How are tHe CHildren? april 2013

How are the Children? April 2013
A Report on the Well-Being of Wayne County’s Young Children and their Families
A SPECIAL THANK YOU
Great Start Collaborative-Wayne would like to extend a special thank you to the following
Champions of Wayne County’s children and families. These individuals and organizations have long
demonstrated commitment to “hope and change” in Wayne County and we are truly grateful to have
their support on the development of “How are the Children?”, our 2013 report card to the community
on the well-being of its young children and their families. Our 2013 Champions include:
ABOUT GREAT START
Great Start Collaborative-Wayne is a
non-profit organization comprised of
over 60 community organizations and
individuals whose vision is “A Great Start
for every child in Wayne County: safe,
healthy and ready to succeed in school
and life”.
Our mission is to “engage the entire
community to assure a coordinated
system of services and resources are
available to assist Wayne County families
in providing a great start for their children
from prenatal through age eight.”
Picture Courtesy of DALE RICH
DALE RICH
REPORT CONTENTS
Overview..................................... 4
Wayne County Profile.................. 6
Influence of the Family.............. 12
The Child................................... 18
Community................................ 26
Acknowledgements................... 30
2 Collaborative Partners............... 30
Dale Rich is also a nationally acclaimed
photographer, historian, genealogist and
activist. Mr. Rich has spent more than 40
years honing his craft, including producing
15 documentaries, three of which won
Emmys. As a photo journalist, Rich has
chronicled Black life in Detroit and at the
state and national level and has an exhibit
at the Walter Reuther Library at Wayne
State University. We are indeed indebted
to the generosity and talent of one more
artist from our community who is allowing
us to use some of his photographs to help
tell the story of Wayne County’s children.
Mr. Rich has once again used his gift to
make a difference…..and “sow the seeds of
change in this community”. To learn more
about Mr. Rich and contact him, he may be
reached at [email protected]
A SPECIAL THANK YOU (continued)
DETROIT RESCUE
MISSION MINISTRIES
Detroit Rescue Mission Ministries (DRMM)
has been helping the homeless, abused
and alcoholic for over 102 years. They
provide a vital safety-net to Detroit’s
children and families and in their words
are “rebuilding the inner city, one life at a
time”. Their commitment to the success,
livelihood and sustainability of Greater
Detroit and the community is evidenced by
their long term commitment to this issue,
stories of success and the generosity
they have extended to us on behalf of
Wayne County’s children. They graciously
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
allowed us to use pictures taken by their
children in the “Pictures of Hope” initiative,
LINDA SOLOMON
Linda Solomon, a nationally recognized,
award winning photo journalist and
member of the Michigan Journalism Hall
of Fame. She is also an artist whose
medium is life itself. In addition to her
incredible body of photographic work that
has captured the famous personalities
of our time, she also teaches others
to express themselves through
photography.
She has received international acclaim for
her “Pictures of Hope” and “It’s a SNAP”
educational photography programs
even though these have been created
into notecards as a fundraiser for them.
that have been launched across the
country and resulted in more than 1
million cameras donated to children. Her
work with homeless children and their
“Pictures of Hope” lead us to her. She
was also our link to the Detroit Rescue
Mission Ministries regarding the use of
some of the pictures their children took
in this report. To learn more about Linda
Solomon and her incredible work, go to
www.lindasolomonphotography.com
“Pictures of Hope” is a national program
sponsored by Chevrolet.
We in turn wish to return that favor and
encourage each of our readers to purchase
a set of these note cards. This is one
positive action for change. The monies
are used to support DRMM’s work with
children and families. Go to www.drmm.
org for more details on the “Pictures of
Hope” and how to purchase copies of these
note cards.
Chevrolet makes it possible for 100
percent of the proceeds from the sale of
the notecards to benefit DRMM.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
3
HOW ARE THE CHILDREN?
Are They Getting What They Deserve?
A
“
The question
is not how to
remediate but
rather how to
... help children
grow and thrive
within the context
of their families
and community.”
4
A common greeting among Masai warriors
in Africa is “Kasaserian Ingera” which means
“How are the children?” The traditional
Masai response is “All of the children are well”
meaning “Peace and safety prevails and the
priorities of protecting the young and powerless
are in place”. Great Start Collaborative-Wayne
chose “How are the Children?” as the title for
these reports because it embodies our vision,
“A Great Start for every child in Wayne County:
safe, healthy and ready to succeed in school
and life”. Unfortunately, we continue to report
that “All of our children are not well” and they all
deserve better.
The 2013 “How are the Children?” report
focuses on the well-being of young children
in Wayne County, pre-birth to age 8, and
their families. The report is organized in
the following major sections: How are the
Children? (an overview), a Wayne County
Profile (county demographics, trends
and the context), Influence of the Family
(characteristics and indicators), the Child, and
the Community (impact).
In addition to the county report, one page
summaries representing each of the four
regions within the county (Detroit Core,
Downriver Wayne, Eastern Wayne and
Western Wayne) have also been developed.
The most difficult part about the development
of this year’s report was the recognition of
how little has improved for Wayne County’s
children and families since we started these
reports 6 years ago. Yet, we also found
reason for hope. There are good things
happening and a synergy developing from
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
the ground up with parents, community,
business, advocates and policy makers
recognizing the importance of early childhood
investment. The governor has articulated a
prenatal to age 20 (P20) vision for education.
On the other hand, children and families
are made vulnerable with the loss of critical
safety nets like the state’s welfare reform
effort that cut the 48 month FIP lifetime cash
benefit limit, cutting off almost 26,000 Wayne
County children. Or, the short-sightedness of
the Michigan Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
cut from 20% of the federal EITC to 6%. That
reduction taking effect for the first time in the
2013 tax season is plummeting an estimated
9,000 more children from low income working
families into poverty. The EITC helps reduce
poverty, provides an economic stimulus in
communities and helps veterans return to
civilian life.
Although each of our reports to the
community intentionally revisits the indicators
of child well-being that we have reported on
in previous years - health and wellness, basic
needs, economic security, early care and
education, and child abuse and neglect. We
also looked at other factors that affect them.
This year, in particular, we are looking at the
political and social context within which many
of these issues were germinating as well as
from an environmental health perspective.
The collective impact and interactions these
indicators have had on children, families,
and communities have been significant and
warrant us stepping back, looking at this
investment in our future and how we can do
better.
HOW ARE THE CHILDREN? (continued)
The environment in which a child lives, as
defined by the Children’s Environmental Health
Initiative (CEHI), includes physical, chemical
and biological factors as well as sociocultural
ones. Elevated environmental exposures can
have negative consequences, especially for
young children and their families; and often
occurs in communities already facing multiple
stressors such as high poverty, poor housing,
housing insecurity/homelessness, exposure to
toxins, food insecurity, unemployment, inadequate
access to health care and physical and psychosocial issues such as violence, child abuse and
air quality. These conditions can result in
devastating long-term, negative consequences
for the developing child as the 20 year Adverse
Childhood Experiences (ACE) study by Dr.
