Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 Using the senses (2 weeks) Children read and respond to poems and other texts that capture sensory experiences in words. They then explore their own senses, observe details and find words to describe their first-hand experience. Links to other areas of the curriculum can be made. Phase 1 Read and respond to a range of poems and other texts that capture sensory experience in words. Practise reading the poems in unison, following the rhythm and keeping time. Identify and discuss words that describe what we can see, hear, feel, smell and taste. Invent actions for each sense to perform when reading or reciting the poems. Phase 2 Play a range of games to explore the senses, for example identifying familiar objects when inside a feely bag, and begin to identify details and find simple words and phrases to describe what they can see, hear, feel, smell and taste. Phase 3 Images of familiar objects or situations are selected and discussed. Children begin to identify simple words and phrases to describe what they can see, hear, feel, smell and taste. The teacher models adding simple words and phrases to the image and children follow this up independently in pairs or small groups. Phase 4 Familiar everyday activities are identified and explored. Words and phrases to describe what the children see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste are found and discussed. The teacher models fitting these descriptions into a very simple poetry frame, and children follow this up independently in pairs or small groups. 1 Overview • • • • • Children read and respond to poems and other simple texts that capture sensory experience in words. They then explore their own senses, observe details and find words to describe their own firsthand experience. The subject matter of the texts and the nature of the experiences explored can be drawn from across the curriculum or relate to cross-curricular themes. As shared reading, the class read and respond to a range of poems and other simple texts that capture sensory experience in words. They practice and read the poems in unison, following the rhythm and keeping time. They identify and discuss the words that describe what we can see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste. They imitate and invent actions when reading/reciting the poems to emphasise these. The children play a range of games to explore their own senses (e.g. identifying familiar objects when inside a 'feely bag'), and begin to identify details and find simple words and phrases to describe what they can see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste. Images of familiar objects or situations are found and discussed, identifying details. Children begin to identify simple words and phrases to describe what they can see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste. Teacher models adding simple words and phrases to the image (on paper or on screen), and children follow this up independently in pairs or small groups. Some of the children's familiar everyday activities (e.g. playing in the sand) are identified and explored, preferably through first-hand experience. Simple words and phrases to describe what they can see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste are found and discussed. Teacher models fitting these descriptions into a very simple poetry frame, and children follow this up independently in pairs or small groups. 1998 Framework objectives covered: Year 1, Term 1: T6 recite stories and rhymes with predictable and repeating patterns, extemporising on patterns orally by substituting words and phrases, extending patterns, inventing patterns and playing with rhyme; T11 learn and recite simple poems and rhymes. 2 Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Objectives Most children learn to: (The following list comprises only the strands, numbered 1 through 12, that are relevant to this particular unit.) 1. Speaking • Interpret a text by reading aloud with some variety in pace and emphasis 2. Listening and responding • Listen with sustained concentration, building new stores of words in different contexts 3. Group discussion and interaction • Ask and answer questions, make relevant contributions, offer • suggestions and take turns Explain their views to others in a small group, decide how to report the group's views to the class 5. Word recognition: decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling) • • • • • • • Recognise and use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes already taught Recognise and use alternative ways of spelling the graphemes already taught Identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and three-syllable words to support the application of phonic knowledge and skills Recognise automatically an increasing number of familiar high frequency words Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach to reading and spelling unfamiliar words that are not completely decodable Read more challenging texts which can be decoded using their acquired phonic knowledge and skills, along with automatic recognition of high frequency words Read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and threesyllable words 3 6. Word structure and spelling • • • • • Spell new words using phonics as the prime approach Segment sounds into their constituent phonemes in order to spell them correctly Recognise and use alternative ways of spelling the graphemes already