Eastern & Midlands Waste Region SEA Environmental Report Part A

SEA Environmental Report
Eastern - Midlands Draft Regional Waste Management Plan
2015 - 2021
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TABLEOFCONTENTS
NONTECHNICALSUMMARY...........................................................................................................6
1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................25
1.1 WASTEMANAGEMENTINIRELAND..................................................................................................25
2
CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN..............................................................28
2.1 RESPONSIBLEAUTHORITYFOREASTERNMIDLANDS............................................................................28
2.2 KEYWASTETERMINOLOGYUSEDINTHEPLAN....................................................................................28
2.3 REQUIREMENTFORAREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN...............................................................29
2.4 AREACOVEREDBYTHEPLAN...........................................................................................................30
2.5 INTRODUCTIONTOTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN...........................................30
2.6 STRATEGICVISIONOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN........................................................32
2.7 STRATEGICOBJECTIVESOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN..................................................33
3
STRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTMETHODOLOGY...........................................35
3.1 THESTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTPROCESS.....................................................................35
3.2 WORKCOMPLETEDTODATE...........................................................................................................35
3.2.1Screening........................................................................................................................35
3.2.2Scoping............................................................................................................................36
3.3 ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT.......................................................................................................44
3.3.1AssessmentApproach.....................................................................................................44
3.3.2SEAEnvironmentalReport..............................................................................................45
3.3.3LinksbetweentheSEAandAAProcess..........................................................................46
3.3.4DifficultiesEncountered.................................................................................................46
3.4 SEASTATEMENT...........................................................................................................................47
4
REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES...........................................48
4.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................48
4.2 METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................................................48
4.3 RELEVANTPLANSANDPROGRAMMES.............................................................................................49
4.4 RELEVANTPOLICYANDLEGISLATION...............................................................................................49
4.5 RELATIONSHIPOFWASTEPLANANDOTHERPLANS/PROGRAMMES/POLICY.......................................50
5
RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHEENVIRONMENT(BASELINE).............53
5.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................53
5.1.1StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–RepublicofIreland.............................................53
5.1.2StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–NorthernIreland................................................54
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5.2 ENVIRONMENTALCHARACTERISTICSANDPROBLEMSINTHEEASTERNMIDLANDSREGION.......................55
5.2.1Biodiversity,FloraandFauna.........................................................................................56
5.2.2PopulationandHumanHealth.......................................................................................63
5.2.3Soil,GeologyandHydrogeology.....................................................................................73
5.2.4Water..............................................................................................................................79
5.2.5AirQualityandClimaticFactors.....................................................................................85
5.2.6MaterialAssets...............................................................................................................89
5.2.7CulturalHeritage...........................................................................................................102
5.2.8Landscape.....................................................................................................................103
5.3 INTERRELATIONSHIP..................................................................................................................105
5.4 LIKELYEVOLUTIONOFTHEBASELINEWITHOUTIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHERWMP...............................106
5.5 KEYPRESSURESINTHEEASTERNMIDLANDSREGION.......................................................................108
6
ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONOBJECTIVESANDSEAFRAMEWORK..............................118
6.1 DEVELOPMENTOFSTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALOBJECTIVES,TARGETSANDINDICATORS......................118
6.1.1StrategicEnvironmentalObjectives.............................................................................118
6.1.2StrategicEnvironmentalIndicatorsandTargets..........................................................118
7
ALTERNATIVES...............................................................................................................123
7.1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................123
7.2 APPROACHTOALTERNATIVESFORTHEEASTERNMIDLANDSREGION.................................................123
7.3 ASSESSMENTPARAMETERS..........................................................................................................124
7.4 STRATEGICALTERNATIVES...........................................................................................................125
7.4.1Retainingalineareconomymodelversusshiftingtowardsacirculareconomymodel125
7.4.2SelfsufficiencyVersusRelianceonExportsforTreatmentofResidualMunicipalType
Waste............................................................................................................................127
7.4.3InclusionofMandatoryTargetsOnlyorInclusionofAdditionalNonmandatoryTargets
130
7.5 STRATEGICOBJECTIVESANDPOLICYALTERNATIVES.........................................................................132
7.5.1PolicyandLegislation....................................................................................................132
7.5.2Prevention....................................................................................................................133
7.5.3ResourceEfficiency&CircularEconomy......................................................................134
7.5.4Coordination.................................................................................................................136
7.5.5Infrastructure(Collection)............................................................................................137
7.5.6Infrastructure(ThermalRecovery)...............................................................................138
7.5.7Infrastructure(Backfilling)............................................................................................141
7.5.8Infrastructure(Disposal)...............................................................................................142
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7.5.9RegulationandEnforcement........................................................................................143
7.5.10Protection...................................................................................................................144
7.5.11OtherWasteStreams.................................................................................................145
7.6 OVERALLPREFERREDSCENARIO...................................................................................................146
7.7 DEVELOPMENTOFSTRATEGICOBJECTIVES.....................................................................................147
8
ASSESSMENTOFPREFERREDSCENARIO.........................................................................149
8.1 ASSESSMENTAPPROACH.............................................................................................................149
8.2 ASSESSMENTPARAMETERS..........................................................................................................149
8.2.1IntegrationofSEAandAAwiththePlan......................................................................150
8.3 ASSESSMENTOFPOLICIESANDPOLICYACTIONSOFTHEPREFERREDSTRATEGICAPPROACH...................151
8.3.1PolicyActionsA–PolicyandLegislation......................................................................151
8.3.2PolicyActionsB–Prevention.......................................................................................155
8.3.3PolicyActionsC–ResourceEfficiencyandtheCircularEconomy...............................162
8.3.4PolicyActionsD–Coordination....................................................................................167
8.3.5PolicyActionsE–InfrastructurePlanning....................................................................171
8.3.6PolicyActionsF–EnforcementandRegulation...........................................................185
8.3.7PolicyActionsG–Protection........................................................................................190
8.3.8PolicyActionsH–OtherWasteStreams......................................................................195
9
MITIGATIONANDMONITORING....................................................................................200
9.1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................200
9.2 SOURCESOFINFORMATIONFORMONITORING...............................................................................200
9.3 MITIGATIONMEASURES..............................................................................................................200
9.4 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................209
10
NEXTSTEPS....................................................................................................................211
LISTOFFIGURES
Figure1Ireland’sWasteManagementRegions...................................................................................8
Figure2SummaryofSEAstages...........................................................................................................9
Figure3–OverviewoftheScopingProcess.........................................................................................10
Figure4–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics........................................................................19
Figure11PreviousWasteManagementRegions..............................................................................25
Figure12Ireland’sWasteManagementRegions..............................................................................27
Figure21EasternMidlandsWasteManagementRegion................................................................31
Figure51–Natura2000SitesintheEasternMidlandsRegion..........................................................61
Figure52–NaturalHeritageAreasandRamsarSitesintheEasternMidlandsRegion......................62
Figure53–PopulationDensityintheEasternMidlandsRegion.........................................................70
Figure54–OneoffHousingintheEasternMidlandsRegionwithNationalContext........................71
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Figure55–WasteServicesintheEasternMidlandsRegion...............................................................72
Figure56–HighRiskHistoricLandfillsandGroundwaterVulnerability.............................................78
Figure57–RiverBasinDistrictsintheEasternMidlandsRegion.......................................................83
Figure58–WaterQualityStatusofSurfaceWaterbodiesinEasternMidlandsRegion.....................84
Figure59–EPAWasteLicencedFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion........................................96
Figure510–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion(Group1).......97
Figure511–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion(Groups2,2A
and3).....................................................................................................................................................98
Figure512–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion(Groups4and5)
...............................................................................................................................................................99
Figure513–LocalAuthorityCORandWFPFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion(Groups6,7and
8)..........................................................................................................................................................100
Figure514–KeyInfrastructureintheEasternMidlandsRegion......................................................101
Figure515–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics.................................................................105
Figure71CircularEconomyandLinearEconomyModels...............................................................125
LISTOFTABLES
Table1–KeyFactsfortheEasternMidlandsRegion.............................................................................6
Table2SEAChecklistofInformation..................................................................................................11
Table3–KeyPolicies,PlansandProgrammesfortheEasternMidlandsRegion................................13
Table4–BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures..............................................14
Table5–SummaryAssessmentTable..................................................................................................23
Table21KeyWasteTerminology......................................................................................................28
Table31SEAStages...........................................................................................................................35
Table32MainIssues/SuggestionsfromStatutoryConsultees........................................................37
Table33MainIssues/SuggestionsfromNonStatutoryConsultees................................................42
Table34SEAEnvironmentalAssessment..........................................................................................44
Table35–RequirementofSEADirectiveandRelevantSectioninEnvironmentalReport.................45
Table41KeyRelevantPlansandProgrammes..................................................................................49
Table42KeyRelevantPolicyandLegislation....................................................................................49
Table51–EPAKeyChallengesandRelationshiptoRWMP................................................................53
Table52–SummaryofCurrentStateoftheEnvironmentinNorthernIreland.................................54
Table53–NumberandTypesofDesignatedSiteswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion...................57
Table54–SACRaisedBogswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion.......................................................59
Table55–TrendsinPopulationforCountieswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion...........................63
Table56–Urban/RuralPopulationDistributionintheEasternMidlandsRegion.............................64
Table57–QuantitiesofWasteProducedperHouseholdandExtentofCoverage............................66
Table58–ClassAandClassBSoilsMappingintheEasternMidlandsRegion...................................74
Table59–NationalFiguresforHistoricWasteDisposal.....................................................................75
Table510–HistoricWasteDisposalintheEasternMidlandsRegion................................................75
Table511–DetailsofHistoricMinesintheEasternMidlandsRegion...............................................75
Table512–GroundwaterStatusinEasternMidlandsRegion............................................................77
Table513–WaterQualityStatusofSurfaceWaterbodiesinEasternMidlandsRegion....................80
Table 514 – Presence of Water Framework Directive Protected Areas within the EasternMidlands
Region....................................................................................................................................................81
Table515–WasteFacilitiesintheEasternMidlandsRegion.............................................................90
Table516–FreetradeExchangeandReuseData................................................................................93
Table517–MembersofCRNIIreland.................................................................................................93
Table518–NumberofListed/DesignatedCulturalHeritageResources..........................................102
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Table519–LikelyEvolutionoftheBaselinewithoutImplementationoftheRWMP......................106
Table520–KeyEnvironmentalPressuresintheEasternMidlandsRegion.....................................109
Table61SEAObjectives,TargetsandIndicators.............................................................................120
Table91–EnvironmentalMonitoringProgramme...........................................................................201
Table92MitigationMeasuresRelatingtoAssessmentofalternatives(seeChpt7)......................205
Table93MitigationMeasuresRelatingtoAssessmentofPoliciesandPolicyActions(seeChpt8)205
Table101RemainingStepsintheRWMP,SEAandAAprocesses..................................................211
All maps produced by RPS included in this report, utilising Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSi) background mapping, are covered under Ordnance Survey Ireland Licence Number EN 0005014 (Copyright Government of Ireland). [MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
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NONTECHNICALSUMMARY
1
INTRODUCTION
This Environmental Report has been prepared as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA)ofthedraftEasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlan(hereafterreferredtoasdraft
EasternMidlands RWMP) for the EasternMidlands Region, in accordance with national and EU
legislation.SEAisasystematicmethodofconsideringthelikelysignificantenvironmentaleffectsofa
Plan or Programme by integrating environmental factors into the development of the Plan and
relateddecisionmaking.
Thepurpose ofthisEnvironmentalReportisto:a)informthedevelopmentofthePlan; b) identify
describeandevaluatethelikelysignificanteffectsofthePlananditsreasonablealternatives;andc)
provide an early opportunity for the statutory authorities and the public to offer views through
consultation.
2
CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN
ThecontentsandmainobjectivesoftheEasternMidlandsRWMPareoutlinedinTable1.
Table1–KeyFactsfortheEasternMidlandsRegion
KeyFacts
Nameofresponsibleauthority
Dublin City Council is the lead authority for the
preparation of the EasternMidlands Regional Waste
Management Plan, on behalf of the 12 city and
countycouncilsintheEasternMidlandsRegion.
TitleofPlan
EasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlan
WhatpromptedthePlan?
The Waste Framework Directive sets out the
approachforthesustainablemanagementofwastein
theMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityand
thishasbeentransposedintoIrishlawbytheWaste
Management Act 1996 and the European
Communities (Waste Directive) Regulations 2011.
Thislegislationrequiresthepreparationofaregional
waste management plan for all regions within the
state.
SubjectofthePlan
Waste management including prevention, preparing
for reuse, collection, recycling, other recovery and
disposal(includingexports).
Period covered by the Plan and frequency of ThePlanwillbeinforcefor6yearsandwillcoverthe
updates?
period2015–2021.
AreacoveredbythePlan
EasternMidlandsRegion
PurposeofthePlan
Toprovideforthesustainablemanagementofwaste.
Contactdetails
Regional Waste Coordinator, Environment and
Transportation Department, Block 1, Floor 6, Civic
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KeyFacts
Offices,Dublin8.
TheWasteFrameworkDirectivesetsouttheapproachforthesustainablemanagementofwastein
theMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityandhasbeentransposedintoIrishlawbytheWaste
Management Act 1996 and the European Communities (Waste Directive) Regulations 2011. The
Waste Framework Directive and a number of other related directives set out a range of policy
principles,mandatorytargetsandregulatoryframeworkswhichMemberStatesmusttransposeinto
nationallaw.
AregionalapproachtomanagingwasteinIrelandwasgivenalegalbasebytheWasteManagement
Act 1996 which allowed for one or more local authorities to come together for the purpose of
preparingawastemanagementplan.Tenregionswereformed,sevenofwhichweremadeupoftwo
or more local authorities and covered the majority of the country and three were county regions.
The first two generations of Waste Management Plans (covering the period 19982011) reflected
these10regions.However,inJuly2012thelatestGovernmentNationalWastePolicydocument,A
ResourceOpportunity,recommendedtheconsolidationofthewasteregionstoamaximumofthree
[seeFigure1].Thetransformationfromtenregionstothreehasbeenundertakenasfollows:
ƒ
EasternMidlandsRegion;
ƒ
ConnachtUlsterRegion;and
ƒ
SouthernRegion.
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¯
ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
0
50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 1
Ireland's Waste Management Regions
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1001F01
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TheEasternMidlandsWasteRegionconsistsoftheadministrativeareasofLouth,Meath,Longford,
Westmeath, Offaly, Kildare, Laois, Wicklow, and the four Dublin authorities Dublin, Fingal, South
DublinandDúnLaoghaireRathdown.
The new draft RWMP under development is presented in three parts beginning with Part 1,
Background,whichsetsoutthestrategicandpolicycontextfortheplanincludingadetailedprofile
of the region. Part 2, Present Position, sets out the existing situation with regard to waste data,
prevention and reuse activities, waste collection and infrastructural arrangements and the
management of priority waste streams. Part 3, Implementation, deals with waste projections,
infrastructureplanningandtherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevariousstakeholderstothedelivery
oftheRWMP.Part3alsoprovidesafinancialoverviewandadetailedbreakdownofpolicies,actions
andtargetstobeachieved.Itconcludeswiththearrangementsformonitoringandreportingonplan
strategy,objectives,policiesandactions.
3
SEAMETHODOLOGY
ThisEnvironmentalReportcontainsthefindingsoftheassessmentofthelikelysignificanteffectson
theenvironment,ofimplementingthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMP.Itreflectstherequirementsof
theSEADirective(2001/42/EC)ontheassessmentoftheeffectsofcertainplansandprogrammeson
theenvironmentandalsothetransposedregulationsinIreland(S.I.435/2004asamendedbyS.I.200
of2011).ThestagesfollowedintheSEAaresummarisedinFigure2below.
Figure2SummaryofSEAstages
IntegrationoftheSEAanddraftEasternMidlandsRWMPwasachievedthroughcloseinvolvementof
relevant team members in all stages of the project, including SEA scoping; review of the existing
situation; and public consultation. The SEA and Plan Teams also participated in a number of
workshopsinrelationtodevelopingthe:SEAassessmentmethodology;alternativestobeconsidered
in the SEA; SEA objectives, targets and indicators; and mitigation measures and monitoring
strategies. The development of the draft EasternMidlands RWMP was progressed in consultation
withtheRegionalWasteManagementPlanSteeringGroupcomprisingrepresentativesfromthelead
authorities for the three waste regions, namely the EasternMidlands Region (Dublin City Council);
the Southern Region (Limerick City and County Councils and Tipperary County Councils); and the
ConnachtUlsterRegion(MayoCountyCouncil).
SEAScoping
The objective of scoping is to identify key issues of concern that should be addressed in the
environmental assessment of the draft EasternMidlands RWMP so that they can be considered in
appropriate detail. Scoping also helps determine the boundaries of the assessment in terms of
geographicalextentandthetimehorizonfortheassessment.Figure3outlinesthevariouselements
thatcontributetothescopeoftheSEA.
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Figure3–OverviewoftheScopingProcess
Consultation was carried out with the statutory consultees (Environmental Protection Agency,
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, Department of the Environment,
Community and Local Government, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and the
DepartmentofAgriculture,FoodandtheMarine),NIEAandwiththepublicandotherstakeholders.
Taking into consideration feedback from consultees, a broad assessment of the potential for the
draft EasternMidlands RWMP to influence the environment was carried out. All of the
environmentaltopicslistedintheSEADirectivehavebeenscopedinfortheassessmentofthedraft
RWMP.Theseare:
ƒ
Biodiversity,FloraandFauna;
ƒ
Population;
ƒ
HumanHealth;
ƒ
Soil;
ƒ
Water;
ƒ
Landscape;
ƒ
Air;
ƒ
ClimaticFactors;
ƒ
MaterialAssets;and
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ƒ
Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeologicalHeritage.
ThedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPisaregionalplanfortheEasternMidlandsWasteRegionandas
suchtheassessmenthasbeenlimitedgeographicallytoactivitiesoccurringwithinthefunctionalarea
ofthePlan.ThedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPwillcovertheperiodfrom2015upto2021.Inline
with the SEA Directive, short, medium and longterm impacts have been considered during the
assessment.AsthePlanisonaregionalscale,themajorityofthedatarelatestooverallnationaland
regionalperformance.
Based on the requirements of the legislation and guidance, the following information in Table 2 is
providedintheEnvironmentalReport.
Table2SEAChecklistofInformation
RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
An outline of the contents and main objectives of the plan or Chapter2:ContentandMainObjectives
programme, or modification to a plan or programme, and ofthePlan
relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes;
Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
The relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
thelikelyevolutionthereofwithoutimplementationoftheplanor Current State of the Environment
programme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,
(Baseline)
Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
Theenvironmentalcharacteristicsofareaslikelytobesignificantly
Current State of the Environment
affected
(Baseline)
Anyexistingenvironmentalproblemswhicharerelevanttotheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,including, Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
in particular, those relating to any areas of a particular Current State of the Environment
environmental importance, such as areas designated pursuant to (Baseline)
theBirdsDirectiveortheHabitatsDirective
The environmental protection objectives, established at
international,EuropeanUnionornationallevel,whicharerelevant
totheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme, Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
andthewaythoseobjectivesandanyenvironmentalconsiderations
havebeentakenintoaccountduringitspreparation
Thelikelysignificanteffectsontheenvironment,includingonissues
such as biodiversity, population, human health, fauna, flora, soil,
water, air, climatic factors, material assets, cultural heritage Chapter8:Assessment
including architectural and archaeological heritage, landscape and
theinterrelationshipbetweentheabovefactors
Themeasuresenvisagedtoprevent,reduceandasfullyaspossible
offset any significant adverse effects on the environment of
Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
implementingtheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanor
programme
An outline of the reasons for selecting thealternatives dealt with,
andadescriptionofhowtheassessmentwasundertakenincluding
Chapter7:Alternatives
anydifficulties(suchastechnicaldeficienciesorlackofknowhow)
encounteredincompilingtherequiredinformation
Adescriptionofthemeasuresenvisagedconcerningmonitoringof Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
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RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
thesignificantenvironmentaleffectsofimplementationoftheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme
A nontechnical summary of the information provided under the
NonTechnicalSummary
aboveheadings
AppropriateAssessment
InadditiontothisSEA,thereisarequirementundertheEUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EEC)toassess
whether the draft EasternMidlands RWMP, either alone or in combination with other plans and
projects, has the potential to have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site. These sites include
areas designated for the protection and conservation of habitats and of wild flora and fauna and
include Special Protection Areas (designated under the Birds Directive (2009/147/EC) and Special
Areas of Conservation (designated under the Habitats Directive). An Appropriate Assessment has
beencarriedoutinconjunctionwithboththeSEAandthePlanmakingprocesses.