Vincent Filletti and the CDC found. Early
childhood trauma can lead to mental health,
behavioral or physical health related problems
in adulthood such as obesity, substance abuse,
anxiety, cancer, self injury, etc. Studies have
also shown that poverty-related stress can
effect brain development as well as inhibit the
development of non-cognitive skills in young
children.
The good news is that our brains are capable of
changing, growing and learning throughout our
lives and with proper support and treatment,
some of this can be reversed. However, the
question is not how to remediate but rather
how to develop conditions that help children
grow and thrive within the context of their
families and community….”healthy, safe and
ready to succeed in school and life”.
the well-being of all Wayne County children
so our response to the question “How are the
Children?” will be “All the Children are Well”….
and we are giving them what they deserve.
Action Steps for
Kids are included
in each section
and we hope that
you will share
these with others
and pick one or
two you will work
on. Together,
we can give all
Wayne County
children what they
deserve.
Data for this report
has come from a
variety of sources
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
including: The
American Community
Survey, U.S. Census,
Kids Count, Michigan League for Public Policy,
Michigan’s Children, Wayne County Head Start,
and the Michigan Departments of Community
Health, Education and Human Services.
“
Together, we can give all Wayne
County children what they deserve.”
To that end, we ask you to join us in ensuring
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
5
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE
T
The last decade, since 2000-01, has been
one of the most economically challenging
that Wayne County has ever endured. While
it started out at a high point - the year 2000
being one of the best for resident income
(median household income was $55,040 in
2011) and employment (911,000 employed/
unemployment rate of 4.3 percent), the decade
long recession took its toll. By 2011, median
household income had fallen 30.1 percent to
$38,479.
“
The last decade
... has been one
of the most
economically
challenging that
Wayne County has
ever endured.”
6
Recently released annual employment figures
for 2011 show that the number of employed
residents has fallen by almost 192,000 and
the unemployment rate remains much higher.
While the actual number of employed persons
in 2011 is the lowest recorded over this time
period, the 12.6 percent unemployment rate
is down from those of 2009 and 2010 (16.1
and 14.8 percent, respectively). While the
unemployment rate drop is a good thing in
that 36,000 fewer residents are unemployed,
the fact that this rate was driven, in part, by an
overall decrease in the total labor force (both
employed and unemployed) of 46,000 since
2009 is not a positive sign.
The greatest losses have been experienced
in manufacturing - jobs that generally paid
quite well, came with benefits and required
relatively low levels of education. According
to the Michigan Labor Market Information
Division, manufacturing jobs decreased by
half (51 percent) between 2000 and 2011,
falling from 149,306 to 73,467. Not surprising
is the fact that the majority of these losses
came in automotive-related manufacturing.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
The good news however, as was the case
with unemployment, is that manufacturing
employment grew by 8,000 jobs between
2009 and 2011 and transportation equipment
manufacturing picked up 4,600 jobs. While
no one is projecting growth anywhere near
2000 totals, and many of these jobs are
coming in conjunction with the two-tiered
labor agreements between the UAW and the
Big 3, manufacturing continues to be a major
component of the economic structure of Wayne
County and its vitality is critical.
The loss of buying power over the decade has
coincided with increasing rates of poverty.
Estimates of the poverty rate between 1999
and 2011 show increases from 14.4 to 25.9
percent for all persons and from 21.3 to 37.7
percent for children. Detroit had the highest
poverty rates in the country, among large cities,
in 2011 – 40.9 and 53.7 percent, respectively.
Wayne County’s population has fallen by
245,196 persons (11.9%) between 2000 and
2011, a loss greater than any other county in
the U.S. Several factors have contributed to
this loss. The number of births in the county
has dropped by 22.3 percent between 2000
and 2010. The majority of this decrease can
be attributed to the City of Detroit where births
have decreased by 31.0 percent (13.2 percent
in out-Wayne). The City of Detroit accounted
for 71 percent of the overall reduction in county
births.
The decrease in Wayne County deaths – 11.5
percent - can also be attributed to Detroit,
where the number of deaths dropped by 25.1
percent while the out-county number actually
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE (continued)
Unemployment Rate for Detroit Consistently Runs About Three Times That of Out-Wayne County
Decreasing Births Have Reduced the Size
of the Cohort Less than 5 Years of Age
Young children in Wayne County are more racially
and ethnically diverse than general population
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
7
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE (continued)
Almost 1 in
3 county
residents now
receive food
stamps.
increased by 1.7 percent. The combination
of these factors resulted in a decrease in
population growth. The annual numerical
natural increase for the county dropped by 42.3
percent over the decade, falling from 10,863 to
6,265 persons added per year.
However, the factor that is driving the majority
of demographic trends in the county is outmigration. While Wayne County has historically
seen more people leave the county than come
in on an annual basis, the numbers experienced
this decade have been almost unprecedented.
While immigrants - particularly from the Middle
East, Mexico and South and Central America,
continue to come to Wayne County to live the native-born population has been leaving.
Detroiters heading to the near-in suburbs
combined with out-county residents moving to
adjoining counties or leaving the Detroit region
entirely, brought
about a net loss of
267,576 residents
between 2000 and
2009. Estimates
for the period
between July 1,
2010 and July 1,
2011 indicate a
continuing, though
decreasing, rate of
departure. The net
decrease over this
period is estimated
to be 19,530
persons.
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
8
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
The decreasing
births, coupled with the out-migration of
younger residents, often with young children,
has resulted in a smaller cohort of children
5 years of age or less, a cohort that is facing
unprecedented hardships. The population 0-5
years has decreased from 183,793 (8.9% of the
county’s population) in 2000 to 142,642 (7.8%)
in 2010.
The recession has resulted in large numbers of
these children seeing their parents unemployed
or underemployed, many of whom are finding
it necessary to seek out services for the first
time. The best example of this is the county’s
food stamp roles. In September 2001, 238,460
Wayne County residents were receiving food
stamps. In September 2011, that number
had increased to 542,336 residents - a 127.4
percent increase and a rate of close to 1 of
every 3 county residents.
While the urban core communities of Detroit,
Highland Park and Inkster have continued to
suffer to the greatest extent, this recession has
affected all segments of the population and all
communities across the county. In addition
to job losses, it has been the foreclosure crisis
that has added a significant level of need
and strife to families throughout the county.
Beginning in 2005-06 with the subprime
loan crisis in the lower income communities,
foreclosures due to interest-only and balloon
mortgages that made payments unaffordable
moved to the higher income suburbs. Families
that saw large mortgages as investments,
due to increasing housing values, found
themselves “underwater” as home values in
Wayne County and the Detroit region fell back
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE (continued)
to 1995 levels. The result has been increasing
numbers of children who are at best moving
to apartments or living with extended family
or at worst finding themselves homeless.
While the number of mortgage foreclosures
has declined since 2011, speculation is that
a lifting of moratoriums honored by various
banks will soon be lifted, resulting in a possible
foreclosure spike. More troubling in recent
years has been the increasing number of
properties affected by tax foreclosures through
the Wayne County Treasurer. While the
foreclosure source may differ, the result is the
same – families forced out of their homes.
