T he W orld of L ullabies T anya L avoie

T he W or ld of L ullabies
T anya L avoie
W ilfr id L aur ier Univer sity
F aculty of M usic
M usic T her apy Depar tment
Super visor :
Dr. Heidi Ahonen, PhD, MTA
M ethodological key wor ds:
Qualitative; musical analysis; phenomenological approach; abductive reasoning; Forinash
& Gonzalez adaptation of Ferrara’s phenomenological analysis; listening; participant
questionnaire
C ontent key wor ds:
Lullaby; music; emotion; meaning; culture: baby; mother; parent; vocal; musical
elements; dynamics; melody; clinical applications; premature infants; paediatric pain;
palliative care
B iogr aphy
Tanya Lavoie completed the Master of Music Therapy program at Wilfrid Laurier
University in 2010. She holds a BMus, music therapy, from Université du Québec à
Montréal, as a piano major. She is completing her internship at the Montréal Children’s
Hospital and has clinical experience with children with developmental delays, autism,
infants and with children in hospital and rehabilitative settings.
A cknowledgments
I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Heidi Ahonen.
Her guidance and
encouragement gave me the confidence and strength to both undergo and complete this
research process. I would also like to thank Dr. Colin Andrew Lee and Dr. Carolyn
Arnason for sharing their knowledge and experience of music therapy.
I would like to thank my classmates Kim Manning, Kristen Anderson, Rachel Suljic,
Christine Dibble, Joel Kroeker, Naoko Matsumura McKee and Teresa Schettini for their
support and helpful responses during their participation in the data analysis workshop.
I am very thankful for my family’s unwavering support and unconditional love
throughout my entire academic process, allowing me to choose and follow my own path.
Thanks to my mom, my dad and my brother for helping me search and locate lullaby
CD’s, going to the library several times when I could not go myself. Thank you and I
love you.
A bstr act
This qualitative research looks at culturally diverse lullabies. The effects of lullabies on
adult listeners were examined, as well as the musical similarities and differences of 6
selected lullabies. The reflexive and empirical forms of phenomenological inquiry were
used to analyze these lullabies. The researcher analyzed the 6 lullabies using Ferrara’s
method of musical analysis, and participants completed a questionnaire after listening to
each lullaby.
The data were categorized according to two main sections: musical
elements and responses to the songs.
The discussion chapter looks at the clinical
applications of lullabies in music therapy practice.
C D I ndex
1 - Yalla Tnam Rima: Middle-Eastern - Arabic
2 - Ikope Ye Tollo: African - Equatorial Guinea
3 - Videvisan: Swedish
4 - Duerme Negrito: Cuban, Argentinean
5 - Edo No Komori Uta: Japanese
6 - Cape Breton Lullaby: Canadian - Nova-Scotia
T A B L E OF C ONT E NT S
A cknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
A bstr act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
C D I ndex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
T able of C ontents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
C hapter 1: H ow it begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C hapter 2: H ow it wor ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Research Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Stance of the Researcher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
C hapter 3: W hat it’ s all about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1 It’s all in the music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Responses to all songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3 Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C hapter 4: W hat to do with it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.1 Emotional aspects and Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.2 Musical elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.3 Clinical applications of lullabies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
C hapter 5: H ow it ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
R efer ences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Discogr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
A ppendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Appendix A - Ethical Review Approval Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
Appendix B - Consent Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix C - Participant Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix D - Data Analysis Workshop Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Appendix E - Data Analysis Workshop Responses
Song 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Song 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Song 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Song 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Song 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Song 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Least like/Preferred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
1
T he W or ld of L ullabies
C H A PT E R 1: H OW I T B E G I NS
1.1 I NT R ODUC T I ON
For some years I have been interested in lullabies and why they are so frequently used
with babies and children to facilitate sleep. What is it about the lullaby that appears to
have such an effect? Is it the music itself? Is it the tone we use when we sing lullabies?
Is it the emotional intent that the singer gives to the lullaby that is most soothing? And
what about the cultural differences in the music? How are lullabies different from culture
to culture, and can a lullaby from one culture still have the same calming and soothing
effect on infants and babies of another culture?