4
REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES
Areviewoftheplans,policiesandprogrammesrelevanttothedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPwas
carried out. The review focussed primarily on National, European and International plans and
programmes.Inreviewingtheotherrelevantdocuments,thefollowingquestionswereasked:
ƒ
Does the draft EasternMidlands RWMP contribute to the fulfilment of environmental
protectionobjectivessetinotherPlans/Programmes/Policy/Legislation?;and
ƒ
To what degree are the environmental protection objectives set in these other
Plans/Programmes/Policy/LegislationimpactedbythedraftEasternMidlandsRWMP?
ThefindingsofthereviewhelpeddefinetheobjectivesfortheSEAandinformedtheassessmentof
alternativeoptions.Someofthekeyplans,programmesandpoliciesareincludedinTable3.
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Table3–KeyPolicies,PlansandProgrammesfortheEasternMidlandsRegion
European
SeventhEnvironmentalActionProgramme
RoadmaptoaResourceEfficientEurope
SEADirective(2001/42/EC)
EIADirective(2014/52/EC)
EUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)
ConservationofWildBirdsDirective(2009/147/ECcodified)
EnvironmentalLiabilitiesDirective(2004/35/CE)
WasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)
WaterFrameworkDirective(2000/60/EC)
FloodsDirective(2007/60/EC)
IndustrialEmissionsDirective(2010/75/EU)
EU202020Agreement
National
NationalSpatialStrategy(20022020)
OurSustainableFuture:AFrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012)
NationalBiodiversityPlan(20112016)andNPWSConservationPlansforSACsandSPAs
NationalClimateChangeStrategy(2007–2012)
HeritagePlansandFrameworkandPrinciplesfortheProtectionofArchaeologicalHeritage
NationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan20142020
NationalWastePreventionProgramme
SludgeManagementPlan(underdevelopment)
EnvironmentalAssessmentofCertainPlansandProgrammesRegulationsS.I.435/2004
BirdsandHabitatsRegulationsS.I.477/2011(asamended)
Planning and Development Act (as amended) and Planning and Development Regulations S.I. 600/2001 (as
amended)
WasteManagementAct1996
EnvironmentalLiabilityRegulationsS.I.547/2008
IndustrialEmissionsRegulationsS.I.138/2013
Regional
RegionalPlanningGuidelines
DraftEasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlan
RiverBasinManagementPlans(20092014)
CatchmentFloodRiskAssessmentandManagementPlans
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RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHEENVIRONMENT
(BASELINE)
As this strategic environmental assessment deals with a plan for the EasternMidlands Region, the
baselinedataisfocusedatthenationalandregionlevel.ItisrecognisedthatIrelandsharesaland
boundary with Northern Ireland and as waste movements include those between the two
jurisdictions,thecurrentstateoftheenvironmentforNorthernIrelandhasalsobeenreferenced.
Ireland’snaturalenvironment,althoughunderincreasingpressure,generallyremainsofgoodquality
and represents one of the country’s most essential national assets, however pressures have
increasedsignificantly(EPA,2012).Intheir5thandmostrecentstateoftheenvironmentreview,the
EPAidentifiedfourprioritychallengesfortheenvironment,which,ifaddressedsuccessfully,should
benefit the present and future quality of Ireland’s environment. These comprise: Valuing and
Protecting our Natural Environment; Building a ResourceEfficient, Low Carbon Economy;
ImplementingEnvironmentalLegislation;andPuttingtheEnvironmentattheCentreofOurDecision
Making.Allofthesearehighlyrelevanttowastemanagementandthecurrentwastemanagement
planningprocess.Table4setsoutexistingenvironmentalpressuresintheEasternMidlandsRegion.
Table4–BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Irelandsupportsawidevarietyofspeciesandhabitats,manyofwhichareofinternational
importanceandasacountry,Irelandhasdesignatedsitesandspeciesofconservationvalue
and/orconcerninanefforttoprotectitsbiodiversityresource.However,significantaspects
ofbiodiversityinIrelandareunderthreatfromarangeofunsustainableactivities.
Biodiversity
Floraand
Fauna
WithintheEasternMidlandsRegionthereareover80sitesdesignatedasSpecialAreasof
ConservationundertheEUHabitatsDirectiveandafurther39designatedundertheBirds
Directive.Everysixyears,theNationalParksandWildlifeServicepublishareportdetailing
theconservationstatusinIrelandofthesehabitatsandspecies.The NPWSConservation
Status reports indicate that many Irish species of flora and fauna have a moderately
satisfactoryconservationstatus;however,asmallnumberareinurgentneedofconcerted
effortstoprotectthem.
Existingpressuresarisingfromwastemanagementinclude:habitatloss,fragmentationand
disturbance as a result of construction of the waste infrastructure; pollution from un
authoriseddisposalsitesparticularlyinmoreremoteareas;deteriorationinwaterqualityas
aresultofleachatefromwasteactivities(authorised/unauthorised).
Population
andHuman
Health
The total population of the EasternMidlands Region in the most recent 2011 census was
justover2.2million.Thisrepresents48%ofIreland’spopulation.DublinandtheGreater
DublinArea (GDA) accountfor 81% of the region’s population. The region accounted for
694,441 tonnes of managed waste according to the latest EPA figures. In 2012
approximately214,200tonnesofmunicipalwastewasreportedasuncollected/unmanaged
nationally which equates to approximately 16% of occupied houses within Ireland. The
percentageofintheEasternMidlandsRegionisrelativelylow(11%),althoughtheproblem
hasnotbeeneliminated.Unmanagedhouseholdwastecontributestobackyardburningand
illegaldumping.
There have been changes in the waste collection sector with the majority of local
authoritiesexitingthedomesticwastecollectionmarketandprivateoperatorstakingover.
This has led to multiple operators, particularly in urban areas, competing for waste
collection services, although the extent of competition (i.e. number of service providers)
variesandisnotalwayscomparable(i.e.someoperatorsoffera2binservice,othersa3
bin).Bycontrast,manyruralareasdonothavecompetitionforservices.
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Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
Significantgrowthinpopulationhasoccurredinurbanandruralareasandthisgrowthhas
resulted in individual houses in the countryside and housing clusters in small villages
throughout much of the country. This places increased pressure on waste collection
systems. In general there are better kerbside collection systems available in the main
populationcentresintheregion.
ThepredominantsoiltypesintheEasternMidlandsRegionareacidandbasicdeeppoorly
drained mineral soils and shallow welldrained mineral soils which occur throughout the
region.
There are30 licensed landfills in the EasternMidlandsRegion, consisting of 3active inert
landfills,2activemunicipalsolidwastelandfillsand25closedlandfills.Ofparticularnotein
relationtosoils,geologyandhydrogeologyistheissueofhistoriclandfills.Therearea154
historic landfills recorded for the EasternMidlands Region. These sites are variously
Soils,
covered under Section 22 of the Waste Management Act (WMA) 1996 and the Historic
Geologyand
Landfill Regulations 2008and include illegal sites, local authority sites, pre1977 sites and
Hydrogeology
private sites. Of these, 19 are considered high risk. Historic landfill sites pose particular
risksforgroundwaterandsurfacewaters,aswellassoilsasaresultofleachatesformed
frombreakdownofthewastes.Thiscaninturnimpactonbiodiversityandhumanhealth.
Despite the wide range of functions that soils perform from an ecosystem services
perspective,thereislittleornolegislationrelatingdirectlytosoilsandsoilprotectionand
assuchatargetedresponsetothepressureonsoilsinIrelandcannotbeformulatedtoany
greatextent.
Water
The EasternMidlands Region incorporates all or part of five River Basin Districts: the
Eastern; SouthEastern, Shannon (international), NorthWestern and NeaghBann. The
regioncontainssectionsofanumberofimportantcatchments,suchastheShannon,Inny,
Liffey,BarrowandBoyneandanumberofriversandcanalstravelthroughtheregion,the
primary ones being the Shannon, Barrow, Nore, Suir, Boyne and the Grand and Royal
Canals.LoughsReeandLoughDergarethetwomainlakesintheMidlands.BoththeRoyal
andGrandCanalscrosstheEasternMidlandsRegionfromeasttowestconnectingDublin
with the River Shannon. Of the rivers which have been classified (42.5%) in the region,
12.8%areconsideredtobeofgoodstatusorabove.Thefigureforlakeswhichhavebeen
classified (48.9%) is 28.1% at good status but none are considered to have reached high
status.
Unlicensed/unregulated landfill sites and historical and illegal dumping sites are all
potential sources of water pollution. These sites due to their historic and unregulated
naturearenotengineeredwithlinerandleachatecollectionssystemsinplace.Dangerous
substances associated with leachate from such sites can be toxic to aquatic plants and
animals. As such, they can persist in waters and sediments, and slowly build up in the
bodiesofaquaticorganisms.
An additional pressure is in the form of illegal activities such as diesel laundering, a by
productofwhichresultsinhazardoustoxicsludge,sulphuricacidwashandcontaminated
absorbent material which may result in water pollution if inappropriately managed with
potentialriskstohumanhealththroughcontaminationofdrinkingwatersupplies.
IngeneralambientairqualityinIrelandisgoodduelargelytotheprevailingcleanwesterly
airflowfromtheAtlanticandtherelativeabsenceoflargecitiesandheavyindustry.
AirQuality
andClimatic
Factors
TheEUCommission’sproposalrequiresIrelandtodelivera20%reductioninemissionsof
greenhouse gases relative to the 1990 levels by 2020. Despite the current economic
downturnleadingtoamarkedreductioninIreland’sGHGemissionsthis20%reductionon
1990levelswillbedifficulttoachieve.ThelatestdatafromtheEPAindicatethatemissions
of GHGs in Ireland in 2012were 57.92Mt CO2 equivalent which represents an increase of
1.0% on emissions in 2011. The waste sector is the smallest contributor to the overall
emissions and presently contributes 1.8% of GHGs and has seen a 2.7% decrease in its
emissionsfrom2011.Thisrelatesmainlytothereductioninmethaneemittedfromlandfills
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15
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
of which there has been an 11.7% reduction in 2012. However, emissions from waste to
energyfacilitieshaveincreasedby0.07MtofCO2equivalentin2012whichreflectsthefirst
fullyearofcommercialoperationattheIndaverIrelandfacilityinCo.Meath.Itshouldbe
notedthatthecementsectorfallsundertheIndustryandCommercialSectorandIndustrial
emissionswhichaccountedfor14.7%ofGHGemissions,increasedby1.6%from2011,the
largestsourceofemissionsinthiscategorywhichisfromlargecombustionsourceswithin
the EU European Trading Scheme (ETS). The cement industry, of which two thermal
treatment facilities in the EasternMidlands Region are part of, showed an increase of
almost18%in2012on2011levels.
Under the CAFE Directive, Ireland is required to reduce levels of PM2.5 by 10% between
2012and2020.Thisreductionwillbechallengingasitwillrequireanintegratedapproach
across a number of sectors including industrial, transport and residential emissions. The
test in meeting Ireland’s obligations under the National Emissions Ceiling Directive is
greater,inparticularforoxidesofnitrogen.
The EasternMidlands Region has good accessibility, with an extensive road, rail, bus, air
andseatransportnetwork.Thereisapproximately625kmofexistingCommuter,DARTand
IntercityrailinfrastructureintheEasternMidlandsRegion,581kmofwhichisinactiveuse.
DublinAirportisthemaininternationalairportfortheEasternMidlandsRegionandisalso
the busiest airport in Ireland, managing approximately 60,000 passengers per day. The
main ports are Drogheda, Dublin and Dún Laoghaire, with Dublin and Dún Laoghaire
operating as international ferry ports. The EasternMidlands Region includes a significant
coastlineandaccesstomarinewaterswhichareusedforrecreationandindustry,notably
aquaculture. The areas within Ireland that have higher concentrations of aquaculture
include Donegal, Carlingford Lough, Wexford, Waterford, West Cork, Kerry, Galway and
Mayo.ThefinfishproductioninIrelandwasvaluedbyBordIascaighMhara(BIM)in2012at
nearly€83millionwhileshellfishwasvaluedatnearly€50millionforthesameyear(BIM
Strategy20132017).
Material
Assets
The EasternMidlands Region has 93 EPA licenced waste infrastructure facilities and 246
local authority waste facilities. There is a higher concentration of facilities towards the
eastern part of the region which would be representative of the higher waste volumes
generatedintheDublinarea.Thereareonly2activemunicipalsolidwastelandfillsinthe
EasternMidlandsRegion,3facilitiesthatareactivelyreceivinginertwasteand25thatare
closed. One of the main principles of waste policy over recent years has been to
significantlyreducetherelianceonlandfillasadisposalmethodforwaste.
Energy recovery within the region includes waste recovered at a waste to energy (WtE)
facilityandalsosolidrecoveredfuels(SRF)usedasanalternativefuelsourceintwocement
manufacturingfacilities.TheWtEfacilityislocatedatCarranstowninCountyMeathandis
Ireland’sfirstwastetoenergyfacilityformunicipaltypewaste.Thisfacilityislicensedto
treatupto200,000tonnesofwasteperyearandtorecoverenergy.Itaccepted175,000
tonnesofmixedmunicipalwastein2013,inadditiontootherwasteforenergyrecovery.A
secondwastetoenergyfacilityintheregion,(DublinCity)hasfullplanningpermissionsand
islicensedtotreatupto600,000tonnesofwasteperannum.
More waste is being generated in Ireland, with more waste being exported. The energy
generatedfromthisexportedwasteisnotonlyarevenue,whichisbeinglosttotheIrish
economy, but more importantly it is a potential energy source which provides electricity
andheattobusinessesandhomeselsewhere.Longtermrelianceonexportsandfailureto
capitalise on the embedded energy in residual waste requires examination, with energy
costsandsecuritybecomingasignificantnationalissue.
Cultural
Heritage
There are over 26,000 Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), listedin the region. The
RMPlististhestatutorylistofallknownarchaeologicalmonumentsinIrelandascompiled
bytheArchaeologicalSurveyofIreland,partoftheDepartmentofArts,Heritageandthe
Gaeltacht. In addition, the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH), which
identifies, records and evaluates the post1700 architectural heritage of Ireland accounts
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16
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Theme
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures
for over 11,000 entries in the region. There is one UNESCO site in the EasternMidlands
Region, Brú na Bóinne which is situated in County Meath. The passage tombs of
Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth are the largest Megalithic sites in Europe and are one of
themainfeaturesofBrúnaBóinne.Afurther3sitesontheUNESCOtentativelist occur
withintheregion.
Economic growth and increasing population is placing pressure on sites or features of
architectural, archaeological or cultural heritage interest. Individual developments put
directpressureonthisresource,whereitisinproximity,orwhereitincreasesthepotential
tointeractwithknownorpreviouslyunknownsitesandfeatures.Togetherwiththeexisting
pressures on landscape and visual resources, this can result in an impact on the overall
culturalheritageresource.
Landscape
TheEasternMidlandsRegioncoversanareaofaround14,500km2whichrepresentsabout
21% of the country. The region is home to rich agricultural land, coastline, the city of
Dublin,manytownswhichformpartoftheGreaterDublinAreaanditscommuterbeltand
significant areas of the central plain. The coastline runs from Louth to Wicklow, and is
comprised of sandy beaches with intermittent rocky headlands, the length of which is
approximately 416km long (including islands). The main mountain ranges include the
Dublin and Wicklow ranges, the Slieve Bloom Mountains and the Cooley Mountains
bordering Louth to the north. The low lying midlands consists of a combination of arable
land and raised bogs, primarily in Offaly and Westmeath, which provide for a large scale
commercialpeatindustryinthesurroundingarea.TheRiverShannonformstheprincipal
western boundary of the region, and expands into Lough Ree in Westmeath. There are
numerous other lakes in the region including Lough Ennel, Lough Owel, and Lough
Derevaragh.BranchesoftheGrandCanalandtheRoyalCanalcrossthroughtheregionas
doestheRiverBarrow.
Existing pressures on landscape and visual resources are primarily related to impacts to
sensitive views and landscapes resulting from the secondary impacts from the siting of
development. The absence of a cohesive national landscape strategy which seeks to
preserveand/orprotectsuchhistoricalandculturallandscapes,landscapesofamenityand
socialvalueandfeaturesofscenicvalueplacesmuchoftheemphasisonlocalauthorities,
howevertheapproachestakenareoftennotconsistent.
BaselineEnvironmentandExistingEnvironmentalPressures–NorthernIreland
WiththepublicationoftheNorthernIrelandWasteManagementStrategythereisafocustowards
greaterwastepreventionandareductioninconsumption.Thesingleusecarrierbaglevyhasgiven
risetoareducedconsumptionrateofmorethan80%initsfirstyearofoperation.
Therehasbeencontinuedimprovementinairqualitybutproblemsdoremainandcontinuedeffortis
requiredtoreduceairpollutionfromkeysourcessuchasroadtransportandagriculture.Therehas
alsobeenareductioningreenhousegasemissionsbutroadtransportemissionsarestillincreasing.
AkeypriorityforclimatechangewillbetheimplementationoftheNorthernIrelandClimateChange
AdaptationProgramme.
The overall status of water bodies in Northern Ireland has not significantly changed from that
recorded in 2009 but improvements have been identified in water utility discharges and drinking
waterquality.Therehasalsobeenareductioninwaterpollutionincidents.Thekeychallengesfor
thewaterbodiesrelatetodiffusenutrientpollution,chemicalstatusofthewaterenvironmentand
measurestoaddressphysicalmodifications.Therehasbeenanimprovementtotheoverallqualityof
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
17
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
the marine environment, including bathing water quality and beaches, around Northern Ireland’s
shores. This can be directly linked to improvements in waste water treatment. Despite continued
action many key elements of biodiversity continues to decline. In particular since 2000 grassland
habitats have shown the most decline, but in contrast woodland habitats have increased. The key
pressuresidentifiedrelatetolandusechangesthroughagricultureanddevelopmentwithadditional
pressuressuchaspollution,invasivespeciesandfisheriespractices.
Therehasbeenamarkedchangeinthelandscapewiththedevelopmentofuplandwindfarmsand
thesignificantdeclineinhousingdevelopmentwhichhasreducedpressureonlanduse.Thekeyrisks
identified to archaeological resources come from agricultural land use and urban activities. Built
heritage has provided emerging opportunities in relation to regeneration, tourism and economic
development.
InterRelationships
The interrelationship between the SEA environmental topics is an important consideration for
environmental assessment. Figure 5 highlights the key interrelationships identified in this SEA.