The “recession” that stayed with Michigan
throughout the decade was felt hardest in
counties where manufacturing – particularly
automotive – constituted a large share
of industry and employment. Increasing
unemployment and underemployment resulted
in decreasing income and increasing poverty.
While Michigan experienced a decrease in
median household income almost three times
the national average (22.3 vs. 8.9 percent)
between 1999 and 2010, Wayne County and
the City of Detroit fell even more. Median
household income for Wayne County as
a whole dropped 26.1 percent, and stood
at $39,408 in 2010 dollars. City of Detroit
households lost a full third of their buying
power over the decade as their income fell to
$29,526. Decreasing income breeds increasing
rates of poverty, a trend seen across the state
and particularly in Wayne County. The county’s
overall poverty rate for all children rose from
23.3 to 34.8 percent over the decade. Detroit’s
children experienced an increase from 34.6
to 53.6 percent in
2010.
Increasing human
service needs are
coming at a time
of decreasing
government
program funding.
Deficits at the
state and local
level, due to
decreasing property
tax revenues,
are resulting
in decreasing
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
program allocations
- allocations
that cannot be
supplemented to a large degree by the
philanthropic community due to the decrease
in assets caused by losses in the stock market.
Recent market gains have yet to change
that scenario to any substantive degree. The
national debate on health care legislation
comes at a time when increasing numbers of
individuals - often termed the “working poor”
- are without insurance. State programs have
endeavored to reach out to enroll all children,
but many adults are still not aware of the
program. Nevertheless, it is estimated that 95
percent of Wayne County children, 0-18 years
of age, were insured in 2011. However, such
programs for children do not help pregnant
women to receive adequate prenatal care who
are without health care or who live in an area
with few OB/GYN or Pediatric practitioners,
receive adequate prenatal care.
“
Detroit’s children
experienced
an increase [in
poverty] from
34.6 to 53.6
percent in 2010.”
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
9
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE (continued)
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
The poverty
rates for
children in the
county have
increased from
21.3% in 1999
to 37% in 2011.
10
Early childhood
education is critical
to ensure children
are learners
when they start
kindergarten.
Studies have shown
that children from
low income families/
neighborhoods tend
to begin school with
vocabularies less
than half those of
children from middle
class families/
neighborhoods.
Such deficits are
seldom made up,
resulting in children
falling farther and farther behind and often
dropping out. Local efforts around creating a
community of quality childcare and developing
a kindergarten readiness assessment tool
are strategies to address the issue. However,
the economy has resulted in fewer and fewer
children attending childcare facilities, as
families try to bring resources to the table by
utilizing state-funded relative and aide care.
While there are 760 child care centers in Wayne
County, over 3,800 Wayne County children
(1,827 in Detroit alone) are being cared for by
relatives and aides. In addition, full-day Head
Start slots have been decreasing and the City
of Detroit has relinquished its role as a Head
Start grantee. The federal government will
soon be releasing a request for proposals for
undertaking a total re-granting of head start
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
slots in the city.
The national economic news appears to be
improving and, while Michigan always is first to
enter and last to leave a recession, it appears
that we may be finally reaching the bottom. We
are looking at another year or two before we
will see residential and commercial property
values begin to rise to any significant and
sustained degree and bring more funding to
local government. The state has reduced a
number of social program supports in order to
balance its budget after facing several years of
large deficits.
The philanthropic community, while increasing
the share of assets that they are putting into
local programming, is still struggling. The
case for Early Childhood investment has been
made over and over again. In order to assess
the landscape and prioritize our needs, we
must have accurate and timely information.
This report is the beginning. Our plans call for
the development of an interactive, “real-time”
database that will track the indicators and link
to the resources. In order to advocate for the
resources we need for kids, we must be able
to demonstrate that we know what we need.
We invite you to read our report and become
involved.
WAYNE COUNTY PROFILE (continued)
Citations
ACTION STEPS FOR KIDS
1
2
3
In order to make good management
decisions about our resources and to
provide the best services, Wayne County
must develop an integrated “real time”
interactive database that will track
indicators of child and family well-being
and that will further link children to
resources. As Child Trends notes, ”What
gets measured, gets done.”
Early childhood investment is
economic development. Let policymakers know that investing in our human
capital is as important as investing in
our infrastructure and that the return on
investment (ROI) is significantly greater.
All major budget or policy changes that
involve children and families should
be required to do an Environmental
Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS
concisely describes how a proposed
action may have significant impact on
the environment (or, in our case our
most precious resource, our children),
before implementation.
1.
The income data were collected in the 2000 Census and represent
income for calendar year 1999.
2.
The date reported for each variable in the text is the most recent that
is available.
3.
The 2011 income data source is the 2011 American Community
Survey, released by the Census Bureau on September 20, 2012.
4.
It must be pointed out that this is a discussion of Wayne County as
an entire entity. It is comprised of 43 separate units of government.
While each has suffered from the recession, the impact has varied a
great deal.
5.
The poverty rate for children less than
5 years is estimated at 44 percent in
2011.
6.
Population change is affected by the
following: Births - Deaths = Natural
Increase /In-Migration - Out-Migration =
Net Migration.
7.
The Census Bureau does not estimate
migration between July 1, 2009 and
April 1, 2010 (date of the decennial
census). While calculations of this
9-month period are possible, the final
result would not add greatly to the
current analysis, and thus have not been
developed for this document.
8.
Out-migration tends to be driven by a
younger demographic - the young tend
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
to be more mobile and young families
are often looking for better education opportunities
for their children. An analysis of population change by age cohort
between 2000 and 2010, demonstrate clearly, particularly for Detroit,
that movement out was dominated by families with school-age
children – particularly those 5-9 years of age. Decreasing births drove
the 0-4 year cohort numbers down, while educational alternatives were
the leading factor for older cohorts.
9.
Detroit has experienced significant financial difficulties, resulting in
a consent decree and financial oversight. Programs have been cut
and efforts continue to outsource Social Services and create a Health
Department nonprofit. Other communities in Wayne County, such as
Allen Park, Ecorse, Inkster and River Rouge, have suffered for a variety
of financial reasons.
10.The
work of the Harlem Children’s Zone is a perfect example that has
been lifted up by President Obama and supported for replication in his
new Promise Neighborhoods legislation.
11.There
were also 323 Family homes and 170 Group homes.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
11
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY
T
The poem by Dorothy Law Nolte, ‘Children
Learn What They Live’ (see page 29) reminds us
that it is the everyday experiences of children
that shape children’s development and learning.
The poem reads in part:
‘If children live with
criticism, they learn to
condemn’
‘If children live with
hostility, they learn to
fight’
‘If children live with
tolerance, they learn to be
patient’
‘If children live with
fairness, they learn
justice’
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
Each year, over
200 babies born
in Wayne County
don’t live to
see their first
birthday.
12
‘If children live with
security, they learn to have faith’
As noted in the poem, parents have enormous
influence over their child’s development both
intentionally and unintentionally. This includes
the effects that both parents’ health and wellbeing have on their child’s birth outcomes as
well as how their interactions with their child
shape his or her development. The community
in which the family lives also impacts a child’s
development. The foundation for the Center
for the Study of Social Policy’s (CSSP) work has
been this child, family, community well-being
framework that it includes a focus on protective
and promotive factors.