The most basic question that I found surprisingly difficult to answer was: what
constitutes a lullaby? I have found little information on the lullaby other than a few
definitions in the musical and regular dictionaries. This leads me to consider that perhaps
it is defined by its use and not exclusively by its musical elements. I would define
‘lullaby’ as a song, sung or played primarily to babies and young children, to calm and
sooth them, and to lull them to sleep.
Musicologically, there is little literature on what constitutes a lullaby. For other musical
forms, you will find which elements make this form identifiable from others.
Musicologists have written extensively about the sonata, rondo, mazurka, and about
music from native cultures, but I have yet to see any extensive study or work on the
lullaby. Does it even merit a more in depth look?
2
Pur pose of the study
In music therapy with babies and young children, the word lullaby comes up often in the
type of music used with this population. However, I found it odd that the researchers and
authors of articles pertaining to the population rarely define lullaby, and often do not
even specify which lullabies they use. I also did not understand why the only reason they
seem to use lullabies is because that is the type of music that is generally used to sooth
young children.
I intend on working with child populations that are culturally diverse. The purpose of
this study was to allow me to gain a better understanding of the musical properties and
qualities of lullabies, while also finding out the differences that are present in lullabies
from different cultures. Having this understanding will allow me to make more informed
choices when it comes to selecting music in my future clinical work.
1.2 L I T E R A T UR E R E V I E W
This initial literature review was to allow me to find a direction for this research. A more
complete literature review will be present in chapter 4, as it will create a dialogue with
my reflections and the results of this research.
The lullaby is “originally, a vocal piece designed to lull a child to sleep with repeated
formulae” (Oxford Music Online), and “it is simple, soothing, rhythmic, and repetitive”
(Cass-Beggs & Cass-Beggs, 1969, p.5). This is a very simple definition, but the lullaby
may have different meanings depending on the culture from which it comes. Cass-Beggs
3
(1969) write that although the lullaby is deemed to be simple music, it is “colored by the
thoughts, beliefs and feelings of the nation or race from which [it comes]” (p.5).
It is understood that music is different from culture to culture. Therefore, we might also
surmise, “different cultures give music different meanings” (Titon, 2002, p.3). The
meaning behind the words appears to be of the most importance, as some of the words
themselves are more akin to baby talk. Words used in lullabies are often altered from the
regular spoken words, in order to make them sound more assonant and pleasing to the ear
(Oxford Music Online; Cass-Beggs & Cass-Beggs, 1969). It has also been noted, that in
some cultures the lyrics are positive, while in others the message is negative. In other
cases, the lullaby is more a story of the teller than for the audience, or an instilment of
cultural values which children learn and assimilate as they age (Trehub, Unyk & Trainor,
1993; Unyk, Trehub, Trainor & Schellenberg, 1992; Cass-Beggs & Cass-Beggs, 1969;
Oxford Music Online).
Linked to musical meaning is emotion, and research in this area is extensive and varies
greatly. According to Juslin and Sloboda (2001), there are 10 perspectives on music and
emotion. In the music therapy perspective, emotion is best expressed through musical
improvisation. They also mention that infants and newborns can “ ‘tune in’ ” to subtle
shifts in vocal timbre, tempo, and volume variations” (p.193), especially when interacting
with their mothers. The importance of these interactions for the baby’s psychological and
emotional development, as well as for the development of the emotional attachment
between mother and child, have been thoroughly explored by Stern (1985; 1990; 1995)
and Trevarthen (1979; 2010). It has also been observed that newborns and infants prefer
4
when their mothers sing rather than speak, and that their attention is most focused when
the mother sings to them, rather than singing in general (Tafuri, 2008). This suggests
that, for the infant, singing elicits greater emotional responses than speech. Can this still
be the same with adults? When adults listen to lullabies, would they respond more to the
music than if someone was to speak to them and tell them to relax and be calm? Would
they still have strong emotional responses as they did when they were children? As
mentioned earlier, the purpose of the lullaby is to lull the infant to sleep, but how do
adults react to this music?