These potential interrelationships have been taken into account in the assessment of the different
alternatives. A key interrelationship is between air quality, climate and human health. Methane
emissionsfromlandfillinghaveimpactsonairqualityandconsequentlyhumanheathbutinaddition,
methaneisasignificantgreenhousegasthatcancontributetoclimatechangeandfloodingwhichin
turnhasimplicationsforpopulationandhumanhealth,particularlyincoastalregions.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
18
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Biodiversity,
Flora,Fauna
X
Population
/HumanHealth
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Soil
Water
Air,Climatic
Factors
MaterialAssets
Cultural
Heritage
Landscape
Cultural
Heritage
Material
Assets
Air,Climatic
Factors
Water
Soil
Population
/Human
Health
Biodiversity
Flora,Fauna
Landscape
Figure4–InterrelationshipsbetweentheSEATopics
EvolutionoftheEnvironmentintheAbsenceoftheRWMP
Without the implementation of the EasternMidlands RWMP it could reasonably be expected that
wastemanagementintheregionwouldcontinuetobemanagedinalesscoordinatedmanner,thus
the cumulativeandsynergisticimpactsontheenvironmentofincreasing populationand increased
wastegenerationacrosstheregionwouldcontinuealbeitinthecontextofexistingwasteprevention
measures already in place. Critically the framework in place would not facilitate the coordinated
approach to assessing waste management infrastructure requirements within the state and may
resultinovercapacityofcertaintypesofinfrastructureandlackofspatialdistributionnationally.
Biodiversity, flora and fauna in the region, including protected sites, habitats and species, would
continuetoexistinmuchthesamepattern,abundanceanddensityastodayhowevertherewould
be continued risk to biodiversity as a result of ongoing legacy issues from historic landfills; illegal
dumping; and backyard burning. Without a coordinated response to these issues, the risk to
biodiversitywouldnotbeaddressed.Similarly,theabsenceoftheplanhasthepotentialtoincrease
therisktoculturalheritageandthelandscapewhereoversupplyorpoorsitingofinfrastructureputs
pressure on these resources. Water quality in Ireland is likely to continue to improve in line with
effortsbeingmadebytheRiverBasinManagementPlan(RBMP)andProgrammeofMeasures(PoM)
throughout Ireland. The rate of this improvement in surface waters would be expected to remain
insufficienttomeettherequirementofachievinggoodstatusinallwatersby2015asrequiredbythe
WaterFrameworkDirective.AirqualityinIrelandisofahighstandardacrossthecountry,meeting
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19
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
allEUairqualitystandards,accordingtotheEPA.TheabsenceoftheEasternMidlandsRWMPisnot
expectedtoaffectthistrend.
The lack of coordinated resources would continue to deliver uncoordinated infrastructure and
programmes in different parts of the country. This could contribute to increases in unmanaged
waste material, backyard burning and illegal dumping. These practices in turn would give rise to
deteriorationofairquality,waterandsoilsqualityandpossiblyhumanhealth.Intheabsenceofthe
EasternMidlandsRWMPitislikelythattightercontrolswouldstillbeputinplaceonunsustainable
residential development, including one off housing thereby curbing the cumulative effects of
servicingadispersedpopulation.
The programme of remediation of unregulated historic landfills and licensed sites would continue
albeit on a more ad hoc basis than would be implemented through the new plan which allows for
more effective and efficient management of local authority resources. The EPA Code of Practice:
(EPA, 2007) and Guidance (EPA, 2013) would continue to be used when assessing unregulated
historiclandfillsandlicensedfacilities.
6
ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONOBJECTIVESANDSEAFRAMEWORK
ThereareessentiallythreetypesofObjectivesconsideredaspartofthisSEA.Thefirstrelatestothe
ObjectivesoftheWasteFrameworkDirectiveandtheEasternMidlandsRWMP.Thesecondrelates
towiderEnvironmentalObjectives,i.e.environmentalprotectionobjectivesatnationalandEuropean
level, and finally there are the Strategic Environmental Objectives, which were devised to test the
environmental effects of implementation of the policies and policy actions contained in the draft
EasternMidlandsRWMP.
TheStrategicEnvironmentalObjectivesareseparatetotheEasternMidlandsRWMPobjectivesand
provide a statement of what is intended from an environmental perspective, giving a desired
direction of change. The Strategic Environmental Objectives reflect the existing environmental
concernsinIrelandrelevanttowastemanagementandtakeaccountofthescopingandconsultation
feedback.TheselectedobjectivesforthisSEAarelistedbelowinBox1.
Box1:StrategicEnvironmentalObjectiveSelected
Obj.1BiodiversityFloraandFauna:Preserve,protectandmaintaintheterrestrial,aquaticand
soilbiodiversity,particularlyEUandnationallydesignatedsitesandprotectedspecies.
Obj. 2 Biodiversity Flora and Fauna: Integrate biodiversity considerations into the Eastern
MidlandsRWMP.
Obj. 3 Population and Human Health: Protect human health from the impacts of waste
managementbyensuringwastepreventionandrelatedactivitiesarepromotedatcommunity
andindividuallevel.
Obj. 4 Population and Human Health: Promote and encourage access and services for
appropriatewastemanagementforall.
Obj.5Soils:Safeguardsoilqualityandquantityfromwasteandreducesoilcontamination.
Obj.6Water:Protectwaterqualityandthewaterresourcefromwasteactivities.
Obj.7AirQuality:Minimiseemissionsofpollutantstoairassociatedwithwastemanagement.
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[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Box1:StrategicEnvironmentalObjectiveSelected
Obj. 8 Climatic Factors: Minimise contribution to climate change by reducing emissions of
greenhouse gasses associated with the prevention and management of wastes and adapt to
thepotentialeffectsofclimatechangethroughappropriatesitingofwasteinfrastructure.
Obj. 9 Material Assets: Support sustainable waste management activities without conflicting
withenvironmentalprotectionobjectives.
Obj.10MaterialAssets:Minimisetransportimpactsofwastemanagementactivities.
Obj. 11 Cultural Heritage: Protect places, features, buildings and landscapes of cultural,
archaeologicalorarchitecturalheritagefromimpactasaresultofwasteactivities.
Obj.12Landscape:Protectandmaintainthenationallandscapecharacter.
Obj. 13 Social: Promote sustainable management of waste at an individual, community,
regionalandnationallevel.
The overall purpose of environmental indicators in the SEA is to provide a way of measuring the
environmentaleffectofimplementingthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMP.Environmentalindicators
are also used to track the progress in achieving the targets set in the SEA as well as the Eastern
MidlandsRWMPitself.TheproposedindicatorsforthisSEAhavebeenselectedbearinginmindthe
availabilityofdataandthefeasibilityofmakingdirectlinksbetweenanychangesintheenvironment
andtheimplementationoftheEasternMidlandsRWMP.
Targets were considered over the duration of the baseline data collection and assessment, and
throughouttheconsultationprocess,inordertomeettheStrategicEnvironmentalObjectivesaswell
as the objectives of the EasternMidlands RWMP. In each case, any target that is set must be
attributable to the implementation of the EasternMidlands RWMP. The targets and indicators
associatedwitheachSEAObjectivearepresentedinChapter6ofthereport.
7
ALTERNATIVES
EarlydiscussionofpossiblealternativeswasundertakenaspartofthescopingforthedraftEastern
MidlandsRWMP,whichwasthesubjectofpublicconsultation.Subsequentconsiderationwasthen
given with the Plan, SEA and AA teams involved in generation of alternatives and development of
policiesandpolicywording.
At the strategic level, given the statutory requirement [under both EU and national waste
managementlegislation]forthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPtobereviewedandupdated,itwas
not proposed to assess a do nothing scenario or business as usual scenarios as neither were
consideredrealisticgiventhattherehasbeenasignificantchangeinthemakeupofwasteregions
sincethelastRWMPswerepublished.Amodifiedbusinessasusualwasinitiallyconsideredwherein
thepoliciesremainunchangedfromthepreviousregionalplansandonlytherevisedboundariesare
considered.Howeveritwasnotedthatthedecisiononthenewwasteregionswastakenaspartofa
higherlevelpolicyoutlinedinGovernmentNationalWastePolicydocument,AResourceOpportunity1
and it was concluded that changing the national policy was not a reasonable alternative for
considerationwithintheregionalplancontext.
1
AResourceOpportunity.WasteManagementPolicyinIreland,DECLG2012
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21
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Early discussions with the plan team identified three issues ofa strategic nature which could drive
thedirectionoftheplan.TheseissuesandtheirreasonablealternativeswereconsideredbytheSEA
teamandoutcomesfedbacktotheplanteamforconsideration.Theissuesandalternativeswere:
ƒ
ƒ
Retainingalineareconomymodelversusshiftingtowardsacirculareconomymodel;
Selfsufficiency versus reliance on exports for treatment of residual municipal type
waste;and
Inclusionofmandatorytargetsonlyorinclusionofadditionalnonmandatorytargets.Furthermore,
followingonfromconsiderationofthestrategicalternatives,thePlan,SEAandAAteamsconsidered
alternativesunderkeystrategicpolicyareasasfollows:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Policyandlegislation;
Prevention;
ResourceefficiencyandCircularEconomy;
Coordination;
Infrastructure;
EnforcementandRegulation;and
Protection;and
Otherwastestreams.
Basedontheoutcomeoftheassessmentofalternativesapreferredstrategywasdevelopedbythe
plan team which included policies and policy actions. These policies and policy actions were the
subject of a detailed assessment by both the SEA and AA teams. It is noted that the process was
iterativeandwordingchangeswerefedthroughtotheplanteamoverthecourseoftheassessment
wherenegativeimpactsweredetermined.Wherechangestowordingwerenotpossibleorsufficient
tooffsetanegativeassessment,mitigationmeasuresweredevelopedbytheSEAandAAteams.
8
ASSESSMENT
TheapproachusedforassessingthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPwasanobjectiveledassessment.
Forthepurposesofthisassessmentplus(+)indicatesapotentialpositiveimpact,minus()indicates
a potential negative impact, plus/minus (+/) indicates that both positive and negative impacts are
likely or that in the absence of further detail the impact is unclear, and a neutral or no impact is
indicatedby0.
At the broad level, implementation of the EasternMidlands RWMP is expected to bring
environmental improvements, since it tackles specific pressures arising from waste management
activities.Thefocusoftheproposedstrategyisonpreventionintermsofwastegenerationinthe
firstinstanceandthenonreuseandrecyclingasameanstoreducingtheamountofmaterialgoing
towasteandrequiringcollection,treatmentand/ordisposal.Thestrategyhaspotentialforwhich
forsignificantcumulativepositiveimpactsonallenvironmentalreceptorsthroughreducedneedfor:
collection(thereforereducedtransportrelatedemissionstoairandwater)andreducedtreatment/
disposal (therefore reduced process related emissions to air, soils and water). However, there are
somecaseswherenegativeimpactsmayariseinthewiderenvironment.TheSEAhasidentifiedsuch
areas and where mitigation of impacts can be achieved including ensuring that monitoring and
regulationisadequate,andencouragingacoordinatedapproachtowastemanagementontheisland
ofIreland.Inaddition,theAppropriateAssessmentresultshavebeenintegratedintotheSEAand
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22
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
wheremitigationhasbeenproposedundertheAppropriateAssessmentthishasalsobeenbrought
forward into the SEA. The assessment of the policies and policy actions which form the preferred
strategyissummarisedinTable5.
Table5–SummaryAssessmentTable
OverallImpact
MitigationMeasures
Recommended
A. PolicyandLegislation
+
B. Prevention
+
+/
+
X
+/
+
G. Protection
+/
H. OtherWasteStreams
+/
C.
ResourceEfficiencyandCircularEconomy
D. Coordination
E.
Infrastructure
F.
EnforcementandRegulation
9
MITIGATIONANDMONITORING
Article10oftheSEADirectiverequiresthatmonitoringbecarriedouttoidentifyatan earlystage
anyunforeseenadverseeffectsduetoimplementationoftheEasternMidlandsRWMP,inorderto
takeremedialactionwhereadverseeffectsareidentifiedthroughmonitoring.
Monitoring will focus on aspects of the environment that are likely to be significantly impacted by
theEasternMidlandsRWMP.Wherepossible,indicatorshavebeenchosenbasedontheavailability
of the necessary information and the degree to which the data will allow the target to be linked
directlywiththeimplementationoftheEasternMidlandsRWMP.
TheproposedmonitoringprogrammewillbecarriedoutasimplementationoftheEasternMidlands
RWMPprogressesand,dependingonmonitoringresults,adjustmentstotargetsandindicatorsmay
be made to ensure the continued effectiveness of the monitoring programme in the interest of
optimalenvironmentalprotection.
Atotalof36mitigationmeasureshavebeenrecommended.
10 NEXTSTEPS
ThereisstillsomeimportantworktocompletebeforethisEasternMidlandsRWMPisadopted.This
willincludesomefurthertechnicalandscientificplanningworkaswellasrecording,assessingand,
where appropriate, taking on board comments received during consultations on the draft Eastern
MidlandsRWMPandSEA.
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ThenextstepintheSEAandRWMPprocesswillbeaconsultationperiodlastinguntil30thJanuary
2015.DuringthistimecommentonthefindingsoftheSEAEnvironmentalReport,theNaturaImpact
ReportandthecontentofthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPmaybesubmittedforconsideration.
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1 INTRODUCTION
ThisEnvironmentalReporthasbeenpreparedaspartoftheStrategicEnvironmentalAssessmentof
the EasternMidlands Regional Waste Management Plan (RWMP), 20152021 in accordance with
nationalandEUlegislation.ThepurposeofthisEnvironmentalReportisto:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
1.1
InformthedevelopmentoftheRWMP;
IdentifydescribeandevaluatethelikelysignificanteffectsoftheRWMPanditsreasonable
alternatives;and
Provide an early opportunity for the statutory authorities and the public to offer views on
anyaspectofthisEnvironmentalReport,throughconsultation.
WASTEMANAGEMENTINIRELAND
AregionalapproachtomanagingwasteinIrelandwasgivenalegalbasisbytheWasteManagement
Act 1996 which allowed for one or more local authorities to come together for the purpose of
preparingaRWMP.Tenregionswereformed,sevenofwhichweremadeupoftwoormorelocal
authorities and covered the majority of the country and three were singlecounty regions (these
wereKildare,WicklowandDonegal).TheseregionsareshowninFigure11.Thefirstregionalwaste
managementplanswerepreparedinthelate1990sandmostwerebasedona15yearstrategyto
maximiserecyclingandtominimisedisposal.Thisstrategicvisionremainsvalidtothisdayandisin
keepingwiththeEuropeanCommission’saimforMemberStatestoembraceandfosterarecycling
society.
Figure11PreviousWasteManagementRegions
ThefirstgenerationofRWMPscoveredtheperiod1998to2004andintroducedanewapproachto
local waste management in Ireland. The plans followed the policy objectives of the State’s first
National Waste Policy Statement, Changing Our Ways2, and the waste management hierarchy was
placedattheheartoftheregionalplans.Theplanobjectivesincludedthewidespreadintroduction
of source separated collection systems for households and business, significant improvements to
local public recycling infrastructure, plans for the development of regional waste treatment
2
WasteManagementChangingOurWays.DELG,1998
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
25
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
capacities, awareness and education initiatives and enforcement activities. The scope of the plans
was(andstillis)substantialandisdefinedinstatutebytheWasteManagementPlanningRegulations
1997andbytheWasteFrameworkDirectiveRegulations.
ThefirstgenerationofRWMPswerereviewedandreplacedovertheperiod2005to2006withthe
secondgenerationofRWMPs.ThesecondgenerationofRWMPsbuiltonthefoundationsofthefirst
regionalplans,expandingonpolicyobjectivestoreflectthenatureoftheoperatingenvironment,the
growing market and the increased role of private sector operators. The targets set down in the
originalstrategiesremainedinplaceandprovidedheadlinegoals,formostregions,to2013.
The second generation of the plans were designed to cover the period up to 2010 / 2011. An
evaluation of the existing RWMPs was carried out by the local authorities in 2012 in line with the
requirements of Article 30 of the EU Waste Framework Directive. The outcome of this process
showed that there was significant improvement in recycling rates in the period as well as building
capacity in waste prevention. In addition, the outcome of this process was to recommend the
preparation of new RWMPs to take account of the legislative changes brought into force by the
EuropeanCommunities(WasteDirective)Regulations2011forthenewlyconfiguredwasteregions.
In July 2012 the latest Government National Waste Policy document, A Resource Opportunity,3
recommended the consolidation of the waste regions to a maximum of three [see Figure 12. The
documentacknowledgesthatthetimehascomefortheregionalwasteplanningframeworktobere
shaped to allow for greater resource efficiencies in the implementation of the plans and to better
reflectthemovementofwaste.Thenewboundarylineswillprovideforgreaterconsistencyandco
ordination with other planning frameworks. The recommendation was guided by the national
programme of reform of local government arrangements and the benefits identified from
rationalising the regions in terms of concentration of local authority resources. The new regional
structuresalsobetterrecognisethenatureoftheIrishwastemarketandthemovementofwastein
theState.
Thetransformationfromtenregionstothreehasbeenundertakenasfollows:
ƒ
EasternMidlandsRegion;
ƒ
SouthernRegion;and
ƒ
ConnachtUlsterRegion.
Asimilarrationalisationiscurrentlybeingconsideredforwasteenforcement[EPAcommunicationas
partofscopingresponses].
TheRWMPwasjointlypreparedbyRPSandDublinCityCouncil,theleadauthorityfortheEastern
Midlands Region. The Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment have been
completedbyRPSonbehalfoftheleadauthority.
3
AResourceOpportunity,WasteManagementPolicyinIreland.DECLG2012
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
26
¯
ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
0
50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 1.2 Ireland's Waste Management Regions
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1001F01
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
2
CONTENTSANDMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHEPLAN
2.1
RESPONSIBLEAUTHORITYFOREASTERNMIDLANDS
The lead authority for the preparation of the EasternMidlands Regional Waste Management Plan
(RWMP) is Dublin City Council. The RWMP itself covers the EasternMidlands Region which
incorporates all of 12 city and county council administrative areas as follows: Dublin City, Dún
LaoghaireRathdown, Fingal, Kildare, Laois, Longford, Louth, Meath, Offaly, South Dublin, Wicklow
andWestmeath.ThegeographicextentoftheEasternMidlandsRegion,andtheareatowhichthe
RWMPpertains,isshowninFigure2.1.
2.2
KEYWASTETERMINOLOGYUSEDINTHEPLAN
Table 21 outlines the key terminology used in the RWMP in reference to the waste hierarchy. A
more comprehensive glossary of all relevant waste terms used in the RWMP can be found in the
glossaryoftermsatthebackoftheEasternMidlandsRWMP.
Table21KeyWasteTerminology
Term
Waste
WasteManagement
WasteHierarchy
WastePrevention
Reuse
PrepareforReuse
Recovery
Recycling
Treatment/Pretreatment
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
Explanation
Definedasanysubstanceorobjectwhichtheholderdiscards,intendsto discard
orisrequiredtodiscard,bytheWasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC).
The collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the
supervisionofsuchoperationsandtheafter–careofdisposalsites,andincluding
actionstakenasadealerorbroker.
The Waste Framework Directive (2008) sets out a waste hierarchy which is a
priority order of what constitutes the best overall environmental option in
waste legislation and policy. The hierarchy places prevention at the top level
followedbypreparingforreuse,recycling,energyrecoveryanddisposal.
A reduction in the quantityandharmfulness to the environment of waste and
thematerialsandsubstancescontainedwithinwaste.
Any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used
againforthesamepurposeforwhichtheywereconceived.
Checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or
componentsofproductsthathavebecomewastearepreparedsothattheycan
bereusedwithoutanyotherpre–processing.