Using an ecological perspective, CSSP defines
protective factors as conditions or attributes
of individuals, families, communities or the
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
larger society that mitigate or eliminate risk.
Promotive factors are viewed as these same
conditions or attributes that actively enhance
well-being. CSSP’s Strengthening Families
initiative focuses on families with young
children birth to 5 years old and promotes
research based protective factors that include
parental resilience, social connections,
knowledge of parenting and child development,
concrete support in times of need and the
social emotional competence of children.
To ensure that Wayne County children get the
best start in life, we need to understand the
indicators and issues that relate to positive
developmental outcomes and to identify things
we can do to strengthen and support families.
Infant Mortality
Infant mortality is a sensitive indicator of the
general health of a community. It speaks to
how well we care for each other, especially our
youngest most vulnerable citizens. Healthy
mothers and fathers who are prepared for
pregnancy and parenthood are the best
foundation on which to build Great Start’s
vision, “a great start for every child in Wayne
County: safe, healthy, and ready to succeed in
school and life.”
Birth weight and gestation (length of time in the
mother’s womb) are the two most important
predictors of an infant’s health and survival.
Prematurity, low birth weight, and birth defects
are the leading causes of infant death in Wayne
County.
The conditions into which a baby is born may
affect the child at risk of death. In general,
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY (continued)
infant death rates in Wayne County are
inversely correlated with education and per
capita income. The communities with the
lowest levels of educational attainment and per
capita income have the highest infant mortality
rates and those with the best educated
population and highest incomes have the
lowest mortality rates.
Overall, infant mortality rates for Wayne County
has remained stable across all ethnic groups
but maintains racial disparities. Black infants
die at a rate that is 3 times that of whites.
“A higher mortality risk can also be expected
for children with birth defects well beyond
the first year of life. The cumulative mortality
rate for resident children born in 2009 was 7.5
per 1000. Children born during 2009 with a
birth defect had a cumulative mortality rate of
46.0 per 1000 by the end of the second year
of life. The mortality rate differential remains
high throughout early childhood. For deaths
under the age of 18 years, the experience of
children born in 1992 indicates death rates of
74.6 per 1000 for children with birth defects
and 14.9 per 1000 for children generally. The
significantly higher mortality rate for children
with birth defects underscores the seriousness
of these conditions.”
When our communities are stratified by race,
economics and geographic location, the
inequities in resources available to families
are profound. These inequities are not the
result of differences in work ethics, personal
responsibility, innate gifts or limitations. They
often are the direct result of social behaviors
and the distribution of resources that have
been manifested in public policies, economics,
discrimination, segregation, fear, and injustice.
These inequities ultimately play out in birth
outcomes, limiting not only opportunities for
health, well-being, and success…..but for life
itself.
Birth Outcomes
Human reproduction is a complicated process.
Even in the best of circumstances there are
no guarantees that a pregnancy will end with
a healthy baby or that any individual baby will
survive. However, too many mothers in Wayne
County have poor pregnancy outcomes.
Almost 3,000
babies born in
Wayne County
in 2011 were
born too small,
too soon.
It is estimated that 3-4 babies out of every 100
have birth defects. Some are minor, some are
life threatening. Some are visible, some are not.
Exposure to chemicals, radiation, medicines,
and alcohol can cause birth defects. In the
US, chemicals that
While Infant Mortality Has Stabilized in Wayne County,
are not intended
the Rate Remains About 40 Percent Above State Average
for human
consumption do
not have to be
proven safe before
they go to market.
Leaded gas, DDT,
and cigarettes
are examples of
products that
have been found
to be harmful to
human health
and can affect
reproduction.
Sometimes it’s
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
13
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY (continued)
The Share of Wayne County Women With Less than
Adequate Prenatal Care Has Remained Constant
not the actual product, but a by-product, that
causes problems. Dioxins are a class of byproducts that have proven to be harmful.
In the last decade, 2,500 to 3,000 low birth
weight babies have been born in Wayne County
each year. Also 2000 to 3000 infants were
born with birth defects. The majority of these
babies lived but many health and developmental
problems that can be long term and diminish
the quality of life for the children, their families
and the larger community. Many could have
been avoided with pre-conception planning and
good prenatal care.
Family Planning
and Preconception Care
new mothers in wayne county have consistently
lower levels of high school completion
Pregnancies that are not planned are more
likely to have adverse outcomes than planned
pregnancies. Low cost, comprehensive family
planning services that include education and
counseling are available at health departments
and federally qualified health centers.
About 3 months before trying to become
pregnant, men and women should have
a preconception visit that includes health
history, exam, and laboratory studies. Effective
preconception risk reduction measures include
controlling chronic illness (diabetes, asthma),
updating immunizations (Rubella, Hepatitis),
treating infections, stopping substance use
(tobacco, alcohol, other drugs), managing
weight, and improving nutritional status.
Pregnancy and Infancy
Getting early and consistent prenatal care,
14
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY (continued)
eating a healthy diet, getting adequate rest,
and avoiding exposure to all hazardous
substances are necessary to help assure
healthy babies. Protecting the mother from
injury due to domestic violence and auto
accidents, as well as limiting exposure to
second hand smoke decrease the risk of low
birth weight and preterm births.
Inadequate prenatal care is a critical issue in
Wayne County and in Detroit, in particular. The
3 year average of births (2009-2011) to women
who received adequate prenatal care was 61%
for the county but only 49% for Detroit. The
barriers or risks that contribute to this issue
are lack of health insurance, transportation,
child care, poverty, unplanned pregnancy, and
poor provider treatment. Protective factors
that would change this dynamic include
insurance, planned pregnancies, social
support, responsive treatment and education.
3,874 babies
were exposed to
cigarette smoke
while they were
in utero.
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
The Percent of Wayne County Births Paid For By Medicaid Has
Decreased to Match State Average
After birth, infants need stable, loving,
responsive care giving to promote their
health and well-being. Optimal nutrition
(breast feeding), a safe physical environment,
and comprehensive health care including
immunizations are the most effective risk
reduction interventions after birth.
ECONOMIC SECURITY
At the state and national levels, economic
insecurity and income gaps grew substantially
for both middle and low income families over
the last decade. Decreased family income
has led to less economic security for children
and resulted in high numbers of children
experiencing poverty, food insecurity and
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
15
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY (continued)
ACTION STEPS
FOR KIDS
1
16
Universal access to
health care must be
available to all families
and is to critical changing
the birth outcomes of
Wayne County’s children.
This is especially true
in the areas of family
planning, preconception
care, prenatal care and
postpartum.
2
Community outreach
and education on the
importance of planning and
prenatal care is critical.
3
Respectful practices that
accommodate the needs
of women from a variety
of circumstances are also
critical.
4
Establishing “One stop
shops” where pregnancy
tests, WIC, insurance
applications, and prenatal
care are available and
would eliminate a number
of the barriers families
face.
More than 8,000
women who
gave birth in
Wayne County
in 2010 had less
than adequate
prenatal care.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
homelessness.