taught Use knowledge of common inflections in spelling, such as plurals, ly, -er Read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and threesyllable words 7. Understanding and interpreting texts • Explain the effect of patterns of language and repeated words and phrases 8. Engaging with and responding to texts • Visualise and comment on events, characters and ideas, making imaginative links to their own experiences 9. Creating and shaping texts • • Find and use new and interesting words and phrases, including story language Create short simple texts on paper and on screen that combine words with images (and sounds) 12. Presentation • • • Write most letters, correctly formed and orientated, using a comfortable and efficient pencil grip Write with spaces between words accurately Use the space bar and keyboard to type their name and simple texts 4 Year 1 – Core Skills To ensure effective planning of literacy skills, teachers need to ensure they plan for the ongoing elements of literacy learning within each unit and across the year, using assessment for learning to ensure children make effective progress, ensuring they reach national expectations. These are the relevant strand objectives to ensure effective planning for core skills. Word recognition: decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling) • Recognise and use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes already taught, for example, that the grapheme 'g' is pronounced differently in 'get' and 'gem'; the grapheme 'ow' is pronounced differently in 'how' and 'show' • Recognise and use alternative ways of spelling the phonemes already taught, for example that the /ae/ sound can be spelt with 'ai', 'ay' or 'a-e'; that the /ee/ sound can also be spelt as 'ea' and 'e'; and begin to know which words contain which spelling alternatives • Identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and three-syllable words to support the application of phonic knowledge and skills • Recognise automatically an increasing number of familiar high frequency words • Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach to reading and spelling unfamiliar words that are not completely decodable • Read more challenging texts which can be decoded using their acquired phonic knowledge and skills, along with automatic recognition of high frequency words • Read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and threesyllable words 5 Word structure and spelling - Year 1 • Spell new words using phonics as the prime approach • Segment sounds into their constituent phonemes in order to spell them correctly Children move from spelling simple CVC words to longer words that include common digraphs and adjacent consonants such as 'brush', 'crunch' • Recognise and use alternative ways of spelling the graphemes already taught, for example that the /ae/ sound can be spelt with 'ai', 'ay' or 'a-e'; that the /ee/ sound can also be spelt as 'ea' and 'e'; and begin to know which words contain which spelling alternatives • Use knowledge of common inflections in spelling, such as plurals, ly, -er • Read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and threesyllable words Sentence structure and punctuation - Year 1 • Compose and write simple sentences independently to communicate meaning • Use capital letters and full stops when punctuating simple sentences 6 Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Key aspects of learning For further information, see the booklet Progression in key aspects of learning, Ref: 0524-2004 G, from Learning and teaching in the primary years http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications /learning_and_teaching/1041163/. Enquiry Children will play games and ask questions about what they can see, hear, feel (touch), smell and taste. Reasoning Children will explain the words they and others chose to describe objects and experiences. Evaluation Children will discuss success criteria for describing objects and experiences, give feedback to others and judge the effectiveness of their word choices. Empathy and self-awareness Children will hear or read about the sensory experience (and emotional reaction) of others and compare it to their own. Communication They will begin to develop their ability to discuss the language of poetry and to communicate their own observations and experiences through carefully chosen words. They will sometimes work collaboratively in pairs and groups. They will communicate outcomes orally, and in writing (possibly including ICT). 7 Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Building on previous learning Check that children can already: • • • • • • Listen to poems being read and talk about likes and dislikes including the words used. Join in with class rhymes and poems. Copy actions. Enjoy making up funny sentences and playing with words. Look carefully at experiences and choose words to describe. Make word collections. Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Building assessment into teaching For further information, see the booklet Assessment for learning (Ref: 05212004) from Learning and teaching in the primary years http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary /publications/learning_and_teaching/1041163/. Phase 1 Listen to poems and identify words and phrases that describe what we see, hear, feel (touch), small and taste during shared and guided reading (teacher observation, self-assessment). Phase 2 Identify details of sensory experiences and select descriptive words and phrases (teacher observation, self-assessment). Phases 3 and 4 Write suitable words and phrases to describe particular experiences (marking and feedback against agreed criteria). 