SEA Environmental Report - Southern Region Part 1 of 3

SEA Environmental Report
Southern Draft Regional Waste Management Plan
2015 - 2021
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TABLEOFCONTENTS
NONTECHNICALSUMMARY..........................................................................................................1
1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................19
1.1 WASTEMANAGEMENTINIRELAND...................................................................................................19
2
CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN..............................................................22
2.1 RESPONSIBLEAUTHORITYFORTHESOUTHERNREGION........................................................................22
2.2 KEYWASTETERMINOLOGYUSEDINTHEPLAN....................................................................................22
2.3 REQUIREMENTFORAREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN...............................................................23
2.4 AREACOVEREDBYTHEPLAN...........................................................................................................24
2.5 INTRODUCTIONTOTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN............................................24
2.6 STRATEGICVISIONOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN...........................................................9
2.7 STRATEGICOBJECTIVESOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN...................................................10
3
STRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTMETHODOLOGY............................................12
3.1 THESTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTPROCESS......................................................................12
3.2 WORKCOMPLETEDTODATE............................................................................................................12
3.2.1Screening.........................................................................................................................12
3.2.2Scoping............................................................................................................................13
3.3 ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT........................................................................................................21
3.3.1AssessmentApproach.....................................................................................................21
3.3.2SEAEnvironmentalReport..............................................................................................22
3.3.3LinksbetweentheSEAandAAProcess...........................................................................23
3.3.4DifficultiesEncountered..................................................................................................23
3.4 SEASTATEMENT...........................................................................................................................24
4
REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES............................................25
4.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................25
4.2 METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................................................25
4.3 RELEVANTPLANSANDPROGRAMMES..............................................................................................26
4.4 RELEVANTPOLICYANDLEGISLATION................................................................................................26
4.5 RELATIONSHIPOFWASTEPLANANDOTHERPLANS/PROGRAMMES/POLICY.........................................27
5
RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHEENVIRONMENT(BASELINE)..............30
5.1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................30
5.1.1StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–RepublicofIreland..............................................30
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5.1.2StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–NorthernIreland.................................................31
5.2 ENVIRONMENTALCHARACTERISTICSANDPROBLEMSINTHESOUTHERNREGION.....................................33
5.2.1Biodiversity,FloraandFauna..........................................................................................33
5.2.2PopulationandHumanHealth........................................................................................40
5.2.3Soils,GeologyandHydrogeology....................................................................................49
5.2.4Water...............................................................................................................................56
5.2.5AirQuality&ClimaticFactors.........................................................................................62
5.2.6MaterialAssets................................................................................................................65
5.2.7CulturalHeritage.............................................................................................................78
5.2.8Landscape........................................................................................................................79
5.3 INTERRELATIONSHIP.....................................................................................................................81
5.4 LIKELYEVOLUTIONOFTHEBASELINEWITHOUTIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEPLAN.......................................82
5.5 KEYPRESSURESINTHESOUTHERNREGION.......................................................................................83
6
ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONOBJECTIVESANDSEAFRAMEWORK................................91
6.1 DEVELOPMENTOFSTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALOBJECTIVES,TARGETSANDINDICATORS.........................91
6.1.1StrategicEnvironmentalObjectives................................................................................91
6.1.2StrategicEnvironmentalIndicatorsandTargets.............................................................91
7
ALTERNATIVES..................................................................................................................96
7.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................96
7.2 APPROACHTOALTERNATIVESFORTHESOUTHERNREGION.................................................................96
7.3 ASSESSMENTPARAMETERS............................................................................................................97
7.4 STRATEGICALTERNATIVES..............................................................................................................98
7.4.1Retainingalineareconomymodelversusshiftingtowardsacirculareconomymodel.98
7.4.2SelfsufficiencyversusRelianceonExportsforTreatmentofResidualMunicipalType
Waste.............................................................................................................................100
7.4.3InclusionofMandatoryTargetsOnlyorInclusionofAdditionalNonmandatoryTargets.
.....................................................................................................................................103
7.5 STRATEGICOBJECTIVESANDPOLICYALTERNATIVES..........................................................................105
7.5.1PolicyandLegislation....................................................................................................105
7.5.2Prevention.....................................................................................................................106
7.5.3ResourceEfficiency&CircularEconomy.......................................................................107
7.5.4Coordination..................................................................................................................109
7.5.5Infrastructure(Collection).............................................................................................109
7.5.6Infrastructure(ThermalRecovery)................................................................................110
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7.5.7Infrastructure(Backfilling).............................................................................................113
7.5.8Infrastructure(Disposal)................................................................................................114
7.5.9RegulationandEnforcement.........................................................................................115
7.5.10Protection....................................................................................................................116
7.5.11OtherWasteStreams..................................................................................................117
7.6 OVERALLPREFERREDSCENARIO....................................................................................................118
7.7 DEVELOPMENTOFSTRATEGICOBJECTIVES......................................................................................119
8
ASSESSMENTOFPREFERREDSCENARIO..........................................................................121
8.1 ASSESSMENTAPPROACH..............................................................................................................121
8.2 ASSESSMENTPARAMETERS..........................................................................................................121
8.2.1IntegrationofSEAandAAwiththePlan.......................................................................122
8.3 ASSESSMENTOFPOLICIESANDPOLICYACTIONSOFTHEPREFERREDSTRATEGICAPPROACH...................123
8.3.1PolicyActionsA–PolicyandLegislation.......................................................................123
8.3.2PolicyActionsB–Prevention........................................................................................127
8.3.3PolicyActionsC–ResourceEfficiencyandtheCircularEconomy................................133
8.3.4PolicyActionsD–Coordination....................................................................................138
8.3.5PolicyActionsE–InfrastructurePlanning.....................................................................142
8.3.6PolicyActionsF–EnforcementandRegulation............................................................155
8.3.7PolicyActionsG–Protection........................................................................................160
8.3.8PolicyActionsH–OtherWasteStreams.......................................................................165
9
MITIGATIONANDMONITORING.....................................................................................169
9.1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................169
9.2 SOURCESOFINFORMATIONFORMONITORING................................................................................169
9.3 MITIGATIONMEASURES..............................................................................................................169
9.4 CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................178
10
NEXTSTEPS.....................................................................................................................179
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LISTOFFIGURES
Figure1Ireland’sWasteManagementRegions...................................................................................3
Figure2–SummaryofSEAStages..........................................................................................................4
Figure3–OverviewoftheScopingProcess...........................................................................................5
Figure4–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics........................................................................13
Figure11PreviousWasteManagementRegions..............................................................................19
Figure12Ireland’sWasteManagementRegions..............................................................................21
Figure21SouthernWasteManagementRegion................................................................................8
Figure51–Natura2000SitesintheSouthernRegion........................................................................38
Figure52–NaturalHeritageAreasandRamsarSitesintheSouthernRegion...................................39
Figure53–PopulationDensityintheSouthernRegion......................................................................46
Figure54–OneoffHousingintheSouthernRegionwithNationalContext.....................................47
Figure55–WasteServicesintheSouthernRegion............................................................................48
Figure56–HighRiskHistoricLandfillsandGroundwaterVulnerability.............................................55
Figure57–RiverBasinDistrictsintheSouthernRegion....................................................................60
Figure58–WaterQualityStatusofSurfaceWaterbodiesinSouthernRegion..................................61
Figure59–EPAWasteLicencedFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion.....................................................72
Figure510–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion(Group1)...................73
Figure511–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion(Groups2,2Aand3)..74
Figure512–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion(Groups4and5)........75
Figure513LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion(Groups6,7and8).....76
Figure514KeyInfrastructureintheSouthernRegion......................................................................77
Figure515–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics...................................................................81
Figure71CircularEconomyandLinearEconomyModels................................................................98
LISTOFTABLES
Table1–KeyFactsfortheSouthernRegion...........................................................................................1
Table2SEAChecklistofInformation....................................................................................................6
Table3–KeyPolicies,PlansandProgrammesfortheSouthernRegion...............................................7
Table4–BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures................................................8
Table5–SummaryAssessmentTable..................................................................................................17
Table21KeyWasteTerminology......................................................................................................22
Table31SEAStages...........................................................................................................................12
Table32MainIssues/SuggestionsfromStatutoryConsultees.......................................................14
Table33MainIssues/SuggestionsfromNonStatutoryConsultees...............................................19
Table34SEAEnvironmentalAssessment..........................................................................................21
Table35–RequirementofSEADirectiveandRelevantSectioninEnvironmentalReport................22
Table41KeyRelevantPlansandProgrammes.................................................................................26
Table42KeyRelevantPolicyandLegislation....................................................................................26
Table51–EPAKeyChallengesandRelationshiptoRWMP................................................................31
Table52–SummaryofCurrentStateoftheEnvironmentinNorthernIreland.................................31
Table53–NumberandTypesofDesignatedSiteswithintheSouthernRegion................................34
Table54–ShellfishGrowingAreaswithintheSouthernRegion........................................................35
Table55–FPMSubbasinCatchmentswithintheSouthernRegion..................................................35
Table56–DesignatedSACRaisedBogswithintheSouthernRegion.................................................36
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Table57–TrendsinPopulationforCountieswithintheSouthernRegion........................................40
Table58–Urban/RuralPopulationDistributionintheSouthernRegion..........................................41
Table59–QuantitiesofWasteProducedperHouseholdandExtentofCoveragein2012...............43
Table510–ClassAandClassBSoilsMappingintheSouthernRegion..............................................50
Table511–NationalFiguresforHistoricWasteDisposal...................................................................51
Table512–HistoricWasteDisposalintheSouthernRegion..............................................................51
Table513–DetailsofHistoricMinesintheSouthernRegion............................................................51
Table514–GroundwaterStatusinSouthernRegion.........................................................................53
Table515WaterQualityStatusofSurfaceWaterbodiesinSouthernRegion..................................57
Table516–PresenceofWaterFrameworkDirectiveProtectedAreaswithintheSouthernRegion.58
Table517–WasteFacilitiesintheSouthernRegion..........................................................................66
Table518–ListofPortsintheSouthernRegion................................................................................68
Table519–FreetradeExchangeandReuseData...............................................................................69
Table520–MembersofCRNIIreland.................................................................................................70
Table521–NumberofListed/DesignatedCulturalHeritageResourcesinEachCounty..................78
Table522LikelyEvolutionoftheBaselinewithoutImplementationoftheRWMP.........................82
Table523–KeyEnvironmentalPressuresintheSouthernRegion.....................................................84
Table61SEAObjectives,TargetsandIndicators...............................................................................93
Table91–EnvironmentalMonitoringProgramme...........................................................................170
Table92MitigationMeasuresRelatingtoAssessmentofalternatives(seeChpt7)......................174
Table93MitigationMeasuresRelatingtoAssessmentofPoliciesandPolicyActions(seeChpt8)
............................................................................................................................................................174
Table101RemainingStepsintheRWMP,SEAandAAprocesses..................................................179
AllmapsproducedbyRPSincludedinthisreport,utilisingOrdnanceSurveyIreland(OSi) background
mapping,arecoveredunderOrdnanceSurveyIrelandLicenceNumberEN0005014
(CopyrightGovernmentofIreland).
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NONTECHNICALSUMMARY
1
INTRODUCTION
This Environmental Report has been prepared as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) of the draft Southern Regional Waste Management Plan (hereafter referred to as Southern
RWMP)fortheSouthernRegioninaccordancewithnationalandEUlegislation.SEAisasystematic
method of considering the likely significant environmental effects of a Plan or Programme by
integratingenvironmentalfactorsintothedevelopmentofthePlanandrelateddecisionmaking.
Thepurpose ofthisEnvironmentalReportisto:a)informthedevelopmentofthePlan; b) identify
describeandevaluatethelikelysignificanteffectsofthePlananditsreasonablealternatives;andc)
provide an early opportunity for the statutory authorities and the public to offer views through
consultation.
2
CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN
ThecontentsandmainobjectivesoftheSouthernRWMPareoutlinedinTable1.
Table1–KeyFactsfortheSouthernRegion
KeyFacts
LimerickCityandCountycouncilsandTipperary
CountyCouncilsarethejointleadauthorityforthe
preparationoftheSouthernRegionalWaste
ManagementPlan,onbehalfofthecityandcounty
councilsintheSouthernRegion.
Nameofresponsibleauthority
TitleofPlan
SouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan
TheWasteFrameworkDirectivesetsoutthe
approachforthesustainablemanagementofwastein
theMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityand
thishasbeentransposedintoIrishlawbytheWaste
ManagementAct1996andtheEuropean
Communities(WasteDirective)Regulations2011.
Thislegislationrequiresthepreparationofaregional
wastemanagementplanforallregionswithinthe
state.
WhatpromptedthePlan?
SubjectofthePlan
Wastemanagementincludingprevention,preparing
forreuse,collection,recycling,otherrecoveryand
disposal(includingexports).
PeriodcoveredbythePlanandfrequencyof
updates?
ThePlanwillbeinforcefor6yearsandwillcoverthe
period2015–2021.
AreacoveredbythePlan
SouthernWasteRegion
PurposeofthePlan
Toprovideforthesustainablemanagementofwaste.
Contactdetails
RegionalWasteCoordinator,SouthernRegionWaste
ManagementOffice,LimerickCountyCouncil,
LissanaltaHouse,Dooradoyle,CountyLimerick
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TheWasteFrameworkDirectivesetsouttheapproachforthesustainablemanagementofwastein
theMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityandhasbeentransposedintoIrishlawbytheWaste
Management Act 1996 and the European Communities (Waste Directive) Regulations 2011. The
Waste Framework Directive and a number of other related directives set out a range of policy
principles,mandatorytargetsandregulatoryframeworkswhichMemberStatesmusttransposeinto
nationallaw.
AregionalapproachtomanagingwasteinIrelandwasgivenalegalbasebytheWasteManagement
Act 1996 which allowed for one or more local authorities to come together for the purpose of
preparingawastemanagementplan.Tenregionswereformed,sevenofwhichweremadeupoftwo
or more local authorities and covered the majority of the country and three were county regions.
The first two generations of Waste Management Plans (covering the period 19982011) reflected
these10regions.However,inJuly2012thelatestGovernmentNationalWastePolicydocument,A
ResourceOpportunity,recommendedtheconsolidationofthewasteregionstoamaximumofthree
[seeFigure1].Thetransformationfromtenregionstothreehasbeenundertakenasfollows:
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SouthernRegion;
EasternMidlandsRegion;and
ConnachtUlsterRegion.
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ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
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50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 1
Ireland's Waste Management Regions
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1001F01
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The Southern Waste Region consists of the administrative areas of Carlow, Cork, Clare, Kerry,
Kilkenny,TipperaryandWexfordCountyCouncils,LimerickCityandCountyCouncil,WaterfordCity
andCountyCouncilandCorkCityCouncil.
The new draft RWMP under development is presented in three parts beginning with Part 1,
Background,whichsetsoutthestrategicandpolicycontextfortheplanincludingadetailedprofile
of the region. Part 2, Present Position, sets out the existing situation with regard to waste data,
prevention and reuse activities, waste collection and infrastructural arrangements and the
management of priority waste streams. Part 3, Implementation, deals with waste projections,
infrastructureplanningandtherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevariousstakeholderstothedelivery
oftheRWMP.Part3alsoprovidesafinancialoverviewandadetailedbreakdownofpolicies,actions
andtargetstobeachieved.Itconcludeswiththearrangementsformonitoringandreportingonplan
strategy,objectives,policiesandactions.
3
SEAMETHODOLOGY
ThisEnvironmentalReportcontainsthefindingsoftheassessmentofthelikelysignificanteffectson
theenvironment,ofimplementingthedraftSouthernRWMP.ItreflectstherequirementsoftheSEA
Directive (2001/42/EC) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the
environmentandalsothetransposedregulationsinIreland(S.I.435/2004asamendedbyS.I.200of
2011).ThestagesfollowedintheSEAaresummarisedinFigure2below.
Figure2–SummaryofSEAStages
Integration of the SEA and draft Southern RWMP was achieved through close involvement of
relevant team members in all stages of the project, including SEA scoping; review of the existing
situation; and public consultation. The SEA and Plan Teams also participated in a number of
workshopsinrelationtodevelopingthe:SEAassessmentmethodology;alternativestobeconsidered
in the SEA; SEA objectives, targets and indicators; and mitigation measures and monitoring
strategies. The development of the Southern RWMP was progressed in consultation with the
Regional Waste Management Plan Steering Group comprising representatives from the lead
authorities for the three waste regions, namely the Southern Region (Limerick City and County
CouncilsandTipperaryCountyCouncils);theConnachtUlsterRegion(MayoCountyCouncil);andthe
EasternMidlandsRegion(DublinCityCouncil).
SEAScoping
The objective of scoping is to identify key issues of concern that should be addressed in the
environmental assessment of the draft Southern RWMP so that they can be considered in
appropriate detail. Scoping also helps determine the boundaries of the assessment in terms of
geographicalextentandthetimehorizonfortheassessment.Figure3outlinesthevariouselements
thatcontributetothescopeoftheSEA.
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Figure3–OverviewoftheScopingProcess
Consultation was carried out with the statutory consultees (Environmental Protection Agency,
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, Department of the Environment,
Community and Local Government, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and the
DepartmentofAgriculture,FoodandtheMarine),NIEAandwiththepublicandotherstakeholders.
Taking into consideration feedback from consultees, a broad assessment of the potential for the
draftSouthernRWMPtoinfluencetheenvironmentwascarriedout.Alloftheenvironmentaltopics
listedintheSEADirectivehavebeenscopedinfortheassessmentofthedraftRWMP.Theseare:
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Biodiversity,FloraandFauna;
Population;
HumanHealth;
Soil;
Water;
Landscape;
Air;
ClimaticFactors;
MaterialAssets;and
Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeologicalHeritage.
The draft Southern RWMP is a regional plan for the Southern Waste Region and as such the
assessmenthasbeenlimitedgeographicallytoactivitiesoccurringwithinthefunctionalareaofthe
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Plan.ThedraftSouthernRWMPwillcovertheperiodfrom2015upto2021.InlinewiththeSEA
Directive, short, medium and longterm impacts have been considered during the assessment. As
the Plan is on a regional scale, the majority of the data relates to overall national and regional
performance.
Based on the requirements of the legislation and guidance, the following information in Table 2 is
providedintheEnvironmentalReport.
