medium consisting of a solution from said boiler to said absorption chamber
of a gas in a liquid, "said apparatus including and further means to transfer solutions from _ 85
a generator adapted to be heated ' whereby, said evaporating chamber and said absorp-‘
?rst, said gas is separated from the liquid; tion chamber back to said boiler.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto'set a
second, a portion of said liquid is vaporized,
a condenser for condensing said vapor and my hand at San Diego, California, this 24th
reabsorbing said gas forming a rich solution, day" of March, 1930.
a cooler for reducing the temperature of the . BO FOLKEI RANDEL.‘
’ balance of said liquid remaining in said gen
erator, an evaporator to receive said rich solu
tion and an absorber to receive said liquid
after cooling, said evaporator and said (ab
.sorber being in comunication in such a man
ner as to permit vapors evaporated from the
rich solution in said evaporator to be absorbed
in the liquid in said absorber forming a weak
' ened solution in the‘ former and a strength
ened solution in the ‘latter, and means to-bring
the said solutions back to said generator.
4. A method of refrigeration, by the appli
cation of heat vaporizing a gas from a solu
40 tion of
a liquid forming a weak- ‘
ened solution, absorbing said gas into part of said weakened solution forming a rlch
solution, injecting said remaining weakened
solution into a space in communication with
another space into which- other space said
rich solution is injected, thus causing evap
oration of the absorbed gas and absorption
P-of the evaporated gas in an endeavor to
equalize the concentrations and form equili
brium between the two interconnected spaces.
5. In a methodof refrigeration utilizing
solutions of gases in liquids as mediums, by
the application of heat separating the gas
from the solution and vaporizing part of the
liquid forming a mixture of gas ‘and vapor,
then condensing said vapor‘ and reabsorbm
. ing said gas in said condensate forming a
highly concentrated solution.
6. A method of refrigeration, forming a
maximum concentrated solution of a gas in
a liquid by condensing vapors of the liquid
in the presence of the said gas in predeter
mined volume proportions, then separating
‘ said absorbed gas from said solutions by