8 Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Suggested teaching approaches Children working significantly above or below age-related expectations will need differentiated support, which may include tracking forward or back in terms of learning objectives. EAL learners should be expected to work within the overall expectations for their year group. Phase 1: Reading and responding to texts (3 days) Teaching content: • Read and allow children to respond in various ways to a range of poems and other simple, patterned texts that capture sensory experience in words. • • • • Practise and read the texts in unison, following rhythm and keeping time. Provide a practical activity that allows children to explore what we mean by the five senses. Identify and discuss what the senses are. Identify and discuss words in the poems that describe what we can see, hear feel (touch) small and taste. Classify the words and phrases used according to the sense to which they relate. Explore through paired discussion and activity. Model and invent actions to be performed when reading or reciting the poems that will emphasise the sensory descriptions. Children perform a chosen poem to others in the class. Children listen to or watch others in the class and discuss the performance. Learning outcome: • Children can listen to poems and identify words and phrases that describe what we see, hear, feel (touch), small and taste. Phase 2: Exploration of direct experience as preparation for writing (2 days) Teaching content: • Children play a range of games to explore their senses, for example identifying familiar objects inside a feely bag, blindfolded tasting, identifying mystery sounds. 9 • • • Begin to identify details of sensory observation and find simple words and phrases to describe these. Play additional games to encourage description of the senses, for example describing an object or picture to another child who can't see it, describing subtle differences between very similar objects, sounds, smells. With response partners children select words to describe particular sensory experience and record these in writing. Repeat some of the games recording children's responses on a flipchart or interactive whiteboard (IWB). Learning outcome: • Children can identify details of their sensory experience and start to select suitable words and phrases to describe these. Phase 3: Exploring responses to images and beginning to write about them (2 days) Teaching content: • • • • • • • Share and discuss images of familiar objects, scenes and events. Identify what children can see and what they would be able to hear, feel, smell and taste if they were experiencing the object or scene directly. Images could be on paper or projected on an IWB. Model selecting suitable words and phrases to describe the object. Record the words and phrases by annotating the image. Demonstrate the use of a simple dictionary, word lists and other available resources to locate words or improve vocabulary. Repeat with contrasting images or for other senses. Working in pairs or small groups, on paper or on screen, children discuss and then add words to a different image or images. Share and discuss outcomes. Agree simple criteria to evaluate the vocabulary. Annotated images are put together to form a class display, book or ICT presentation. Learning outcome: • Children can identify details of their sensory responses to images and start to select suitable words and phrases to describe these. 10 Phase 4: Exploring responses to direct experience and describing them in writing (3 days) Teaching content: • Identify familiar everyday experiences for the children, for example playing in the sand, lining up for lunch; or special experiences, for • • example related to a school trip, a visiting dance artist. Recall or recreate the experience and explore it in terms of sensory response. Notice and discuss details. Generate and discuss effective words for describing the experience. Model selecting words and phrases and adding them to a patterned poem read during phase 1. • Select a poem that is flexible enough to work with, avoiding restrictive rhythms or rhymes as they will distract from the focus. • Demonstrate the use of a simple dictionary, word lists and other available resources to improve selections. Working in pairs or small groups children discuss and then describe a particular experience of their adding words or phrases to another patterned poem structure. Children could work on paper or use a wordprocessor. Share and discuss the written outcomes. Agree simple criteria to evaluate the poems. Poems or descriptions are put together to form a class display, book or ICT presentation. • • • Learning outcome: • Children can identify detailed sensory responses to direct experience and start to select and write suitable words and phrases to describe these. Ensure that children also have a daily phonics or spelling session lasting at least 15 minutes and use every opportunity to demonstrate how to apply phonic knowledge in reading and writing. *Note: Although this unit is planned in the four sequential stages for clarity, in practice some teachers may prefer to intermix these, for example working in one week through all four phases while focusing on a particular sense or senses, and then repeating the whole sequence in a second week but for a different sense or senses, or with quite different subject matter. 