Table2SEAChecklistofInformation
RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
Anoutlineofthecontentsandmainobjectivesoftheplanor
programme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,and
relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes;
Chapter2:ContentandMainObjectives
ofthePlan
Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
Therelevantaspectsofthecurrentstateoftheenvironmentand
thelikelyevolutionthereofwithoutimplementationoftheplanor
programme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,
Chapter5:RelevantAspectsofthe
CurrentStateoftheEnvironment
(Baseline)
Theenvironmentalcharacteristicsofareaslikelytobesignificantly
affected
Chapter5:RelevantAspectsofthe
CurrentStateoftheEnvironment
(Baseline)
Anyexistingenvironmentalproblemswhicharerelevanttotheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,including, Chapter5:RelevantAspectsofthe
inparticular,thoserelatingtoanyareasofaparticular
CurrentStateoftheEnvironment
environmentalimportance,suchasareasdesignatedpursuantto (Baseline)
theBirdsDirectiveortheHabitatsDirective
Theenvironmentalprotectionobjectives,establishedat
international,EuropeanUnionornationallevel,whicharerelevant
totheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme, Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
andthewaythoseobjectivesandanyenvironmentalconsiderations
havebeentakenintoaccountduringitspreparation
Thelikelysignificanteffectsontheenvironment,includingonissues
suchasbiodiversity,population,humanhealth,fauna,flora,soil,
water,air,climaticfactors,materialassets,culturalheritage
Chapter8:Assessment
includingarchitecturalandarchaeologicalheritage,landscapeand
theinterrelationshipbetweentheabovefactors
Themeasuresenvisagedtoprevent,reduceandasfullyaspossible
offsetanysignificantadverseeffectsontheenvironmentof
implementingtheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanor
programme
Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
Anoutlineofthereasonsforselectingthealternativesdealtwith,
andadescriptionofhowtheassessmentwasundertakenincluding
anydifficulties(suchastechnicaldeficienciesorlackofknowhow)
encounteredincompilingtherequiredinformation
Chapter7:Alternatives
Adescriptionofthemeasuresenvisagedconcerningmonitoringof
thesignificantenvironmentaleffectsofimplementationoftheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme
Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
Anontechnicalsummaryoftheinformationprovidedunderthe
aboveheadings
NonTechnicalSummary
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AppropriateAssessment
InadditiontothisSEA,thereisarequirementundertheEUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EEC)toassess
whetherthedraftSouthernRWMP,eitheraloneorincombinationwithotherplansandprojects,has
thepotentialtohaveasignificanteffectonaNatura2000site.Thesesitesincludeareasdesignated
for the protection and conservation of habitats and of wild flora and fauna and include Special
Protection Areas (designated under the Birds Directive (2009/147/EC) and Special Areas of
Conservation (designated under the Habitats Directive). An Appropriate Assessment has been
carriedoutinconjunctionwithboththeSEAandthePlanmakingprocesses.
4
REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES
A review of the plans, policies and programmes relevant to the draft Southern RWMP was carried
out.ThereviewfocussedprimarilyonNational,EuropeanandInternationalplansandprogrammes.
Inreviewingtheotherrelevantdocuments,thefollowingquestionswereasked:
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DoesthedraftSouthernRWMPcontributetothefulfilmentofenvironmentalprotection
objectives set in other Plans/ Programmes/ Policy/ Legislation? and;
To what degree are the environmental protection objectives set in these other
Plans/Programmes/Policy/LegislationimpactedbythedraftSouthernRWMP?
ThefindingsofthereviewhelpeddefinetheobjectivesfortheSEAandinformedtheassessmentof
alternativeoptions.Someofthekeyplans,programmesandpoliciesareincludedinTable3.
Table3–KeyPolicies,PlansandProgrammesfortheSouthernRegion
European
SeventhEnvironmentalActionProgramme
RoadmaptoaResourceEfficientEurope
SEADirective(2001/42/EC)
EIADirective(2014/52/EC)
EUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)
ConservationofWildBirdsDirective(2009/147/ECcodified)
EnvironmentalLiabilitiesDirective(2004/35/CE)
WasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)
WaterFrameworkDirective(2000/60/EC)
FloodsDirective(2007/60/EC)
IndustrialEmissionsDirective(2010/75/EU)
EU202020Agreement
National
NationalSpatialStrategy(20022020)
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OurSustainableFuture:AFrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012)
NationalBiodiversityPlan(20112016)andNPWSConservationPlansforSACsandSPAs
NationalClimateChangeStrategy(2007–2012)
HeritagePlansandFrameworkandPrinciplesfortheProtectionofArchaeologicalHeritage
NationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan20142020
NationalWastePreventionProgramme
SludgeManagementPlan(underdevelopment)
EnvironmentalAssessmentofCertainPlansandProgrammesRegulationsS.I.435/2004
BirdsandHabitatsRegulationsS.I.477/2011(asamended)
Planning and Development Act (as amended) and Planning and Development Regulations S.I. 600/2001 (as
amended)
WasteManagementAct1996
EnvironmentalLiabilityRegulationsS.I.547/2008
IndustrialEmissionsRegulationsS.I.138/2013
Regional
RegionalPlanningGuidelines
DraftSouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan
RiverBasinManagementPlans(20092014)
CatchmentFloodRiskAssessmentandManagementPlans
5
RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHEENVIRONMENT
(BASELINE)
AsthisstrategicenvironmentalassessmentdealswithaplanfortheSouthernRegion,thebaseline
dataisfocusedatthenationalandregionlevel.
Ireland’snaturalenvironment,althoughunderincreasingpressure,generallyremainsofgoodquality
andrepresentsoneofthecountry’smostessentialnationalassetshoweverpressureshaveincreased
significantly (EPA, 2012). In their 5th and most recent state of the environment review, the EPA
identified four priority challenges for the environment, which, if addressed successfully, should
benefit the present and future quality of Ireland’s environment. These comprise: Valuing and
Protecting our Natural Environment; Building a ResourceEfficient, Low Carbon Economy;
ImplementingEnvironmentalLegislation;andPuttingtheEnvironmentattheCentreofOurDecision
Making.Allofthesearehighlyrelevanttowastemanagementandthecurrentwastemanagement
planningprocess.Table4setsoutexistingenvironmentalpressuresintheSouthernRegion.
Table4–BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Theme
Biodiversity
Floraand
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Irelandsupportsawidevarietyofspeciesandhabitats,manyofwhichareofinternational
importanceandasacountry,Irelandhasdesignatedsitesandspeciesofconservationvalue
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Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Fauna
and/orconcerninanefforttoprotectitsbiodiversityresource.However,significantaspects
ofbiodiversityinIrelandareunderthreatfromarangeofunsustainableactivities.
Within the Southern Region there are over 143 sites designated as Special Areas of
ConservationundertheEUHabitatsDirectiveandafurther58designatedundertheBirds
Directive.Everysixyears,theNationalParksandWildlifeServicepublishareportdetailing
theconservationstatusinIrelandofthesehabitatsandspecies.The NPWSConservation
Status reports indicate that many Irish species of flora and fauna have a moderately
satisfactoryconservationstatus;however,asmallnumberareinurgentneedofconcerted
effortstoprotectthem.
Existingpressuresarisingfromwastemanagementinclude:habitatloss,fragmentationand
disturbance as a result of construction of the waste infrastructure; pollution from un
authoriseddisposalsitesparticularlyinmoreremoteareas;deteriorationinwaterqualityas
aresultofleachatefromwasteactivities(authorised/unauthorised).
ThetotalpopulationoftheSouthernRegioninthemostrecent2011censusjustover1.54
million.Thisrepresents34%ofIreland’spopulation.CorkCityandCountyaccountfor34%
of the region’s population. The region accounted for 455,115 tonnes of managed waste
according to the latest EPA figures. In 2012 approximately 214,200 tonnes of municipal
wastewasreportedasuncollected/unmanagednationallywhichequatestoapproximately
16% of occupied houses within Ireland. Unmanaged household waste contributes to
backyardburningandillegaldumping.
Population
andHuman
Health
There have been changes in the waste collection sector with the majority of local
authoritiesexitingthedomesticwastecollectionmarketandprivateoperatorstakingover.
This has led to multiple operators, particularly in urban areas, competing for waste
collection services, although the extent of competition (i.e. number of service providers)
variesandisnotalwayscomparable(i.e.someoperatorsoffera2binservice,othersa3
bin).Bycontrast,manyruralareasdonothavecompetitionforservices.
Significantgrowthinpopulationhasoccurredinurbanandruralareasandthisgrowthhas
resulted in individual houses in the countryside and housing clusters in small villages
throughout much of the country. This places increased pressure on waste collection
systems. In general there are better kerbside collection systems available in the main
populationcentresintheregion.
The predominant soil types in the Southern Region are acid/ basic deep welldrained
mineral soils, particularly in County Cork, while poorly drained mineral soils, shallow
lithosolicpodzolictypesandpeatsaremorecommonalongthewesternAtlanticmarginsof
theregion.
Thereare22licensedlandfillsintheSouthernRegion,consistingof1activemunicipalsolid
waste landfill and 21 closed landfills. Of particular note in relation to soils, geology and
hydrogeologyistheissueofhistoriclandfills.Therearea195historiclandfillsrecordedfor
Soils,
the Southern Region. These sites are variously covered under Section 22 of the Waste
Geologyand ManagementAct(WMA)1996andtheHistoricLandfillRegulations2008andincludeillegal
Hydrogeology sites,localauthoritysites,pre1977sitesandprivatesites.Ofthese,33areconsideredhigh
risk.Historiclandfillsitesposeparticularrisksforgroundwaterandsurfacewaters,aswell
as soils as a result of leachates formed from breakdown of the wastes. This can in turn
impactonbiodiversityandhumanhealth.
Despite the wide range of functions that soils perform from an ecosystem services
perspective,thereislittleornolegislationrelatingdirectlytosoilsandsoilprotectionand
assuchatargetedresponsetothepressureonsoilsinIrelandcannotbeformulatedtoany
greatextent.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
9
[SouthernRegion]
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
TheSouthernRegionincorporatesallorpartoffourRiverBasinDistricts:theSouthEastern,
the SouthWestern, the Shannon (international) and the Western. The region contains
sectionsofanumberofimportantcatchments,suchastheShannon,Barrow,Nore,Slaney,
Suir,BlackwaterandLeeandanumberofriverstravelthroughtheregion,theprimaryones
beingtheShannon,Barrow,Nore,SuirandLee.LoughDergandLoughLeanearethetwo
main lakes in the region. Of the rivers which have been classified (34.6%) in the region,
19.9%areconsideredtobeofgoodstatusorabove.Thefigureforlakeswhichhavebeen
classified(35.9%)is11.1%atgoodstatusorabove.
Water
Unlicensed/unregulated landfill sites and historical and illegal dumping sites are all
potential sources of water pollution. These sites due to their historic and unregulated
naturearenotengineeredwithlinerandleachatecollectionssystemsinplace.Dangerous
substances associated with leachate from such sites can be toxic to aquatic plants and
animals. As such, they can persist in waters and sediments, and slowly build up in the
bodiesofaquaticorganisms.
An additional pressure is in the form of illegal activities such as diesel laundering, a by
productofwhichresultsinhazardoustoxicsludge,sulphuricacidwashandcontaminated
absorbent material which may result in water pollution if inappropriately managed with
potentialriskstohumanhealththroughcontaminationofdrinkingwatersupplies.
IngeneralambientairqualityinIrelandisgoodduelargelytotheprevailingcleanwesterly
airflowfromtheAtlanticandtherelativeabsenceoflargecitiesandheavyindustry.
AirQuality
andclimatic
Factors
TheEUCommission’sproposalrequiresIrelandtodelivera20%reductioninemissionsof
greenhouse gases relative to the 1990 levels by 2020. Despite the current economic
downturnleadingtoamarkedreductioninIreland’sGHGemissionsthis20%reductionon
1990levelswillbedifficulttoachieve.ThelatestdatafromtheEPAindicatethatemissions
of GHGs in Ireland in 2012were 57.92Mt CO2 equivalent which represents an increase of
1.0% on emissions in 2011. The waste sector is the smallest contributor to the overall
emissions and presently contributes 1.8% of GHGs and has seen a 2.7% decrease in its
emissionsfrom2011.Thisrelatesmainlytothereductioninmethaneemittedfromlandfills
of which there has been an 11.7% reduction in 2012. However, emissions from waste to
energyfacilitieshaveincreasedby0.07MtofCO2equivalentin2012whichreflectsthefirst
full year of commercial operation at the WtE facility in Co. Meath (EasternMidlands
Region).ItshouldbenotedthatthecementsectorfallsundertheIndustryandCommercial
SectorandIndustrialemissionswhichaccountedfor14.7%ofGHGemissions,increasedby
1.6% from 2011, the largest source of emissions in this category which is from large
combustionsourceswithintheEUEuropeanTradingScheme(ETS).
Under the CAFE Directive, Ireland is required to reduce levels of PM2.5 by 10% between
2012and2020.Thisreductionwillbechallengingasitwillrequireanintegratedapproach
across a number of sectors including industrial, transport and residential emissions. The
test in meeting Ireland’s obligations under the National Emissions Ceiling Directive is
greater,inparticularforoxidesofnitrogen.
Material
Assets
The Southern Region has an extensive road, rail, bus, air and sea transport network. The
region is served by intercity train services from Dublin to Limerick, Cork, Tralee, and
Waterforddirectlythatservesstationsenroute,suchasCarlowandKilkennyontheDublin
Waterford line. The region is served by four airports, namely Cork, Shannon, Kerry and
Waterford Airports. Shannon Airport is one of Ireland’s two international transatlantic
airports and the industry which has grown around the airport provides significant
employment for both Limerick and Clare. The Southern Region is well served by ports
whichhighlightthelongandstrongtradinglinksbetweenthesouthernpartofIrelandand
ourUKandEuropeantradingpartners.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
10
[SouthernRegion]
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
TheSouthernRegionincludesasignificantcoastlineandaccesstomarinewaterswhichare
usedforrecreationandindustry,notablyaquaculture.TheareaswithinIrelandthathave
higher concentrations of aquaculture include Donegal, Carlingford Lough, Wexford,
Waterford, West Cork, Kerry, Galway and Mayo. The finfish production in Ireland was
valued by Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) in 2012 at nearly €83 million while shellfish was
valuedatnearly€50millionforthesameyear(BIMStrategy20132017).
The Southern Region has 69 EPA licenced waste infrastructure facilities and 376 local
authority waste facilities in place, well distributed around the region with a higher
concentrationaroundkeytownsandthecityofCork.Thereisonly1activemunicipalsolid
wastelandfillintheSouthernRegionand21thatareclosed.Oneofthemainprinciplesof
wastepolicyoverrecentyearshasbeentosignificantlyreducetherelianceonlandfillasa
disposalmethodforwaste.
ThereisnomunicipalwastetoenergyrecoverycapacityintheSouthernRegion.Thereare
alsonocementmanufacturingplantsthatcofiresolidrecoveredfuelasareplacementto
importingfossilfuelshoweverthereisthepossibilityofswitchingaplantlocatedinLimerick
toalternativefuelsinthefuture.
More waste is being generated in Ireland, with more waste being exported. The energy
generatedfromthisexportedwasteisnotonlyarevenue,whichisbeinglosttotheIrish
economy, but more importantly it is a potential energy source which provides electricity
andheattobusinessesandhomeselsewhere.Longtermrelianceonexportsandfailureto
capitalise on the embedded energy in residual waste requires examination, with energy
costsandsecuritybecomingasignificantnationalissue.
Cultural
Heritage
There are over 70,000 Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), listedin the region. The
RMPlististhestatutorylistofallknownarchaeologicalmonumentsinIrelandascompiled
bytheArchaeologicalSurveyofIreland,partoftheDepartmentofArts,Heritageandthe
Gaeltacht. In addition, the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH), which
identifies, records and evaluates the post1700 architectural heritage of Ireland accounts
for over 24,000 entries in the region. There is one UNESCO site in the Southern Region,
SkelligMichaelwhichissituatedinCountyKerry.Afurther3sitesontheUNESCOtentative
listoccurwithintheregion.
Economic growth and increasing population is placing pressure on sites or features of
architectural, archaeological or cultural heritage interest. Individual developments put
directpressureonthisresource,whereitisinproximity,orwhereitincreasesthepotential
tointeractwithknownorpreviouslyunknownsitesandfeatures.Togetherwiththeexisting
pressures on landscape and visual resources, this can result in an impact on the overall
culturalheritageresource.
Landscape
TheSouthernRegioncoversanareaofaround29,589km2whichrepresentsabout42%of
the country. The topography of the Southern Region includes lowland areas with rich
agriculturalland,peatlands,forestandmountainousareas.Theextensivecoastline,which
comprises the eastern, western and southern boundary of the region, is approximately
4,050km long (including islands) and includes various bays, estuaries, and portions of the
Irish Sea, Celtic Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The region features the McGillicuddy Reeks in
Kerry, withCarrauntoohil as Ireland’s highest peak (at 1,038m)throughto County Carlow
whichformspartoftheGreatPlainofIreland.CountyClarecontainstheBurrenlimestone
pavement landscape, while Lough Derg and the Shannon River and Estuary strongly
influence the topography in the northwest of the region. The topography of Limerick
CountyandnorthCorkmainlycomprisesfertilelowland,withmountainrangessuchasthe
Ballyhourastotheeast.Tothesouth,Corkischaracterisedbyrivervalleysandridgeswhich
runeasttowest–themainriversaretheBlackwater,Bride,LeeandBandon.Inthewest
Cork area, the mountains include the Boggeragh, Derrynasagart, Shehy and Caha
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
11
[SouthernRegion]
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Mountains.Tipperaryfeaturesagriculturallowlandsandhigherareas,themostsignificant
of which are the Galtee Mountains and the Silvermine Mountains to the north of the
county,andtherenownedSlievenamonpeaknearClonmel.Inthesoutheastoftheregion,
the main mountain ranges are theKnockmealdowns andthe Comeraghs in Tipperaryand
Waterford.AlsotothesoutheastistheLeinsterMassifwhichoccupiesthezonebetween
theRiverSlaneyandtheRiverBarrow,andincludestheBlackstairsMountains,withMount
Leinsteratitspeak.
Existing pressures on landscape and visual resources are primarily related to impacts to
sensitive views and landscapes resulting from the secondary impacts from the siting of
development. The absence of a cohesive national landscape strategy which seeks to
preserveand/orprotectsuchhistoricalandculturallandscapes,landscapesofamenityand
socialvalueandfeaturesofscenicvalueplacesmuchoftheemphasisonlocalauthorities,
howevertheapproachestakenareoftennotconsistent.
InterRelationships
The interrelationship between the SEA environmental topics is an important consideration for
environmental assessment. Figure 4 highlights the key interrelationships identified in this SEA.
These potential interrelationships have been taken into account in the assessment of the different
alternatives. A key interrelationship is between air quality, climate and human health. Methane
emissionsfromlandfillinghaveimpactsonairqualityandconsequentlyhumanheathbutinaddition,
methaneisasignificantgreenhousegasthatcancontributetoclimatechangeandfloodingwhichin
turnhasimplicationsforpopulationandhumanhealth,particularlyincoastalregions.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
12
[SouthernRegion]
Biodiversity,
Flora,Fauna
X
Population
/HumanHealth
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Air,Climatic
Factors
Material
Assets
Cultural
Heritage
Soil
Water
Air,Climatic
Factors
MaterialAssets
Cultural
Heritage
Landscape
Water
Soil
Population
/Human
Health
Biodiversity
Flora,Fauna
Landscape
Figure4–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics
EvolutionoftheEnvironmentintheAbsenceoftheRWMP
Without the implementation of the Southern RWMP it could reasonably be expected that waste
management in the region would continue to be managed in a less coordinated manner, thus the
cumulativeandsynergisticimpactsontheenvironmentofincreasingpopulationandincreasedwaste
generation across the region would continue albeit in the context of existing waste prevention
measures already in place. Critically the framework in place would not facilitate the coordinated
approach to assessing waste management infrastructure requirements within the state and may
resultinovercapacityofcertaintypesofinfrastructureandlackofspatialdistributionnationally.