Anyoperationtheprincipalresultofwhichiswasteservingausefulpurposeby
replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a
particularfunction,orwastebeingpreparedtofulfilthatfunction,intheplant
or in the wider economy. Annex II of the Waste Framework Directive
(2008/98/EC) sets out a non–exhaustive list of recovery operations, which
includesmaterialrecovery(i.e.Recycling),energyrecovery(i.e.Useafuel(other
than in direct incineration) or other means to generate energy) and biological
recovery(e.g.composting).
Anyrecoveryoperationbywhichwastematerialsarereprocessedintoproducts,
materialsorsubstanceswhetherfortheoriginalorotherpurposes.Itincludes
thereprocessingoforganicmaterialbutdoesnotincludeenergyrecoveryand
the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling
operations.
Includes, in relation to waste, any manual, thermal, physical, chemical or
biologicalprocessesthatchangethecharacteristicsofwasteinordertoreduce
28
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Term
Disposal
ResidualWaste
Explanation
itsmass,orhazardousnatureorotherwise,tofacilitateitshandling,disposal or
recovery.
Any operation which is not recovery even where the operation has as a
secondaryconsequencethereclamationofsubstancesorenergy.AnnexIofthe
Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC) sets out a non–exhaustive
listofdisposaloperations.
The fraction of collected waste remaining after treatment and/or diversion
steps,whichgenerallyrequiresfurthertreatmentordisposal.
2.3
REQUIREMENTFORAREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
The Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) sets out the approach for the sustainable
managementofwasteinMemberStatesoftheEuropeanCommunityandhasbeentransposedinto
IrishlawbytheEuropeanCommunities(WasteDirective)Regulations2011leadingtoamendments
oftheWasteManagementAct1996.Thedirectiverequiresthefollowing:
ƒ
Theapplicationofthewastehierarchytoapplyasapriorityorderinwastepreventionand
wastemanagementlegislationandpolicy;
ƒ
To ensure that waste is recovered (including separate collection at source to facilitate
recoverywheretechnically,environmentallyandeconomicallypracticable)or,whereitisnot
recovered,toensurethatwasteisdisposedofwithoutcausingriskstohumanhealthandthe
environment;
ƒ
Toprohibittheabandonmentoruncontrolleddisposalofwaste;
ƒ
To establish an integrated and adequate network of waste disposal installations and of
installationsfortherecoveryofmixedmunicipalwasteaimingforEUselfsufficiencyandfor
MemberStatesindividuallytomovetowardsselfsufficiency;
ƒ
Totakenecessarymeasurestoensurethatanyholderofwasterecoversordisposesofitin
anenvironmentallysoundmannerandinaccordancewiththewastehierarchyeitherdirectly
orthroughathirdparty;
ƒ
To have a system of permits and registration for all those involved in collecting, disposing,
preparingfortherecovery,orrecoveringwaste;
ƒ
To ensure that all those involved keep a record of all the details of their operations (the
quantity, nature and, origin and destination of the waste) and are subject to periodic
inspectionsandspecialcontrolstoensurethesafemanagementofhazardouswaste;and
ƒ
Toensurethatthecostsofwastemanagementarebornebytheoriginalwasteproduceror
bythecurrentorpreviouswasteholders,inaccordancewiththepolluterpaysprinciple.
Thedirectiveandanumberofotherdirectivessetoutarangeofpolicyprinciples,mandatorytargets
andregulatoryframeworkswhichMemberStatesmusttransposeintonationallaw.
TheRWMPsinIrelandarestatutoryplanningdocumentswhoseobjectiveistosetoutaframework
forthepreventionandmanagementofwastesforadefinedregionalarea.Thepreparationofthe
RWMPsisthestatutoryresponsibilityofthelocalauthoritiesandtwoormorelocalauthoritiesmay
jointly prepare a RWMP. Once prepared a plan is valid for a period of up to six years and under
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
29
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
statutoryobligationsmustbeevaluatedonceeverysixyears.TheEasternMidlandsRWMPwillbein
forceforsixyearscoveringtheperiodfrom2015upto2021.
2.4
AREACOVEREDBYTHEPLAN
The RWMP is focussed on the EasternMidlands Region. The geographic scope of the Eastern
Midlands Region is shown in Figure 21. The footprint of the new EasternMidlands Region
encompassesallorpartsoffivepreviousRWMPareas.
Theregioncoversatotalareaofapproximately1,491,020hectares,whichequatesto17.7%ofthe
areaofthecountry(8,442,100hectares).The2011populationcensusshowedthattheregionhasa
population of 2,209,463 (CSO, 2011) which represents almost half of the national population
(4,588,252).TheIrishSeaformstheeasternboundaryofthearea;tothesouth,Wicklowformsthe
border with Wexford and Carlow in the Southern Region; Laois, Offaly, Westmeath, Meath and
Longfordlietothewest,formingtheboundarywiththeConnachtUlsterRegionandLouthformsthe
boundarywiththeConnachtUlsterRegionandNorthernIrelandtothenorth.
ThepotentialfortransboundaryimpactswithNorthernIrelandhasbeenacknowledgedintheSEA
scoping phase and consultation has been undertaken with the relevant authorities in Northern
Ireland (NIEA). The EasternMidlands Region shares a land boundary with Northern Ireland along
County Louth and there is therefore potential for environmental impact on water quality and
biodiversityinNorthernIreland,particularlywherethereisahydrologicalpathwaywithinashared
InternationalRiverBasinorwherethereisthepossibilityofaerialdepositionandspreadofinvasive
species. NIEA have particularly highlighted sensitive water catchments in areas with important
habitats and species, for example, Carlingford Lough which holds a European designation on both
sidesoftheborder.
Thepopulationoftheregionis2,209,463whichincludesanurban/ruralpopulationsplitof81/19%.
Thedistributionofpeopleandtheiractivitieswithintheregionvariesfromrelativelyhighdensitiesin
thecityofDublinanditscommuterbelts.ThecountiesLaois,Longford,OffalyandWestmeathhave
moreruralthanurbanpopulationnumbers.Thepopulationdensityoftheregionishighcompared
totherestofIrelandandtheregionhasseenapopulationgrowthofover10%inthepasttenyears.
Within the last five years the population in Dublin has increased by 4%, whilst Dublin commuter
townshaveexpandedatratesashighas51%.Thegreatestpopulationincreaseshavebeeninvillages
withapopulationofbetween50and1,500peopleinDublin,Meath,KildareandWicklow.
2.5
INTRODUCTIONTOTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
The new draft waste management plan under development is presented in three parts beginning
with Part 1, Background, which sets out the strategic and policy context for the plan including a
detailedprofileoftheregion.Part2,PresentPosition,setsouttheexistingsituationwithregardto
waste data, prevention and reuse activities, waste collection and infrastructural arrangements and
the management of priority waste streams. Part 3, Implementation, deals with waste projections,
infrastructureplanningandtherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevariousstakeholderstothedelivery
oftheplan.Part3alsoprovidesafinancialoverviewandadetailedbreakdownofpolicies,actions
andtargetstobeachieved.Part3concludeswiththearrangementsformonitoringandreportingon
planstrategy,objectives,policiesandactions.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
30
Connacht-Ulster Region
Town / City
Figure 2.1
Longford
Birr
Athlone
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Athy
Southern Region
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Naas
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Wicklow
Kilometers
Arklow
(
!
Bray
Balbriggan
Dublin
(
!
Drogheda
Dundalk
Ardee
Navan
(
!
(
!
Baltinglass
Trim
Kells
Portarlington Kildare
(
!
Portlaoise
Tullamore
(
!
Mullingar
Granard
Eastern-Midlands Waste Management Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
(
!
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
0
50
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1002F01
25
¯
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
2.6
STRATEGICVISIONOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENTPLAN
Theapproachofthewastestrategyistoputintoplacecoherentpolicyobjectivesandactionswhich
align with European and national policy and support Ireland’s move to an economy defined by
higher resource efficiency and productivity. This proposed strategy is focused on recognising the
importantrolethewastesectorhastoplayinhelpingIreland’shouseholds,businessesandindustry
inthetransitiontowardsamoreresourceefficientandcirculareconomy.
ThestrategicvisionfortheRWMPcanbesummarisedas:
Torethinktheapproachtomanagingwastes,byviewingwaste
streamsasvaluablematerialresourceswhichcanleadtoa
healthierenvironmentandsustainablecommercial
opportunitiesforoureconomy.
Underpinningthisoverarchingstrategicvisionisasetofprincipleswhichwillguidethedeliveryofa
sustainableRWMP.Theseprinciplesinclude:
Application of the waste management hierarchy – this will remain a core principle of the waste
strategy for the region. The hierarchy embodies the wider thinking of the circular economy and
providesanorderoftreatmentallowingpolicymakersandregulatorstomakecleardecisions.The
mantra of previous plans has been reduce reuse recycle and much effort and progress has been
made,particularlyintermsofrecycling.Thisstrategynowseekstoshiftthefocusmoreontowaste
preventionandmaterialreuseactivitiestherebynotcreatingwastesinthefirstplace.Recyclingis
still an important strand in the strategy and in this iteration of the waste planning cycle, previous
progress in the area will be built upon with a focus on better collection of quality materials. The
strategy will also strive to further reduce the role of landfill in favour of higher value recovery
options.
Sourcesegregation – this is a wellestablished practise in the waste sector and local authorities
recogniseitsvalueinrecapturingresources,creatingnewmaterialsystemsandindoingsocreating
opportunitiesforenterprisesinthesector.Thestrategyseesthecontinuationofactionsinsupport
of this principle, focused on harmonising kerbside systems in the region and embedding the
segregatedcollectionoforganicwastesfromhouseholdersandbusinesses.
Polluter pays principle – this RWMP will continue to adopt and implement actions which support
thisprinciple.Inkeepingwiththeprincipletherealcostsofgeneratingwastemustbebornebythe
producer.Thisincludesillegalactivitiessuchasflytippingandbackyardburningthecostofwhichis
beingburdenedunfairlyoncompliantcitizensandbusinesses.
Balancedandsustainableinfrastructure–thestrategicapproachovertheRWMPwillbetodeliver
balancedandsustainableinfrastructureforthetreatmentofwastesinlinewiththestrategicvision
andthewastehierarchy.Localauthoritieswilltakeonboardtheappropriatescaleofauthorisations
and locations of new developments for all sites, in particular facilities authorised by waste facility
permitandcertificatesofregistration.Infrastructureofacertaintypeandscalewillbeassessedon
aregionalandnationalneedsbasis.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
32
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Selfsufficiencyandproximity–theseprinciplesarepartofthestrategicapproachunderpinningthe
RWMP. The regions will work together and with other stakeholders to achieve greater self
sufficiencysoIrelandistakingresponsibilityforthewastesitgenerates.Forresidualnonhazardous
wastes the aim of government policy is to develop indigenous recovery infrastructure to replace
landfillandfortheStatetobecomeselfsufficient.Theproximityprinciplewillbeappliedincontext
tothescaleofproposeddevelopments.Thepotentialdevelopmentofnationallyimportantfacilities
in the region will be viewed as such and the extent of the supply market for each assessed on its
merits.
Opportunityandgrowth–thisisthefundamentalprincipleofthestrategicapproachwhichseeksto
support opportunity and growth for existing industry operators, social enterprises, secondary
materialenterprisesandstartupcompanies.
Cooperation–theneedforeffectivecooperationisfundamentaltothesuccess(orfailure)ofthe
strategic approach underpinning the RWMP. No single stakeholder can or will implement
successfullythepoliciesandactionsoftheRWMP.
Environmental Protection – the final principle of the strategic approach is to protect the
environment of the region and its citizens from the harmful impacts of managing wastes.
Environmentalissuesandimpactsarebeingintegratedintoalldecisionmakingandassessmentand
will help to ensure that actions and developments are environmentally sustainable. The local
authoritieshavebeenguidedby thestrategic environmentalassessmentinthepreparationofthe
RWMPandwillretainafocusonenvironmentalandcommunityprotectionthroughouttheperiod.
2.7
STRATEGICOBJECTIVESOFTHEREGIONALWASTEMANAGEMENT
PLAN
The strategic policy objectives for the plan represent the local authorities’ statement of intent
embodying the strategic approach previously described. The strategic objectives are expanded
furtherinthedocumentintomoredefinedpolicyobjectivesandmeasurableactions.
TheoverarchingpolicyobjectivesoftheEasternMidlandsRWMPare:
ƒ
Policy&Legislation
ƒ
Prevention
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
33
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
ƒ
ResourceEfficiency
ƒ
Coordination
ƒ
InfrastructurePlanning
ƒ
Enforcement&Regulation
ƒ
Protection
ƒ
OtherWastes
Specific policies and policy actions are associated with each of these strategic policy objectives.
These policies and policy actions focus on the detail of targets to be achieved, timelines for
achievement and those responsible for delivery in order to support the implementation of the
RWMP.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
34
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
3
STRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTMETHODOLOGY
3.1
THESTRATEGICENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTPROCESS
The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive requires that certain Plans and
Programmes,whicharelikelytohaveasignificantimpactontheenvironment,besubjecttotheSEA
process.TheSEAprocessisbroadlycomprisedofthefollowingsteps,asoutlinedinTable31.
Table31SEAStages
SEAStep/Stage
Purpose
Status
Screening
This stage was completed in Q2
The purpose of this stage of the process 2014withadecisiontoundertake
wastoreachadecision,onwhetherornot SEAoftheRWMP.
anSEAoftheRWMPwasrequired.
Scopingandstatutory
consultation
The purpose of this stage of the process
was to clarifythe scope and level of detail
to be considered in the environmental
assessment. This was done in consultation This stage was completed in Q2 /
withthedefinedstatutorybodiesforSEAin Q32014.
Ireland and consultation was also
undertaken with the authorities in
NorthernIreland.
Environmental
assessmentand
consultation
Thepurposeofthisstageoftheprocessis
to assess the likely significant impacts on
the environment as a result of
implementation of the RWMP and
consideration of reasonable alternatives.
Theoutputfromthisstageoftheprocessis
an SEA Environmental Report which
records this assessment. Consultation on
thedraftRWMP,EnvironmentalReportand
appropriateassessmentarealsopartofthis
stage.
SEAStatement
Thepurposeofthisstageoftheprocessis
to
identify
how
environmental To be published with Final RWMP
considerationsandconsultationshavebeen inearly2015.
integratedintothefinalplanculminatingin theproductionofanSEAStatement.
To stage was completed in
November 2014. Subject of this
report.
3.2
WORKCOMPLETEDTODATE
3.2.1 Screening
TheSEADirectiverequiresthatcertainplansandprogrammes,preparedbystatutorybodies,which
arelikelytohaveasignificantimpact ontheenvironment,besubjecttotheSEAprocess.AnSEA
screeningoftheEasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlanwasundertakeninMay2014
afterwhichitwasconcludedthatSEAwouldbeundertakenforthedraftEasternMidlandsRegional
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
35
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Waste Management Plan. A copy of the Screening Statement is available on the dedicated plan
website:www.emwr.ie.
3.2.2 Scoping
OverviewoftheScope
GeographicalScope:TheEasternMidlandsRWMPistheplanforthemanagementofwastesarising
intheEasternandMidlandsRegion,comprising12cityandcountycounciladministrativeareas.The
assessmentwillthereforebefocusedatactivitiesoccurringwithinthefunctionalareaoftheRWMP,
whilstrecognisingthatthereisanationaldimensiontotheplan.Recognitionwillbegivenwithinthe
plan to the issue of waste management in the other two waste management plan regions (the
ConnachtUlster Region and the Southern Region) in the context of national capacities as well as
thosespecifictotheregion.
TemporalScope:TheEasternMidlandsRWMPwillbeinforceforsixyearsandwillcovertheperiod
from 2015 up to 2021. In line with the SEA Directive, short, medium and longterm impacts
(including reference to secondary, cumulative, synergistic,permanent and temporary, positive and
negativeeffects)willbeconsideredduringtheassessment.Whilethereviewperiodfortheplanis
everysixyearstherecommendationsputforwardintheplanhavealongerperspectiveandwilltake
anumberofyearsforcertainaspectstobeimplementedandtakeeffect.Asaresultthetimelines
proposedforassessmentoflongtermimpactsextendsbeyondthetimeframeoftheactualplan.For
thepurposeoftheSEA,amediumtermhorizonofbeyond2021andalongtermhorizonofbeyond
2027 will be assessed. This will cover two full cycles of the waste management plans under the
revised boundaries. It is also recognised that the changes to the waste management region
boundaries is likely to result in immediate changes / impacts for existing facilities and therefore
shorttermimpactswillberelevant.
ScopingofSEAEnvironmentalTopics:Theenvironmentaltopics,intheSEADirectivethathavebeen
scoped in for the assessment of the plan following SEA scoping in consultation with the statutory
consulteesfortheSEAare:Biodiversity,floraandfauna;Populationandhumanhealth;Water;Soil;
AirQuality;ClimateFactors;MaterialAssets;Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeologicalHeritageand
Landscape.
ConsultationFeedback
ScopingwascarriedoutinacoordinatedmannerforallthreeRWMPbetweenJuneandJuly2014.
In line with the SEA Directive, specific environmental authorities (statutory consultees) were
consulted on the scope and level of detail of the information to be included in the Environmental
Report.TherelevantstatutoryconsulteesthatwereconsultedaspartoftheSEAScopingphasefor
theEasternMidlandsRWMPSEAwere:
ƒ
DepartmentofAgriculture,FoodandtheMarine(DAFM);
ƒ
DepartmentofArts,HeritageandtheGaeltacht(DAHG);
ƒ
DepartmentofCommunications,EnergyandNaturalResources(DCENR);
ƒ
DepartmentofEnvironment,CommunityandLocalGovernment(DECLG);and
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
36
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
ƒ
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA);
InrecognitionofthepotentialfortransboundaryeffectswithNorthernIreland,astheEMRborders
NorthernIreland,theDepartmentoftheEnvironment,NorthernIreland(DOENI)wasalsoconsulted
onthescopeandlevelofdetailoftheinformationtobeincludedintheEnvironmentalReport.
Scoping for the EasternMidlands RWMP SEA was carried out with these statutory environmental
authorities, based on an initial draft scoping report for the EasternMidlands Region which was
providedtothefiveconsulteesonJune4th2014.Ascopingworkshopwassubsequentlyheldon23rd
JuneattheCustomHouse,Dublinwhichwascoordinatedforallthreewastemanagementregions,
i.e.EasternMidlands,SouthernandConnachtUlster.Representativesfromallstatutoryconsultees
wereinvitedtoattendthisworkshop.Thefollowinggroupswererepresentedontheday:SEAteam
for EasternMidlands, Southern and ConnachtUlster; RWMP team for EasternMidlands, Southern
and ConnachtUlster; DECLG; Inland Fisheries Ireland (IFI) and EPA. Comments made at the
workshopandsubsequentwrittensubmissionsfromthestatutoryconsulteeshavebeentakeninto
accountinthisEnvironmentalReport.
Inadditiontothisstatutoryconsultation,adecisionwastakentoholdawiderpublicconsultationon
theSEAscoping,giventhestrategicnatureoftheproposedRWMPandthewidestakeholderbase
affected by the policies and objectives being developed. To facilitate this wider consultation, an
advertisement was placed in two national newspapers on June 4th 2014: The Irish Times; and the
Irish Independent. The advertisement stated that an SEA would be undertaken on all RWMP and
that SEA scoping had commenced. Written submissions were invited from interested parties,
specificallyinrelationtothescopeoftheSEA.ThedeadlineforreceiptofsubmissionswasJuly4th
2014.Writtensubmissionsreceivedfromthispublicconsultationhavebeentakenintoaccountin
thisEnvironmentalReport.
AsummaryoftheissuesraisedinthesubmissionsfromstatutoryconsulteesispresentedinTable
32.