11 Year 1 Poetry - Unit 1 - Resources The following resources are to support the learning and teaching of Literacy • Developing early writing (Ref: 0055-2001) Click here for information on different file formats and their usage. Speaking, listening, learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 (Ref: 0627-2003) PDF 757KB 12 Writing poetry Writing Flier 3 Poetry is a central aspect of literacy. This flier covers the main points National Literacy Strategy related to writing poetry. Poetry in the NLS Poetry is included in the NLS Framework in every term, as a central aspect of literacy. Its appeal lies in the desire to play with language and ideas, as well as the recreation and preservation of experiences that matter. There is a strong cycle that links reading, discussing, performing, listening and writing. As writers, pupils should build up a repertoire of forms and stylistic devices that they can call upon to create poetry. In many instances pupils will be focusing upon crafting language within a focused and manageable length and in a known form. Many aspects of sentence level work, plus the skill of revising, can be refined effectively through writing poetry. Creating a poetry climate It is important to establish a positive climate for poetry. This might feature: ! access to up-to-date collections of poetry so that there is enough for browsing, taking home to read, reading a range in class ! attractive displays that focus children’s interest, e.g. poetry posters (including children’s own poems) on display ! poem/poet of the week/month ! relating poems to other curriculum areas ! selecting poems to perform, or tape, for other classes – ‘poets on loan’ ! inviting poets into the school ! creating ‘poet trees’ with branches for different types of poem plus leaves with extracts ! spreading enthusiasm for poems – recommendations by pupils and teachers ! writing, reading and sharing poems as the teacher ! celebrating National Poetry Day. Writing poetry – principles ! Provide a clear focus – usually based on first-hand experiences that interest/intrigue. ! Teach skills of observing the details of experiences, brainstorming and revising. ! Before pupils write, read quality examples to inspire. ! Demonstrate writing class poems. ! Encourage surprising word combinations. ! When responding, identify aspects to improve – focus on word choices and the poem’s impact. ! Establish response partners – read drafts aloud to hear the effect. ! Value and respect creativity. ! Provide audiences for the children’s writing, e.g. classroom scrapbooks, taped performances. Find out more about writing poetry ! Further teaching ideas and case studies can be found on the department for education and skills NLS website: www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/literacy See also pages 154-155, Grammar for writing and Developing early writing. Preparing and planning Getting started ! Keep a poetry-writing journal – jot down ideas for poems, things you notice, details, words, similes, things people say. ! Listen to your feelings, thoughts and dreams. ! Write inside or outside – use your senses to listen, touch, smell, taste, look and wonder. ! Write about the following: • pictures, photos, posters, film, sculptures • intriguing objects, collections, places, creatures, people, moments and events • secrets, wishes, lies and dreams • pretend to talk with and to people, places, objects, creatures (Tyger, Tyger burning bright), both real and imaginary • write about your obsessions – what you feel passionately about, dream about, hate • ! use memories of special moments. Ink waster In one minute list as many words as you can think of to do Write in different voices – as yourself or something with a subject or write as much as you can about the else. subject. ! Have a clear focus for writing. Do not be vague. ! Begin with what you know. What is true, not true but Strange word combinations might be and things which could never be true. Take a word and list as many adjectives and verbs that Be outrageous, boast, plead, imagine, joke. might go with it. ! Before writing Playing with sentences ! Look carefully at your subject. Make notes of the Take a simple sentence and play around with it – add details. words in, extend it, reorder it, change all the words, use a Become a word searcher. Before writing get used to simile, alliterate. ! brainstorming, listing, jotting ideas and words, whispering ideas in your mind. Nonsense words Invent nonsense sentences. To exercise and strengthen the imagination play these word games: Rhythm games Clap, echo sounds and words, repeat sounds Question and answer rhythmically. You write questions and your partner gives crazy or poetic answers. Pass the poem Take a poem with a repeating pattern and pass it round Metaphor game the room, adding ideas. Choose an animal and compare it to a person, a place, an object, a mood, a colour, e.g. It is an oak table late at Consequences night… Pass round a piece of paper on which in turn you write an adjective, a noun, a verb, an adverb, a preposition, an adjective, a noun. department for education and skills Writing your poem ! Settle in a comfortable place to write. ! Work from the brainstorm, selecting and discarding. ! Use your writing journal, a thesaurus, a rhyming dictionary. ! Write on every other line