Biodiversity, flora and fauna in the region, including protected sites, habitats and species, would
continuetoexistinmuchthesamepattern,abundanceanddensityastodayhowevertherewould
be continued risk to biodiversity as a result of ongoing legacy issues from historic landfills; illegal
dumping; and backyard burning. Without a coordinated response to these issues, the risk to
biodiversitywouldnotbeaddressed.Similarly,theabsenceoftheplanhasthepotentialtoincrease
therisktoculturalheritageandthelandscapewhereoversupplyorpoorsitingofinfrastructureputs
pressure on these resources. Water quality in Ireland is likely to continue to improve in line with
effortsbeingmadebytheRiverBasinManagementPlan(RBMP)andProgrammeofMeasures(PoM)
throughout Ireland. The rate of this improvement in surface waters would be expected to remain
insufficienttomeettherequirementofachievinggoodstatusinallwatersby2015asrequiredbythe
WaterFrameworkDirective.AirqualityinIrelandisofahighstandardacrossthecountry,meeting
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
13
[SouthernRegion]
all EU air quality standards, according to the EPA. The absence of the Southern RWMP is not
expectedtoaffectthistrend.
The lack of coordinated resources would continue to deliver uncoordinated infrastructure and
programmes in different parts of the country. This could contribute to increases in unmanaged
waste material, backyard burning and illegal dumping. These practices in turn would give rise to
deteriorationofairquality,waterandsoilsqualityandpossiblyhumanhealth.Intheabsenceofthe
Southern RWMP it is likely that tighter controls would still be put in place on unsustainable
residential development, including one off housing thereby curbing the cumulative effects of
servicingadispersedpopulation.
The programme of remediation of unregulated historic landfills and licensed sites would continue
albeit on a more ad hoc basis than would be implemented through the new plan which allows for
more effective and efficient management of local authority resources. The EPA Code of Practice:
(EPA, 2007) and Guidance (EPA, 2013) would continue to be used when assessing unregulated
historiclandfillsandlicensedfacilities.
6
ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONOBJECTIVESANDSEAFRAMEWORK
ThereareessentiallythreetypesofObjectivesconsideredaspartofthisSEA.Thefirstrelatestothe
ObjectivesoftheWasteFrameworkDirectiveandtheSouthernRWMP.Thesecondrelatestowider
Environmental Objectives, i.e. environmental protection objectives at national and European level,
and finally there are the Strategic Environmental Objectives, which were devised to test the
environmental effects of implementation of the policies and policy actions contained in the draft
SouthernRWMP.
TheStrategicEnvironmentalObjectivesareseparatetotheSouthernRWMPobjectivesandprovidea
statement of what is intended from an environmental perspective, giving a desired direction of
change. The Strategic Environmental Objectives reflect the existing environmental concerns in
Irelandrelevanttowastemanagementandtakeaccountofthescopingandconsultationfeedback.
TheselectedobjectivesforthisSEAarelistedbelowinBox1.
Box1:StrategicEnvironmentalObjectiveSelected
Obj. 1 Biodiversity Flora and Fauna: Preserve, protect and maintain the terrestrial, aquatic and soil
biodiversity,particularlyEUandnationallydesignatedsitesandprotectedspecies.
Obj.2BiodiversityFloraandFauna:IntegratebiodiversityconsiderationsintotheSouthernRWMP.
Obj.3PopulationandHumanHealth:Protecthumanhealthfromtheimpactsofwastemanagementby
ensuringwastepreventionandrelatedactivitiesarepromotedatcommunityandindividuallevel.
Obj. 4 Population and Human Health: Promote and encourage access and services for appropriate
wastemanagementforall.
Obj.5Soils:Safeguardsoilqualityandquantityfromwasteandreducesoilcontamination.
Obj.6Water:Protectwaterqualityandthewaterresourcefromwasteactivities.
Obj.7AirQuality:Minimiseemissionsofpollutantstoairassociatedwithwastemanagement.
Obj.8ClimaticFactors:Minimisecontributiontoclimatechangebyreducingemissionsofgreenhouse
gassesassociatedwiththepreventionandmanagementofwastesandadapttothepotentialeffectsof
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
14
[SouthernRegion]
Box1:StrategicEnvironmentalObjectiveSelected
climatechangethroughappropriatesitingofwasteinfrastructure.
Obj. 9 Material Assets: Support sustainable waste management activities without conflicting with
environmentalprotectionobjectives.
Obj.10MaterialAssets:Minimisetransportimpactsofwastemanagementactivities.
Obj.11CulturalHeritage:Protectplaces,features,buildingsandlandscapesofcultural,archaeological
orarchitecturalheritagefromimpactasaresultofwasteactivities.
Obj.12Landscape:Protectandmaintainthenationallandscapecharacter.
Obj. 13 Social: Promote sustainable management of waste at an individual, community, regional and
nationallevel.
The overall purpose of environmental indicators in the SEA is to provide a way of measuring the
environmentaleffectofimplementingthedraftSouthernRWMP.Environmentalindicatorsarealso
usedtotracktheprogressinachievingthetargetssetintheSEAaswellastheSouthernRWMPitself.
TheproposedindicatorsforthisSEAhavebeenselectedbearinginmindtheavailabilityofdataand
the feasibility of making direct links between any changes in the environment and the
implementationoftheSouthernRWMP.
Targets were considered over the duration of the baseline data collection and assessment, and
throughouttheconsultationprocess,inordertomeettheStrategicEnvironmentalObjectivesaswell
astheobjectivesoftheSouthernRWMP.Ineachcase,anytargetthatissetmustbeattributableto
the implementation of the Southern RWMP. The targets and indicators associated with each SEA
ObjectivearepresentedinChapter6ofthereport.
7
ALTERNATIVES
EarlydiscussionofpossiblealternativeswasundertakenaspartofthescopingforthedraftSouthern
RWMP,whichwasthesubjectofpublicconsultation.Subsequentconsiderationwasthengivenwith
thePlan,SEAandAAteamsinvolvedingenerationofalternativesanddevelopmentofpoliciesand
policywording.
At the strategic level, given the statutory requirement [under both EU and national waste
management legislation] for the draft Southern RWMP to be reviewed and updated, it was not
proposedtoassessadonothingscenarioorbusinessasusualscenariosasneitherwereconsidered
realisticgiventhattherehasbeenasignificantchangeinthemakeupofwasteregionssincethelast
RWMPswerepublished.Amodifiedbusinessasusualwasinitiallyconsideredwhereinthepolicies
remainunchangedfromthepreviousregionalplansandonlytherevisedboundariesareconsidered.
Howeveritwasnotedthatthedecisiononthenewwasteregionswastakenaspartofahigherlevel
policyoutlinedinGovernmentNationalWastePolicydocument,AResourceOpportunity1anditwas
concludedthatchangingthenationalpolicywasnotareasonablealternativeforconsiderationwithin
theregionalplancontext.
1
AResourceOpportunity.WasteManagementPolicyinIreland,DECLG2012
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
15
[SouthernRegion]
Early discussions with the plan team identified three issues ofa strategic nature which could drive
thedirectionoftheplan.TheseissuesandtheirreasonablealternativeswereconsideredbytheSEA
teamandoutcomesfedbacktotheplanteamforconsideration.Theissuesandalternativeswere:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Retaining a linear economy model versus shifting towards a circular economy model;
Selfsufficiency versus reliance on exports for treatment of residual municipal type
waste;and
Inclusionofmandatorytargetsonlyorinclusionofadditionalnonmandatorytargets.
Furthermore, following on from consideration of the strategic alternatives, the Plan, SEA and AA
teamsconsideredalternativesunderkeystrategicpolicyareasasfollows:
ƒ
ƒ
Policyandlegislation;
Prevention;
ResourceefficiencyandCircularEconomy;
Coordination;
Infrastructure;
EnforcementandRegulation;and
Protection;and
ƒ
Otherwastestreams.
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Basedontheoutcomeoftheassessmentofalternativesapreferredstrategywasdevelopedbythe
plan team which included policies and policies actions. These policies and policy actions were the
subject of a detailed assessment by both the SEA and AA teams. It is noted that the process was
iterativeandwordingchangeswerefedthroughtotheplanteamoverthecourseoftheassessment
wherenegativeimpactsweredetermined.Wherechangestowordingwerenotpossibleorsufficient
tooffsetanegativeassessment,mitigationmeasuresweredevelopedbytheSEAandAAteams.
8
ASSESSMENT
TheapproachusedforassessingthedraftSouthernRWMPwasanobjectiveledassessment.Forthe
purposes of this assessment plus (+) indicates a potential positive impact, minus () indicates a
potential negative impact, plus/minus (+/) indicates that both positive and negative impacts are
likely or that in the absence of further detail the impact is unclear, and a neutral or no impact is
indicatedby0.
At the broad level, implementation of the Southern RWMP is expected to bring environmental
improvements, since it tackles specific pressures arising from waste management activities. The
focusoftheproposedstrategyisonpreventionintermsofwastegenerationinthefirstinstanceand
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
16
[SouthernRegion]
then on reuse and recycling as a means to reducing the amount of material going to waste and
requiringcollection,treatmentand/ordisposal.Thestrategyhaspotentialforwhichforsignificant
cumulative positive impacts on all environmental receptors through reduced need for: collection
(thereforereducedtransportrelatedemissionstoairandwater)andreducedtreatment/disposal
(thereforereducedprocessrelatedemissionstoair,soilsandwater).However,therearesomecases
wherenegativeimpactsmayariseinthewiderenvironment.TheSEAhasidentifiedsuchareasand
where mitigation of impacts can be achieved including ensuring that monitoring and regulation is
adequate,andencouragingacoordinatedapproachtowastemanagementontheislandofIreland.
In addition, the Appropriate Assessment results have been integrated into the SEA and where
mitigationhasbeenproposedundertheAppropriateAssessmentthishasalsobeenbroughtforward
intotheSEA.Theassessmentofthepoliciesandpolicyactionswhichformthepreferredstrategyis
summarisedinTable5.
Table5–SummaryAssessmentTable
OverallImpact
MitigationMeasures
Recommended
A. PolicyandLegislation
+
B. Prevention
+
+/
+
X
Infrastructure
+/
EnforcementandRegulation
+
G. Protection
+/
H. OtherWasteStreams
+/
C.
ResourceEfficiencyandCircularEconomy
D. Coordination
E.
F.
9
MITIGATIONANDMONITORING
Article10oftheSEADirectiverequiresthatmonitoringbecarriedouttoidentifyatan earlystage
any unforeseen adverse effects due to implementation of the Southern RWMP, in order to take
remedialactionwhereadverseeffectsareidentifiedthroughmonitoring.
Monitoring will focus on aspects of the environment that are likely to be significantly impacted by
theSouthernRWMP.Wherepossible,indicatorshavebeenchosenbasedontheavailabilityofthe
necessary information and the degree to which the data will allow the target to be linked directly
withtheimplementationoftheSouthernRWMP.
TheproposedmonitoringprogrammewillbecarriedoutasimplementationoftheSouthernRWMP
progresses and, depending on monitoring results, adjustments to targets and indicators may be
madetoensurethecontinuedeffectivenessofthemonitoringprogrammeintheinterestofoptimal
environmentalprotection.
Atotalof36mitigationmeasureshavebeenrecommended.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
17
[SouthernRegion]
10 NEXTSTEPS
There is still some important work to complete before this Southern RWMP is adopted. This will
include some further technical and scientific planning work as well as recording, assessing and,
whereappropriate,takingonboardcommentsreceivedduringconsultationsonthedraftSouthern
RWMPandSEA.
ThenextstepintheSEAandRWMPprocesswillbeaconsultationperiodlastinguntil30thJanuary
2015.DuringthistimecommentonthefindingsoftheSEAEnvironmentalReport,theNaturaImpact
ReportandthecontentofthedraftSouthernRWMPmaybesubmittedforconsideration.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
18
[SouthernRegion]
1 INTRODUCTION
ThisEnvironmentalReporthasbeenpreparedaspartoftheStrategicEnvironmentalAssessmentof
theSouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan(RWMP),20152021inaccordancewithnationaland
EUlegislation.ThepurposeofthisEnvironmentalReportisto:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
InformthedevelopmentoftheRWMP;
IdentifydescribeandevaluatethelikelysignificanteffectsoftheRWMPanditsreasonable
alternatives;and
Provideanearlyopportunityforthestatutoryauthoritiesandthepublictoofferviewson
anyaspectofthisEnvironmentalReport,throughconsultation.
1.1 WASTEMANAGEMENTINIRELAND
AregionalapproachtomanagingwasteinIrelandwasgivenalegalbasisbytheWasteManagement
Act 1996 which allowed for one or more local authorities to come together for the purpose of
preparingaRWMP.Tenregionswereformed,sevenofwhichweremadeupoftwoormorelocal
authorities and covered the majority of the country and three were singlecounty regions (these
wereKildare,WicklowandDonegal).TheseregionsareshowninFigure11.Thefirstregionalwaste
managementplanswerepreparedinthelate1990sandmostwerebasedona15yearstrategyto
maximiserecyclingandtominimisedisposal.Thisstrategicvisionremainsvalidtothisdayandisin
keepingwiththeEuropeanCommission’saimforMemberStatestoembraceandfosterarecycling
society.
Figure11PreviousWasteManagementRegions
ThefirstgenerationofRWMPscoveredtheperiod1998to2004andintroducedanewapproachto
local waste management in Ireland. The plans followed the policy objectives of the State’s first
National Waste Policy Statement, Changing Our Ways2, and the waste management hierarchy was
2
WasteManagementChangingOurWays.DELG,1998
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
19
[SouthernRegion]
placedattheheartoftheregionalplans.Theplanobjectivesincludedthewidespreadintroductionof
sourceseparatedcollectionsystemsforhouseholdsandbusiness,significantimprovementstolocal
public recycling infrastructure, plans for the development of regional waste treatment capacities,
awarenessandeducationinitiativesandenforcementactivities.Thescopeoftheplanswas(andstill
is)substantialandisdefinedinstatutebytheWasteManagementPlanningRegulations1997andby
theWasteFrameworkDirectiveRegulations.
ThefirstgenerationofRWMPswerereviewedandreplacedovertheperiod2005to2006withthe
secondgenerationofRWMPs.ThesecondgenerationofRWMPsbuiltonthefoundationsofthefirst
regionalplans,expandingonpolicyobjectivestoreflectthenatureoftheoperatingenvironment,the
growing market and the increased role of private sector operators. The targets set down in the
originalstrategiesremainedinplaceandprovidedheadlinegoals,formostregions,to2013.
The second generation of the plans were designed to cover the period up to 2010/2011. An
evaluation of the existing RWMPs was carried out by the local authorities in 2012 in line with the
requirements of Article 30 of the EU Waste Framework Directive. The outcome of this process
showed that there was significant improvement in recycling rates in the period as well as building
capacity in waste prevention. In addition, the outcome of this process was to recommend the
preparation of new RWMPs to take account of the legislative changes brought into force by the
EuropeanCommunities(WasteDirective)Regulations2011forthenewlyconfiguredwasteregions.
In July 2012 the latest Government National Waste Policy document, A Resource Opportunity3,
recommendedtheconsolidationofthewasteregionstoamaximumofthree[seeFigure12].The
documentacknowledgesthatthetimehascomefortheregionalwasteplanningframeworktobere
shaped to allow for greater resource efficiencies in the implementation of the plans and to better
reflectthemovementofwaste.Thenewboundarylineswillprovideforgreaterconsistencyandco
ordination with other planning frameworks. The recommendation was guided by the national
programme of reform of local government arrangements and the benefits identified from
rationalising the regions in terms of concentration of local authority resources. The new regional
structuresalsobetterrecognisethenatureoftheIrishwastemarketandthemovementofwastein
theState.
Thetransformationfromtenregionstothreehasbeenundertakenasfollows:
ƒ
SouthernRegion;
ƒ
EasternMidlandsRegion;and
ƒ
ConnachtUlsterRegion.
Asimilarrationalisationiscurrentlybeingconsideredforwasteenforcement[EPAcommunicationas
partofscopingresponses].
The RWMP was jointly prepared by RPS, Limerick City and County Council and Tipperary County
Council,theleadauthoritiesfortheSouthernRegion.TheStrategicEnvironmentalAssessmentand
AppropriateAssessmenthavebeencompletedbyRPSonbehalfoftheleadauthorities.
3
AResourceOpportunity,WasteManagementPolicyinIreland.DECLG2012
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
20
¯
ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
0
50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 1.2 Ireland's Waste Management Regions
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1001F01
[SouthernRegion]
2 CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN
2.1 RESPONSIBLEAUTHORITYFORTHESOUTHERNREGION
TheleadauthoritiesforthepreparationoftheSouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan(RWMP)
are Limerick City and County Council and Tipperary County Council. The RWMP itself covers the
SouthernRegionwhichincorporatesallorpartof10cityandcountycounciladministrativeareasas
follows: Carlow, Clare, Cork City, Cork County, Kerry, Kilkenny, Limerick City and County, Tipperary
County, Waterford City and Wexford [based on recent amalgamation of some city and county
administrative areas]. The geographic extent of the Southern Region, and the area to which the
RWMPpertains,isshowninFigure21.
2.2 KEYWASTETERMINOLOGYUSEDINTHEPLAN
Table 21 outlines the key terminology used in the RWMP in reference to the waste hierarchy. A
more comprehensive glossary of all relevant waste terms used in the RWMP can be found in the
glossaryoftermsatthebackoftheSouthernRWMP.
Table21KeyWasteTerminology
Term
Explanation
Waste
Definedasanysubstanceorobjectwhichtheholderdiscards,intendsto discard
orisrequiredtodiscard,bytheWasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC).
The collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the
supervisionofsuchoperationsandtheafter–careofdisposalsites,andincluding
actionstakenasadealerorbroker.
The Waste Framework Directive (2008) sets out a waste hierarchy which is a
priority order of what constitutes the best overall environmental option in
waste legislation and policy. The hierarchy places prevention at the top level
followedbypreparingforreuse,recycling,energyrecoveryanddisposal.
WasteManagement
WasteHierarchy
WastePrevention
Reuse
PrepareforReuse
Recovery
Recycling
Treatment/Pretreatment
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
A reduction in the quantityandharmfulness to the environment of waste and
thematerialsandsubstancescontainedwithinwaste.
Any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used
againforthesamepurposeforwhichtheywereconceived.
Checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or
componentsofproductsthathavebecomewastearepreparedsothattheycan
bereusedwithoutanyotherpre–processing.
Anyoperationtheprincipalresultofwhichiswasteservingausefulpurposeby
replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a
particularfunction,orwastebeingpreparedtofulfilthatfunction,intheplant
or in the wider economy. Annex II of the Waste Framework Directive
(2008/98/EC) sets out a non–exhaustive list of recovery operations, which
includesmaterialrecovery(i.e.Recycling),energyrecovery(i.e.Useafuel(other
than in direct incineration) or other means to generate energy) and biological
recovery(e.g.composting).
Anyrecoveryoperationbywhichwastematerialsarereprocessedintoproducts,
materialsorsubstanceswhetherfortheoriginalorotherpurposes.Itincludes
thereprocessingoforganicmaterialbutdoesnotincludeenergyrecoveryand
the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling
operations.
Includes, in relation to waste, any manual, thermal, physical, chemical or
22
[SouthernRegion]
Term
Explanation
Disposal
ResidualWaste
biologicalprocessesthatchangethecharacteristicsofwasteinordertoreduce
itsmass,orhazardousnatureorotherwise,tofacilitateitshandling,disposalor
recovery.
Any operation which is not recovery even where the operation has as a
secondaryconsequencethereclamationofsubstancesorenergy.AnnexIofthe
Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC) sets out a non–exhaustive
listofdisposaloperations.
The fraction of collected waste remaining after treatment and/or diversion
steps,whichgenerallyrequiresfurthertreatmentordisposal.