Table32MainIssues/SuggestionsfromStatutoryConsultees
Statutory
EPA
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
IssuesRaised
RWMPneedstoconsidersludgemanagement ConsideredinChapter4,OtherPlansand
plans (being prepared by Irish Water) and Programmes.
howtheycanbepromotedandsupportedby
LA.
EPA
Matrix or table should be included to show AddressedintextofEasternMidlands
how RWMP measures align with WFD RWMP.
requirements.
EPA
Include a reference to waste enforcement–
relatedregionalisation.
EPA
Include more detail of data sources used to IncludedinChapter5,Baseline.
identify key pressures and clarify how the
RWMPswilladdressthekeyissues.
EPA
Acknowledge the distinction between waste IncludedinSection2.2ofthisreport.
preventionandrecycling.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
ReferencedinSection1.1ofthisreport.
37
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
Statutory
IssuesRaised
EPA
Include a highlevel summary of the IncludedinChapter8,Assessment.
environmental aspects where potential
cumulativeeffectsmightarise.
EPA
Include in the Environmental Report the key IncludedinChapters5Baselineand8,
transboundaryissuesraisedatScopingstage. Assessment.
EPA
Reference provided to updated SEA Thesedocumentsarereferencedin
Regulations/Circulars and the following plans Chapter4,OtherPlansandProgrammes
and programmes: CFRAMS, the Regional andAppendixA.
Planning Guidelines, the National Spatial
Strategy and Fingal County Council’s Sludge
ManagementPlan.
EPA
Describe whether waste management Toalimitedextent.
activities on inhabited islands are to be
consideredintheRWMPs.
EPA
Waste management activities at ports and Toalimitedextent.
harbours should be described (including
dredging) with reference to relevant port
plans.
EPA
Separate out the list of Plans, programmes
and Policies more aligned with waste
management activities to those with less
directlinks.
Chapter 4 now deals with the key plans
and programmes relevant to the RWMP
with others included in a table in
AppendixA.
Thefollowingdatasourcesweresuggested:
EPA
Chapter 4 now deals with the key plans
and
programmes relevant to the RWMP
ƒ Sludge management regarding
with others included in a table in
DomesticWWTPsandseptictanks;
AppendixA.
ƒ Strive Report: STRIVE 123 Management Options for the Chapter5Baselineincludesreferenceto
Collection, Treatment and Disposal DomesticWWTPandseptictanks.
of Sludge derived from Domestic WWTS;and
The Irish Water WSSP is under
development. However the issues paper
ƒ Irish Water’s Water Services
has been put out for public consultation
StrategicPlan(WSSP).
andthishasbeenreferencedinthecourse
ofthisassessment.
Considerincludingatablelistingdatasources
considered and highlighting how each links
andinfluencestheRWMPs
EPA
Levelofdetailpresentedinthescopingreport The need for consistency in the level of
varies. Consideration should be given to detail has been noted and applied as far
standardisingthelevelofdetailpresented.
aspossibleinChapter8,Assessment.The
focus is at the regional level in line with
thelevelofdetailoftheRWMP.
EPA
Where environmental criteria are proposed Noted
to be scoped out, the reasons should be
documentedintheEnvironmentalReport.
EPA
A table relating Strategic Environmental SummarytableisincludedinChapter9.
Objectives (SEOs), relevant mitigation
measuresandmonitoringshouldbeincluded.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
38
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
Statutory
IssuesRaised
EPA
SEO 2 should be amended to refer to SEO2 now refers to sustainable
“sustainablewastemanagement”.
development of waste management
infrastructure.
EPA
SEO 7 should include a reference to the Floods Directive and CFRAMS now
FloodsDirectiveandotherCFRAMS.
referencedinSEOs.
EPA
Positives associated with the draft RWMP Noted. Chapter 8 Assessment includes
shouldbenoted
referencetopositiveandnegative.
EPA
Recognition should be given to the need for See actions in Chapter 8 and also
theprovisionofresourcestolocalauthorities assessment.
to implement waste prevention campaigns
andstrategies.
EPA
Give an example where one of the Key TablenowincludedinChapter5,Baseline
Pressuresisbeingaddressedinaregion.
highlighted how pressures are / will be
addressed.
EPA
Clearly define potential costsavings where Cost savings considered in assessment in
possible.
termsofbenefitsoftheRWMP.
EPA
Consider the level of funding available when Thishasbeenaconsiderationoftheplan
carryingoutwastemanagementactivities.
team in developing realistic alternatives
and in choosing the preferred strategy
andassociatedactions.
EPA
Consider a tiered approach to alternatives, A tiered approach has been taken to
where highlevel national requirements are alternatives,seeChapter7,Alternatives.
consideredinitially.
EPA
Consider the problems identified from ConsideredinChapter7.
previousRWMPsforgeneratingalternatives.
DAFM
List of additional relevant legislation, plans Thesehavebeenconsideredandincluded
andpoliciestobeconsideredwasprovided.
inChapter4andAppendixA.
DAFM
Positive and negative impacts on marine Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
environmentalquality;microbiologicalquality Chapter8Assessment.
of shellfish; human health; commercially
important fish and shellfish stocks;, licensed
aquaculturesites;areasofimportanceforfish
/ shellfish and fisheries; freshwater
aquaculture operations; and future
designations of important areas for shellfish
andaquacultureshouldbeconsidered.
DAFM
Major land use changes can significantly Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
impactthemarineenvironment.
Chapter8Assessment.
DAFM
Allaspectsoftheseafoodsectorrelyonsafe
high quality water and assessment of Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
potential impacts on water quality should Chapter8Assessment.
includetheseafoodsector.
DAFM
Designated shellfish waters are very
important to the shellfish sector in Ireland.
The role of filterfeeding shellfish as a
Included in Chapter 6 Baseline and
nutrient sink thus helping to reduce
Chapter8Assessment.
eutrophication potential and improve water
quality is also important to consider in
assessments.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
39
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
Statutory
IssuesRaised
DAFM
Details of fishery/marine data and These publications have been noted and
publications provided and a list of marine relevant data collated as part of the GIS
bodiessuggestedforconsultation.
for the SEA. Open consultation has been
undertakenonthescopingoftheSEAand
theEnvironmentalReportwillalsobethe
subjectofpublicconsultation.
DAHG
Will the RWMP address dumping at sea and This is outside the scope of the Eastern
dredgingactivities?
MidlandsRWMP.
DAHG
What is the scope of the term thermal AddressedinRWMPChapter17
treatment?
Infrastructure.
DAHG
Will “Preparing for Reuse” include reuse of
C&Dwasteandthepotentialreuseofclosed This is outside the scope of the Eastern
landfills?
MidlandsRWMP.
DAHG
Itisnotedthatifitisproposedtoincorporate
“lowerlevel” implementation plans or
policies from other Plans, the ecological Noted
assessment would need to take account of
these.
DAHG
Consider issues relevant to EU sites which
arose during the previous RWMPs for ThishasbeenconsideredinChapter5and
informing the scope and objectives of the Chapter7oftheEnvironmentalReport.
EnvironmentalReport.
Consider the following in relation to the
planninghierarchy:
DAHG
ƒ
EnvironmentalLiabilityDirective
(2004/35/EC);
ƒ
Ireland’sFrameworkforSustainable
Development;
ƒ
EuropeanCommunities(Birdsand
NaturalHabitatsRegulations)2011;
ƒ
Consentsandlicencesunderthe
WildlifeActs(asamended)for
projects;and
ƒ
FloraProtectionOrders.
ThesehavebeenconsideredinChapter4
andinAppendixAofthisreport.
DAHG
Take account of other habitats and species
not designated or taken account of at
Europeanornationallevel.
Given the regional nature of the RWMP,
local level issues are not addressed in
detail in the assessment or baseline
description however, biodiversity flora
andfaunaissueshavebeenconsideredat
theappropriatelevelintheassessmentin
Chapter 8 and through mitigation
measures.
DAHG
Thefollowingdatasourcesweresuggested:
The AA considers issues relating to the
potential impacts of the RWMP on the
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
40
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
IssuesRaised
ƒ
Sitespecificconservationobjectives
and2013/2014habitatstatus
reportsfromNPWS;
ƒ
Relevantobligationsarisingfrom
judgementsagainstIrelandbythe
EUCourtofJusticeandassociated
ProgrammeofMeasures;
ƒ
Relevantprioritiesandactions
Ireland’sPrioritisedAction
Frameworkfortheimplementation
oftheBirds&HabitatsDirectives;
ƒ
Baselinespatialrepresentationof
existingwastefacilities.
Natura2000network.
Mapofexistingwastefacilitiesinrelation
to SAC, SPA and NHA designations is
includedinChapter6,Baseline.
DAHG
AmendSEO1toclarifyprotectedspecies
includethoseprotectedatbothEUand
nationallevelandconsiderIreland’sNational
BiodiversityPlan“ActionsforBiodiversity
20112016”withintheSEOs
DAHG
As waste will likely be exported to other
countriesundertheseRWMPs,consideration
Transboundary consultation has been
should be given to consultation with those
initiatedwithNorthernIreland.
countries.
DAHG
List of additional relevant legislation, plans Thesehavebeenconsideredandincluded
andpoliciestobeconsideredwasprovided.
in Chapter 4 and Appendix A and in the
AA.
DCENR
GSI (part of DCENR) provided links to their
Noted
onlineresourceswithrelevantdatasets.
SEO 1 amended to state: To preserve,
protect and maintain the terrestrial,
aquatic and soil biodiversity, particularly
EU and nationally designated sites and
protected species. Best Available
Practices(BAPs)consideredfortargets.
Include the following in the Environmental
Report:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
NIEA
ƒ
Impacts on bathing and shellfish Information on bathing and shellfish
waters has been included in Chapter 6,
waters;
BaselineandChapter8,Assessment.
Review of Marine Strategy A summary of the current status of the
FrameworkDirective(MSFD);
MSFD has been included in Chapter 6,
Baseline.
Potential for environmental impact Potential for transboundary impacts has
on water quality and/or biodiversity been considered in Chapters 7,
forsharedIRBDandthepossibilityof Alternativesand8,Assessment.
aerial deposition and spread of
international
site
National
and
invasivespecies;and
designations in Northern Ireland have
Consider national and international beenincludedinChapter6,Baseline.
sitedesignationsinNorthernIreland.
NIEA
Include
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
a
clear
statement
in
the Noted
41
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Statutory
How this has been dealt with in the
Environmental
Report/new
Waste
ManagementPlan?
IssuesRaised
Environmental Report indicating whether or
notimplementationoftheRWMPswillhavea
significanteffectonNorthernIreland.
Additionally submissions were received from individuals and groups as part of the nonstatutory
publicconsultationwhichraninparalleltothescopingconsultation.Themainthemesraisedaspart
ofthisconsultationaresummarisedinTable33.
Table33MainIssues/SuggestionsfromNonStatutoryConsultees
IssueRaised
HowthishasbeendealtwithintheEnvironmentalReportand
RWMP?
Suggestions in relation to
programmes,
policies
and
IncludedinChapter4,OtherPlansandProgrammes.
documentation that should be
consideredbytheSEAandRWMPs
Queries in relation to the rural
waste collection system and
request for baseline evidence on
the household collection network
and householders access to waste
operators
TheAppendixoftheRWMP,onHouseholdWasteoutlinesthenumber
ofhouseholdsonakerbsidecollectionsystemonalocalauthoritybasis.
The extent of coverage in each county varies with areas of lower
populationdensityoftentendingtohavelowerratesofcollection.The
localauthoritiesdonotholdadatabaseofhouseholdersonacollection
service so it is not possible to present spatially the distribution of
collection services. Under the new household waste regulations the
issueofunmanagedhouseholdwasteistobeaddressedandthelocal
authoritiesareexpectedtohaveenhancedregulatoryresponsibilitiesto
addressthisissue.Thelocalauthoritieshaveincludedspecificpolicies
andactionsinthisareaintheRWMP,refertoChapter19.
There are some areas in Ireland which are outside of authorised
collections. Every county in Ireland is serviced by collectors who are
permittedtocollecthouseholdwaste.Thelackofcollectionsincertain
Request for information on areas
areas is due to other factors such as household density, costs and
outside of authorised household
practicalities. The local authorities have included specific policies and
servicecollections
actions in the RWMP which are designed to address the issue of
unmanaged household waste and unserviced householders, refer to
Chapter19.
Statements that too much
emphasis placed on specific types
of waste infrastructuree.g.;waste
to energy and thermal treatment
facilities
TheapproachtakeninthenewRWMPistofocusonthetreatmenttiers
ofthewastehierarchy,ratherthanonspecifictypesofwastetreatment
technologies. The policy actions on waste treatment infrastructure in
theplanaredesignedaroundthetreatmenttiersandnottechnologies,
seeChapter19oftheRWMP.
Clarification sought on exported
residual waste and details
requested on recovery levels
outside of Ireland, including the
consideration of energy recovery
levels
Unfortunately the data management systems currently in place in
Ireland do not record the exporting of residual waste on a regional
basis. This data is available nationally and is managed by the National
TransFrontierShipmentOfficewhichisoperatedbyDublinCityCouncil.
The EPA review the data handled by the national office and include
exportdataintheannualNationalWasteReport.TheEPAdoesreport
on countries of destination but this may not be specific to residual
waste. In the RWMP the export issue is discussed in the Emerging
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42
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
IssueRaised
HowthishasbeendealtwithintheEnvironmentalReportand
RWMP?
Policy chapter. For residual municipal wastes national policy and
legislationaimsforIrelandtobeselfsufficientandforthisstreamtobe
treated in indigenous facilities. The policies and actions in the RWMP
supportthisambition,asoutlinedinChapter19.
Text clarifications in relation to Noted
operational activities at the
cementplants
Suggestionsandclarificationson
theenvironmentalobjectives
ConsideredinChapter6,EnvironmentalProtectionObjectivesandSEA
Framework
Consider potential future changes
in the types of waste produced The RWMP sets out many policies and actions to manage inert, non
and implications of this on waste hazardous and hazardous wastes. These broad classes cover waste
facilities
fromhouseholds,business,industry,theconstructionandagrisectors.
Clarification and questions in
TheRWMPcontainsamarketanalysisofwastetreatmentinfrastructure
relation to environmental impacts
operating in the region providing a comprehensive summary of waste
from licenced and unlicensed
activities,refertoChapter16.
wastefacilities
Policy action C.2.2 in the RWMP commits the local authorities to
Request for the RWMP to address
preparingacodeofpracticetoapplyatlocalauthorityauthorisedwaste
recycling and recovery of
management facilities. The aim is to improve quality at the pre
indigenous paper, plastics and
treatmentandrecoveryfacilitiesintermsofprocessingandtheoutputs
metals
produced.
TheRWMPcontainsamarketanalysisofwastetreatmentinfrastructure
operating in the region including the treatment of soil and stone and
Request for analysis of potential otherconstructionanddemolitionwaste.ThisiscoveredinChapter16
uses for construction and of the RWMP. The RWMP also supports the future development of
reprocessing facilities established to handle the secondary materials
demolitionwaste
and specific policies have been prepared to address this, see Chapter
19.
Under the proposed new household waste regulations the local
authoritiesareexpectedtohaveenhancedregulatoryresponsibilitiesto
Considerations that forthcoming
address issues such as unmanaged waste, unserviced households, and
changes to waste regulations may
paybyuseetc.Theregulationshaveyettobefinalisedandaredueto
alleviateidentifiedpressures
bereleasedinJanuary2015.Thelocalauthoritieswillensurethattheir
responsibilitiesundertheseregulationsareaddressed.
Issues raised in relation to
regulatory support for bio
treatmentplantsifconsiderationis
giventofullintroductionofthree
binsystem
Withintroductionoftheproposednewhouseholdwasteregulation(in
addition to existing regulations on food waste), the local authorities
believethattherewillbesufficientregulationinplacetodriveorganic
resourcestorecoveryduringthecourseoftheRWMP,butwillmonitor
progressinthisarea.Thelocalauthoritieswishforgreaterrecognition
ofthewastesectorintermsofcontributingtowardsrenewableenergy
targetsandmadeasubmissiononthedraftGreenPaperpolicy.
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43
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3.3
ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT
3.3.1 AssessmentApproach
Because SEA is, as its name suggests, set at a strategic level, it is not possible for the baseline
environmenttobedescribed(andassessed)inasmuchdetailascouldbedoneforaprojectlevel
environmentalimpactassessment.Instead,SEAusesasystemofobjectives,targetsandindicators
torationaliseinformationforthepurposesofassessment.
In order to streamline the assessment process, this report has used broad themes, based on the
environmentaltopicslistedintheSEADirective,togrouplargeenvironmentaldatasets,e.g.,human
health, cultural heritage and climate. Assigned to each of these themes is at least one highlevel
Strategic Environmental Objective that specifies a desired direction for change, e.g. reduce CO2
emissions, against which the future impacts of the RWMP can be measured. These highlevel
Strategic Environmental Objectives are then paired with specific Targets. The progress towards
achievingthesespecificTargetsismonitoredusingenvironmentalIndicators,whicharemeasuresof
identifiedvariablesovertime.
The environmental assessment includes a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessment
andexpertjudgement.Table34outlinesthetypeofassessmentthathasbeencarriedout.
Table34SEAEnvironmentalAssessment
EnvironmentalReceptors
Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
Population/HumanHealth
IsitQuantifiable?
Nationalandregionaldatasetsareavailableforaspectsrelating
tobiodiversity,floraandfauna.GiventhescaleoftheRWMP,
the assessment will be focussed on designated sites such as
SPA, SAC, and NHA. Absence of location specific information
thereforeassessmentisfocussedonqualitative.
National datasets are available for population density and
distribution and the potential impacts of the RWMP can be
assessedquantitativelyrelativetotheavailableinformation.
Health impacts wouldprimarily be secondary via emissions to
air,water,soil,etc.Thereisnoquantitativebaselinedatathat
couldbeusefullyexaminedvisàvisRWMPpolicies.However
reference to emissions under the heading Air Quality, Water
etc.havebeenincluded.
Soil/Geology
Absenceoflocationspecificinformationthereforeassessment
isfocussedonqualitative.
Water
Nationalandregionaldatasetsareavailableforaspectsrelating
to water quality, water and wastewater infrastructure.
Absenceoflocationspecificinformationthereforeassessment
isfocussedonqualitative.
Air
Relevant issues relate to odour, facility emissions (methane,
dioxins etc.) and transport related emissions. Some
quantitativeassessmentpossible,e.g.changesinenergyusein
thecontextofincreased/improvedwastemanagement.
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44
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
EnvironmentalReceptors
IsitQuantifiable?
ClimaticFactors
Relevant issues relate to facility and transport related
emissions. Quantitative assessment possible, e.g. changes in
energy use in the context of increased / improved waste
management.
MaterialAssets
Quantitative assessment may be possible, e.g. number of
households with 2/3 bin waste collection, number of
households with a waste collection service, % of waste
exportedetc.
Cultural,ArchitecturalandArchaeological
Heritage
National datasets are available for archaeology and
architecturalheritage,howeverthenatureofthedatasetsare
directedtowardslocalprojectspecificsources.Withoutspecific
information on the location and character of potential
infrastructural projects, there is no obvious way of assessing
alternativesquantitatively.
Landscape
By its nature assessment of landscape and visual impacts is
subjective. In addition, without specific information on the
location and character of potential infrastructural projects,
thereisnoobviouswayofassessingalternativesquantitatively.
3.3.2 SEAEnvironmentalReport
Based on the legislation and guidance, the Environmental Report must include the information
outlinedinTable35.
Table35–RequirementofSEADirectiveandRelevantSectioninEnvironmentalReport
RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
An outline of the contents and main objectives of the plan or Chapter2:ContentandMainObjectives
programme, or modification to a plan or programme, and ofthePlan
relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes.
Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
The relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
thelikelyevolutionthereofwithoutimplementationoftheplanor Current State of the Environment
programme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme.
(Baseline)
Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
Theenvironmentalcharacteristicsofareaslikelytobesignificantly
Current State of the Environment
affected.
(Baseline)
Anyexistingenvironmentalproblemswhicharerelevanttotheplan
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme,including, Chapter 5: Relevant Aspects of the
in particular, those relating to any areas of a particular Current State of the Environment
environmental importance, such as areas designated pursuant to (Baseline)
theBirdsDirectiveortheHabitatsDirective.
The environmental protection objectives, established at
international,EuropeanUnionornationallevel,whicharerelevant
totheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme, Chapter4:EnvironmentalFramework
andthewaythoseobjectivesandanyenvironmentalconsiderations
havebeentakenintoaccountduringitspreparation.
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45
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
RequirementofSEADirective(Article5(1),Annex1)
SectionofEnvironmentalReport
Thelikelysignificanteffectsontheenvironment,includingonissues
such as biodiversity, population, human health, fauna, flora, soil,
water, air, climatic factors, material assets, cultural heritage Chapter8:Assessment
including architectural and archaeological heritage, landscape and
theinterrelationshipbetweentheabovefactors.
Themeasuresenvisagedtoprevent,reduceandasfullyaspossible
offset any significant adverse effects on the environment of
Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
implementingtheplanorprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanor
programme.
An outline of the reasons for selecting thealternatives dealt with,
andadescriptionofhowtheassessmentwasundertakenincluding
Chapter7:Alternatives
anydifficulties(suchastechnicaldeficienciesorlackofknowhow)
encounteredincompilingtherequiredinformation
Adescriptionofthemeasuresenvisagedconcerningmonitoringof
thesignificantenvironmentaleffectsofimplementationoftheplan Chapter9:MitigationandMonitoring
orprogramme,ormodificationtoaplanorprogramme
A nontechnical summary of the information provided under the
NonTechnicalSummary
aboveheadings
3.3.3 LinksbetweentheSEAandAAProcess
TheHabitatsDirective(CouncilDirective92/43/EEContheconservationofnaturalhabitatsandof
wild fauna and flora) obliges member states to designate Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) to
protectandconservehabitatsandspeciesofimportanceinaEuropeanUnioncontext.Article6is
oneofthemostimportantarticlesoftheHabitatsDirectiveindeterminingtherelationshipbetween
conservationandsiteuse.Article6(3)requiresthat“Anyplanorprojectnotdirectlyconnectedwith
or necessary to the conservation of a site but likely to have a significant effect thereon, either
individually or in combination with other plans or projects, shall be subject to appropriate
assessmentofitsimplicationsforthesiteinviewofthesite’sconservationobjectives.”
AnAppropriateAssessmentoftheRWMPhasbeencarriedoutinparallelwiththeSEAprocess,with
the findings of the Appropriate Assessment used to guide the development of the alternatives to
consideredaspartoftheSEA.TheassessmentundertakenaspartoftheAAprocesshasalsofed
directlyintotheassessmentofbiodiversity,floraandfaunainthisSEA.
Article10oftheHabitatsDirectivereferstofeaturesofthelandscapeoutsidedesignatedsiteswhich
areofmajorimportanceforwildfloraandfauna.ItisnotedthattherequirementsofArticle10of
theHabitatsDirectivearenotspecificallyconsideredundertheAppropriateAssessment(exceptin
sofarastheysupportaqualifyingfeature)butitisnotedsuchfeatureshavebeenconsideredinthe
SEAunderthebroaderheadingofBiodiversity,FloraandFauna.
3.3.4 DifficultiesEncountered
Thefollowingdifficultiesanddatagapswereencountered:
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46
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
ƒ
Poorboundaries/administrativeoverlapforsomedatasets;
ƒ
Lack of quantitative data focussed at the new administrative boundaries for the
reconfiguredwasteregions;
ƒ
Lackofdigitiseddatainsometopicareas(e.g.landscape);
ƒ
Quantitative assessment is made very difficult due to the very strategic level of the
measuresproposed;and
ƒ
Notalloftheproposedmonitoringmeasuresarecurrentlybeinggatheredandreportedon
atanationallevelorattheEasternMidlandsWasteRegionlevel.
3.4
SEASTATEMENT
The main purpose of the SEA Statement is to provide information on the decisionmaking process
and to document how environmental considerations, i.e. the views of consultees and the
recommendations of the Environmental Report, have been taken into account in the adopted
EasternMidlands RWMP. The SEA Statement illustrates how decisions were taken, making the
processmoretransparent.
TheSEAStatementfortheEasternMidlandsRWMPwillbecompiledafterthestatutoryconsultation
onthedraftEasternMidlandsRWMPandEnvironmentalReporthasbeencompleted.
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4 REVIEWOFRELEVANTPLANS,POLICIESANDPROGRAMMES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
ThischapterfollowsonfromtheoverviewoftheRWMPprovidedinChapter3withtheobjectiveof
settingouthowtheRWMPinteractswithotherrelevantplansandprogrammesandenvironmental
protectionobjectives.Thediscussionhasfocusedonenvironmentalandwasteplans/programmes/
policyandlegislation,andtheirrelationshipandinfluenceontheRWMP.
4.2 METHODOLOGY
AsdocumentedintheSEADirectivethepurposeofSEAis“toprovideforahighlevelofprotectionof
the environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental considerations in the
preparation and adoption of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable
development”. Therefore it is imperative that environmental considerations are documented and
taken into account in the development of this RWMP. In order to do this the environmental
protection objectives from relevant key plans, programmes, policy and legislation must be first
identifiedandthenexploredinrelationtotheRWMP.
The SEA Directive also states in Article 5(1) of Annex 1, that the environmental assessment must
identify “the environmental protection objectives, established at International, European Union or
national level, which are relevant to the plan or programme, or modification to the plan or
programme, and the way those objectives and any environmental considerations have been taken
intoaccountduringitspreparation”.ThereforethemainobjectivesoftheRWMPmustbeoutlined
alongwiththe“relationshipwithotherrelevantplansorprogrammes”.
In order to undertake these specific tasks, this chapter has taken consideration of the plan/
programme/ policy and legislative framework within which the RWMP has been developed. The
RWMPisaregionaldocumentandthereforethereviewhasfocusedonrelevantNational,European
and International frameworks. As part of the review process, a comprehensive list of plans and
programmesrelevanttowastemanagementwasdocumentedandanidenticaltaskwasundertaken
forpolicyandlegislation,whichisoutlinedinAppendixAofthisreport.Itisnotanexhaustivelist
but rather is focused on those considered key to the RWMP and takes on board comments made
duringtheSEAscopingstage.
Sections 4.3 and Section 4.4 have explored the relationships between the RWMP and relevant
environmentalprotectionobjectivesbearinginmindtwoquestions:
ƒ
ƒ
DoestheRWMPcontributetothefulfilmentofenvironmentalprotectionobjectivessetin
otherPlans/Programmes/Policy/Legislation?and;
To what degree are the environmental protection objectives set in these other
Plans/Programmes/Policy/LegislationimpactedbytheRWMP?
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4.3 RELEVANTPLANSANDPROGRAMMES
Part 1, Chapter 2 of the RWMP outlines the hierarchy of strategic frameworks and plans that
governs planning and development. In line with this,Table 41 identifies the hierarchy of relevant
plansandprogrammesandthepositionoftheEasternMidlandsRWMPwithinthehierarchy.
European
Table41KeyRelevantPlansandProgrammes
SeventhEnvironmentalActionProgramme
RoadmaptoaResourceEfficientEurope
NationalSpatialStrategy(20022020)
NationalLevel
OurSustainableFuture:AFrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012)
NationalBiodiversityPlan(20112016)andNPWSConservationPlansforSACsandSPAs
NationalClimateChangeStrategy(2007–2012)
HeritagePlansandFrameworkandPrinciplesfortheProtectionofArchaeologicalHeritage
NationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan20142020
NationalWastePreventionProgramme
RegionalLevel
SludgeManagementPlan(underdevelopment)
RegionalPlanningGuidelines
EasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlan
RiverBasinManagementPlans(20092014)
CatchmentFloodRiskAssessmentandManagementPlans
4.4 RELEVANTPOLICYANDLEGISLATION
The RWMP interacts with environmental protection objectives established at international,
EuropeanandNationallevel,theextentofwhichisoutlinedinTable42.
Table42KeyRelevantPolicyandLegislation
SEADirective(2001/42/EC)
EIADirective(2014/52/EC)
European
EUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)
ConservationofWildBirdsDirective(2009/147/ECcodified)
EnvironmentalLiabilitiesDirective(2004/35/CE)
WasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)
WaterFrameworkDirective(2000/60/EC)
FloodsDirective(2007/60/EC)
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
49
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
IndustrialEmissionsDirective(2010/75/EU)
EU202020Agreement
EnvironmentalAssessmentofCertainPlansandProgrammesRegulationsS.I.435/2004
National
BirdsandHabitatsRegulationsS.I.477/2011(asamended)
Planning and Development Act (as amended) and Planning and Development Regulations S.I.
600/2001(asamended)
WasteManagementAct1996
EnvironmentalLiabilityRegulationsS.I.547/2008
IndustrialEmissionsRegulationsS.I.138/2013
4.5 RELATIONSHIPOFWASTEPLANANDOTHERPLANS/PROGRAMMES/
POLICY
TheRWMPsitsinahierarchyofdocumentsdealingwiththeissuesofwastemanagementinIreland.
AtthetopofthehierarchyistheEuropeanWasteFrameworkDirective(2008/98/EC)whichprovides
an overall structure for an effective and safe waste management regime in Europe. The RWMP
directly adheres to this directive by outlining waste actions that embrace the basic concepts and
definitions toencouragetheprevention,recyclingandprocessingofwaste.InadditiontheRWMP
actions address the directions that the directive has provided in relation to the polluter pays
principle,producerresponsibility,selfsufficiencyandproximityprinciple.
The implementation of waste directives in Ireland is through the Waste Management Act 1996.
SeveralstatutoryinstrumentsdealwithspecificaspectsofEUDirectives.TheEPAisresponsiblefor
licensingcertainactivitiesinthewastesectorundertheProtectionoftheEnvironmentAct2003.The
Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) was transposed into Irish law by the European Union
(IndustrialEmissions)Regulations2013(S.I.No.138of2013),whichintroducedamendmentstothe
EPAActsandWasteManagementActsandEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(IndustrialEmissions)
(Licensing)Regulations2013(S.I.No.137of2013),whichintroducethenewmechanismforlicensing
activities that come under the directive. Waste facilities applying to the EPA for an Industrial
EmissionsLicencearerequiredtoconsidertheprinciplesofwastepreventionspecifiedintheWaste
ManagementAct.
The RWMP interacts with other statutory and nonstatutory waste planning documents including
highlevelstrategies.TheNationalHazardousWasteManagementPlan,astatutorydocument,has
been taken into consideration during the preparation of the objectives and actions within the
RWMP.TheRWMPhasindicated,inpolicyrecommendations,thatlocalauthoritiesintheregionwill
maintainanddeveloptheirexistingnetworksofbringinfrastructure,tofacilitatetherecyclingand
recoveryofhazardousandnonhazardousmunicipalwastes.Inaddition,itisindicatedinthepolicy
recommendations that local authorities will explore the possibility of accepting hazardous waste
fromsmallbusinessesatexistingcivicamenityfacilities,therebyenablingcaptureofmorehazardous
waste.The RWMPalsoaddressesthetreatmentofhazardouswasteswhichcannotberecycledor
recovered.
The National Waste Prevention Programme, is a nonstatutory strategic plan which sets out the
framework for waste prevention and resource efficiency in Ireland. This plan seeks to continue to
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workwithestablishedlinkswithinlocalauthoritiesandseekstoworkinpartnershipwiththenewly
establishedwasteplanningregions.
The preparation of Sludge Management Plans rests with Irish Water and a national plan for the
management of wastewater sludge is being developed. The RWMP has a specific policy action to
engagewithIrishWaterinrelationtonationalplanningandmanagementofwastewatertreatment
plantsludgeandwatertreatmentplansludge.
Additional European Framework Policy such as the Seventh Environmental Action Programme and
the Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe have a similar focus on encouraging a resource
efficient,lowcarboneconomyandtheRWMPobjectivesandactionswillcomplywiththis.
TheRWMPwillbeadministeredwhollywithinIreland,andthereforetheplanninghierarchyhasto
be considered. The National Development Plan (NDP) together with the National Spatial Strategy
and Regional Planning Guidelines will inform and influence the development of the RWMP. In
addition the RWMP will be prepared within the framework set out in Our Sustainable Future: A
FrameworkforSustainableDevelopmentinIreland(2012),theobjectivesofwhicharetoensurethat
futuredevelopmentinIrelandoccursinasustainablemannerensuringaneffectivetransitiontoan
innovative,lowcarbonandresourceefficientfuture.
The relationship between the RWMP and environmental protection is strong through the
incorporation within the RWMP of specific objectives dealing with protection. At the top of the
European protection hierarchy is the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EC) which has been transposed
into Irish law through the European Communities (Birds and Natural Habitats) Regulations 2011.
Article 6 of the Habitats Directive requires an Appropriate Assessment for the RWMP. This
Appropriate Assessment has been undertaken and it identified that a Stage 2 Appropriate
AssessmentwouldberequiredduetothepotentialforindirectimpactsarisingfromtheRWMP.The
Stage2AAwasconductedandallSpecialAreasofConservation(SAC)andSpecialProtectionArea(s)
(SPA)intheEasternMidlandsRWMPweretakenaccountof.
TheConservationofWildBirdsDirective,whichwasfirstadoptedin1979andhasasimilaraimto
theHabitatsDirectiveofacomprehensiveframeworkfortheprotection,managementandcontrol
ofwildbirds.ThedirectivewastransposedintoIrishLawbytheWildBirdsRegulationsandhasbeen
furtherstrengthenedbytheEUHabitatsDirective(92/43/EC)andtheEuropeanCommunities(Birds
andNaturalHabitats)Regulations2011.Atanationallevel,protectionandconservationcontinues
withtheNationalBiodiversityPlanandtheNationalParksandWildlifeConservationPlansforSACs
andSPAs.TheNationalBiodiversityPlanisunderpinnedbyEUandnationallegislation.
The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) aims at improving the aquatic environment and as
such it applies to rivers, lakes, groundwater, estuaries and coastal waters. Member states are
requiredtoachievegoodstatusinallwatersandmustensurethatstatusdoesnotdeteriorate.This
directive requires that water quality management be centered on river basins. The RWMP will
contribute to the fulfilment of these environmental protection objectives through policy actions
suchastheplanforprioritisinginvestigationandremediationoflandfills.
The Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) requires Member States to undertake a Preliminary Flood Risk
Assessment,toidentifyareasofexistingorpotentiallysignificantfuturefloodrisk,toprepareflood
hazardandriskmapsandtopreparefloodriskmanagementplanssettingobjectivesformanaging
thefloodriskwithinareasidentifiedforfurtherassessment.ThedirectivewastransposedintoIrish
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LawbytheEuropeanCommunities(AssessmentandManagementofFloodRisks)Regulations2010
(S.I. No. 122 of 2010). These regulations set out the responsibilities of the Office of Public Works
(OPW) and other public bodies in the implementation of the directive and detail the process for
implementation of the measures set out in the flood risk management plans. As such the OPW
works in close partnership with all local authorities in delivering the objectives of the Flood
ManagementProgramme.WhiletheRWMPdoesnotpresentlocationspecificinformationonwaste
facilities, the policy actions will protect the environment and be reflective of flooding through the
wastefacilitysitingcriteria(outlinedinSection16.6ofthedraftplan).
The Environmental Liabilities Directive (2004/35/EC) implements the “polluter pays principle”. The
aimofthedirectiveistoholdthosewhoseactivitieshavecausedenvironmentaldamagefinancially
liable for remedying this damage. The directive was transposed into Irish Law in 2009 by the
EuropeanCommunities(EnvironmentalLiability)Regulations2008andcomesundertheremitofthe
EPA. Environmental damage under this legislation specifically relates to water damage with a
significant adverse effect on water status as defined by the Water Framework Directive; land
damagethatcreatesasignificantrisktohumanhealth;anddamagetoprotectedspeciesandnatural
habitats. Illegal activities such as unregulated disposal of waste may fall under the remit of this
legislation.
In relation to climate change, at the top of the hierarchy is the EU202020 Agreement which is
comprised of a range of measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, renewable
energyandenergyefficiency.TheAgreementconsistsofapackageoflegallybindinglegislation,the
three key objectives of which are: reduce EU GHG emissions by 20% on 1990 levels; 20% of EU
energyconsumptiontobederivedfromrenewableenergysources;andtoincreaseenergyefficiency
by20%.Atanationallevel,the NationalClimateChangeStrategyhasbeen outdated,andassuch
the EU202020 Agreement is the legally binding legislation, which currently commits Ireland to
reducing GHG emissions. The RWMP will adhere to the agreement by encouraging prevention,
recyclingandprocessingofwastewithaviewtobecomingresourceefficientandcontributingtoa
lowcarboneconomy.
The environmental protection objectives and their relationship with the RWMP and various plans,
programmes, policy and legislation have been identified and discussed. These environmental
protection objectives have been integrated into the development of the SEA objectives which are
outlinedinChapter6.Inaddition,AppendixAprovidesacomprehensivelistofplans,programmes,
policyandlegislationcontainingenvironmentalprotectionobjectives,whichhavebeenconsidered
relevanttowastemanagement.
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5
RELEVANTASPECTSOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHE
ENVIRONMENT(BASELINE)
5.1
INTRODUCTION
This section of the Environmental Report examines the relevant significant issues of the current
stateoftheenvironmentinrelationtobiodiversity,fauna,flora,population,humanhealth,water,
soil, geology, climatic factors, air, material assets, cultural heritage, landscape and the
interrelationship between these factors. The baseline has been compiled using available datasets
and indicators developed through scoping and this environmental assessment. It is noted that the
EasternMidlandsRegionalWasteManagementPlan(RWMP)isregionaltonationalinitsfocusand
thisismirroredinthelevelofdetailpresentedforthebaselinedescriptionwhichfollows.
ThebaselinedescriptionisfocussedinthefirstinstanceontheRepublicofIreland,howevergiven
thattheEasternMidlandsWasteRegionsharesalandboundarywithNorthernIrelandalongCounty
Louth, there is potential for environmental impact on water quality, biodiversity etc. in Northern
Ireland.Assuch(andinrecognitionofthescopingcommentsreceivedbytheNIEA)thedescription
belowincludesreference,whererelevant,toconditionsinNorthernIreland.Thecharacteristicsof
areas likely to be significantly affected and existing environmental problems are summarised for
eachtopicheading.
5.1.1
StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–RepublicofIreland
Ireland’snaturalenvironment,althoughunderincreasingpressure,generallyremainsofgoodquality
and represents one of the country’s most essential national assets however pressures have
increased significantly (EPA, 2008 and 2012). As Ireland’s economy grew, these pressures
acceleratedataratewhichexceededthatobservedinotherEUcountries.
In their 5th and most recent state of the environment review, the EPA identified four priority
challenges for the environment, which, if addressed successfully, should benefit the present and
future quality of Ireland’s environment. These comprise: Valuing and Protecting our Natural
Environment; Building a ResourceEfficient, Low Carbon Economy; Implementing Environmental
Legislation;andPuttingtheEnvironmentattheCentreofOurDecisionMaking.Thesechallengesand
theirrelevancetotheEasternMidlandsRWMParesummarisedbelowinTable51
Table51–EPAKeyChallengesandRelationshiptoRWMP
Challenge
RelationshiptoRWMP
Challenge1:ValuingandProtectingour
NaturalEnvironment
The RWMP has the potential to improve our natural
environment by addressing issues such as backyard burning,
illegal dumping and unregulated waste activities. As such the
actions within the RWMP will need to recognise and
complement existing EU and national objectives, policies and
legislationwhichalsoseektoprotectthenaturalenvironment.