Middle class families, especially in Wayne
county, lost part of their economic floor due to
declines in secure employment, the county’s
heavily weighted manufacturing base and our
slow economic recovery. Many children of
these middle class families became the “new
poor” and are now relying on public programs
for services their families can no longer afford.
Additionally, deep cuts in county, state and
federal budgets, foreclosures and other factors
have eroded safety net services for working
poor families. The cuts sustained have put
some families into extreme poverty ($11,775
for a family of 4 based on the federal poverty
guidelines). Although most families in Wayne
county are employed and many formerly worked
for the “Big 3” (Chrysler, Ford and General
Motors) and their suppliers, many are now
employed in lower wages service jobs and
receive few benefits.
Housing insecurity, exacerbated by utility shutoffs, homes under water, and food insecurity
often lead to homelessness. According
to the Institute for Children, Poverty and
Homelessness, in 2011, Michigan had an
estimated 1,825 homeless families on a single
night, with providers serving four times their
bed capacity over the course of the year. In
2008, Detroit had the third highest number of
both homeless individuals (11,913) and families
(6,149) in the country. . Detroit and the county
continue to feel the effects of the economic
recession. In 2005, 17% of the housing units
in Detroit were vacant. By 2010, vacancies
had risen to 22%. As housing costs soared,
INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY (continued)
the supply
of affordable
housing
shrunk thus
eroding the
purchasing
power of
families even
more and
forcing them to
make choices
about housing
and in many
cases….food
. Currently,
families with
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
children
comprise approximately one third (36.4%) of
the homeless population in Detroit and the
choices and supports available to them are
very limited.
The primary needs of the family must be
addressed to create pathways out of poverty
for children. This includes developing and
supporting programs that increase family
stability, foster quality jobs, careers and
entrepreneurship, and promote achievement
and financial independence. We should also
support strategies that increase income,
assets, and aspirations of vulnerable children
and their families and reduce disparities based
on class, gender and race…...and gives them
HOPE…. and an opportunity to be productive
citizens of our community.
Unemployment
benefits were
reduced from
26 weeks to
20 weeks.
ACTION STEPS
FOR KIDS and their families
1
Eliminate the time limits on cash
assistance to families with minor
children
2
Eliminate asset tests for food
assistance
3
Reinstate the full Earned Income
Tax Credit (EITC)
4
Increase the minimum wage
5
Advocate for all employees to have
at least 5 days of leave
6
Provide subsidized child care
and health insurance
7
Increase the availability of low
income and/or supportive housing
8
Help families establish Individualize
Development Accounts (IDA) and/or
Kids Savings Accounts
9
Create microfinance and mortgage
assistance programs
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
17
THE CHILD
1 in 2 children
in Detroit live
in poverty, the
highest rate in
the country,
among large
cities.
W
What happens during a child’s early
developmental years creates the foundation
for the rest of his or her life. These years are
the most important period because children
experience tremendous physical, emotional
and intellectual growth that prepares them for
future success.
During early childhood (prenatal through eight
years of age) children undergo rapid growth
that is highly influenced by their caregivers and
their environment. Research has shown that
by providing stable, nurturing, safe and healthy
environments during this period and meeting
their education, health and basic needs;
children are able to develop to their maximum
potential…and ready to succeed in school and
life. .
As noted throughout this year’s report, any of
the challenges faced by adults, such as mental
health issues, obesity, heart disease, criminality
and poor literacy can
also be traced back to
early childhood. The
indicators in this section
give a snapshot of the
education, health and
well-being status of
Wayne County’s children
and what we can do
better.
CHILD HEALTH
& WELLNESS
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and
Linda Solomon Photography
18
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
The health of Wayne
County’s children is
critical not only to the optimum development
of the child but also that of the community.
Healthy children need healthy environments,
health insurance, high quality preventive
services, and access to a range of medical
treatment.
However, in Wayne County, health care access
for children is still an unequal situation as is
evidenced by the outcomes from some of our
indicators; and our actions (or inactions) which
sometimes compromise the health and wellbeing not only of our children, but of the entire
population. For example, in spite of evidence
that a variety of common chemicals and
products contribute to development, learning,
and behavioral disabilities, there remains
opposition to vigorous enforcement of laws
intended to protect the environment and the
public.
In Wayne County, 95.2% of its children have
health insurance, at a rate only slightly less
than that of the state at 95.5%. Medicaid is by
far the largest insurer at 53.4% as compared
to 39.8% for the state; and 69.3% of toddlers
were fully immunized as compared to 74.1%
state wide. However, access is a much more
complicated issue and involves more than
having insurance. For Wayne County, it has
become complicated by decreases in employer
health coverage, the geographic distribution
of resources in the county, transportation (or
lack thereof), cost, and access to the range
of comprehensive preventive and treatment
services needed, including mental health and all
of the pediatric specialities needed. Oral health
is often not addressed and some pediatric
THE CHILD (continued)
specialities are very limited in the urban core
areas. Further, mental health services and the
social emotional development of children are
often overlooked or cut. Few seem to realize
that social emotional development is the
foundation for learning and success in school
and the lifelong impact trauma in childhood
has. There are also cultural barriers that have
to be overcome especially for minority and
immigrant families.
Nearly 62,000
Wayne County children
entitled to child
support received none.
ACTION STEPS
FOR KIDS
1
Expansion of
Medicaid in Michigan
under the Affordable
Care Act.
2
Develop and
implement a targeted
campaign in Wayne
County for the
reduction of infant
mortality in Black
communities. Black
babies die at a rate 3
times that of Whites.
3
Create education and
smoking cessation
options and supports
for families, especially
regarding the impact
of secondhand
smoke.
4
Invest in Michigan/
Wayne County’s young
children. Research has
long demonstrated
that early childhood
investment
is economic
development. Our
challenge is to be
vigilant and ensure
these investments
are put in place and
remain.
CHILDHOOD
OBESITY
Childhood obesity is
another major problem
for the country and also
Wayne County. According
to the CDC, there is a
growing obesity epidemic
in this country and 1
of every 3 children are
overweight. Michigan’s
picture mirrors this
statistic as well as that of
the Wayne County Head
Start Head Start programs which found that
nearly 30% of the young children they serve
fit this category. This exemplary program
recognized that the educational success of the
young children they serve is also connected to
their health and well-being. Or, in other words,
the whole child. Significantly overweight
children are greatly at risk of chronic diseases
such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood
pressure. However, the solutions will require
us to approach this issue comprehensively and
by working together.
Picture Courtesy of DALE RICH
Over 167,000 children
in Wayne County
live in families with
incomes below the
Federal Poverty Level.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
19
THE CHILD (continued)
Percent of children with identified needs at intake
Children’s
mental health
Throughout this report, we
have tried to reinforce the
fact that mental health and
well-being is established
during early childhood
and these experiences
shape the architecture of
the developing brain. For
young children, social and
emotional health is the
foundation of development.
It allows them to
experience, regulate, and express emotions;
develop secure relationships with loved ones;
explore their environment, and learn.