2.3 REQUIREMENTFORAREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
The Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) sets out the approach for the sustainable
managementofwasteinMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityandhasbeentransposedinto
IrishlawbytheEuropeanCommunities(WasteDirective)Regulations2011leadingtoamendments
oftheWasteManagementAct1996.Thedirectiverequiresthefollowing:
ƒ
Theapplicationofthewastehierarchytoapplyasapriorityorderinwastepreventionand
wastemanagementlegislationandpolicy;
ƒ
To ensure that waste is recovered (including separate collection at source to facilitate
recoverywheretechnically,environmentallyandeconomicallypracticable)or,whereitisnot
recovered,toensurethatwasteisdisposedofwithoutcausingriskstohumanhealthandthe
environment;
ƒ
Toprohibittheabandonmentoruncontrolleddisposalofwaste;
ƒ
To establish an integrated and adequate network of waste disposal installations and of
installationsfortherecoveryofmixedmunicipalwasteaimingforEUselfsufficiencyandfor
MemberStatesindividuallytomovetowardsselfsufficiency;
ƒ
Totakenecessarymeasurestoensurethatanyholderofwasterecoversordisposesofitin
anenvironmentallysoundmannerandinaccordancewiththewastehierarchyeitherdirectly
orthroughathirdparty;
ƒ
To have a system of permits and registration for all those involved in collecting, disposing,
preparingfortherecovery,orrecoveringwaste;
ƒ
To ensure that all those involved keep a record of all the details of their operations (the
quantity, nature and, origin and destination of the waste) and are subject to periodic
inspectionsandspecialcontrolstoensurethesafemanagementofhazardouswaste;and
ƒ
Toensurethatthecostsofwastemanagementarebornebytheoriginalwasteproduceror
bythecurrentorpreviouswasteholders,inaccordancewiththepolluterpaysprinciple.
Thedirectiveandanumberofotherdirectivessetoutarangeofpolicyprinciples,mandatorytargets
andregulatoryframeworkswhichMemberStatesmusttransposeintonationallaw.
TheRWMPsinIrelandarestatutoryplanningdocumentswhoseobjectiveistosetoutaframework
forthepreventionandmanagementofwastesforadefinedregionalarea.Thepreparationofthe
RWMPsisthestatutoryresponsibilityofthelocalauthoritiesandtwoormorelocalauthoritiesmay
jointly prepare a RWMP. Once prepared a plan is valid for a period of up to six years and under
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
23
[SouthernRegion]
statutoryobligationsmustbeevaluatedonceeverysixyears.TheSouthernRWMPwillbeinforcefor
sixyearscoveringtheperiodfrom2015upto2021.
2.4 AREACOVEREDBYTHEPLAN
The RWMP is focussed on the Southern Region. The geographic scope of the Southern Region is
showninseeFigure21.ThefootprintofthenewSouthernRegionencompassesallorpartsoffive
previousRWMPareas(CorkCity,CorkCounty,Limerick,MidlandsandSouthEast).
The region covers a total area of approximately 2,958,900 hectares, which equates to 42% of the
areaofthecountry(8,442,100hectares).The2011populationcensusshowedthattheregionhasa
populationof1,541,439(CSO,2011)whichrepresents34%ofthenationalpopulation(4,588,252).
TheIrishSeaformstheeasternboundaryofthearea,tothesouth,Wicklowformstheborderwith
WexfordandCarlowintheSouthernRegion;Laois,Offaly,Westmeath,MeathandLongfordlietothe
west,formingtheboundarywiththeConnachtUlsterRegionandLouthformstheboundarywiththe
ConnachtUlsterRegionandNorthernIrelandtothenorth.Inland,theregionisboundedtothenorth
byCountiesWicklow,Kildare,Laois,OffalyandGalway.CoastalborderstotheEast,SouthandWest
comprisetheIrishSea,St.GeorgesChannel,theCelticSeaandtheAtlanticOceanrespectively.
ThepotentialfortransboundaryimpactswithNorthernIrelandhasbeenacknowledgedintheSEA
scoping phase and consultation has been undertaken with the relevant authorities in Northern
Ireland(NIEA).TheSouthernRegiondoesnotsharealandboundarywithNorthernIrelandhowever,
the NIEA notes that the transport of waste between Ireland and Northern Ireland is a key
considerationoftheRWMP.
The population of the region is 1,541,439 which includes an urban/rural population split of
51/49%.Thedistributionofpeopleandtheiractivitieswithintheregionvariesfromruralagricultural
communities to the cities of Cork, Kilkenny, Limerick and Waterford. Counties Cork, Limerick and
Waterford have more urban than rural population numbers due to the location of the three cities
withintheirboundaries.Populationnumbersintheregionhavegrown6.8%overthelastfiveyears
andgrowthhasbeenmostsignificantinCarlow,Kilkenny,CorkandWexford.
2.5 INTRODUCTIONTOTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
The new draft waste management plan under development is presented in three parts beginning
with Part 1, Background, which sets out the strategic and policy context for the plan including a
detailedprofileoftheregion.Part2,PresentPosition,setsouttheexistingsituationwithregardto
waste data, prevention and reuse activities, waste collection and infrastructural arrangements and
the management of priority waste streams. Part 3, Implementation, deals with waste projections,
infrastructureplanningandtherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevariousstakeholderstothedelivery
oftheplan.Part3alsoprovidesafinancialoverviewandadetailedbreakdownofpolicies,actions
andtargetstobeachieved.Part3concludeswiththearrangementsformonitoringandreportingon
planstrategy,objectives,policiesandactions.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
24
Town / City
Figure 2.1
(
!
Dingle
(
!
(
!
Tralee
Listowel
(
!
Bantry
Killarney
(
!
(
!
Kilrush
Southern Waste Management Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
(
!
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
(
!
(
!
(
!
Cork
Mallow
Clonakilty
(
!
Rathkeale
Shannon
Limerick
Macroom
(
!
(
!
Ennis
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Connacht-Ulster Region
(
!
(
!
(
Midleton !
Fermoy
(
!
Youghal
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Bagenalstown
Dungarvan
(
!
(
!
Kilometers
0
Waterford
New Ross
(
Graiguenamanagh !
Thomastown
(
Kilkenny !
(
!
(
!
Carlow
Tullow
Castlecomer !
(
(
Clonmel Carrick-on-Suir !
Thurles
Cashel
(
!
(
!
Templemore
Caher
Mitchelstown
(
!
Nenagh
(
Tipperary !
(
!
Eastern-Midlands Region
Wexford
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1003F01
25
(
!
50
Gorey
Enniscorthy
(
!
¯
[SouthernRegion]
2.6 STRATEGICVISIONOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
Theapproachofthewastestrategyistoputintoplacecoherentpolicyobjectivesandactionswhich
align with European and national policy and support Ireland’s move to an economy defined by
higher resource efficiency and productivity. This proposed strategy is focused on recognising the
importantrolethewastesectorhastoplayinhelpingIreland’shouseholds,businessesandindustry
inthetransitiontowardsamoreresourceefficientandcirculareconomy.
ThestrategicvisionfortheRWMPcanbesummarisedas:
Torethinktheapproachtomanagingwastes,byviewing
wastestreamsasvaluablematerialresourceswhichcanlead
toahealthierenvironmentandsustainablecommercial
opportunitiesforoureconomy.
Underpinningthisoverarchingstrategicvisionisasetofprincipleswhichwillguidethedeliveryofa
sustainableRWMP.Theseprinciplesinclude:
Application of the waste management hierarchy – this will remain a core principle of the waste
strategy for the region. The hierarchy embodies the wider thinking of the circular economy and
providesanorderoftreatmentallowingpolicymakersandregulatorstomakecleardecisions.The
mantra of previous plans has been reduce reuse recycle and much effort and progress has been
made,particularlyintermsofrecycling.Thisstrategynowseekstoshiftthefocusmoreontowaste
preventionandmaterialreuseactivitiestherebynotcreatingwastesinthefirstplace.Recyclingis
still an important strand in the strategy and in this iteration of the waste planning cycle, previous
progress in the area will be built upon with a focus on better collection of quality materials. The
strategy will also strive to further reduce the role of landfill in favour of higher value recovery
options.
Sourcesegregation – this is a wellestablished practise in the waste sector and local authorities
recogniseitsvalueinrecapturingresources,creatingnewmaterialsystemsandindoingsocreating
opportunitiesforenterprisesinthesector.Thestrategyseesthecontinuationofactionsinsupport
of this principle, focused on harmonising kerbside systems in the region and embedding the
segregatedcollectionoforganicwastesfromhouseholdersandbusinesses.
Polluterpaysprinciple–thisRWMPwillcontinuetoadoptandimplementactionswhichsupport
thisprinciple.Inkeepingwiththeprincipletherealcostsofgeneratingwastemustbebornebythe
producer.Thisincludesillegalactivitiessuchasflytippingandbackyardburningthecostofwhichis
currentlybeingburdenedunfairlyoncompliantcitizensandbusinesses.
Balanced and sustainable infrastructure – the strategic approach in the RWMP will be to deliver
balancedandsustainableinfrastructureforthetreatmentofwastesinlinewiththestrategicvision
andthewastehierarchy.Localauthoritieswilltakeonboardtheappropriatescaleofauthorisations
and locations of new developments for all sites, in particular facilities authorised by waste facility
permitandcertificatesofregistration.Infrastructureofacertaintypeandscalewillbeassessedona
regionalandnationalneedsbasis.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
9
[SouthernRegion]
Selfsufficiencyandproximity–theseprinciplesarepartofthestrategicapproachunderpinningthe
RWMP. The regions will work together and with other stakeholders to achieve greater self
sufficiencysoIrelandistakingresponsibilityforthewastesitgenerates.Forresidualnonhazardous
wastes the aim of government policy is to develop indigenous recovery infrastructure to replace
landfillandfortheStatetobecomeselfsufficient.Theproximityprinciplewillbeappliedincontext
tothescaleofproposeddevelopments.Thepotentialdevelopmentofnationallyimportantfacilities
in the region will be viewed as such and the extent of the supply market for each assessed on its
merits.
Opportunityandgrowth–thisisthefundamentalprincipleofthestrategicapproachwhichseeksto
support opportunity and growth for existing industry operators, social enterprises, secondary
materialenterprisesandstartupcompanies.
Cooperation–theneedforeffectivecooperationisfundamentaltothesuccess(orfailure)ofthe
strategic approach underpinning the RWMP. No single stakeholder can or will implement
successfullythepoliciesandactionsoftheRWMP.
Environmental Protection – the final principle of the strategic approach is to protect the
environment of the region and its citizens from the harmful impacts of managing wastes.
Environmentalissuesandimpactsarebeingintegratedintoalldecisionmakingandassessmentand
will help to ensure that actions and developments are environmentally sustainable. The local
authoritieshavebeenguidedby thestrategic environmentalassessmentinthepreparationofthe
RWMPandwillretainafocusonenvironmentalandcommunityprotectionthroughouttheperiod.
2.7 STRATEGICOBJECTIVESOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
The strategic policy objectives for the plan represent the local authorities’ statement of intent
embodying the strategic approach previously described. The strategic objectives are expanded
furtherinthedocumentintomoredefinedpolicyobjectivesandmeasurableactions.
TheoverarchingstrategicpolicyobjectivesoftheSouthernRWMPare:
ƒ
Policy&Legislation
ƒ
Prevention
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
10
[SouthernRegion]
ƒ
ResourceEfficiency
ƒ
Coordination
ƒ
InfrastructurePlanning
ƒ
Enforcement&Regulation
ƒ
Protection
ƒ
OtherWastes
Specific policies and policy actions are associated with each of these strategic policy objectives.
These policies and policy actions focus on the detail of targets to be achieved, timelines for
achievement and those responsible for delivery in order to support the implementation of the
RWMP.
[MDR0998Rp0012_F01]
11
[SouthernRegion]
3 STRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTMETHODOLOGY
3.1 THESTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTPROCESS
The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive requires that certain Plans and
Programmes,whicharelikelytohaveasignificantimpactontheenvironment,besubjecttotheSEA
process.TheSEAprocessisbroadlycomprisedofthefollowingsteps,asoutlinedinTable31.
Table31SEAStages
SEAStep/Stage
Purpose
Status
Screening
This stage was completed in Q2
The purpose of this stage of the process 2014withadecisiontoundertake
wastoreachadecisiononwhetherornot SEAoftheRWMP.
anSEAoftheRWMPwasrequired.
Scopingandstatutory
consultation
The purpose of this stage of the process
was to clarifythe scope and level of detail
to be considered in the environmental
assessment. This was done in consultation This stage was completed in Q2 /
withthedefinedstatutorybodiesforSEAin Q32014.
Ireland and consultation was also
undertaken with the authorities in
NorthernIreland.
Environmental
assessmentand
consultation
Thepurposeofthisstageoftheprocessis
to assess the likely significant impacts on
the environment as a result of
implementation of the RWMP and
consideration of reasonable alternatives.
Theoutputfromthisstageoftheprocessis
an SEA Environmental Report which
records this assessment. Consultation on
thedraftRWMP,EnvironmentalReportand
appropriateassessmentarealsopartofthis
stage.
SEAStatement
To stage was completed in
November 2014. Subject of this
report.
Thepurposeofthisstageoftheprocessis
to
identify
how
environmental To be published with Final RWMP
considerationsandconsultationshavebeen inearly2015.
integratedintothefinalplanculminatingin theproductionofanSEAStatement.
3.2 WORKCOMPLETEDTODATE
3.2.1 Screening
TheSEADirectiverequiresthatcertainplansandprogrammes,preparedbystatutorybodies,which
arelikelytohaveasignificantimpact ontheenvironment,besubjecttotheSEAprocess.AnSEA
screening of the Southern Regional Waste Management Plan was undertaken in May 2014 after
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
12
[SouthernRegion]
which it was concluded that SEA would be undertaken for the draft Southern Regional Waste
ManagementPlan.AcopyoftheScreeningStatementisavailableonthededicatedplanwebsite:
www.southernwasteregion.ie.
3.2.2 Scoping
OverviewoftheScope
GeographicalScope:TheSouthernRWMPistheplanforthemanagementofwastesarisinginthe
Southern Region, comprising 10 administrative areas. The assessment will therefore be focused at
activities occurring within the functional area of the RWMP, whilst recognising that there is a
national dimension to the plan. Recognition will be given within the plan to the issue of waste
management in the other two waste management plan regions (the EasternMidlands Region and
the ConnachtUlster Region) in the context of national capacities as well as those specific to the
region.
TemporalScope:TheSouthernRWMPwillbeinforceforsixyearsandwillcovertheperiodfrom
2015 up to 2021. In line with the SEA Directive, short, medium and longterm impacts (including
reference to secondary, cumulative, synergistic,permanent and temporary, positive and negative
effects)willbeconsideredduringtheassessment.Whilethereviewperiodfortheplaniseverysix
years the recommendations put forward in the plan have a longer perspective and will take a
numberofyearsforcertainaspectstobeimplementedandtakeeffect.Asaresultthetimelines
proposedforassessmentoflongtermimpactsextendsbeyondthetimeframeoftheactualplan.For
thepurposeoftheSEA,amediumtermhorizonofbeyond2021andalongtermhorizonofbeyond
2027 will be assessed. This will cover two full cycles of the waste management plans under the
revised boundaries. It is also recognised that the changes to the waste management region
boundaries is likely to result in immediate changes / impacts for existing facilities and therefore
shorttermimpactswillberelevant.
ScopingofSEAEnvironmentalTopics:Theenvironmentaltopics,intheSEADirectivethathavebeen
scoped in for the assessment of the plan following SEA scoping in consultation with the statutory
consulteesfortheSEAare:Biodiversity,floraandfauna;Populationandhumanhealth;Water;Soil;
AirQuality;ClimateFactors;MaterialAssets;Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeologicalHeritageand
Landscape.
ConsultationFeedback
ScopingwascarriedoutinacoordinatedmannerforallthreeRWMPbetweenJuneandJuly2014.
In line with the SEA Directive, specific environmental authorities (statutory consultees) were
consulted on the scope and level of detail of the information to be included in the Environmental
Report.TherelevantstatutoryconsulteesthatwereconsultedaspartoftheSEAScopingphasefor
theSouthernRWMPSEAwere:
ƒ
DepartmentofAgriculture,FoodandtheMarine(DAFM);
ƒ
DepartmentofArts,HeritageandtheGaeltacht(DAHG);
ƒ
DepartmentofCommunications,EnergyandNaturalResources(DCENR);
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
13
[SouthernRegion]
ƒ
DepartmentofEnvironment,CommunityandLocalGovernment(DECLG);and
ƒ
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA);
InrecognitionofthepotentialfortransboundaryeffectswithNorthernIreland,theDepartmentof
the Environment, Northern Ireland (DOENI) was also consulted on the scope and level of detail of
theinformationtobeincludedintheEnvironmentalReport.
ScopingfortheSouthernRWMPSEAwascarriedoutwiththesestatutoryenvironmentalauthorities
based on an initial draft scoping report for the Southern Region which was provided to the five
consultees on 4thJune 2014. A scoping workshop was subsequently held on 23rd June 2014 at the
Custom House, Dublin which was coordinated for all three waste management regions, i.e.
Southern, EasternMidlands and ConnachtUlster. Representatives from all statutory consultees
wereinvitedtoattendthisworkshop.Thefollowinggroupswererepresentedontheday:SEAteam
forSouthern,EasternMidlandsandConnachtUlster;PlanteamforSouthern,EasternMidlandsand
ConnachtUlster; DECLG; Inland Fisheries Ireland (IFI) and EPA. Comments made at the workshop
andsubsequentwrittensubmissionsfromthestatutoryconsulteeshavebeentakenintoaccountin
thisEnvironmentReport.
Inadditiontothisstatutoryconsultation,adecisionwastakentoholdawiderpublicconsultationon
theSEAscoping,giventhestrategicnatureoftheproposedRWMPandthewidestakeholderbase
affected by the policies and objectives being developed. To facilitate this wider consultation, an
advertisementwasplacedintwonationalnewspaperson4thJune2014:TheIrishTimesandtheIrish
Independent. The advertisement stated that an SEA would be undertaken on all RWMP and that
SEAscopinghadcommenced.Writtensubmissionswereinvitedfrominterestedparties,specifically
inrelationtothescopeoftheSEA.Thedeadlineforreceiptofsubmissionswas4thJuly2014.Written
submissions received from this public consultation have been taken into account in this
EnvironmentalReport.
AsummaryoftheissuesraisedinthesubmissionsfromstatutoryconsulteesispresentedinTable
32.
Table32MainIssues/SuggestionsfromStatutoryConsultees
Statutory
EPA
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
IssuesRaised
RWMPneedstoconsidersludgemanagement ConsideredinChapter4,OtherPlansand
plans (being prepared by Irish Water) and Programmes.
howtheycanbepromotedandsupportedby
LA.
EPA
Matrix or table should be included to show AddressedintextofSouthernRWMP.
how RWMP measures align with WFD
requirements.
EPA
Include a reference to waste enforcement–
relatedregionalisation.
EPA
Include more detail of data sources used to IncludedinChapter5,Baseline.
identify key pressures and clarify how the
RWMPswilladdressthekeyissues.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
ReferencedinSection1.1ofthisreport.
14
[SouthernRegion]
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
Statutory
IssuesRaised
EPA
Acknowledge the distinction between waste IncludedinSection2.2ofthisreport.
preventionandrecycling.
EPA
Include a highlevel summary of the IncludedinChapter8,Assessment.
environmental aspects where potential
cumulativeeffectsmightarise.
EPA
Include in the Environmental Report the key Included in Chapters 5 Baseline and 8,
transboundaryissuesraisedatScopingstage. Assessment.