Challenge2:BuildingaResource
Efficient,LowCarbonEconomy
The RWMP sets out the approach for the sustainable
management of waste and includes objectives focussed at
prevention,reuseandrecoveryinparticular,allofwhichwould
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Challenge
RelationshiptoRWMP
contribute to a resource efficient economy. The RWMP also
promotes selfsufficiency in dealing with residual waste.
Considerationwillneedtobegivenasaresulttothebenefitsof
reducing exports against the detriments of building new
infrastructurewithinIrelandtoaddresstheresidualwastes.
Challenge3:Implementing
EnvironmentalLegislation
TheRWMPisundergoingbothSEAandAAinlinewithexisting
EUandnationallegislation.ProjectsarisingfromtheRWMPin
many cases will require planning and further environmental
assessment.
As noted above, the draft RWMP is undergoing both SEA and
AA in line with existing EU and national legislation. This is
Challenge4:PuttingtheEnvironmentat
ensuring that the environmental consequences are taken into
theCentreofOurDecisionMaking
accountaspartoftheplan’sdevelopment.Bothprocessesare
helpingtoshapetheevolutionofthedraftRWMP.
5.1.2
StateoftheEnvironmentOverview–NorthernIreland
ThesecondStateoftheEnvironmentReportforNorthernIreland(2013)istitled“FromEvidenceto
Opportunity”andprovidesafiveyearupdateandcommentaryonfortyfourindicatorsacrosseight
themestoprovideanevidencebasedassessmentofthestateoftheenvironment.Thecurrentstate
is mixed. Air quality continues to improve, water quality is benefitting from improved effluent
controlsandthereareincreasesinmunicipalwasterecyclingrates.Howeverdeclinesinqualityhave
beenrecordedforbiodiversityfreshwaters,landscapes,habitatsandheritage.
LikeIreland,NorthernIrelandhasexperiencedtheeffectsofrecessioninrecentyearswhichhasin
turnreducedsomeofthepressureontheenvironmentbutthishasbeenreplacedbynewpressures
and challenges associated with trying to stimulate an economy and reliance on natural resources.
The relevant aspects of the current state of the environment in Northern Ireland has been
summarisedinTable52
Table52–SummaryofCurrentStateoftheEnvironmentinNorthernIreland
Theme
KeyFindings
Air
Thereare28AirQualityManagementAreasthatareleadingtheactivitytotackleairquality
problems. There is continued improvement in air quality but problems do remain for
nitrogen dioxide emissions due to transport. Agricultural emissions from ammonia still
remainhighandthreatenecosystemsandhabitats.Continuedeffortisrequiredtoreduce
airpollutionfromkeysourcessuchasroadtransportandagriculture.Theissueofairborne
pollutantsarisingfromwastemanagementwasraisedspecificallyintheNIEAsubmissionon
SEAscoping.
Climate
There is evidence that the climate in Northern Ireland is changing. There has been a
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions but road transport emissions are still increasing.
Therearegovernmenttargetstowardsreducinggreenhousegasemissionsofatleast35%
by 2025 based on 1990 levels but this will prove challenging. A key priority for climate
change will be the implementation of the Northern Ireland Climate Change Adaptation
Programme.
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Theme
KeyFindings
Water
The overall status of water bodies in Northern Ireland has not significantly changed from
that recorded in 2009 but improvements have been identified in water utility discharges
and drinking water quality. There has also been a reduction in water pollution incidents.
Thekeychallengesforthewaterbodiesrelatetodiffusenutrientpollution,chemicalstatus
of the water environment and measures to address physical modifications of beds, banks
and shore of surface waters. Northern Ireland is broadly on track to implement the
measuresfromtheRiverBasinManagementPlansdevelopedundertheWaterFramework
Directive.Waterpollution(groundwaterandsurfacewater)areaconcernraisedbyNIEAin
theirSEAscopingsubmission.Waterinparticularprovidesaclearpathwayforpollutants
betweenthetwojurisdictions.
Marine
Therehasbeenanimprovementtotheoverallqualityofthemarineenvironment,including
bathingwaterqualityandbeaches,aroundNorthernIreland’sshores.Thiscanbedirectly
linkedtoimprovementsinwastewatertreatment.Onekeyremainingissueismarinelitter.
ThenextchallengewillbetheimplementationoftheMarineStrategyFrameworkDirective.
Marine litter and its impact on bathing waters and the aquaculture industry were both
raisedintheNIEASEAscopingsubmission.
Landand
Landscape
Thereisamarkedchangeinthelandscapewiththedevelopmentofuplandwindfarmsand
the significant decline in housing development has reduced pressure on land use.
Investmentisproposedintheagrifoodsectorbutthiswillrequireinnovativeapproaches
todevelopmentwithinthecountryside.
Despite continued action many key elements of biodiversity continues to decline. In
particular since 2000 grassland habitats have shown the most decline, but in contrast
Biodiversity woodlandhabitatshaveincreased.Thekeypressuresidentifiedrelatetolandusechanges
throughagricultureanddevelopmentwithadditionalpressuressuchaspollution,invasive
speciesandfisheriespractices.
Built
Heritage
The key risks identified to archaeological resources come from agricultural land use and
urbanactivities.Ithasbeenidentifiedthatprotectedsiteshavefaredbetter.Throughthe
SecondSurveyofBuildingsofarchitecturalorhistoricinteresttherehasbeenanincreasein
the number of listed buildings. Built heritage has provided emerging opportunities in
relationtoregeneration,tourismandeconomicdevelopment.
Wasteand
Resources
Recycling has seen a significant increase with a fourfold rise since 2002. With the
publicationoftheNorthernIrelandWasteManagementStrategythereisafocustowards
greater wasteprevention and a reductioninconsumption.Thesingleusecarrierbaglevy
hasgivenrisetoareducedconsumptionrateofmorethan80%initsfirstyearofoperation.
ThefocusonpreventioninNorthernIrelandismirroredintheapproachedproposedforthe
EasternMidlandsRWMP.
5.2
ENVIRONMENTALCHARACTERISTICSANDPROBLEMSINTHEEASTERN
MIDLANDSREGION
Thefollowingbaselineinformationisprefacedforeachenvironmentaldisciplinebyclarificationon
thenatureandextentofeffectsconsideredforthatdisciplineinrelationtotheRWMP.Thebaseline
informationisthensummarisedinrelationtotheidentifiedscope.
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5.2.1
Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
IrelandhasobligationsunderEUlawtoprotectandconservebiodiversity.Thisrelatestohabitats
and species both within and outside designated sites. Nationally, Ireland has developed a
Biodiversity plan (20112016) to address issues and halt the loss of biodiversity, in line with
internationalcommitments.AsnotedinChapter4,theEasternMidlandsRWMPmusthaveregard
tothesecommitmentsandlegalobligations.Thekeyissuesassociatedwithwastemanagementand
biodiversityrelateto:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
The potential for habitat loss and fragmentation resulting primarily from new waste
managementinfrastructure;
Pollutionofair,soilandwaterasaresultofhistoricunregulatedwastedisposalsites,illegal
landfills, closed landfills, inappropriate abandonment of endoflife vehicles (ELVs) and
backyardburning;and
Habitat and species disturbance associated with waste infrastructure, transport of waste,
remediationoflandfillsites,illegaldisposaletc.
GiventhestrategicnatureoftheRWMP,focusofthebaselineforbiodiversityisatregionalleveland
above, specifically internationally designated and national designated sites. In addition,
considerationhasbeengiventokeyprotectedhabitatsandspeciesincludingthosewithsensitivity
towastemanagementactivities,includingsurfaceandgroundwaterdependanthabitatsandspecies,
withparticularreferencetothosewhichhavebeenofnationalconservationfocuse.g.Freshwater
PearlMussel.Itisalsorecognisedthatthereareothernondesignatedreceptors,suchaslandscape
features which function as a ‘stepping stone’ or which act as ecological corridors, which are of
importancetowildlife.
5.2.1.1
DesignatedSites
Irelandhasdesignatedsitesandspeciesofconservationvalueand/orconcerninanefforttoprotect
its biodiversity resource. There are five types of designations considered for the purposes of the
RWMP: Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection Areas (SPA), Ramsar Sites, Natural
HeritageAreas(NHA)andNationalNatureReserves.Thereareover2000ofthesesitesnationally
with420containedwithintheEasternMidlandsRegion.Thisincludessuchwellknownsitesasthe
WicklowMountainsNationalPark,NorthandSouthDublinBay,theBoyneValley,theSlieveBloom
Mountains,ClaraBogandLoughOwel.
InNorthernIrelandthereare57SACs,17SPAsand375AreasofSpecialScientificInterest(ASSIs).
TheASSIsareareasoflandwithnationalconservationvalue.Somedesignations,suchasCarlingford
LoughSPAandCarlingfordShoreSACextendintoNorthernIrelandandassuchpresentpotentialfor
transboundaryeffects.
The number of each type of designation in the EasternMidlands Region is presented in Table 53
andtheirlocationsarepresentedonFigure51andFigure52.
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56
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Table53–NumberandTypesofDesignatedSiteswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion
DesignationType Description
Number*
Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) are designated under the EU
Special Area of
Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and Special Protection Areas are 79
Conservation**
designated under the Birds Directive (79/409/EEC). Together these
sitesformthebackboneoftheNatura2000network.Furtherdetails
on these sitescan befound in theAppropriate Assessment for the
Special
RWMP. The figures provided include both 40
EasternMidlands
ProtectionAreas
proposedandcandidatesites.
Ramsar sites are wetlands of international importance designated
under the Ramsar Convention, an intergovernmental treaty that
provides for national action and international cooperation for the 16
conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources with a
particularfocusonbirds.
Ramsar
NaturalHeritageAreas(NHAs)areprotectedundertheWildlifeAct
1976 (as amended). NHAs are areas considered important for the
Natural Heritage
habitats present or which hold species of plants and/or animals 269
Area**
whosehabitatneedsprotection.FiguresprovidedincludebothNHA
andproposedNHAs.
A National Nature Reserve is an area of importance to wildlife,
whichisprotectedunderMinisterialorder.Mostareownedbythe
National Nature
Statebut some are owned by organisations or private landowners. 16
Reserve
The NPWS does not provide spatial datasets to represent National
NatureReserves.
*NumberstakenfromtheNPWSwebsite(www.npws.ie)July2014;**IncludescandidateSACsandproposedNHAs
5.2.1.2
ProtectedHabitatsandSpecies
In 2008 and again in 2013 the National Parks and Wildlife Service published a report detailing the
conservation status in Ireland of habitats and species listed in the EU Habitats Directive
(92/43/EEC)4.Thereare59habitatsinIrelandthatarelistedunderAnnexIoftheHabitatsDirective.
Sixteen of these habitats are considered priority habitats, which are those that the EU considers
requireparticularprotection.Thereare26specieslistedinAnnexIIoftheHabitatsDirective.These
are animal or plant species whose conservation requires the designation of Special Areas of
Conservation.Thereareafurther41speciesofanimalsandplantslistedinAnnexIVoftheHabitats
Directive,whichrequirestrictprotection;andfinallythereare48AnnexVspecies,whosetakingin
thewildmaybesubjecttomanagementmeasures.TheNPWSConservationStatusreportindicated
that many Irish species of flora and fauna have a moderately satisfactory conservation status;
however,asmallnumberareinurgentneedofconcertedeffortstoprotectthem.FloraProtection
Ordersprotectcertainplantspeciesandprohibittheiruprootingordamagetotheirhabitats.These
orders apply wherever the plants are found and are not confined to areas designated for nature
conservation. Two groups which have received recent attention as a result of EU intervention are
Shellfish and Freshwater Pearl Mussel (FPM). Both have the potential to be impacted by waste
managementactivitiesasaresultofemissionstowatere.g.leachateandreleaseofmaterialduring
construction and or remediation, litter etc. Ireland’s raised bogs have also been the subject of
recentEUjudgements.Bogareasareoftenthefocusofillegaldumpinggiventheirmoreisolated
nature. Further details on these species / habitats within the EasternMidlands Region are
presentedinthefollowingsections.
4
TheStatusofEUProtectedHabitatsandSpeciesinIreland,NPWS2008(vol13)and2013(Vol23)
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57
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5.2.1.3
ShellfishGrowingAreas
The following shellfish growing areas are found adjacent to the EasternMidlands Region as
delineatedbythebytheSeaFisheriesProtectionAuthority:
ƒ
CarlingfordLough;
ƒ
Malahide;
ƒ
DundalkBay;and
ƒ
Balbriggan/Skerries.
Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to water e.g. leachate,
suspended solids, release of material during construction and / or remediation etc. have the
potentialtoimpactonestuarinewaterqualityandinturnShellfishGrowingAreas.
5.2.1.4
FreshwaterPearlMusselWaters
There has been a considerable decline in species distribution and numbers of FPM in Ireland and
across the EU. In response to the Irish decline, NPWS have developed 27 FPM Subbasin
ManagementPlanstoaddressmeasurestohaltthedeclineinthespecies.ThefollowingFPMsub
basincatchmentsarefoundintheEasternMidlandsRegionasdesignatedunderS.I.291of2009:
ƒ
Slaney–Derreen;and
ƒ
NoreUpper
Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to water e.g. leachate,
suspendedsolids,releaseofmaterialduringconstructionandorremediationetc.havethepotential
toimpactonwaterqualityandinturnFreshwaterPearlMussels.
5.2.1.5
SalmonidRivers
Salmonid waters must be able to sustain Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Salmo trutta), char
(Salvelinus) and whitefish (Coregonus). They have been designated under the EU Freshwater Fish
Directive (78/659/EEC) which was transposed into Irish law in 1988 through the European
Communities Regulation on Quality of Salmonid Waters (S.I. No. 293/1988). In order to sustain
thesespecies,riversmusthavegoodwaterquality,allowupstreammovementandprovidesuitable
habitat for spawning. Emissions from waste management activities (licensed and unlicensed) to
watere.g.leachate,suspendedsolidsetc.havethepotentialtoimpactonwaterqualityandinturn
salmonids.Thereare136designatedSalmonidRiverBodieswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion.
5.2.1.6
Bogs
The Irish climate is conducive to the widespread development of bogs of different types ranging
fromtheblanketbogsinthewesttotheraisedbogsinthemidlands.Thebiodiversitysupportedby
the different bog types varies considerably and in many cases make them unique within Europe.
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Activebogsplayanimportantroleincombatingclimatechangebyremovingexcesscarbondioxide
fromtheairandplacingitintolongtermstorageforthousandsofyears.Otherecosystemservices
include reduced flooding. Illegal dumping of waste material is often associated with remote and
wildareassuchasbogswhichcanleadtodeteriorationofthesehabitatsandtheuniquefloraand
fauna they support. Table 54 outlines the designated SAC raised bogs that occur in the Eastern
MidlandsRegion.
Table54–SACRaisedBogswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion
AllSaintsBogAndEsker
ClooneenBog
MonganBog
KnockacollerBog
ArdagullionBog
CoolrainBog
MoudsBog
Clareisland/MoneybegBog
MountHeveyBog
KillyconnyBog(Cloghbally)
Ballykenny
Forbes)
(Lough CrosswoodBog
BallynafaghBog
FerbaneBog
MoyclareBog
ClaraBog
BrownBog
Fisherstown(Lough
Forbes)
RaheenmoreBog
SharavogueBog
CarnParkBog
GarriskilBog
InadditiontotheSACraisedbogsoutlinedinTable54,therearefiveotherSACbogsalsodesigned
in the EasternMidlands Region. These include Carriggower Bog, Clonaslee Eskers/ Derry Bog,
LisbigneyBog,RedBogandScraghBog.Therearealsoanumberofbogsintheregion,22intotal,
whicharedesignatedasNHAs.
5.2.1.7
InvasiveAlienSpecies
Afurtherconsiderationaspartofwastemanagementplanningrelatestothepotentialforspreadof
invasivespecies.Invasivealienspecies(IAS)arespeciesthataretransportedoutsideoftheirnatural
range across and ecological barriers as a result of human action. They can establish and spread in
their new location and cause negative impacts on biodiversity, society and the economy. A 2010
reportbytheInstituteforEuropeanEnvironmentalPolicyreportedthatIASareestimatedtohave
costtheEUatleast€12billionperyearoverthepast20years,andthedamagecostscontinueto
increase.ImpactsassociatedwithIASinIrelandincludecompetitionwithnativespecies,alteration
to habitats, introduction of pathogens and parasites and economic loss. If an invasive species e.g.
Giant Hogweed and Japanese Knotweed, becomes established it can be difficult, or in some cases
nearly impossible, to eradicate. Construction and demolition waste, construction of new waste
managementfacilitiesandremediationofofhistoricunregulatedwastedisposalsites,illegallandfills
andclosedlandfillsallhavethepotentialtospreadinvasivespecies.
5.2.1.8
ExistingEnvironmentalPressures/Problems:Biodiversity,FloraandFauna
Ireland supports a wide variety of species and habitats, many of which are of international
importance,however,significantaspectsofbiodiversityinIrelandareunderthreatfromarange
ofunsustainablewasteactivities.Existingpressuresinclude:
ƒ
Habitatloss,habitatfragmentationanddisturbanceofprotectedhabitatsandspeciesasa
result of construction of the waste facilities historically; and of unauthorised disposal
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59
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
sitesparticularlyinmoreremoteareas;
Deterioration in water quality as a result of leachate arising from waste activities
(authorised / unauthorised) adjacent to or upstream of sensitive sites, particularly
designatedsites;
Control of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, particularly but not exclusively in
coastalsitesandriverfloodplains;
Abandonmentorinappropriateuseofendoflifevehicles(ELV)withinorinthevicinityof
sensitivesites,particularlydesignatedsites;and
Changestoairqualityasaresultofaerialemissionsfromwasteactivities.
Existing pressure on biodiversity also comes from existing waste facilities. There are 91 EPA
licencedwastefacilitieswithintheregion,someofwhichlieinproximitytoSACs,SPAs,NHAsand
pNHAs.Therearenolicencedwastefacilitiessituatedwithinanydesignatedsitesintheregion,
however there are 8 EPA licenced waste facilities within 500m of SACs, 4 EPA licenced waste
facilitieswithin500mofSPAs,1EPAlicencedwastefacilitywithin500mofanNHAand20EPA
licencedwastefacilitieswithin500mofpNHAs.
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60
Figure 5.1
Natura 2000 Sites in the Eastern-Midlands Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Special Area of Conservation
Special Protection Area
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1005F01
¯
Figure 5.2
Natural Heritage Areas and Ramsar Sites in the Eastern-Midlands Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Ramsar
Proposed Natural Heritage Area
Natural Heritage Area
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1008F01
¯
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
5.2.2
PopulationandHumanHealth
It has been identified by the EC Guidance Note ‘Preparing a Waste Management Plan’5 that a
number of parameters influence waste generation, one of which is population growth. People are
wasteproducersandthereforehistoricallytheamountofwasteproducedhasincreasedinlinewith
humanactivitiesandpopulationgrowth.Inrecentyearshoweverthistrendhasalteredandeven
thoughthepopulationinthestatehascontinuedtogrow,thelatesthouseholdwastedatashowsa
“substantialdropinmunicipalwastegenerationbetween2007and2011”(EPA,2011)),andin2012
municipalwastegenerationwas4.6%lowerthanin2011(NationalWasteReport2012[EPA]).Thisis
thought to be reflective of a number of factors such as behavioural changes by householders,
changingattitudestowardswastemanagementandageneraldecreaseinconsumption.Itisthought
that economics is a strong driver for household waste growth rather than solely population
dynamics.Thekeyissuesassociatedwithwastemanagementandpopulationrelateto:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Population distribution and particularly the differences in the rural versus urban model of
wastecollectionservices;
Quantitiesofwastegeneratedwithintheregion;and
Populationgrowthforecastsandsocioeconomicoutlookintheregion.