1 in 3 Detroit
families live in
extreme poverty
with incomes
less than 50%
of the federal
poverty level.
20
Among children receiving public mental
health services through Detroit-Wayne County
Community Mental Health, both the physical
developmental and social and emotional needs
increase significantly with age.
The need for mental health and substance
abuse services among children and youth
is widespread, both nationally and in Wayne
County. Almost one in five young people have
one or more mental, emotional, and behavioral
disorders, and one in 10 youth has mental
health problems that are severe enough to
impair how they function at home, school, or
in the community. Unfortunately, estimates
suggest only 1/5 of these children receive
appropriate treatment. The onset of mental
illness often occurs during adolescence, but
risk factors and symptoms can be identified
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
Mental health problems can occur
across childhood
Any Diagnosis
Serious Emotional Disorder
Anxiety Disorder
Disruptive Behavior Disorder
ADHD
Depression
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Percent of Children
SOURCE: EGGER & ANGOLD (2006)
Age 2-5
Age 8-17
in early childhood. Although we know a lot
about how to address this issue and have some
exemplary programs in the county, access is
limited and we do not have enough resources
to meet the need.
Early Intervention is key to preventing serious
mental illness. Through widespread use
of screening tools, such as the Ages and
Stages Questionnaire, parents, educators
and healthcare workers can promote the
healthy development of a child as well as
identify concerns early so families can
receive assistance before serious problems
develop. For more information about a
FREE developmental screen in English and
Spanish go to the Great Start website, www.
greatstartwayne.org and click on the Help Me
Grow banner or www.helpmegrow-mi.org.
THE CHILD (continued)
ACTION STEPS FOR KIDS
1
Promote and educate parents about
the benefits of positive social-emotional
development in their children including
providing a nurturing secure environment,
modeling appropriate emotional behavior and
its impact on learning.
2
Reduce the stigma associated with mental
illnesses and/or the programs that assist
parents getting the help they need.
3
Promote integrated care. Social and emotional
health needs to be incorporated into all
pediatrician visits.
4
Increase awareness and referrals in schools.
Since nearly all children are in regular contact
with school systems from early childhood
through adolescence, schools are the most
practical and efficient place to identify
children’s mental health needs and refer to
appropriate services.
5
Improve data collection, sharing, and
coordination. Statistics regarding the
prevalence of mental illness among children in
Wayne County is scarce. Data sharing among
mental health providers, the child welfare
system, private insurers, and schools would
provide a rich source of information to help
improve the outcomes for our children.
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
25,759 Wayne
County children
were dropped
from the state
cash assistance
program between
September 2011
and February 2012.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
21
THE CHILD (continued)
A VISION OF HOPE:
W
Wayne County Health and
Family Services Head Start
(WCHFSHS) is mandated
to develop specific school
readiness goals that focus
on five essential domains
of learning identified by
the Federal Office of Head
Start.
Head Start School Readiness
Wayne County Health and Family Services
Time 1-3 Enrolled Children (3,735)
WCHFSHS uses
HighScope’s Child
Observation Record (COR)
to collect and analyze data
that assesses children’s
progress three times a year
(Fall: Time 1, Winter: Time
2, Spring: Time 3). This
assessment tool aligns
with Head Start’s Early
Learning Framework and
Michigan’s Early Learning
Expectations.
The projected goal of 20%
gains was established for the five learning domains
during the 2011-2012 program year; however
children’s actual gains exceeded this goal resulting in
gains between 64% and 67% in all 5 categories. This
22
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
report reflects the developmental gains for 3,735
children who participated in the COR assessment
from Time 1 through Time 3. We also analyze our
data by gender, Dual Language Learners (DLL) and
Diagnosed Disabilities (IEP).
THE CHILD (continued)
Early Care and
Education
We need a skilled force for the high tech jobs of
the future. Yet in 2011:
•
Less than half of the 3rd graders in Wayne
County met the state reading standards
•
There were 3,712 children 5 years of age or
less in special education.
•
20% of the diagnosed autism cases in
Michigan are in Wayne County
The research is very clear, the early years do
matter. Early care and education benefits the
child, family and community. Participation
in high-quality early learning programs such
as Head Start, public and private pre-K, and
childcare provide all children with a foundation
for school success. This is especially true for
disadvantaged children and helps close the
developmental lag these children often have
when they start school. It also generates
a significant return on investment to the
community as a result of a reduced spending
on services, such as remedial education,
special education, and increased productivity
and earnings for these children (and their
parents) as adults.
However, in Wayne County, access to these
quality learning opportunities still continue to
be compromised by cost, geographic location,
availability/slots available, transportation,
funding and budget cuts. Even though a
number of significant improvement efforts are
underway in the county, such as the child care
licensing and quality early rating system and a
coordinated recruitment and referral process
for early childhood programs, an equal number
of other issues compromise these efforts.
Additionally, access is impacted by issues
such as the number of child care centers and
full day Head Start slots decreasing in the
county, Detroit relinquishing its Head Start
program, the state cutting some families from
childcare subsidy, and fewer parents able to
afford quality child care. Most are served in
the care of relatives or aides. Yet, in spite of the
setbacks, we continue to have hope because
of the exceptional work
of programs like Wayne
County’s Head Start and
others that are highlighted
throughout this report. Our
challenge is make sure all
young children and their
families have access to
them.
Autism
Autism spectrum disorder
and autism are general
terms for a group of
complex disorders that are
associated with difficulties
in social interaction,
communication, and
behavior. As the
fastest growing serious
developmental disability
in the United States, 1 in
88 children (1 in 54 boys)
are now affected by an
autism spectrum disorder.
Picture Courtesy of DALE RICH
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
23
THE CHILD (continued)
2,312 of the
confirmed
child abuse
victims in 2011
were children
less than 5
years of age.
“
Early care
and education
benefits
the child,
family and
community.”
24
ACTION STEPS FOR KIDS
Slightly more than 3000 children diagnosed with
these disorders reside and receive services in
Wayne County, representing 20% of all children
diagnosed in Michigan.
1
Ensure that all children have access
to affordable, high quality early care
and early education opportunities
(Pre-K, Head Start/Early Head Start,
and child care assistance).
2
Increase funding for early education
and care programs.
3
Provide transportation for Great Start
Readiness Programs
Autism spectrum disorders present themselves
in the first years of life, with the most obvious
signs emerging between 2 and 3 years of
age. With early identification and intervention,
families are more likely to see experience
outcomes. In fact, children who receive
intensive early intervention are 50% more likely
to attend general education in their home
schools by the time they start kindergarten.
4
Increase and improve the child care
subsidy program.
Child abuse and neglect
5
Help increase scholarship stipends
to students and employed residents
of the county through the Great Start
Fund. Go to www.greatstartwayne.
org to find out eligibility requirements
and how to donate to this fund.
6
Increase the number of eligible
children receiving child care
assistance, including underserved
populations (e.g. children with
disabilities and non-English speaking
populations.)