EPA
Reference provided to updated SEA These documents are referenced in
Regulations/Circulars and the following plans Chapter 4, Other Plans and Programmes
and programmes: CFRAMS, the Regional andAppendixA.
Planning Guidelines and the National Spatial
Strategy.
EPA
Describe whether waste management Toalimitedextent.
activities on inhabited islands are to be
consideredintheRWMPs.
EPA
Waste management activities at ports and Toalimitedextent.
harbours should be described (including
dredging) with reference to relevant port
plans.
EPA
Separate out the list of Plans, programmes
and Policies more aligned with waste
management activities to those with less
directlinks.
Chapter 4 now deals with the key plans
and programmes relevant to the RWMP
with others included in a table in
AppendixA.
Thefollowingdatasourcesweresuggested:
ƒ
ƒ
EPA
Chapter 4 now deals with the key plans
Sludge management regarding and programmes relevant to the RWMP
with others included in a table in
DomesticWWTPsandseptictanks;
AppendixA.
Strive Report: STRIVE 123 Management Options for the Chapter 5 Baseline includes reference to
Collection, Treatment and Disposal Domestic WWTP and septic tanks.
of Sludge derived from Domestic WWTS;and
Services The Irish Water WSSP is under
development. However the issues paper
has been put out for public consultation
andthishasbeenreferencedinthecourse
Considerincludingatablelistingdatasources
considered and highlighting how each links ofthisassessment.
andinfluencestheRWMPs
ƒ
Irish Water’s Water
StrategicPlan(WSSP).
EPA
Levelofdetailpresentedinthescopingreport The need for consistency in the level of
varies. Consideration should be given to detail has been noted and applied as far
standardisingthelevelofdetailpresented.
aspossibleinChapter8,Assessment.The
focus is at the regional level in line with
thelevelofdetailoftheRWMP.
EPA
Where environmental criteria are proposed Noted
to be scoped out, the reasons should be
documentedintheEnvironmentalReport.
EPA
A table relating Strategic Environmental SummarytableisincludedinChapter9.
Objectives (SEOs), relevant mitigation
measuresandmonitoringshouldbeincluded.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
15
[SouthernRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
IssuesRaised
EPA
SEO 2 should be amended to refer to SEO 2 now refers to sustainable
“sustainablewastemanagement”.
development of waste management
infrastructure.
EPA
SEO 7 should include a reference to the Floods Directive and CFRAMS now
FloodsDirectiveandotherCFRAMS.
referencedinSEOs.
EPA
Positives associated with the draft RWMP Noted. Chapter 8 Assessment includes
shouldbenoted
referencetopositiveandnegative.
EPA
Recognition should be given to the need for See actions in Chapter 8 and also
theprovisionofresourcestolocalauthorities assessment.
to implement waste prevention campaigns
andstrategies.
EPA
Give an example where one of the Key TablenowincludedinChapter5,Baseline
Pressuresisbeingaddressedinaregion.
highlighted how pressures are / will be
addressed.
EPA
Clearly define potential costsavings where Cost savings considered in assessment in
possible.
termsofbenefitsoftheRWMP.
EPA
Consider the level of funding available when Thishasbeenaconsiderationoftheplan
carryingoutwastemanagementactivities.
team in developing realistic alternatives
and in choosing the preferred strategy
andassociatedactions.
EPA
Consider a tiered approach to alternatives, A tiered approach has been taken to
where highlevel national requirements are alternatives,seeChapter7,Alternatives.
consideredinitially.
EPA
Consider the problems identified from ConsideredinChapter7.
previousRWMPsforgeneratingalternatives.
DAFM
List of additional relevant legislation, plans Thesehavebeenconsideredandincluded
andpoliciestobeconsideredwasprovided.
inChapter4andAppendixA.
DAFM
Positive and negative impacts on marine Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
environmentalquality;microbiologicalquality Chapter8Assessment.
of shellfish; human health; commercially
important fish and shellfish stocks; licensed
aquaculturesites;areasofimportanceforfish
/ shellfish and fisheries; freshwater
aquaculture operations; and future
designations of important areas for shellfish
andaquacultureshouldbeconsidered.
DAFM
Major land use changes can significantly Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
impactthemarineenvironment.
Chapter8Assessment.
DAFM
Allaspectsoftheseafoodsectorrelyonsafe
high quality water and assessment of Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
potential impacts on water quality should Chapter8Assessment.
includetheseafoodsector.
DAFM
Designated shellfish waters are very
important to the shellfish sector in Ireland.
The role of filterfeeding shellfish as a Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
nutrient sink thus helping to reduce Chapter8Assessment.
eutrophication potential and improve water
quality is also important to consider in
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
16
[SouthernRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
IssuesRaised
assessments.
DAFM
Details of fishery/marine data and These publications have been noted and
publications provided and a list of marine relevant data collated as part of the GIS
bodiessuggestedforconsultation.
for the SEA. Open consultation has been
undertakenonthescopingoftheSEAand
theEnvironmentalReportwillalsobethe
subjectofpublicconsultation.
DAHG
Will the RWMP address dumping at sea and ThisisoutsidethescopeoftheSouthern
dredgingactivities?
RWMP.
DAHG
What is the scope of the term thermal AddressedinRWMPChapter17
treatment?
Infrastructure.
DAHG
Will “Preparing for Reuse” include reuse of
This is outside the scope of the Southern
C&Dwasteandthepotentialreuseofclosed
RWMP.
landfills?
DAHG
Itisnotedthatifitisproposedtoincorporate
“lowerlevel” implementation plans or
policies from other Plans, the ecological Noted
assessment would need to take account of
these.
DAHG
Consider issues relevant to EU sites which
arose during the previous RWMPs for ThishasbeenconsideredinChapter5and
informing the scope and objectives of the Chapter7oftheEnvironmentalReport.
EnvironmentalReport.
Consider the following in relation to the
planninghierarchy:
DAHG
ƒ
EnvironmentalLiabilityDirective
(2004/35/EC);
ƒ
Ireland’sFrameworkforSustainable
Development;
ƒ
EuropeanCommunities(Birdsand
NaturalHabitatsRegulations)2011;
ƒ
Consentsandlicencesunderthe
WildlifeActs(asamended)for
projects;and
ƒ
FloraProtectionOrders.
ThesehavebeenconsideredinChapter4
andinAppendixAofthisreport.
DAHG
Take account of other habitats and species
not designated or taken account of at
Europeanornationallevel.
Given the regional nature of the RWMP,
local level issues are not addressed in
detail in the assessment or baseline
description however, biodiversity flora
andfaunaissueshavebeenconsideredat
theappropriatelevelintheassessmentin
Chapter 8 and through mitigation
measures.
DAHG
Thefollowingdatasourcesweresuggested:
The AA considers issues relating to the
potential impacts of the RWMP on the
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
17
[SouthernRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
IssuesRaised
ƒ
DAHG
Sitespecificconservationobjectives
and2013/2014habitatstatus
reportsfromNPWS;
ƒ
Relevantobligationsarisingfrom
judgementsagainstIrelandbythe
EUCourtofJusticeandassociated
ProgrammeofMeasures;
ƒ
Relevantprioritiesandactions
Ireland’sPrioritisedAction
Frameworkfortheimplementation
oftheBirds&HabitatsDirectives;
ƒ
Baselinespatialrepresentationof
existingwastefacilities.
AmendSEO1toclarifyprotectedspecies
includethoseprotectedatbothEUand
nationallevelandconsiderIreland’sNational
BiodiversityPlan“ActionsforBiodiversity
20112016”withintheSEOs
Natura2000network.
Mapofexistingwastefacilitiesinrelation
to SAC, SPA and NHA designations is
includedinChapter6,Baseline.
SEO 1 amended to state: To preserve,
protect and maintain the terrestrial,
aquatic and soil biodiversity, particularly
EU and nationally designated sites and
protected species. Best Available
Practices(BAPs)consideredfortargets.
DAHG
As waste will likely be exported to other
countriesundertheseRWMPs,consideration
Transboundary consultation has been
should be given to consultation with those
initiatedwithNorthernIreland.
countries.
DAHG
List of additional relevant legislation, plans Thesehavebeenconsideredandincluded
andpoliciestobeconsideredwasprovided.
in Chapter 4 and Appendix A and in the
AA.
DCENR
GSI (part of DCENR) provided links to their
Noted
onlineresourceswithrelevantdatasets.
Include the following in the Environmental
Report:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
NIEA
ƒ
Impacts on bathing and shellfish Information on bathing and shellfish
waters has been included in Chapter 6,
waters;
BaselineandChapter8,Assessment.
Review of Marine Strategy A summary of the current status of the
FrameworkDirective(MSFD);
MSFD has been included in Chapter 6,
Baseline.
Potential for environmental impact Potential for transboundary impacts has
on water quality and/or biodiversity been considered in Chapters 7,
forsharedIRBDandthepossibilityof Alternativesand8,Assessment.
aerial deposition and spread of
National
and
international
site
invasivespecies;and
designations in Northern Ireland have
Consider national and international beenincludedinChapter6,Baseline.
sitedesignationsinNorthernIreland.
NIEA
Include
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
a
clear
statement
in
the Noted
18
[SouthernRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan
IssuesRaised
Environmental Report indicating whether or
notimplementationoftheRWMPswillhavea
significanteffectonNorthernIreland.
Additionally submissions were received from individuals and groups as part of the nonstatutory public
consultation which ran in parallel to the scoping consultation. The main themes raised as part of this
consultationaresummarisedinTable33.
Table33MainIssues/SuggestionsfromNonStatutoryConsultees
IssueRaised
How this has been dealt with in the Environmental Report and
RWMP?
Suggestionsinrelationto
programmes,policiesand
IncludedinChapter4,OtherPlansandProgrammes.
documentationthatshouldbe
consideredbytheSEAandRWMPs
Queriesinrelationtotherural
wastecollectionsystemand
requestforbaselineevidenceon
thehouseholdcollectionnetwork
andhouseholdersaccesstowaste
operators
TheAppendixoftheRWMP,onHouseholdWasteoutlinesthenumber
ofhouseholdsonakerbsidecollectionsystemonalocalauthoritybasis.
The extent of coverage in each county varies with areas of lower
populationdensityoftentendingtohavelowerratesofcollection.The
localauthoritiesdonotholdadatabaseofhouseholdersonacollection
service so it is not possible to present spatially the distribution of
collection services. Under the new household waste regulations the
issueofunmanagedhouseholdwasteistobeaddressedandthelocal
authoritiesareexpectedtohaveenhancedregulatoryresponsibilitiesto
addressthisissue.Thelocalauthoritieshaveincludedspecificpolicies
andactionsinthisareaintheRWMP,refertoChapter19.
Requestforinformationonareas
outsideofauthorisedhousehold
servicecollections
There are some areas in Ireland which are outside of authorised
collections. Every county in Ireland is serviced by collectors who are
permittedtocollecthouseholdwaste.Thelackofcollectionsincertain
areas is due to other factors such as household density, costs and
practicalities. The local authorities have included specific policies and
actions in the RWMP which are designed to address the issue of
unmanaged household waste and unserviced householders, refer to
Chapter19.
Statementsthattoomuch
emphasisplacedonspecifictypes
ofwasteinfrastructuree.g.;waste
toenergyandthermaltreatment
facilities
TheapproachtakeninthenewRWMPistofocusonthetreatmenttiers
ofthewastehierarchy,ratherthanonspecifictypesofwastetreatment
technologies. The policy actions on waste treatment infrastructure in
theplanaredesignedaroundthetreatmenttiersandnottechnologies,
seeChapter19oftheRWMP.
Clarificationsoughtonexported
residualwasteanddetails
requestedonrecoverylevels
outsideofIreland,includingthe
considerationofenergyrecovery
levels
Unfortunately the data management systems currently in place in
Ireland do not record the exporting of residual waste on a regional
basis. This data is available nationally and is managed by the National
TransFrontierShipmentOfficewhichisoperatedbyDublinCityCouncil.
The EPA review the data handled by the national office and include
exportdataintheannualNationalWasteReport.TheEPAdoesreport
on countries of destination but this may not be specific to residual
waste. In the RWMP the export issue is discussed in the Emerging
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
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IssueRaised
How this has been dealt with in the Environmental Report and
RWMP?
Policy chapter. For residual municipal wastes national policy and
legislationaimsforIrelandtobeselfsufficientandforthisstreamtobe
treated in indigenous facilities. The policies and actions in the RWMP
supportthisambition,asoutlinedinChapter19.
Textclarificationsinrelationto
operationalactivitiesatthe
cementplants
Suggestionsandclarificationson
Noted
theenvironmentalobjectives
ConsideredinChapter6,EnvironmentalProtectionObjectivesandSEA
Framework
Considerpotentialfuturechanges
inthetypesofwasteproduced
andimplicationsofthisonwaste
facilities
The RWMP sets out many policies and actions to manage inert, non
hazardous and hazardous wastes. These broad classes cover waste
fromhouseholds,business,industry,theconstructionandagrisectors.
Clarificationandquestionsin
relationtoenvironmentalimpacts
fromlicencedandunlicensed
wastefacilities
TheRWMPcontainsamarketanalysisofwastetreatmentinfrastructure
operating in the region providing a comprehensive summary of waste
activities,refertoChapter16.
RequestfortheRWMPtoaddress
recyclingandrecoveryof
indigenouspaper,plasticsand
metals
Policy action C.2.2 in the RWMP commits the local authorities to
preparingacodeofpracticetoapplyatlocalauthorityauthorisedwaste
management facilities. The aim is to improve quality at the pre
treatmentandrecoveryfacilitiesintermsofprocessingandtheoutputs
produced.
Requestforanalysisofpotential
usesforconstructionand
demolitionwaste
TheRWMPcontainsamarketanalysisofwastetreatmentinfrastructure
operating in the region including the treatment of soil and stone and
otherconstructionanddemolitionwaste.ThisiscoveredinChapter16
of the RWMP. The RWMP also supports the future development of
reprocessing facilities established to handle the secondary materials
and specific policies have been prepared to address this, see Chapter
19.
Considerationsthatforthcoming
changestowasteregulationsmay
alleviateidentifiedpressures
Under the proposed new household waste regulations the local
authoritiesareexpectedtohaveenhancedregulatoryresponsibilitiesto
address issues such as unmanaged waste, unserviced households, and
paybyuseetc.Theregulationshaveyettobefinalisedandaredueto
bereleasedinJanuary2015.Thelocalauthoritieswillensurethattheir
responsibilitiesundertheseregulationsareaddressed.
Issuesraisedinrelationto
regulatorysupportforbio
treatmentplantsifconsiderationis
giventofullintroductionofthree
binsystem
Withintroductionoftheproposednewhouseholdwasteregulations(in
addition to existing regulations on food waste), the local authorities
believethattherewillbesufficientregulationinplacetodriveorganic
resourcestorecoveryduringthecourseoftheRWMP,butwillmonitor
progressinthisarea.Thelocalauthoritieswishforgreaterrecognition
ofthewastesectorintermsofcontributingtowardsrenewableenergy
targetsandmadeasubmissiononthedraftGreenPaperpolicy.
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3.3 ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT
3.3.1 AssessmentApproach
Because SEA is, as its name suggests, set at a strategic level, it is not possible for the baseline
environmenttobedescribed(andassessed)inasmuchdetailascouldbedoneforaprojectlevel
environmentalimpactassessment.Instead,SEAusesasystemofobjectives,targetsandindicators
torationaliseinformationforthepurposesofassessment.
In order to streamline the assessment process, this report has used broad themes, based on the
environmentaltopicslistedintheSEADirective,togrouplargeenvironmentaldatasets,e.g.human
health, cultural heritage and climate. Assigned to each of these themes is at least one highlevel
Strategic Environmental Objective that specifies a desired direction for change, e.g. reduce CO2
emissions,againstwhichthefutureimpactsofthePlancanbemeasured.ThesehighlevelStrategic
Environmental Objectives are then paired with specific Targets. The progress towards achieving
thesespecificTargetsismonitoredusingenvironmentalIndicators,whicharemeasuresofidentified
variablesovertime.
The environmental assessment includes a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessment
andexpertjudgement.Table34outlinesthetypeofassessmentthathasbeencarriedout.
Table34SEAEnvironmentalAssessment
EnvironmentalReceptors
IsitQuantifiable?
Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
Nationalandregionaldatasetsareavailableforaspectsrelating
tobiodiversity,floraandfauna.GiventhescaleoftheRWMP,
the assessment will be focussed on designated sites such as
SPA, SAC, and NHA. Absence of location specific information
thereforeassessmentisfocussedonqualitative.
Population/HumanHealth
National datasets are available for population density and
distribution and the potential impacts of the RWMP can be
assessedquantitativelyrelativetotheavailableinformation.
Health impacts wouldprimarily be secondary via emissions to
air,water,soil,etc.Thereisnoquantitativebaselinedatathat
couldbeusefullyexaminedvisàvisRWMPpolicies.However
reference to emissions under the heading Air Quality, Water
etc.havebeenincluded.
Soil/Geology
Absenceoflocationspecificinformationthereforeassessment
isfocussedonqualitative.
Water
Nationalandregionaldatasetsareavailableforaspectsrelating
to water quality, water and wastewater infrastructure.
Absenceoflocationspecificinformationthereforeassessment
isfocussedonqualitative.
Air
Relevant issues relate to odour, facility emissions (methane,
dioxins etc.) and transport related emissions. Some
quantitativeassessmentpossible,e.g.changesinenergyusein
thecontextofincreased/improvedwastemanagement.
ClimaticFactors
Relevant issues relate to facility and transport related
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21
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EnvironmentalReceptors
IsitQuantifiable?
emissions. Quantitative assessment possible, e.g. changes in
energy use in the context of increased / improved waste
management.
MaterialAssets
Quantitative assessment may be possible, e.g. number of
households with 2/3 bin waste collection, number of
households with a waste collection service, % of waste
exportedetc.
Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeological
Heritage
National datasets are available for archaeology and
architecturalheritage,howeverthenatureofthedatasetsare
directedtowardslocalprojectspecificsources.Withoutspecific
information on the location and character of potential
infrastructural projects, there is no obvious way of assessing
alternativesquantitatively.
Landscape
By its nature assessment of landscape and visual impacts is
subjective. In addition, without specific information on the
location and character of potential infrastructural projects,
thereisnoobviouswayofassessingalternativesquantitatively.
3.3.2 SEAEnvironmentalReport
Based on the legislation and guidance, the Environmental Report must include the information
outlinedinTable35
Table35–RequirementofSEADirectiveandRelevantSectioninEnvironmentalReport
RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
An outline of the contents and main objectives of the plan or Chapter2:ContentandMainObjectives
programme, or modification to a plan or programme, and ofthePlan
relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes.
Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
The relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
thelikelyevolutionthereofwithoutimplementationoftheplanor Current State of the Environment
programme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme.
(Baseline)
Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
Theenvironmentalcharacteristicsofareaslikelytobesignificantly
Current State of the Environment
affected.
(Baseline)
Anyexistingenvironmentalproblemswhicharerelevanttotheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,including, Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
in particular, those relating to any areas of a particular Current State of the Environment
environmental importance, such as areas designated pursuant to (Baseline)
theBirdsDirectiveortheHabitatsDirective.
The environmental protection objectives, established at
international,EuropeanUnionornationallevel,whicharerelevant
totheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme, Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
andthewaythoseobjectivesandanyenvironmentalconsiderations
havebeentakenintoaccountduringitspreparation.