GiventhestrategicnatureofthedraftRWMP,thefocusofthebaselineforpopulationandhuman
healthisattheregionallevel.
5.2.2.1
PopulationDistribution
The EasternMidlands Region incorporates all or part of twelve city and county council
administrative areas as follows: Dublin City, Dún LaoghaireRathdown, Fingal, Kildare, Laois,
Longford,Louth,Meath,Offaly,SouthDublin,WicklowandWestmeath.Thetotalpopulationofthe
EasternMidlands Region in the most recent 2011 census was just over 2.2 million, an increase of
183,960 or 9.1% since the previous census in 2006. This represents 48% of Ireland’s population.
Dublin and the Greater Dublin Area (GDA) account for 81% of the region’s population. Table 55
showsthepopulationin2006andagainin2011(includingpercentagedifference)foreachofthe12
city and county areas within the EasternMidlands Region. Laois has experienced the greatest
percentagepopulationincreasebetween2006and2011(20.1%)whilstDublinCityhasexperienced
thelowestpopulationincrease(4.2%).
Table55–TrendsinPopulationforCountieswithintheEasternMidlandsRegion
LocalAuthority
2006
2011
%Increase
DublinCity
506,211
527,612
4.2%
DunLaoghaireRathdown 194,038
206,261
6.3%
Fingal
239,992
273,991
14.2%
SouthDublin
246,935
265,205
7.4%
Kildare
186,335
210,312
12.9%
5
PreparingaWasteManagementPlan.Amethodologicalguidancenote.EC,2012
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
63
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
LocalAuthority
2006
2011
%Increase
Laois
67,095
80,559
20.1%
Longford
34,391
39,000
13.4%
Louth
111,267
122,897
10.5%
Meath
162,831
184,135
13.1%
Offaly
70,868
76,687
8.2%
Westmeath
79,346
86,164
8.6%
Wicklow
126,194
136,640
8.3%
TotalPopulation
EasternMidlands
Region
2,025,503
2,209,463
9.1%
TotalNational
Population
4,239,848
4,588,252
8.2%
The distribution of people and their activities within the region varies from rural agricultural
communitiestothecityofDublinanditscommuterbelts.Thepopulationdensityishighcompared
totherestofIrelandandtheregionhasseenapopulationgrowthofover10%inthepasttenyears.
Dublin City and suburbs, which encompasses a large area around the M50 including areas such as
Howth, Shankill, Stepaside, Tallaght and Lucan, occupies the largest urban land area in Ireland at
318km2andholds39%ofthetotalurbanpopulation.Figure53showsthepopulationdensityinthe
EasternMidlandsRegionandthecityandmajortownsintheregion.
AsoutlinedinthedraftRWMP,withinthelastfiveyearsthepopulationinDublinhasincreasedby
4%,whilstDublincommutertownshaveexpandedatratesashighas51%.Thegreatestpopulation
increaseshavebeeninvillageswithapopulationofbetween50and1,500peopleinDublin,Meath,
KildareandWicklow.Themostrecentcensusfiguresshowthaturban/ruralpopulationsplitis81%
/ 19%. The rural element of the population appears relatively small but in actuality equates to
approximately 420,146 people. Counties Laois, Longford, Offaly and Westmeath have more rural
thanurbanpopulationnumbers.Table56summarisestheurban/ruralpopulationdistributionfor
eachlocalauthorityarea.
Table56–Urban/RuralPopulationDistributionintheEasternMidlandsRegion
LocalAuthority
Urban2011
Rural2011
DublinCity
527,612
0
DunLaoghaireRathdown
204,354
1,907
Fingal
255,833
18,158
SouthDublin
259,729
5,476
Kildare
142,171
68,141
Laois
38,181
42,378
Longford
12,908
26,092
Louth
79,117
43,780
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
64
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
Meath
105,018
79,117
Offaly
33,626
43,061
Westmeath
41,823
44,341
Wicklow
88,945
47,695
Total
1,789,317
420,146
Thedistributionofpopulationbetweenurbanpopulationcentres,ruralvillages,communityclusters
andoneoffhousinginIrelandisakeyissueforcollectionactivitiesinthewastesector.Typically,
urbanareashavehigherpopulationdensitiesthanruralareasandarebettersuitedtoandserviced
by kerbside collection systems. This is reflected in the high rates of collection coverage in these
areas. Generally kerbside collections are dominant in urban areas with the largest volume of
household waste collected through these systems. However it is not a given that coverage is at
100%ashouseholderscan,undercurrentlegislation,optoutofaserviceevenwhereseveralwaste
providersareoperatinginthemarketandofferingaservice.
Rural areas typically rely on a combination of collection systems including kerbside, local civic
amenitycentres,bringbanks,directdisposaltolandfills(althoughthisoptionisdeclining)andother
methods such as pay to use (PTU) containers which are accessible and located mainly at petrol
stationforecourts.Thefragmentednaturemakesitdifficulttoidentifythosehouseholderswhoare
responsiblymanagingtheirwastesandthosewhoarenot.Anoutcomeofthisregulatoryapproach
is a higherrisk for potential illegal dumping, backyard burning or other unsustainable methods of
disposalwithknockonnegativeimpactsfortheenvironment.
Oneoffhousingisthefocusofthisissueandithassteadilyincreasedinthelastdecade.The2011
census identified that from a total of 1,994,845 housing units in Ireland 433,564 (26.3%) were
classified as oneoff houses. The CSO’s classification of a oneoff house is an occupied detached
dwellingwithanindividualseweragesysteminaruralarea.Sincethe2006censusnationallythere
hasbeena12.7%growthinhousingstockandthepercentageofoneoffhousinghasincreased.Of
the identified oneoff houses within Ireland, 96% were outside of the 848 towns and settlements
identifiedinthe2011census.Theshareofoneoffhousingbuiltsince2006andoutlinedinFigure
54 identifies that in the EasternMidlands Region, the counties of Dublin, Wicklow, Kildare, Laois,
MeathandLouthhavealessthana30%shareofthistypeofhousing.Theremainingcountiesin
thisregionincludeLongfordandWestmeathwith3035%andOffalywith3540%.
5.2.2.2
QuantitiesofWasteProduced
Figure5.5andTable57displaytheamountofmanagedhouseholdwasteintheEasternMidlands
Region. This data is taken from the EPA’s 2012 National Waste Report and outlines the wastes
recorded and reported from sources such as kerbside collection, civic amenity facilities and bring
banks.ThefigureclearlydemonstratesthatthehighpopulationregionssuchastheGreaterDublin
Area (GDA) fall within the highest category of tonnes of household managed waste per local
authority.
The EPA2012StateoftheEnvironment Reportnotesthatof theservicedhouseholdsinthestate,
98%haveatleastatwobinsystemand37%(nationally)haveaccesstoathreebinsystem.Waste
collection services in the EasternMidlands Region have between 43% and 97% coverage with the
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
65
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
highest noted for Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council and the lowest noted for Offaly. The
National Waste Report 2012 estimates that nationally there was over 214,200t of unmanaged
householdwastein2012.
Thebarrierstofullcoverageincludebutarenotlimitedto:lackofcompetitioninwastecollection
servicesinsomeareas;optoutofexistingwastecollectionservicesbyhouseholds;andpoorrollout
ofthe3binsystem.
Table57–QuantitiesofWasteProducedperHouseholdandExtentofCoverage
LocalAuthority
Amount of Managed Extent
of
Waste
%witha3BinSystem
HouseholdWaste(t)
CollectionCoverage
DublinCity
151,257
78%
53%
DunLaoghaireRathdown
67,512
97%
43%
Fingal
99,629
100%
84%
SouthDublin
88,917
89%
64%
Kildare
69,715
85%
46%
Laois
23,045
58%
31%
Longford
10,390
77%
34%
Louth
45,327
85%
24%
Meath
57,534
76%
2%
Offaly
18,009
50%
23%
Westmeath
26,281
43%
8%
Wicklow
36,824
54%
3%
Source:EPA,2014
5.2.2.3
PopulationandEconomicForecasts
Asnotedpreviously,thepopulationdensityintheEasternMidlandsRegionishighcomparedtothe
restofIreland,withtheregionseeingapopulationgrowthofover10%inthepasttenyears.Within
thelastfiveyearsthepopulationinDublinhasincreasedby4%,whilstDublincommutertownshave
expandedatratesashighas51%.
The total national population in the 2011 census was 4.57 million. The CSO states in their report
Population and Labour Force Projections 20162046 (CSO, 2013), that the total population is
predictedtogrowtobetween4.7and5.3millionovertheperiod20162026.TheCSOpredictsthe
averageannualpopulationgrowthrateduringthisperiod(takingaccountoffertilityandmigration)
tobebetween0.4and1%,comparedtothe1.6%growthrateobservedduringthelastintercensal
period(20062011).
In their Environment Review Report published in June 2012, the ESRI summarises that municipal
solidwaste(MSW)generationisprojectedtoincreasebyroughly0.9milliontonnesoverthenext20
years,withmorethanhalfofthattocomefromtheservicessectors.Animportantdriverforthis
growth in MSW generation is the assumption that the population will increase to 5 million within
approximately15years.TheEPAhavehaspredictedasimilaroutcome,forecastingintheNational
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
66
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
WasteReport2011thatmunicipalwastegenerationwillgrowby830,000tonneswithinthenext15
years. The expectation from the ESRI is that a growing population and expanding recovering
economywillpotentiallyleadtoincreasingpressureontheenvironmentthroughwastegeneration.
It is expected that municipal (i.e. combined household and commercial) waste arisings in the
EasternMidlands Region over the 20112021 period will rise in the 1128% range. The higher of
these rates of increase especially presents a challenge to the region to ensure that adequate
collectionandtreatmentcapacityisdevelopedtoallowforthisforecast.Furthermore,thedriveto
progressively treat more of this material in Ireland means that treatment capacity provision will
needtoincreaseatratesevenabovethoseshown,makingthetargetsmorechallenging.
5.2.2.4
HumanHealth
The Institute of Public Health in Ireland produced a briefing note in 2005 on health impact
assessmentsinwastemanagementinwhichtheynotedthatwastemanagementandpublichealth
areinextricablylinkedandassuchthereisinherentsenseinassessingthepotentialimpactonhealth
of any proposed method of managing waste. However, the document also went on to note
limitations for such assessments including the length of time it may take for effects to show in a
population, the role of other confounding factors in illhealth; and the need to consider social,
psychologicalaswellasphysicaleffects.Thesefactorstogetherwiththelackofhumanhealthdata
atnationalorregionallevelinrelationtowastemanagementinIrelandcontinuetomakeitdifficult
toassessdirectimpactsonhumanhealth.Bearingtheseinmind,theimplicationsforhumanhealth
areoftenreviewedinthecontextofindirectimpactswhichmayoccurasaresultofpathwaysfor
pollutants,principallythroughair,waterandsoils.
It is noted that regulated facilities require licenses and permits, which contain emission limits to
thesemedia.TheseemissionlimitsarebasedonthemostcurrentEU/WHOguidelinesandlimits
whichhavebeendevelopedtoprotecthumanhealthhoweveritisrecognisedthatexceedancesdo
occurasevidencedfromEPAAnnualEnvironmentalReporting.
Inthecaseofhistoricunregulatedwastedisposalsitesandofunregulatedactivitiessuchasbackyard
burning/illegaldumpingtherisktohumanhealthrelatestothenatureandquantitiesofthewaste
disposedanditsproximitytosensitivereceptorse.g.awatersupply,residentialdevelopmentsetc.
TheEPAhasdevelopedaCodeofPracticeforunregulatedwastesitesincludingamethodtoscore
theriskandprioritiseremediationwhereappropriate.Emissionsassociatedwithbackyardburning
includeparticulates(PM2.5andPM10)anddioxinsetc.Butunlikeamodernthermaltreatmentfacility,
theseemissionscannotbecapturedinanywayandarenotmonitored.
Cleanairisimportanttoapopulation’sgeneralhealth.Irelandhasingeneralgoodairqualityandas
suchthepopulationreceivesahealthbenefitfromhavingaccesstocleanfreshair.Apotentialrisk
to human health is from waste generated emissions. The emissions to air arising from waste
managementcanincludethosefromlandfill,thermaltreatment,composting,anaerobicdigestionor
illegalburningandalsoexhaustemissionsfromthetransportationofwasteassociatedwithheavy
goods vehicles. The types of emissions with key potential for impact on air quality and climate
include: landfill gas (methane and carbon dioxide), particulate matter, nitrogen oxide, carbon
monoxide, heavy metals, vaporous organic substances, dioxins, furans and odours. While not
causingadirectimpacttohealth,malodoursassociatedwithwasteandsometypesoffacilities(e.g.
wastetreatment)canreducequalityoflifeandtheenjoymentofone’ssurroundingsifodoursare
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
67
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
particularly strong or persistent. See Section 5.2.5 for more information detailing the types of
wasterelatedactivitieswhichcanaffectairquality.
Theemissionstowaterarisingfromwastemanagementcanincludeleachateandsuspendedsolids
from regulated and unregulated disposal sites, cooling waters from treatment facilities, litter and
exhaustemissionsfromthetransportationofwasteassociatedwithheavygoodsvehiclesetc.These
types of pollution can impact on the ecological status of water bodies and can result in negative
impactsoninvertebrates,plantlifeandonallstagesoffishandshellfishlifecycles.Thisinturncan
impact negatively on human health where commercial fisheries and fish stocks become
contaminated by harmful chemicals or microorganisms as a result of waste runoff or poorly
managed discharge. Leachate and runoff from disposal sites in particular can also impact on
drinkingwatersources(bothsurfaceandgroundwater)possiblyleadingtointerruption/lossofthe
supplyandcostsassociatedwithremediatingnotonlythesitebutthewatersupplyalso.Dumping
atseaandlitterwhichfindsitswaytothecoast/oceanareotheravenuesofmarinepollutionfrom
waste.Whilethereisnospecificdatasetwhichquantifieslittering,wastepreventioncampaignsand
otherinitiativessuchastheplasticbaglevycanreducelitterlevels.SeeSection5.2.4formoredetail
on the current status of water quality in the EasternMidlands Region and the primary activities
relatedtowastepollutionofwater.
Irelandreliesheavilyongoodqualitysoilsfortheagriculturalsector.Contaminationofthisresource
hassignificanteconomicandsocialimpactsasitrelatesdirectlytothefoodchain.Plantsgrowing
nearcontaminatedsoilsmayleachharmfulchemicalsleadingtocontaminationoftheplantmaterial
andlivestockwhicheatthismaterialordrinkwaterfromcontaminatedwatersuppliesinthevicinity.
Significantresourcesareexpendedonidentifyingillegaldumpsitesandhistoricunregulatedlandfills
andtheirremediationintheregion.SeeSection5.2.3formoredetailonthecurrentstatusofsoils
intheEasternMidlandsRegion.
5.2.2.5
ExistingEnvironmentalPressures/Problems:PopulationandHumanHealth
There have been changes in the waste collection sector with the majority of local authorities
exiting the domestic waste collection market and private operators taking over. This has led to
multipleoperators,particularlyinurbanareas,competingforwastecollectionservices,although
theextentofcompetition(i.e.numberofserviceproviders)variesandisnotalwayscomparable
(i.e.someoperatorsoffera2binservice,othersa3bin).By contrast,manyruralareasdonot
havecompetitionforservices.
Thedispersednatureofruralhousing,oneoffhousingandhistoricwastemanagementpractices
in rural areas is contributing to lower collection rates for waste in rural areas. In 2012
approximately 214,200 tonnes of municipal waste was reported as uncollected/unmanaged
whichequatestoapproximately16%ofoccupiedhouseswithinIreland.Itisnotclearhowthis
unmanaged waste is being disposed of (EPA, 2012). The percentage of unmanaged household
wasteintheEasternMidlandsRegionisrelativelylow(11%),althoughtheproblemhasnotbeen
eliminated. Unmanaged household waste contributes to backyard burning and illegal dumping.
Theenvironmentalimpactsassociatedwiththeseactivitiesincludedeteriorationinair,waterand
soilsqualitywithindirectimpactsonhumanhealth.
The growth inpopulation,incomesandeconomicactivity,especiallyoverthe pastdecade, and
the general trend towards increased urbanisation and suburbanisationhas impacted on the
environment in a variety of ways. Significant growth in population has occurred in urban and
rural areas and this growth has resulted in individual houses in the countryside and housing
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
68
[EasternMidlandsRegion]
clusters in small villages throughout much of the country. As the population of Ireland grows,
increasedpressureforhousingposesachallengetoensurethatfuturedevelopmenttakesplace
in a way which avoids urban sprawl. This urban sprawl places increased pressure on waste
collectionsystems.Residentialdistributionpatternshavealreadyledtochallengesinachieving
full coverage for all waste streams. In general there are better kerbside collection systems
availableinthemainpopulationcentresintheregion.
[MDR0998Rp0011_F01]
69
Figure 5.3
Birr
Athlone
(
!
(
!
(
!
Longford
Population Density in the Eastern-Midlands Region
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Source: Census 2011
4001 - 5000
5001 - 18859
3001 - 4000
1001 - 2000
2001 - 3000
301 - 500
501 - 1000
11 - 30
31 - 100
101 - 300
1 - 10
Population Density (People/sq.km)
(
!
Waste Management Region
County / Administrative
Area Boundary
City / Town
Legend
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Kells
(
!
(
!
Trim
Kildare
(
!
Athy
Portarlington
Portlaoise
(
!
Mullingar
Tullamore
(
!
Granard
Naas
Ardee
Baltinglass
(
!
Navan
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
Wicklow
Bray
Arklow
(
!
Balbriggan
Dublin
(
!
Drogheda
Dundalk
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1011F01
¯
¯
Legend
Waste Management Region
< 30%
30 - 35%
35 - 40%
40 - 45%
> 45%
ConnachtUlster Region
EasternMidlands
Region
Southern Region
0
50
100
Kilometers
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
Figure 5.4
One-off Housing in the Eastern-Midlands Region with National Context
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1014F01(a)
75%
2%
23%
Offaly
Figure 5.5
58%
Waste Services - Eastern-Midlands Region
Southern Region
64%
5%
31%
50%
17,335t
88%
4%
8%
43%
22,647t
22,652t
Laois
Wes tm eath
77%
9,591t
60%
6%
34%
Longford
Connacht-Ulster Region
Note: Percentages at 1% cannot be resolved visually on the pie charts.
Regional Waste Plans, SEA and AA
¯
85%
68,404t
52%
2%
46%
Kildare
76%
52,403t
Meath
16%
1%
84%
Fingal
81,604t
89%
54%
Wicklow
91%
7%
3%
51%
6%
43%
97%
66,453t
78%
142,889t
100%
95,849t
Dún Laoghaire
Rathdown
36,506t
34%
2%
64%
45%
1%
2%
53%
Dublin City
South
Dublin
89%
9%
2%
85%
45,723t
67%
9%
1%
24%
Louth
File Ref: MDR0998Arc1015F01
4 Bin Service
3 Bin Service
2 Bin Service
1 Bin Service
Bin Provision (%, 2012)
Waste Service to Occupied
Households (%, 2012)
Household Managed Waste
Per Authority (tonnes, 2012)
County / Administrative Area
Boundary
Waste Management Region
Legend
`