to give yourself space to add in new ideas and make changes. ! Sift words and select the best from your mind. The first choice is not always the best choice. ! When you write don’t get distracted – concentrate hard on your subject. ! Write quickly so that the poem flows – you can edit it later. ! The first draft may look messy as you try out words and ideas. ! Poems can be built up, adding a brick at a time, piling up images and ideas. ! Poems can be like jigsaws – moving pieces around to get the best fit. ! Go for quality not quantity. ! Avoid overwriting – especially using too many adjectives or adverbs. ! Keep re-reading as you write. Mutter different possibilities to yourself and listen to how your poem sounds. Look at the poem’s shape. ! Don’t be afraid to take risks, try unusual ideas and words – poetry is about inventing. ! Take a new line at a natural pause, or to give emphasis, or to maintain a particular poetic form. ! Create strong pictures by using similes, metaphors and personification. ! Create memorable sounds by using repetition for effect, alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhythm and rhyme. ! Create powerful poems by choosing precise nouns. (Rottweiler not dog) and powerful verbs (mutter not talk) and words that do not obviously go together so that you surprise the reader, e.g. Not the old lady hobbled down the road but try the old lady jogged! After writing ! Read your poem aloud and listen to how it sounds. Often you will immediately notice places where it might be improved. ! Read your poem to a partner, poetry circle or the whole class – listen to their response and then take the time to work on it. ! Be a good response partner – read through, or listen to the writer, read their poem. Always tell the writer what you liked first. Discuss any concerns the writer may have. Make a few positive suggestions. Poetry is about celebration and enjoyment. Here are some ways to spread your poems around: ! perform to the class, other classes, the school ! make a poetry programme or video ! e-mail or fax poems to other schools or put poems on the school website ! publish in class anthologies, scrapbooks, homemade books, on poetry display boards ! hold a poetry party performance, or make picturebook poems, for a younger class ! illustrate and create poetry posters ! hold a poem swap ! send poems to magazines, newspapers, literary websites, radio and TV. The poet’s repertoire ! Over time you will learn different forms that you can select for different occasions, e.g. raps for entertaining, haiku for memorable moments, free verse for serious poems and capturing experiences and ballads for story telling. ! Being true to the experience that you are writing about is more important than trying to squeeze words into a form. ! To write in any form you need to spend time reading good poems written in that form. ! Read like a writer – notice how poets achieve different effects. ! Borrow simple repeating patterns from poets and invent your own. ! Invent your own forms and structures. ! Be careful with rhyme. Forcing a rhyme can lead to dishonest writing. The Way I Write Sometimes if a poem is more complicated it helps me to have an example read out to me or if it is a more descriptive piece to have a picture infront of me that I could refer to. It also helps me to write pieces of writing out in rough because then I can get better ideas and I can add more feeling to it and change words that I don’t need or that I don’t want. Lynn Eldered Age 11 years Go for the right word rather than a forced rhyme. ! Keep the writing concrete and detailed. ! Use your own poetic voice. Try to use natural language and invent memorable speech – listen for this in everyday speech. Before I start a piece of writing I find it helps to talk about it first, because it sort of makes my mind clear of what I’ve got to do. Some of my best ideas come from my imagination. If an idea appears in my head I quickly jot it down in my rough book and when I have a series of fairly good ideas I begin to construct a piece of writing. I prefer to work in a noisy room because sometimes the words people use in their speech can help create a realistic atmosphere in my poetry. I usually write in rough first, because then I can change words that I think are boring or just don’t make sense. Alison Crock 11 years old I like doing a poem in a quiet place so that I can think of words to put in the poem. And I would do it in rough first so that I could change the words they don’t fit in with the rest of the poem. My best ideas come from the other poems I’ve done and from the mistakes I’ve made. I get my ideas sometimes from the scenery around me and sometimes from places I’ve been to. If I discuss how to do a poem it might help me, sometimes when I haven’t got an idea. Leyla Abdullah 11 years old Thanks to the poets and editors who contributed their ideas: Val Bloom, Morag Styles, Jean Sprackland of the Poetry Society, Brian Moses and Philip Gross. You can download this flier from the web and adapt it for direct use by children or to create posters for your writing area. DfES Publications Tel 0845 60 222 60 Fax 0845 60 333 60 Textphone 0845 60 555 60 e-mail: [email protected] Ref: DfES 0532/2001 © Crown copyright 2001 Produced by the Department for Education and Skills This document may be reproduced for non-commercial or training purposes on the condition that the source is acknowledged.
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