Thelikelysignificanteffectsontheenvironment,includingonissues Chapter8:Assessment
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RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
such as biodiversity, population, human health, fauna, flora, soil,
water, air, climatic factors, material assets, cultural heritage
including architectural and archaeological heritage, landscape and
theinterrelationshipbetweentheabovefactors.
Themeasuresenvisagedtoprevent,reduceandasfullyaspossible
offset any significant adverse effects on the environment of
Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
implementingtheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanor
programme.
An outline of the reasons for selecting thealternatives dealt with,
andadescriptionofhowtheassessmentwasundertakenincluding
Chapter7:Alternatives
anydifficulties(suchastechnicaldeficienciesorlackofknowhow)
encounteredincompilingtherequiredinformation
Adescriptionofthemeasuresenvisagedconcerningmonitoringof
thesignificantenvironmentaleffectsofimplementationoftheplan Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme
A nontechnical summary of the information provided under the
NonTechnicalSummary
aboveheadings
3.3.3 LinksbetweentheSEAandAAProcess
TheHabitatsDirective(CouncilDirective92/43/EEContheconservationofnaturalhabitatsandof
wild fauna and flora) obliges member states to designate Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) to
protectandconservehabitatsandspeciesofimportanceinaEuropeanUnioncontext.Article6is
oneofthemostimportantarticlesoftheHabitatsDirectiveindeterminingtherelationshipbetween
conservationandsiteuse.Article6(3)requiresthat“Anyplanorprojectnotdirectlyconnectedwith
or necessary to the conservation of a site but likely to have a significant effect thereon, either
individually or in combination with other plans or projects, shall be subject to appropriate
assessmentofitsimplicationsforthesiteinviewofthesite’sconservationobjectives.”
AnAppropriateAssessmentoftheRWMPhasbeencarriedoutinparallelwiththeSEAprocess,with
the findings of the Appropriate Assessment used to guide the development of the alternatives to
consideredaspartoftheSEA.TheassessmentundertakenaspartoftheAAprocesshasalsofed
directlyintotheassessmentofbiodiversity,floraandfaunainthisSEA.
Article10oftheHabitatsDirectivereferstofeaturesofthelandscapeoutsidedesignatedsiteswhich
areofmajorimportanceforwildfloraandfauna.ItisnotedthattherequirementsofArticle10of
theHabitatsDirectivearenotspecificallyconsideredundertheAppropriateAssessment(exceptin
sofarastheysupportaqualifyingfeature)butitisnotedsuchfeatureshavebeenconsideredinthe
SEAunderthebroaderheadingofBiodiversity,FloraandFauna.
3.3.4 DifficultiesEncountered
Thefollowingdifficultiesanddatagapswereencountered:
ƒ
Poorboundaries/administrativeoverlapforsomedatasets;
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ƒ
Lack of quantitative data focussed at the new administrative boundaries for the
reconfiguredwasteregions;
ƒ
Lackofdigitiseddatainsometopicareas(e.g.landscape);
ƒ
Quantitative assessment is made very difficult due to the very strategic level of the
measuresproposed;and
ƒ
Notalloftheproposedmonitoringmeasuresarecurrentlybeinggatheredandreportedon
atanationalorSouthernWasteRegionlevel.
3.4 SEASTATEMENT
The main purpose of the SEA Statement is to provide information on the decisionmaking process
and to document how environmental considerations, i.e. the views of consultees and the
recommendations of the Environmental Report, have been taken into account in the adopted
SouthernRWMP.TheSEAStatementillustrateshowdecisionsweretaken,makingtheprocessmore
transparent.
TheSEAStatementfortheSouthernRWMPwillbecompiledafterthestatutoryconsultationonthe
draftSouthernRWMPandEnvironmentalReporthasbeencompleted.
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4 REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
ThischapterfollowsonfromtheoverviewoftheRWMPprovidedinChapter3withtheobjectiveof
settingouthowtheRWMPinteractswithotherrelevantplansandprogrammesandenvironmental
protectionobjectives.Thediscussionhasfocusedonenvironmentalandwasteplans/programmes/
policyandlegislation,andtheirrelationshipandinfluenceontheRWMP.
4.2 METHODOLOGY
AsdocumentedintheSEADirectivethepurposeofSEAis“toprovideforahighlevelofprotectionof
the environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental considerations in the
preparation and adoption of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable
development”. Therefore it is imperative that environmental considerations are documented and
taken into account in the development of this RWMP. In order to do this the environmental
protection objectives from relevant key plans, programmes, policy and legislation must be first
identifiedandthenexploredinrelationtotheRWMP.
The SEA Directive also states in Article 5(1) of Annex 1, that the environmental assessment must
identify “the environmental protection objectives, established at International, European Union or
national level, which are relevant to the plan or programme, or modification to the plan or
programme, and the way those objectives and any environmental considerations have been taken
intoaccountduringitspreparation”.ThereforethemainobjectivesoftheRWMPmustbeoutlined
alongwiththe“relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes”.
In order to undertake these specific tasks, this chapter has taken consideration of the plan/
programme/ policy and legislative framework within which the RWMP has been developed. The
RWMPisaregionaldocumentandthereforethereviewhasfocusedonrelevantNational,European
and International frameworks. As part of the review process, a comprehensive list of plans and
programmesrelevanttowastemanagementwasdocumentedandanidenticaltaskwasundertaken
forpolicyandlegislation,whichisoutlinedinAppendixAofthisreport.Itisnotanexhaustivelist
but rather is focused on those considered key to the RWMP and takes on board comments made
duringtheSEAscopingstage.
Sections 4.3 and Section 4.4 have explored the relationships between the RWMP and relevant
environmentalprotectionobjectivesbearinginmindtwoquestions:
ƒ
ƒ
Does the RWMP contribute to the fulfilment of environmental protection objectives
setinotherPlans/Programmes/Policy/Legislation?and;
To what degree are the environmental protection objectives set in these other
Plans/Programmes/Policy/LegislationimpactedbytheRWMP?
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4.3 RELEVANTPLANSANDPROGRAMMES
Part 1, Chapter 2 of the RWMP outlines the hierarchy of strategic frameworks and plans that
governs planning and development. In line with this, Table 41 identifies the hierarchy of relevant
plansandprogrammesandthepositionoftheSouthernRWMPwithinthehierarchy.
European
Table41KeyRelevantPlansandProgrammes
SeventhEnvironmentalActionProgramme
RoadmaptoaResourceEfficientEurope
NationalSpatialStrategy(20022020)
NationalLevel
OurSustainableFuture:AFrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012)
NationalBiodiversityPlan(20112016)andNPWSConservationPlansforSACsandSPAs
NationalClimateChangeStrategy(2007–2012)
HeritagePlansandFrameworkandPrinciplesfortheProtectionofArchaeologicalHeritage
NationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan20142020
NationalWastePreventionProgramme
RegionalLevel
SludgeManagementPlan(underdevelopment)
RegionalPlanningGuidelines
SouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan
RiverBasinManagementPlans(20092014)
CatchmentFloodRiskAssessmentandManagementPlans
4.4 RELEVANTPOLICYANDLEGISLATION
The RWMP interacts with environmental protection objectives established at international,
EuropeanandNationallevel,theextentofwhichisoutlinedinTable42.
Table42KeyRelevantPolicyandLegislation
SEADirective(2001/42/EC)
EIADirective(2014/52/EC)
European
EUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)
ConservationofWildBirdsDirective(2009/147/ECcodified)
EnvironmentalLiabilitiesDirective(2004/35/CE)
WasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)
WaterFrameworkDirective(2000/60/EC)
FloodsDirective(2007/60/EC)
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IndustrialEmissionsDirective(2010/75/EU)
EU202020Agreement
EnvironmentalAssessmentofCertainPlansandProgrammesRegulationsS.I.435/2004
National
BirdsandHabitatsRegulationsS.I.477/2011(asamended)
Planning and Development Act (as amended) and Planning and Development Regulations S.I.
600/2001(asamended)
WasteManagementAct1996
EnvironmentalLiabilityRegulationsS.I.547/2008
IndustrialEmissionsRegulationsS.I.138/2013
4.5 RELATIONSHIPOFWASTEPLANANDOTHERPLANS/PROGRAMMES/
POLICY
TheRWMPsitsinahierarchyofdocumentsdealingwiththeissuesofwastemanagementinIreland.
AtthetopofthehierarchyistheEuropeanWasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)whichprovides
an overall structure for an effective and safe waste management regime in Europe. The RWMP
directly adheres to this directive by outlining waste actions that embrace the basic concepts and
definitions toencouragetheprevention,recyclingandprocessingofwaste.InadditiontheRWMP
actions address the directions that the directive has provided in relation to the polluter pays
principle,producerresponsibility,selfsufficiencyandproximityprinciple.
The implementation of waste directives in Ireland is through the Waste Management Act 1996.
SeveralstatutoryinstrumentsdealwithspecificaspectsofEUDirectives.TheEPAisresponsiblefor
licensingcertainactivitiesinthewastesectorundertheProtectionoftheEnvironmentAct2003.The
Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) was transposed into Irish law by the European Union
(IndustrialEmissions)Regulations2013(S.I.No.138of2013),whichintroducedamendmentstothe
EPAActsandWasteManagementActsandEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(IndustrialEmissions)
(Licensing)Regulations2013(S.I.No.137of2013),whichintroducethenewmechanismforlicensing
activities that come under the directive. Waste facilities applying to the EPA for an Industrial
EmissionsLicencearerequiredtoconsidertheprinciplesofwastepreventionspecifiedintheWaste
ManagementAct.
The RWMP interacts with other statutory and nonstatutory waste planning documents including
highlevelstrategies.TheNationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan,astatutorydocument,has
been taken into consideration during the preparation of the objectives and actions within the
RWMP.TheRWMPhasindicated,inpolicyrecommendations,thatlocalauthoritiesintheregionwill
maintainanddeveloptheirexistingnetworksofbringinfrastructure,tofacilitatetherecyclingand
recoveryofhazardousandnonhazardousmunicipalwastes.Inaddition,itisindicatedinthepolicy
recommendations that local authorities will explore the possibility of accepting hazardous waste
fromsmallbusinessesatexistingcivicamenityfacilities,therebyenablingcaptureofmorehazardous
waste.The RWMPalsoaddressesthetreatmentofhazardouswasteswhichcannotberecycledor
recovered.
The National Waste Prevention Programme, is a nonstatutory strategic plan which sets out the
framework for waste prevention and resource efficiency in Ireland. This plan seeks to continue to
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workwithestablishedlinkswithinlocalauthoritiesandseekstoworkinpartnershipwiththenewly
establishedwasteplanningregions.
The preparation of Sludge Management Plans rests with Irish Water and a national plan for the
management of wastewater sludge is being developed. The RWMP has a specific policy action to
engagewithIrishWaterinrelationtonationalplanningandmanagementofwastewatertreatment
plantsludgeandwatertreatmentplansludge.
Additional European Framework Policy such as the Seventh Environmental Action Programme and
the Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe have a similar focus on encouraging a resource
efficient,lowcarboneconomyandtheRWMPobjectivesandactionswillcomplywiththis.
TheRWMPwillbeadministeredwhollywithinIreland,andthereforetheplanninghierarchyhasto
be considered. The National Development Plan (NDP) together with the National Spatial Strategy
and Regional Planning Guidelines will inform and influence the development of the RWMP. In
addition the RWMP will be prepared within the framework set out in Our Sustainable Future: A
FrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012),theobjectivesofwhicharetoensurethat
futuredevelopmentinIrelandoccursinasustainablemannerensuringaneffectivetransitiontoan
innovative,lowcarbonandresourceefficientfuture.
The relationship between the RWMP and environmental protection is strong through the
incorporation within the RWMP of specific objectives dealing with protection. At the top of the
European protection hierarchy is the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EC) which has been transposed
into Irish law through the European Communities (Birds and Natural Habitats) Regulations 2011.
Article 6 of the Habitats Directive requires an Appropriate Assessment for the RWMP. This
Appropriate Assessment has been undertaken and it identified that a Stage 2 Appropriate
AssessmentwouldberequiredduetothepotentialforindirectimpactsarisingfromtheRWMP.The
Stage2AAwasconductedandallSpecialAreasofConservation(SAC)andSpecialProtectionArea(s)
(SPA)intheSouthernRWMPweretakenaccountof.
TheConservationofWildBirdsDirective,whichwasfirstadoptedin1979andhasasimilaraimto
theHabitatsDirectiveofacomprehensiveframeworkfortheprotection,managementandcontrol
ofwildbirds.TheDirectivewastransposedintoIrishLawbytheWildBirdsRegulationsandhasbeen
furtherstrengthenedbytheEUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)andtheEuropeanCommunities(Birds
andNaturalHabitats)Regulations2011.Atanationallevel,protectionandconservationcontinues
withtheNationalBiodiversityPlanandtheNationalParksandWildlifeConservationPlansforSACs
andSPAs.TheNationalBiodiversityPlanisunderpinnedbyEUandnationallegislation.
The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) aims at improving the aquatic environment and as
such it applies to rivers, lakes, groundwater, estuaries and coastal waters. Member states are
requiredtoachievegoodstatusinallwatersandmustensurethatstatusdoesnotdeteriorate.This
directive requires that water quality management be centered on river basins. The RWMP will
contribute to the fulfilment of these environmental protection objectives through policy actions
suchastheplanforprioritisinginvestigationandremediationoflandfills.
The Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) requires Member States to undertake a Preliminary Flood Risk
Assessment,toidentifyareasofexistingorpotentiallysignificantfuturefloodrisk,toprepareflood
hazardandriskmapsandtopreparefloodriskmanagementplanssettingobjectivesformanaging
thefloodriskwithinareasidentifiedforfurtherassessment.ThedirectivewastransposedintoIrish
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LawbytheEuropeanCommunities(AssessmentandManagementofFloodRisks)Regulations2010
(S.I. No. 122 of 2010). These regulations set out the responsibilities of the Office of Public Works
(OPW) and other public bodies in the implementation of the directive and detail the process for
implementation of the measures set out in the flood risk management plans. As such the OPW
works in close partnership with all local authorities in delivering the objectives of the Flood
ManagementProgramme.WhiletheRWMPdoesnotpresentlocationspecificinformationonwaste
facilities, the policy actions will protect the environment and be reflectiveof flooding through the
wastefacilitysitingcriteria(outlinedinSection16.6ofthedraftplan).
The Environmental Liabilities Directive (2004/35/EC) implements the “polluter pays principle”. The
aimofthedirectiveistoholdthosewhoseactivitieshavecausedenvironmentaldamagefinancially
liable for remedying this damage. The directive was transposed into Irish Law in 2009 by the
EuropeanCommunities(EnvironmentalLiability)Regulations2008andcomesundertheremitofthe
EPA. Environmental damage under this legislation specifically relates to water damage with a
significant adverse effect on water status as defined by the Water Framework Directive; land
damagethatcreatesasignificantrisktohumanhealth;anddamagetoprotectedspeciesandnatural
habitats. Illegal activities such as unregulated disposal of waste may fall under the remit of this
legislation.
In relation to climate change, at the top of the hierarchy is the EU202020 Agreement which is
comprised of a range of measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, renewable
energyandenergyefficiency.TheAgreementconsistsofapackageoflegallybindinglegislation,the
three key objectives of which are: reduce EU GHG emissions by 20% on 1990 levels; 20% of EU
energyconsumptiontobederivedfromrenewableenergysources;andtoincreaseenergyefficiency
by20%.Atanationallevel,the NationalClimateChangeStrategyhasbeen outdated,andassuch
the EU202020 Agreement is the legally binding legislation, which currently commits Ireland to
reducing GHG emissions. The RWMP will adhere to the agreement by encouraging prevention,
recyclingandprocessingofwastewithaviewtobecomingresourceefficientandcontributingtoa
lowcarboneconomy.
The environmental protection objectives and their relationship with the RWMP and various plans,
programmes, policy and legislation have been identified and discussed. These environmental
protection objectives have been integrated into the development of the SEA objectives which are
outlinedinChapter6.Inaddition,AppendixAprovidesacomprehensivelistofplans,programmes,
policy and legislation containing environmental protection objectives which have been considered
relevanttowastemanagement.
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5 RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHE
ENVIRONMENT(BASELINE)
5.1 INTRODUCTION
This section of the Environmental Report examines the relevant significant issues of the current
stateoftheenvironmentinrelationtobiodiversity,fauna,flora,population,humanhealth,water,
soil, geology, climatic factors, air, material assets, cultural heritage, landscape and the
interrelationship between these factors. The baseline has been compiled using available datasets
and indicators developed through scoping and this environmental assessment. It is noted that the
wastemanagementplanisregionaltonationalinitsfocusandthisismirroredinthelevelofdetail
presentedforthebaselinedescriptionwhichfollows.
The baseline description is focussed in the first instance on the Republic of Ireland, however in
recognitionofthescopingcommentsreceivedbytheNIEAthedescriptionbelowincludesreference,
where relevant, to conditions in Northern Ireland. The characteristics of areas likely to be
significantlyaffectedandexistingenvironmentalproblemsaresummarisedforeachtopicheading.
5.1.1 StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–RepublicofIreland
Ireland’snaturalenvironment,althoughunderincreasingpressure,generallyremainsofgoodquality
and represents one of the country’s most essential national assets, however these pressures have
increased significantly (EPA, 2008 and 2012). As Ireland’s economy grew, these pressures
acceleratedataratewhichexceededthatobservedinotherEUcountries.
In their 5th and most recent state of the environment review, the EPA identified four priority
challenges for the environment, which, if addressed successfully, should benefit the present and
future quality of Ireland’s environment. These comprise: Valuing and Protecting our Natural
Environment; Building a ResourceEfficient, Low Carbon Economy; Implementing Environmental
Legislation;andPuttingtheEnvironmentattheCentreofOurDecisionMaking.Thesechallengesand
theirrelevancetotheSouthernRegionalWasteManagementPlan(RWMP)aresummarisedinTable
51.
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Table51–EPAKeyChallengesandRelationshiptoRWMP
Challenge
RelationshiptoRWMP
Challenge1:ValuingandProtectingour
NaturalEnvironment
TheRWMPhasthepotentialtoimproveournatural
environmentbyaddressingissuessuchasbackyardburning,
illegaldumpingandunregulatedwasteactivities.Assuchthe
actionswithintheRWMPwillneedtorecogniseand
complementexistingEU,nationalandregionalobjectives,
policiesandlegislationwhichalsoseektoprotectthenatural
environment.
Challenge2:BuildingaResource
Efficient,LowCarbonEconomy
TheRWMPsetsouttheapproachforthesustainable
managementofwasteandincludesobjectivesfocussedin
particularonprevention,reuseandrecovery,allofwhich
wouldcontributetoaresourceefficienteconomy.TheRWMP
alsopromotesselfsufficiencyindealingwithresidualwaste.
Asaresultconsiderationwillneedtobegiventothebenefitsof
reducingexportsagainstthedetrimentsofbuildingnew
infrastructurewithinIrelandtoaddressthedeficitsincapacity
forthetreatmentofresidualwastes.
Challenge3:Implementing
EnvironmentalLegislation
TheRWMPisundergoingbothSEAandAAinlinewithexisting
EUandnationallegislation.ProjectsarisingfromtheRWMPin
manycaseswillrequireplanningandfurtherenvironmental
assessment.