7
All children in Wayne County 5 years
and under should receive an ASQ
Developmental Screening. Parents
will also have a better understanding
of their child’s development. A
FREE developmental screen is
available through Help Me Grow
on the Great Start website at www.
greatstartwayne.org.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
Child abuse and neglect is a significant indicator
of child well-being. It impacts not only the child
and family but the community as well. Healthy
families mean healthy children…and healthy
children result in strong, thriving communities.
The costs otherwise, both in human and
monetary terms, are staggering.
A 2012 study conducted by Prevent Child Abuse
of America estimated the financial impact to
society to be over $80 Billion dollars a year for
costs associated with investigations, foster
care, and special education, and medical and
mental health problems, juvenile and adult
crime. In human terms, it is incalculable. A
20 year Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)
study, with middle class families, also found
abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences
during childhood had lasting effects on the
child’s behavior, health and well-being later in
life.
THE CHILD (continued)
Although a single abused child is one child
too many, the number of investigated and
confirmed cases of abuse in Wayne County
has continued to decline since 2005. In 2011,
32,973 families were investigated for child
abuse and neglect. Of that number, 4761 were
confirmed and Wayne now ranks 11 out of
the 83 counties. Over 50% (or 2,694) of these
children were placed in foster care.
The early years of a child’s life is the most
important period of their overall development.
Kids-TALK
Child Advocacy Center
Kids-TALK Child
Advocacy Center
(CAC) utilizes
a collaborative,
However, child safety in general in Wayne
multidisciplinary
County continues to be a problem. In 2010,
approach to the
there were 35 fatal accidents to children birth
investigation,
to age 4. Unintentional suffocation resulted
treatment, and
in another 18 deaths; and 1396 children were
prevention
of
child
abuse
and
neglect in Wayne
hospitalized for injury and poisoning. These
County.
Services
are
provided
free of charge to
figures also do not address issues such as gun
children
through
17
years
of
age
and their nonviolence and other environmental issues for
offending
family
members
and
include
forensic
which many children in Wayne County are at
interviewing,
advocacy
and
therapy
as
well
as
risk.
onsite forensic medical examinations.
Built upon a strong partnership between
Abuse and Neglect: The Number of Investigated
The Guidance Center, Office of the Wayne
Cases Increased, While Substantiated Decreased
County Prosecuting Attorney, Children’s
Between 2010 and 2012
Hospital of Michigan, Wayne
County Assocation of Chiefs of
Police, Michigan Department
of Human Services, Wayne
County Children’s Services
Administration, Detroit-Wayne
County Community Mental
Health Agency and Wayne
State University, Kids-TALK
CAC strives to be a haven
where abused and traumatized
children receive the protection,
support and treatment they
need to heal.
ACTION STEPS
FOR KIDS
1
Eliminate child
poverty! It is a major
predictor of child
abuse and neglect.
One study found
that a child living in a
family with an annual
income less than
$15,000 is 22 times
more likely to be
abused.
2
Increase the number
of proven prevention,
support and
treatment programs
such as public
and mental health
services and home
visiting available to
children and families.
3
Reduce case loads
and increase training
to child protective and
other front line staff.
4
Child abuse prevention
is also a community
responsibility!
Individually and
collectively reach
out to families we
know need help at the
neighborhood level.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
25
THE COMMUNITY
Wayne County
is #1 in
Michigan for
pediatric asthma
hospitalization
rates … and most
are preventable.
Picture Courtesy of Dale Rich
26
Environmental Health
As noted earlier, the environment in which a
child lives (physical, chemical, biological, and
sociocultural) also has a significant impact on
their growth and development. These elevated
environmental exposures, can have negative
consequences, especially for vulnerable young
children and their families. This is especially
true in communities dealing with multiple
stressors such as high poverty, poor housing,
housing insecurity/homelessness, exposure
to toxins, food insecurity, unemployment,
inadequate access to health care and physical
and psycho-social issues such as violence,
child abuse and air quality.
Young children and their families are
challenged by Wayne County’s “imperfect
environments”. Although Wayne County’s
air quality has
improved over the
last few years,
as evidenced by
a decrease in
the number of
“unhealthy” days.
The improvement
is related, in
part, to the long
term decrease in
heavy industry
that has occurred
throughout
the county. In
general, there are
more “unhealthy
days” in the
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
summer and fewer in the winter.
In 2005, there were a total of 54 unhealthy
days for ‘sensitive groups’ ( e.g. children
and those with asthma or other respiratory
diseases) as well as 4 “unhealthy days” for the
general population. In 2011, there were only 15
“unhealthy days”. In contrast, Wayne County’s
release of toxic chemicals to the environment
(air, surface water, underground injection and
land) is exceeded only by Monroe County. Our
children deserve better.
Trauma
Traumatic events in early childhood can have
a major impact on development and future
success. Young children interpret traumatic
events differently than older children or adults
and are often unable to verbally communicate
their emotions. When unaddressed,
trauma can have long term biological and
psychological effects. Childhood trauma has
been associated with the development of
mental health problems as well as increasing
risk for diabetes, obesity, lung disease,
malnutrition, and other health problems later
in life. In childhood, in addition to clinically
diagnosable pediatric post-traumatic stress
disorder, trauma is associated with impairment
in attachment, biology, affect regulation,
dissociation, behavioral regulation, cognition,
and self-concept. These areas of impairment
vary depending on the type of trauma, the age
of which the trauma occurred, and the child’s
resiliency and coping skills; however, due to
their rapidly developing brains, young children
are especially vulnerable.
THE COMMUNITY (continued)
The number of children that experience trauma
in Wayne County is unknown, yet believed
to be common. As mentioned earlier in this
report, over 4,700 child abuse/neglect cases
were substantiated in 2011. Among a sample
of 2,694 Wayne County children receiving
treatment at a mental health service provider,
65.5% of children were identified as having been
exposed to at least one potentially traumatic
event. Among these children, 71.8% had
experienced multiple events, with emotional,
physical, and sexual abuse being noted most
frequently. Although exposure to traumatic
events does not always mean the child will
experience trauma, data from this particular
sample indicated children with noted trauma
exposure were significantly more impaired
when they entered mental health services.
Asthma
Asthma is the number one chronic disease
in children in the United States and Wayne
County. Although one of the more manageable
diseases, it continues to spiral out of control
and is responsible for the most missed days
in school. In 2010, Detroit was ranked the
18th worst city nationwide for asthmatics to
live in; and Wayne County is #1 in Michigan
for pediatric asthma hospitalization rates,
almost twice the state average. The rate of
hospitalization for African American children is
4 times higher than white children in Michigan;
and 10 to 15 percent of all of the kids served in
Wayne County have acute care needs.
A George Washington University report, The
Elements for Improving Childhood Asthma
Outcomes, found that
asthma adds about
50 cents to every
health care dollar
spent on children with
asthma as compared
to those without
asthma. Those
most at risk are low
income, medically
underserved, and
African American and
Hispanic children.
They have the least
access to preventive
care and the most
visits to the emergency room.
Additionally, environmental triggers should be
managed whenever possible at both home
and in the community. For example, asthma
education, modifying personal behaviors or
interventions in community-based locations
used by children -- playgrounds, schools and
school-yards, and public housing units -- and
the implementation of policies such as those
designed to reduce idling by buses around
schools, have increasingly been shown to play a
role in reducing asthma triggers.