Asnotedabove,theRWMPisundergoingbothSEAandAAin
linewithexistingEUandnationallegislation.Thisisensuring
Challenge4:PuttingtheEnvironmentat
thattheenvironmentalconsequencesaretakenintoaccountas
theCentreofOurDecisionMaking
partoftheplan’sdevelopment.Bothprocessesarehelpingto
shapetheevolutionoftheplan.
5.1.2 StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–NorthernIreland
ThesecondStateoftheEnvironmentReportforNorthernIreland(2013)istitled“FromEvidenceto
Opportunity”andprovidesafiveyearupdateandcommentaryonfortyfourindicatorsacrosseight
themestoprovideanevidencebasedassessmentofthestateoftheenvironment.Thecurrentstate
is mixed. Air quality continues to improve, water quality is benefitting from improved effluent
controlsandthereareincreasesinmunicipalwasterecyclingrates.Howeverdeclinesinqualityhave
beenrecordedforbiodiversityfreshwaters,landscapes,habitatsandheritage.
LikeIreland,NorthernIrelandhasexperiencedtheeffectsofrecessioninrecentyearswhichhasin
turnreducedsomeofthepressureontheenvironmentbutthishasbeenreplacedbynewpressures
and challenges associated with trying to stimulate an economy and reliance on natural resources.
The relevant aspects of the current state of the environment in Northern Ireland has been
summarisedinTable52.
Table52–SummaryofCurrentStateoftheEnvironmentinNorthernIreland
Theme
Air
KeyFindings
Thereare28AirQualityManagementAreasthatareleadingtheactivitytotackleairquality
problems. There is continued improvement in air quality but problems do remain for
nitrogen dioxide emissions due to transport. Agricultural emissions from ammonia still
remainhighandthreatenecosystemsandhabitats.Continuedeffortisrequiredtoreduce
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Theme
KeyFindings
airpollutionfromkeysourcessuchasroadtransportandagriculture.Theissueofairborne
pollutantsarisingfromwastemanagementwasraisedspecificallyintheNIEAsubmissionon
SEAscoping.
Climate
There is evidence that the climate in Northern Ireland is changing. There has been a
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions but road transport emissions are still increasing.
Therearegovernmenttargetstowardsreducinggreenhousegasemissionsofatleast35%
by 2025 based on 1990 levels but this will prove challenging. A key priority for climate
change will be the implementation of the Northern Ireland Climate Change Adaptation
Programme.
Water
The overall status of water bodies in Northern Ireland has not significantly changed from
that recorded in 2009 but improvements have been identified in water utility discharges
and drinking water quality. There has also been a reduction in water pollution incidents.
Thekeychallengesforthewaterbodiesrelatetodiffusenutrientpollution,chemicalstatus
of the water environment and measures to address physical modifications of beds, banks
and shore of surface waters. Northern Ireland is broadly on track to implement the
measuresfromtheRiverBasinManagementPlansdevelopedundertheWaterFramework
Directive.Waterpollution(groundwaterandsurfacewater)areaconcernraisedbyNIEAin
theirSEAscopingsubmission.Waterinparticularprovidesaclearpathwayforpollutants
betweenthetwojurisdictions.
Marine
Therehasbeenanimprovementtotheoverallqualityofthemarineenvironment,including
bathingwaterqualityandbeaches,aroundNorthernIreland’sshores.Thiscanbedirectly
linkedtoimprovementsinwastewatertreatment.Onekeyremainingissueismarinelitter.
ThenextchallengewillbetheimplementationoftheMarineStrategyFrameworkDirective.
Marine litter and its impact on bathing waters and the aquaculture industry were both
raisedintheNIEASEAscopingsubmission.
Landand
Landscape
Thereisamarkedchangeinthelandscapewiththedevelopmentofuplandwindfarmsand
the significant decline in housing development has reduced pressure on land use.
Investmentisproposedintheagrifoodsectorbutthiswillrequireinnovativeapproaches
todevelopmentwithinthecountryside.
Despite continued action many key elements of biodiversity continues to decline. In
particular since 2000 grassland habitats have shown the most decline, but in contrast
Biodiversity woodlandhabitatshaveincreased.Thekeypressuresidentifiedrelatetolandusechanges
throughagricultureanddevelopmentwithadditionalpressuressuchaspollution,invasive
speciesandfisheriespractices.
Built
Heritage
The key risks identified to archaeological resources come from agricultural land use and
urbanactivities.Ithasbeenidentifiedthatprotectedsiteshavefaredbetter.Throughthe
SecondSurveyofBuildingsofarchitecturalorhistoricinteresttherehasbeenanincreasein
the number of listed buildings. Built heritage has provided emerging opportunities in
relationtoregeneration,tourismandeconomicdevelopment.
Wasteand
Resources
Recycling has seen a significant increase with a fourfold rise since 2002. With the
publicationoftheNorthernIrelandWasteManagementStrategythereisafocustowards
greater wasteprevention and a reductioninconsumption.Thesingleusecarrierbaglevy
hasgivenrisetoareducedconsumptionrateofmorethan80%initsfirstyearofoperation.
ThefocusonpreventioninNorthernIrelandismirroredintheapproachedproposedforthe
SouthernRWMP.
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32
[SouthernRegion]
5.2 ENVIRONMENTALCHARACTERISTICSANDPROBLEMSINTHESOUTHERN
REGION
Thefollowingbaselineinformationisprefacedforeachenvironmentaldisciplinebyclarificationon
thenatureandextentofeffectsconsideredforthatdisciplineinrelationtotheRWMP.Thebaseline
informationisthensummarisedinrelationtotheidentifiedscope.
5.2.1 Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
IrelandhasobligationsunderEUlawtoprotectandconservebiodiversity.Thisrelatestohabitats
and species both within and outside designated sites. Nationally, Ireland has developed a
Biodiversity Plan (20112016) to address the issues and halt the loss of biodiversity, in line with
internationalcommitments.AsnotedinChapter4,theSouthernRWMPmusthaveregardtothese
commitments and legal obligations. The key issues associated with waste management and
biodiversityrelateto:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
The potential for habitat loss and fragmentation resulting primarily from new waste
managementinfrastructure;
Pollutionofair,soilandwaterasaresultofhistoricunregulatedwastedisposalsites,illegal
landfills, closed landfills, inappropriate abandonment of endoflife vehicles (ELVs), and
backyardburning;and
Habitat and species disturbance associated with waste infrastructure, transport of waste,
remediationoflandfillsites,illegaldisposaletc.
GiventhestrategicnatureoftheRWMP,focusofthebaselineforbiodiversityisatregionalleveland
above, specifically internationally designated and national designated sites. In addition,
considerationhasbeengiventokeyprotectedhabitatsandspeciesincludingthosewithsensitivity
towastemanagementactivities,includingsurfaceandgroundwaterdependanthabitatsandspecies,
withparticularreferencetothosewhichhavebeenofnationalconservationfocuse.g.Freshwater
PearlMussel.Itisalsorecognisedthatthereareothernondesignatedreceptors,suchaslandscape
features which function as a ‘stepping stone’ or which act as ecological corridors, which are of
importancetowildlife.
5.2.1.1
DesignatedSites
Irelandhasdesignatedsitesandspeciesofconservationvalueand/orconcerninanefforttoprotect
its biodiversity resource. There are four types of designations considered for the purposes of the
RWMP:SpecialAreasofConservation,SpecialProtectionAreas,RamsarSitesandNaturalHeritage
Areas.Thereareover2000ofthesesitesnationallywith736containedwithintheSouthernRegion.
ThisincludessuchwellknownsitesastheComeraghMountains,BlackwaterRiver,KillarneyNational
Park,CliffsofMoher,RiverShannonandRiverFergusEstuaries,MagheraMountainBogsandLough
Derg.
InNorthernIrelandthereare57SACs,17SPAsand375AreasofSpecialScientificInterest(ASSIs).
TheASSIsareareasoflandwithnationalconservationvalue.
ThenumberofeachtypeofdesignationintheSouthernRegionispresentedinTable53andtheir
locationsarepresentedonFigure51andFigure52.
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Table53–NumberandTypesofDesignatedSiteswithintheSouthernRegion
DesignationType
SpecialAreaof
Conservation
SpecialProtection
Areas
Description
Number
Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) are designated under the EU
Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and Special Protection Areas are
designatedundertheBirdsDirective(79/409/EEC).Togetherthese
sites form the backbone of the Natura 2000 network. Further
detailsonthesesitescanbefoundintheAppropriateAssessment
for the Southern RWMP. The figures provided include both
proposedandcandidatesites.
143
58
Ramsar
Ramsarsitesarewetlandsofinternationalimportancedesignated
under the Ramsar Convention, an intergovernmental treaty that
providesfornationalactionandinternationalcooperationforthe
conservationandwiseuseofwetlandsandtheirresourceswitha
particularfocusonbirds.
14
NaturalHeritage
Area
Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs) are protected under the Wildlife
Act1976(asamended).NHAsareareasconsideredimportantfor
the habitats present or which hold species of plants and/or
animalswhosehabitatneedsprotection.Figuresprovidedinclude
bothNHAandproposedNHAs.
489
NationalNature
Reserve
A National Nature Reserve is an area of importance to wildlife,
whichisprotectedunderMinisterialorder.Mostareownedbythe
Statebutsomeareownedbyorganisationsorprivatelandowners.
TheNPWSdoesnotprovidespatialdatasetstorepresentNational
NatureReserves.
32
*NumberstakenfromtheNPWSwebsite(www.npws.ie)July2014
5.2.1.2
ProtectedHabitatsandSpecies
In2008andagainin20134theNationalParksandWildlifeServicepublishedareportdetailingthe
conservationstatusinIrelandofhabitatsandspecieslistedintheEUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EEC).
Thereare59habitatsinIrelandthatarelistedunderAnnexIoftheHabitatsDirective.Sixteenof
these habitats are considered priority habitats, which are those that the EU considers require
particular protection. There are 26 species listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. These are
animal or plant species whose conservation requires the designation of Special Areas of
Conservation.Thereareafurther41speciesofanimalsandplantslistedinAnnexIVoftheHabitats
Directive,whichrequirestrictprotection;andfinallythereare48AnnexVspecies,whosetakingin
thewildmaybesubjecttomanagementmeasures.TheNPWSConservationStatusreportindicated
that many Irish species of flora and fauna have a moderately satisfactory conservation status;
however, a small number are in urgent need of concerted efforts to protect them. It is also
recognised that there are other nondesignated receptors, such as landscape features which
function as a ‘stepping stone’ or which act as ecological corridors, which are of importance to
wildlife.TwogroupswhichhavereceivedrecentattentionasaresultofEUinterventionareShellfish
andFreshwaterPearlMussel(FPM).Bothhavethepotentialtobeimpactedbywastemanagement
activitiesasaresultofemissionstowatere.g.leachateandreleaseofmaterialduringconstruction
and or remediation, litter etc. Ireland’s raised bogs have also been the subject of recent EU
judgements. Bog areas are often the focus of illegal dumping given their more isolated nature.
Furtherdetailsonthesespecies/habitatswithintheSouthernRegionarepresentedinthefollowing
sections.
44
TheStatusofEUProtectedHabitatsandSpeciesinIreland,NPWS2008(vol13)and2013(Vol23)
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[SouthernRegion]
5.2.1.3
ShellfishGrowingAreas
ThefollowingshellfishgrowingareasarefoundadjacenttotheSouthernRegionasdelineatedbythe
bytheSeaFisheriesProtectionAuthority:
Table54–ShellfishGrowingAreaswithintheSouthernRegion
KilmakilogeHarbour
BannowBay
WestShannonRinevella
BantryBaySouth
RoaringWaterBay
Castletownbere
Ballyvaughan/
PoulnacloughBay
LeaguePoint
TheBayatAughinish
Kenmare
River/Sneem/Ardgroom
DungarvanHarbour
AdrigoleHarbour
InnerBay(Maharees)
ValentiaHarbour
CorkGreatIslandNorth
Channel
WaterfordHarbour
(Cheekpoint/Arthurstow
n/Creadan)
GlengarriffHarbour
TraleeBay
OysterHaven
WexfordHarbourOuter
BantryBay
WestShannon
Poulnasherry
Baltimore
Harbour/Sherkin
WestShannon
(Ballylongford)
Cromane
WestShannon
Carrigaholt
DunmanusInner
Kinsale
Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to water e.g. leachate,
suspendedsolids,releaseofmaterialduringconstructionandorremediationetc.havethepotential
toimpactonestuarinewaterqualityandinturnShellfishGrowingAreas.
5.2.1.4
FreshwaterPearlMusselWaters
There has been a considerable decline in species distribution and numbers of FPM in Ireland and
across the EU. In response to the Irish decline, NPWS have developed 27 FPM Subbasin
Management Plans to address measures to halt the decline in the species. Table 55 outlines the
FPM subbasin catchments that are found in the Southern Region as designated under S.I. 291 of
2009.
Table55–FPMSubbasinCatchmentswithintheSouthernRegion
Bandon
Caragh
Allow(Munster
Blackwater)
Owenmore
Aughavaud(Barrow)
Currane
Licky(Munster
Blackwater)
Ownagappul
Ballymurphy(Barrow)
KerryBlackwater
MunsterBlackwater
Cloon
Mountain(Barrow)
Gearhameen(Laune)
NoreUpper
Dereen(Slaney)
Clodiagh(Suir)
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
35
[SouthernRegion]
Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to water e.g. leachate,
suspendedsolids,releaseofmaterialduringconstructionandorremediationetc.havethepotential
toimpactonwaterqualityandinturnFreshwaterPearlMussels.
5.2.1.5
SalmonidRivers
Salmonid waters must be able to sustain Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Salmo trutta), char
(Salvelinus) and whitefish (Coregonus). They have been designated under the EU Freshwater Fish
Directive (78/659/EEC) which was transposed into Irish law in 1988 through the European
Communities Regulation on Quality of Salmonid Waters (S.I. No. 293/1988). In order to sustain
thesespecies,riversmusthavegoodwaterquality,allowupstreammovementandprovidesuitable
habitat for spawning. Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to
watere.g.leachate,suspendedsolidsetc.havethepotentialtoimpactonwaterqualityandinturn
salmonids.Thereare631designatedSalmonidRiverBodieswithintheSouthernRegion.
5.2.1.6
Bogs
The Irish climate is conducive to the widespread development of bogs of different types ranging
fromtheblanketbogsinthewesttotheraisedbogsinthemidlands.Thebiodiversitysupportedby
thedifferentbogtypesvariesconsiderablyandinmanycasesthespeciesareuniquewithinEurope.
Activebogsplayanimportantroleincombatingclimatechangebyremovingexcesscarbondioxide
fromtheairandplacingitintolongtermstorageforthousandsofyears.Otherecosystemservices
include reduced flooding (through their capacity to absorb water and release it slowly over time).
Illegaldumpingofwastematerialisoftenassociatedwithremoteandwildareassuchasbogswhich
canleadtodeteriorationofthesehabitatsandtheuniquefloraandfaunatheysupport.Table56
outlinesthedesignatedSACraisedbogsthatoccurintheSouthernRegion.
Table56–DesignatedSACRaisedBogswithintheSouthernRegion
MoanvenalaghBog
BallyduffBog
KilcarrenBog
TullaherLoughandBog
Sheheree(Ardagh)Bog
ConfinaneBog
KilcarrenBog
FirvilleBog
InadditiontotheSACraisedbogsoutlinedinTable56,thereare8otherSACbogsalsodesignated
in the Southern Region. These include Derryclogher (Knockboy) Bog, Glanmore Bog, Glen Bog,
GlendreeBog,MaulagownaBog,MullaghanishBog,PollagoonaBogandSlieveBernaghBog.There
are2otherSPAbogsintheregionwhichincludesKilcolmanBogandandEirkBog.Therearealsoa
numberofbogsintheregion,42intotal,whicharedesignatedasNHAs.
5.2.1.7
InvasiveAlienSpecies
Afurtherconsiderationaspartofwastemanagementplanningrelatestothepotentialforspreadof
invasivespecies.Invasivealienspecies(IAS)arespeciesthataretransportedoutsideoftheirnatural
rangeacrossecologicalbarriersasaresultofhumanaction.Theycanestablishandspreadintheir
new location and cause negative impacts on biodiversity, society and the economy. IAS are
estimatedtohavecosttheEUatleast€12billionperyearoverthepast20years,andthedamage
costs continue to increase. Impacts associated with IAS in Ireland include competition with native
species, alteration to habitats, introduction of pathogens and parasites and economic loss. If an
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36
[SouthernRegion]
invasivespeciese.g.GiantHogweedorJapaneseKnotweedbecomesestablished,itcanbedifficult,
orinsomecasesnearlyimpossibletoeradicate.Constructionanddemolitionwaste,constructionof
new waste management facilities and remediation of historic unregulated waste disposal sites,
illegallandfills,closedlandfillshavethepotentialtospreadinvasivespecies.
5.2.1.8
ExistingEnvironmentalPressures/Problems:Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
Irelandsupportsawidevarietyofspeciesandhabitats,manyofwhichareofinternationalimportance,
however, significant aspects of biodiversity in Ireland are under threat from a range of unsustainable
wasteactivities.Existingpressuresinclude:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Habitatloss,habitatfragmentationanddisturbanceofprotectedhabitatsandspeciesasaresult
ofconstructionofthewastefacilitieshistorically;andofunauthoriseddisposalsitesparticularly
inmoreremoteareas;
Deteriorationinwaterqualityasaresultofleachatearisingfromwasteactivities(authorised/
unauthorised)adjacenttoorupstreamofsensitivesites,particularlydesignatedsites;
Control of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, particularly but not exclusively in coastal
sitesandriverfloodplains;
Abandonment or inappropriate use of endoflife vehicles (ELV) within or in the vicinity of
sensitivesites,particularlydesignatedsites;and
Changestoairqualityasaresultofaerialemissionsfromwasteactivities.
Existingpressureonbiodiversityalsocomesfromexistingwastefacilities.Thereare69EPAlicencedwaste
facilities within the region, some of which lie in proximity to SACs, SPAs, NHAs and pNHAs. There 2
licencedwastefacilitiessituatedwithindesignatedsitesintheregion,1withintheStackstoMullaghareirk
Mountains, West Limerick Hills and Mount Eagle SPA and 1 within the Inner Shannon Estuary – South
Shore pNHA. There are 15 EPA licenced waste facilities within 500m of SACs, 12 EPA licenced waste
facilitieswithin500mofSPAs,1EPAlicencedwastefacilitywithin500mofanNHAand17EPAlicenced
wastefacilitieswithin500mofpNHAs.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
37
Figure 5.1
Natura 2000 Sites in the Southern Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Special Area of Conservation
Special Protection Area
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
¯
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1006F01
Figure 5.2
Natural Heritage Areas and Ramsar Sites in the Southern Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Ramsar
Proposed Natural Heritage Area
Natural Heritage Area
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
¯
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1009F01
[SouthernRegion]
5.2.2 PopulationandHumanHealth
It has been identified by the EC Guidance Note ‘Preparing a Waste Management Plan5’ that a
number of parameters influence waste generation, one of which is population growth. People are
wasteproducersandthereforehistoricallytheamountofwasteproducedhasincreasedinlinewith
humanactivitiesandpopulationgrowth.Inrecent yearshoweverthistrendhasalteredandeven
thoughthepopulationinthestatehascontinuedtogrow,thelatesthouseholdwastedatashowsa
“substantialdropinmunicipalwastegenerationbetween2007and2011”(EPA,2011),andin2012
municipalwastegenerationwas4.6%lowerthanin2011(NationalWasteReport2012[EPA]).Thisis
thought to be reflective of a number of factors such as behavioural changes by householders,
changing attitudes towards waste management and a general decrease in consumption. It is
thoughtthateconomicsisastrongdriverforhouseholdwastegrowthratherthansolelypopulation
dynamics.Thekeyissuesassociatedwithwastemanagementandpopulationrelateto:
ƒ
Population distribution and particularly the differences in the rural versus urban model of
wastecollectionservices;
Quantitiesofwastegeneratedwithintheregion;and
Populationgrowthforecastsandsocioeconomicoutlookintheregion.
ƒ
ƒ
Given the strategic nature of the draft RWMP, focus of the baseline for population and human
healthisattheregionallevel.
5.2.2.1
PopulationDistribution
The Southern Region consists of the 10 administrative areas of Carlow, Cork, Clare,, Cork County,
Kerry, Kilkenny, Tipperary and Wexford County Councils, Limerick City and County Council,
WaterfordCityandCountyCouncilandCorkCityandCountyCouncil.Thetotalpopulationofthe
SouthernRegioninthemostrecent2011censuswasjustover1.54million,anincreaseof98,443or
6.8%sincethepreviouscensusin2006.Thisrepresents34%ofIreland’spopulation.CorkCityand
County account for 34% of the region’s population. Table 57 shows the population in 2006 and
again in 2011 (including percentage difference) for each of the local authority areas within the
Southern Region. Cork County has experienced the greatest percentage population increase
between 2006 and 2011 (10.5%) whilst Limerick City and Cork City have experienced a population
decrease(4.5%and0.2%respectively).
Table57–TrendsinPopulationforCountieswithintheSouthernRegion
LocalAuthority
2006
2011
%Increase
Carlow
50,349
54,612
8.5%
Clare
110,950
117,196
5.6%
CorkCity
119,418
119,230
0.2%
CorkCounty
361,877
399,802
10.5%
Kerry
139,835
145,502
4.1%
Kilkenny
87,558
95,419
9.0%
5
PreparingaWasteManagementPlan.Amethodologicalguidancenote.EC,2012
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
40
[SouthernRegion]
LocalAuthority
2006
2011
%Increase
LimerickCity
59,790
57,106
4.5%
LimerickCounty
124,265
134,703
8.4%
Tipperary
149,244
158,754
6.4%
WaterfordCity
45,748
46,732
2.2%
WaterfordCounty
62,213
67,063
7.8%
WexfordCounty
131,749
145,320
10.3%
TotalPopulationinthe
SouthernRegion
1,442,996
1,541,439
6.8%
TotalNationalPopulation
4,239,848
4,588,252
8.2%
Thedistributionandactivitiesofpeopleintheregionvariesfromruralagriculturalcommunitiesto
thecitiesofCork,Limerick,KilkennyandWaterfordaswellasassociatedcommuterbelts.CorkCity
ishometo8%oftheregion’spopulation(119,230),LimerickCityholds4%(57,106)andWaterford
Cityholds3%(46,732)oftheregion’spopulation.Around85%ofthepopulationintheregionlivesin
small villages or oneoff houses in rural areas.Cork City and suburbs occupy the second largest
urban land area in Ireland after Dublin at 164.6km2 and holds 7% of the total urban population.
Figure53showsthepopulationdensityintheSouthernRegionandthecitiesandmajortownsin
theregion.
AsoutlinedinthedraftRWMP,themostrecentcensusfiguresshowthaturban/ruralpopulation
split is 51% / 49%. The rural element of the population appears relatively small but in actuality
equates to approximately 762,234 people. Counties Carlow, Clare, Kerry, Kilkenny, Tipperary and
Wexfordhavemoreruralthanurbanpopulationnumbers.Table58summarisestheurban/rural
populationdistributionforeachlocalauthorityarea.
Table58–Urban/RuralPopulationDistributionintheSouthernRegion
LocalAuthority
2011Urban
2011Rural
Carlow
26,719
27,893
Clare
46,381
70,815
CorkCity
119,230
0
CorkCounty
204,532
195,270
Kerry
51,479
94,023
Kilkenny
35,329
60,090
Limerick
103,399
88,410
Tipperary
65,878
92,876
Waterford
70,647
43,148
Wexford
55,611
89,709
Total
779,205
762234
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
41
[SouthernRegion]
Thedistributionofpopulationbetweenurbanpopulationcentres,ruralvillages,communityclusters
andoneoffhousinginIrelandisakeyissueforcollectionactivitiesinthewastesector.Typically,
urbanareashavehigherpopulationdensitiesthanruralareasandarebettersuitedtoandserviced
by kerbside collection systems. This is reflected in the high rates of collection coverage in these
areas. Generally kerbside collections are dominant in urban areas with the largest volume of
household waste collected through these systems. However it is not a given that coverage is at
100%ashouseholderscan,undercurrentlegislation,optoutofaserviceevenwhereseveralwaste
providersareoperatinginthemarketandofferingaservice.
Rural areas typically rely on a combination of collection systems including kerbside, local civic
amenitycentres,bringbanks,directdisposaltolandfills(althoughthisoptionisdeclining)andother
methods such as pay to use (PTU) containers which are freely accessible and located mainly
at petrol stations forecourts. The fragmented nature makesit difficult to identify those
householderswhoareresponsiblymanagingtheirwastesandthosewhoarenot.Anoutcomeof
this regulatory approach is a higherrisk for potential illegal dumping, backyard burning or other
unsustainablemethodsofdisposalwithknockonnegativeimpactsfortheenvironment.
Oneoffhousingisthefocusofthisissueandithassteadilyincreasedinthelastdecade.The2011
census identified that from a total of 1,994,845 housing units in Ireland 433,564 (26.3%) were
classified as oneoff houses. The CSO’s classification of a oneoff house is an occupied detached
dwellingwithanindividualseweragesysteminaruralarea.Sincethe2006censusnationallythere
hasbeena12.7%growthinhousingstockandthepercentageofoneoffhousinghasincreased.Of
the identified oneoff houses in Ireland, 96% were outside of the 848 towns and settlements
identifiedinthe2011census.Theshareofoneoffhousingbuiltsince2006andoutlinedinFigure
54identifiesthatintheSouthernRegion,CorkCity,WaterfordCityandLimerickCityhavelessthan
a30%shareofthistypeofhousing.ThecountiesofCork,CarlowandSouthTipperaryhavegreater
than 3035% share of this type of housing. The remaining counties in this region include Clare,
Limerick, North Tipperary and Kilkenny with 3540% and Wexford, Waterford and Kerry with 40
45%.
5.2.2.2
QuantitiesofWasteProduced
Figure55andTable59displaytheamountofmanagedhouseholdwasteintheSouthernRegion.
ThisdataistakenfromtheEPAandoutlinesthewastesrecordedandreportedfromsourcessuchas
kerbsidecollection,civicamenityfacilitiesandbringbanks.Thefigureclearlydemonstratesthatthe
highpopulationregionsfallwithinthehighestcategoryoftonnesofmanagedwaste.
The EPA2012StateoftheEnvironment Reportnotesthatof theservicedhouseholdsinthestate,
98%haveatleastatwobinsystemand37%(nationally)haveaccesstoathreebinsystem.Waste
collection services in the Southern Region have between 54% and 95% coverage with the highest
noted for Cork City and the lowest noted for Clare and Kerry. The National Waste Report 2012
estimatesthatnationallytherewasover214,200tofunmanagedhouseholdwastein2012.
Thebarrierstofullcoverageincludebutarenotlimitedto:lackofcompetitioninwastecollection
servicesinsomeareas;optoutofexistingwastecollectionservicesbyhouseholds;andpoorrollout
ofthe3binsystem.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
42
[SouthernRegion]
Table59–QuantitiesofWasteProducedperHouseholdandExtentofCoveragein2012
AmountofManaged
HouseholdWaste(t)
ExtentofWaste
CollectionCoverage
%witha3BinSystem
Carlow
18,421
66%
26%
Clare
31,435
54%
70%
CorkCity
49,432
95%
0%
CorkCounty
108,808
65%
0%
Kerry
36,653
54%
17%
Kilkenny
22,295
55%
10%
LimerickCity
18,419
69%
42%
LimerickCounty
36,249
59%
46%
NorthTipperary
19,885
79%
47%
SouthTipperary
23,850
56%
30%
WaterfordCity
22,961
71%
99%
WaterfordCounty
20,445
94%
62%
WexfordCounty
46,261
72%
32%
LocalAuthority
Source:(EPA,2014)
5.2.2.3
PopulationandEconomicForecasts
The total national population in the 2011 census was 4.57 million. The CSO writes in their report
PopulationandLabourForceProjections20162046(CSO,2013),thattotalpopulationispredictedto
grow to between 4.7 and 5.3 million over the period 20162026. The CSO predicts the average
annual population growth rate during this period (taking account of fertility and migration) to be
between0.4and1%,comparedtothe1.6%growthrateobservedduringthelastintercensalperiod
(20062011).
In their Environment Review Report published in June 2012, the ESRI summarises that municipal
solidwaste(MSW)generationisprojectedtoincreasebyroughly0.9milliontonnesoverthenext20
years,withmorethanhalfofthattocomefromtheservicessectors.Animportantdriverforthis
growth in MSW generation is the assumption that the population will increase to 5 million within
approximately15years.TheEPAhaspredictedasimilaroutcome,forecastingintheNationalWaste
Report2011thatmunicipalwastegenerationwillgrowby830,000tonneswithinthenext15years.
TheexpectationfromtheESRIisthatagrowingpopulationandexpandingrecoveringeconomywill
potentiallyleadtoincreasingpressureontheenvironmentthroughwastegeneration.
It is expected that municipal (i.e. combined household and commercial) waste arisings in the
SouthernRegionoverthe20112021periodwillriseinthe1530%range.Thehigheroftheserates
of increase especially presents a challenge to the region to ensure that adequate collection and
treatmentcapacityisdevelopedtoallowforthisforecast.Furthermore,thedrivetoprogressively
treatmoreofthismaterialinIrelandmeansthattreatmentcapacityprovisionwillneedtoincrease
atratesevenabovethoseshown,makingthetargetsmorechallenging.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
43
[SouthernRegion]
5.2.2.4
HumanHealth
The Institute of Public Health in Ireland produced a briefing note in 2005 on health impact
assessmentsinwastemanagementinwhichtheynotedthatwastemanagementandpublichealth
areinextricablylinkedandassuchthereisinherentsenseinassessingthepotentialimpactonhealth
of any proposed method of managing waste. However, the document also went on to note
limitations for such assessments including the length of time it may take for effects to show in a
population, the role of other confounding factors in illhealth; and the need to consider social,
psychologicalaswellasphysicaleffects.Thesefactorstogetherwiththelackofhumanhealthdata
atnationalorregionallevelinrelationtowastemanagementinIrelandcontinuetomakeitdifficult
toassessdirectimpactsonhumanhealth.Bearingtheseinmind,theimplicationsforhumanhealth
areoftenreviewedinthecontextofindirectimpactswhichmayoccurasaresultofpathwaysfor
pollutants,principallythroughair,waterandsoils.
It is noted that regulated facilities require licenses and permits, which contain emission limits to
thesemedia.TheseemissionlimitsarebasedonthemostcurrentEU/WHOguidelinesandlimits
whichhavebeendevelopedtoprotecthumanhealthhoweveritisrecognisedthatexceedancesdo
occurasevidencedfromEPAAnnualEnvironmentalReporting.
Inthecaseofhistoricunregulatedwastedisposalsitesandofunregulatedactivitiessuchasbackyard
burning/illegaldumpingtherisktohumanhealthrelatestothenatureandquantitiesofthewaste
disposedanditsproximitytosensitivereceptorse.g.awatersupply,residentialdevelopmentsetc.
TheEPAhasdevelopedaCodeofPracticeforunregulatedwastesitesincludingamethodtoscore
theriskandprioritiseremediationwhereappropriate.Emissionsassociatedwithbackyardburning
includeparticulates(PM2.5andPM10)anddioxinsetc.Butunlikeamodernthermaltreatmentfacility,
theseemissionscannotbecapturedinanywayandarenotmonitored.
Cleanairisimportanttoapopulation’sgeneralhealth.Irelandhasingeneralgoodairqualityandas
suchthepopulationreceivesahealthbenefitfromhavingaccesstocleanfreshair.Apotentialrisk
to human health is from waste generated emissions. The emissions to air arising from waste
managementcanincludethosefromlandfill,thermaltreatment,composting,anaerobicdigestionor
illegalburningandalsoexhaustemissionsfromthetransportationofwasteassociatedwithheavy
goods vehicles. The types of emissions with key potential for impact on air quality and climate
include: landfill gas (methane and carbon dioxide), particulate matter, nitrogen oxide, carbon
monoxide, heavy metals, vaporous organic substances, dioxins, furans and odours. While not
causingadirectimpacttohealth,malodoursassociatedwithwasteandsometypesoffacilities(e.g.
wastetreatment)canreducequalityoflifeandtheenjoymentofone’ssurroundingsifodoursare
particularly strong or persistent. See Section 5.2.5 for more information detailing the types of
wasterelatedactivitieswhichcanaffectairquality.
Theemissionstowaterarisingfromwastemanagementcanincludeleachateandsuspendedsolids
from regulated and unregulated disposal sites, cooling waters from treatment facilities, litter and
exhaustemissionsfromthetransportationofwasteassociatedwithheavygoodsvehiclesetc.These
types of pollution can impact on the ecological status of water bodies and can result in negative
impactsoninvertebrates,plantlifeandonallstagesoffishandshellfishlifecycles.Thisinturncan
impact negatively on human health where commercial fisheries and fish stocks become
contaminated by harmful chemicals or microorganisms as a result of waste runoff or poorly
managed discharge. Leachate and runoff from disposal sites in particular can also impact on
drinkingwatersources(bothsurfaceandgroundwater)possiblyleadingtointerruption/lossofthe
supplyandcostsassociatedwithremediatingnotonlythesitebutthewatersupplyalso.Dumping
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
44
[SouthernRegion]
atseaandlitterwhichfindsitswaytothecoast/oceanareotheravenuesofmarinepollutionfrom
waste.Whilethereisnospecificdatasetwhichquantifieslittering,wastepreventioncampaignsand
otherinitiativessuchastheplasticbaglevycanreducelitterlevels.SeeSection5.2.4formoredetail
onthecurrentstatusofwaterqualityintheSouthernRegionandtheprimaryactivitiesrelatedto
wastepollutionofwater.
Irelandreliesheavilyongoodqualitysoilsfortheagriculturalsector.Contaminationofthisresource
hassignificanteconomicandsocialimpactsasitrelatesdirectlytothefoodchain.Plantsgrowing
nearcontaminatedsoilsmayleachharmfulchemicalsleadingtocontaminationoftheplantmaterial
andlivestockwhicheatthismaterialordrinkwaterfromcontaminatedwatersuppliesinthevicinity.
Significantresourcesareexpendedonidentifyingillegaldumpsitesandhistoricunregulatedlandfills
andtheirremediationintheregion.SeeSection5.2.3formoredetailonthecurrentstatusofsoils
intheSouthernRegion.
5.2.2.5
ExistingEnvironmentalPressures/Problems:PopulationandHumanHealth
There havebeen changes inthe wastecollection sectorwith the majority of local authorities exiting the
domestic waste collection market and private operators taking over. This has led to multiple operators,
particularlyinurbanareas,competingforwastecollectionservices,althoughtheextentofcompetition(i.e.
numberofserviceproviders)variesandisnotalwayscomparable(i.e.someoperatorsoffera2binservice,
othersa3bin).Bycontrast,manyruralareasdonothavecompetitionforservices.
Thedispersednatureofruralhousing,oneoffhousingandhistoricwastemanagementpracticesinrural
areas is contributing to lower collection rates for waste in rural areas. In 2012 approximately 214,200
tonnesofmunicipalwastewasreportedasuncollectedandunmanagedwhichequatestoapproximately
16%ofoccupiedhouseswithinIreland.Itisnotclearhowthisunmanagedwasteisbeingdisposedof(EPA,
2012). Unmanaged household waste contributes to backyard burning and illegal dumping. The
environmentalimpactsassociatedwiththeseactivitiesincludedeteriorationinair,waterandsoilsquality
withindirectimpactsonhumanhealth.
Thegrowthinpopulation,incomesandeconomicactivity,especiallyoverthepastdecade,andthegeneral
trendtowardsincreasedurbanisationandsuburbanisationhasimpactedontheenvironmentinavarietyof
ways.Significantgrowthinpopulationhasoccurredinurbanandruralareasandthisgrowthhasresulted
in individual houses in the countryside and housing clusters in small villages throughout much of the
country. As the population of Ireland grows, increased pressure for housing poses a challenge to ensure
that future development takes place in a way which avoids urban sprawl. This urban sprawl places
increased pressure on waste collection systems. Residential distribution patterns have already led to
challengesinachievingfullcoverageforallwastestreams.Ingeneraltherearebetterkerbsidecollection
systemsavailableinthemainpopulationcentresintheregion.
[MDR0998RP0012_F01]
45
(
!
Figure 5.3
(
!
Dingle
(
!
Tralee
(
!
(
!
Bantry
Killarney
(
!
Listowel
(
!
Kilrush
Population Density in the Southern Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Source: Census 2011
1 - 10
11 - 30
31 - 100
101 - 300
301 - 500
501 - 1000
1001 - 2000
2001 - 3000
3001 - 4000
4001 - 5000
5001 - 18859
Population Density (People/sq.km)
Waste Management Region
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
City / Town
Legend
(
!
Clonakilty
Macroom
(
!
(
!
Cork
Limerick
Mallow
(
!
(
!
Shannon
Rathkeale
(
!
Ennis
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Midleton
Fermoy
Mitchelstown
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Thomastown
(
!
Kilkenny
(
!
(
!
(
!
Tullow
(
!
Graiguenamanagh
Bagenalstown
Carlow
Waterford
(
!
(
!
(
Castlecomer !
Carrick-on-Suir
Dungarvan
Clonmel
Youghal
(
!
Thurles
Cashel
(
!
(
!
Templemore
Caher
(
!
(
!
Tipperary
Nenagh
(
!
(
!
Wexford
Gorey
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1012F01
(
!
Enniscorthy
(
!
¯
¯
Legend
Waste Management Region
< 30%
30 - 35%
35 - 40%
40 - 45%
> 45%
ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
0
50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 5.4
One-off Housing in the Southern Region with National Context
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1014F01(b)
54%
33,545t
Figure 5.5
75%
5%
2%
17%
Kerry
Waste Services - Southern Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Note: Percentages at 1% cannot be resolved visually on the pie charts.
4 Bin Service
3 Bin Service
2 Bin Service
1 Bin Service
Bin Provision (%, 2012)
Waste Service to Occupied
Households (%, 2012)
Household Managed Waste
Per Authority (tonnes, 2012)
County / Administrative Area
Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
59%
34,414t
Clare
54%
28,921t
Cork
65%
102,551
79%
69%
16,826t
Cork City
83%
8%
10%
95%
41,945t
56%
94%
89%
1%
10%
69%
5%
26%
71%
16,867t
99%
1%
68%
32%
72%
42,445t
¯
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1016F01
Wexford
Carlow
Waterford City
Kilkenny
55%
20,439t
66%
18,141t
Eastern-Midlands Region
62%
3%
62%
Waterford
18,520t
22,194t
65%
5%
30%
South Tipperary
47%
52%
18,997t
North
Tipp er ar y
83%
1%
16%
53%
5%
42%
Limerick
51%
2%
46%
Limerick
City
21%
4%
5%
70%
Connacht-Ulster
Region
`