Lead poisoning
Exposure to lead paint is one of the most
common and preventable poisonings of
childhood. It acts on the nervous system
and can have a wide range of effects on a
child’s development and behavior, including
brain damage. . Even when exposed to small
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and
Linda Solomon Photography
“
Detroit was
ranked the
18th worst city
nationwide for
asthmatics to
live in.”
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
27
THE COMMUNITY (continued)
amounts of lead levels, children may appear
inattentive, hyperactive and irritable. Children with
greater lead levels may also have problems with
learning and reading, delayed growth and hearing
loss.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) says that 6%
of all American children ages 1-2 years and 11%
of black (non-Hispanic) children ages 1-5 years
have blood lead levels in the toxic range. Lead
poisoning in Michigan children ages 1-2 is 5.1%
and 8.3% in Wayne County. The ban on leaded
gas and paint in the 1970’s and 1980’s has helped
tremendously but lead remains a serious problem.
Children in
Wayne County
are still very
much at risk
because of
the 290,000
housing units
built before
1950 and an
additional
40,000 housing
units that are
high risk of
lead. Wayne
County also
has Michigan’s
highest ambient
(outside) air
concentration
Picture Courtesy of DRMM and Linda Solomon Photography
and greatest
reported release
of lead compounds in the air. Common sources
include lead paint and lead contained in water and
soil.
28
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
ACTION STEPS
FOR KIDS
1
Create best practice
asthma education and
intensive home-based case
coordination, resources and
support services like those
offered by Wayne County’s
Children’s Healthcare Access
Program (WCHAP).
2
Develop adaptive aids to
assist with barriers such as
literacy, cultural or language
differences.
3
Enforce legislation designed
to keep air, land and water
clean
4
Educate the community on
the impact of lead and other
toxins and ways to prevent it.
5
Plant grass over bare soil.
6
Locate industrial facilities
or highways away from
residential areas and schools
and create barriers
7
Join the “No Kid Hungry
Campaign” at www.
nokidhungry.org. Food
insecurity is a real problem for
many Wayne County children.
If children live with criticism,
They learn to condemn.
If children live with hostility,
They learn to fight.
If children live with ridicule,
They learn to be shy.
If children live with shame,
They learn to feel guilty.
If children live with
encouragement,
They learn confidence.
If children live with tolerance,
They learn to be patient.
If children live with praise,
They learn to appreciate.
Children Learn
What They Live
a poem by Dorothy Law Nolte
If children live with acceptance,
They learn to love.
If children live with approval,
They learn to like
themselves.
If children live with honesty,
They learn truthfulness.
If children live with security,
They learn to have faith in
themselves and others.
If children live with friendliness,
Copyright © 1972/1975 by Dorothy Law Nolte, Ph.D.
This is the author-approved short version.
They learn the world is a
nice place in which to live.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & COLLABORATIVE PARTNERS
Data Collection
& Evaluation Committee
Carlynn Nichols, Co-Chair
Detroit/Wayne County
Community Mental Health
Carole Quarterman, Co-Chair
Advocate
Craig Louis Holt,
Great Start Parent
Great Start Staff
Toni Hartke, Director
Sonya Adams
Early Care
Angie Bermudez
Early On: Wayne County Infant & Toddler
Interagency Coordinating Council
Gaylotta Murray
Ramana Roberson
Linda Stanko
Deborah Strong
Kaela Wright
Darlene Miller,
Wayne County Head Start
Nancy Murray,
Wayne County
Department of Human Services
Amy Neumeyer,
The Guidance Center
A heartfelt thank you is also extended
to the Data Committee, Great Start
Collaborative-Wayne, Data Driven Detroit,
Kids Count, and Michigan League for
Public Policy, Renee Pinter of Synergie
Interactive, and other contributors who
made this report possible.
Gwendolyn Norman,
Detroit Department of
Health and Wellness Promotion
Deborah Strong,
Great Start Collaborative-Wayne
Theresa Webster,
Southeastern Michigan
Community Alliance (SEMCA)
Carmita Williams,
Wayne CHAP
30
Wayne RESA
University Preparatory Academy
Redford Union Schools
Detroit Public Schools
Matrix Center Head Start
Philanthropic/
Charitable
Organizations
Colina Foundation
United Way for Southeastern Michigan
Skillman Foundation
Business
National Children’s Health Study
Carolynn Rowland
2012-2013 Partners
Funding for Great Start CollaborativeWayne is provided by the Office of Great
Start, the Early Childhood Investment
Corporation (ECIC), Colina Foundation,
Fisher Foundation, Kresge Foundation,
PNC, The Skillman Foundation and
UWSEM.
The 2013 How are the Children? report is
underwritten by the Kresge Foundation.
Great Start is grateful for their continued
support of Wayne County’s young children
and their families.
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
Comcast
Local Publically Funded
Health & Human Services
Wayne County Department of Human
Services
Wayne County Health Department
Maternal Infant Healthy Detroit
Department
of Health and Wellness Promotion
Detroit/Wayne County Community Mental
Health
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & COLLABORATIVE PARTNERS
GSCW Parent
Representatives
GSCW Core Parents
Local Stakeholders
Black Family Development, Inc.
Child Care Coordinating Council of Detroit/
Wayne County, Inc
Leaps & Bounds Family Services
YWCA of Western Wayne County
Focus Hope
Downriver Community Conference
Development Centers, Inc.
Lutheran Child Family Service of MI
Wayne Children’s Healthcare Access
Program
Wayne Metropolitan Community Action
Agency
Michigan Alliance for Families
National Kidney Foundation of MI
The Guidance Center
The Chidren’s Center
Community Advocates
K-16 Education
Child & Family Services Schoolcraft College
Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute & College
of Ed Early Childhood Center Wayne
State University
Early Childhood Wayne County Community
College District
Health Care Provider
(continued)
Children’s Outreach
Island Kiddie Campus
Starfish Family Services
Spaulding for Children
Children’s Hospital of Michigan
Regional Resource Center/UWSEM
Local Policy makers
& elected officials
Service to Minority
Populations
Rashida Talib
State Representative – District 12
Joan Gebhardt
Wayne County Commissioner –
District 12
Douglas Geiss
State Representative – District 22
Early Education
& Childcare Providers
Early On Wayne County Infant & Toddler
Interagency Coordinating Council
Southwest Counseling Solutions
ACCESS Youth and Education
American Indian Health and Family
Services
Arab American and Chaldean Council
Faith
Central Detroit Christian CDC
Justice
Wayne County Prosecutors Office
Wayne RESA
University Preparatory Academy
Redford Union Schools
Detroit Public Schools
Matrix Center Head Start
Wayne County Head Start
Vistas Nuevas Head Start
Child Care Coordinating Council
of Detroit/Wayne County
Butler Home Based Care
Great Start Collaborative–Wayne n How are the Children?
31
Great Start Collaborative – Wayne
13305 Reeck Road, Suite 120
Southgate, MI 48195
www.greatstartwayne.org