It is understood that across different languages, the intonation and meaning of the spoken
word is also different. Since lullabies are universal, is it possible that the meaning and
emotion behind a lullaby can still be perceived by someone who does not understand the
words? In classical instrumental music, western or eastern, there are no words, yet we
perceive and feel the emotion coming through the music. But do we really feel the
music? Experiments by Hailstone, Henly, Frost, Kenward, & Warren, (2009) showed
that the perception of emotion conveyed by a melody is affected by the identity or timbre
of the musical instrument on which it is played (p. 2151). Zentner, Grandjen and Scherer
(2008), observed that “emotions were less frequently felt in response to music than they
were perceived as expressive properties of the music” (p.500).
Because I looked primarily into vocal lullabies, I thought it important to find some
literature about melody.
Melody is defined by pitch, timbre, intervals and tonality
(Aldridge & Aldridge, 2008). The quality of the melody will be altered if it is in major or
minor, or if it is in a mode. Using carious rhythms will also affect the quality of the
5
melody. The pattern and contour is also an important aspect of the melody as it will be
most helpful for the listener in determining where the tension and release is in the
melody. In anthropological studies, information on the musical aspects of lullabies is
sparse and focus appears to be more on the lyrics of the songs rather than on the music
itself.
Based on the missing pieces in the literature, the lullaby seems to have been set aside as
not worth researching or investigating. Perhaps this is because it is such a universal
concept and throughout history it has been a musical genre utilized primarily by mothers
and female caretakers. I found a great deal of literature on music and emotion, some on
melody, and music for children such as the ‘Childs Tune’ explained in Nordoff-Robbins
(2007). However, I found it increasingly difficult to find specific information on lullabies
and on cross-cultural perspectives of lullabies. In conducting the present study, it was
difficult finding musical excerpts of vocal lullabies.
There is a vast selection of
professionally recorded lullabies, but they have all been harmonized and made more
complex.
With this research, I hope to answer some of the questions I was unable to answer in the
literature review and to acquire some understanding into the emotional, cultural and
musical value of the lullaby.
6
7
C H A PT E R 2: H OW I T W OR K S
2.1 R E SE A R C H QUE ST I ONS
The research questions are as follows:
- Which musical elements are different or similar when comparing lullabies from
different cultures?
- What emotions and/or images are evoked when listening to lullabies from
different cultures?
- Are there significant differences or similarities when adults from different
cultural backgrounds listen to lullabies from different cultures than their own?
2.2 R E SE A R C H DE SI G N
Par adigm
I used qualitative methods to conduct this research (Guba & Lincoln, 1994).
The
qualitative paradigm allowed me to focus on the musical qualities of the lullabies being
researched.
It also allowed me to integrate the data from the musical analysis I
performed, with the feedback received from the participants. Because the music and the
participants were culturally diverse, the social and emotional connections the participants
and the researcher had to the music influenced the feedback and analysis.
With
qualitative research, I was able to include the variables into the data.
E pistomological V iewpoint
It is possible to know that there are distinct differences between lullabies from various
cultures. It is possible to identify the different elements that make up a lullaby and to be
better informed by this analysis when using lullabies in a clinical setting. There are
8
cultural associations and connections that influence which emotions are invoked when
listening to lullabies.
These thoughts are based on my personal and professional
experiences as a musician, student music therapist, and human being.
R easoning
Abductive reasoning (Pierce, 1965), was used to interpret the data. I learned about
abductive reasoning in my Qualitative Research Course, through Dr. Ahonen’s
powerpoint presentation (2010).
Abductive reasoning describes and interprets data
collected while giving a direction on how to analyze and present the results. It also
allowed me to make connections with what I already knew on the subject, as well as help
me to decide which theories and existing studies would be best to validate my research.
These connections were made in the discussion chapter by creating a dialogue between
the results and further literature review.
Phenomenology
“Phenomenology is a research method that unfolds events the way they are experienced
by people and describes the essential qualities of these experiences” (Smeijsters, 1997,
p.52). I used phenomenology (Forinash & Grocke, 2005) to study the experience my
participants and myself had when listening to lullabies from different cultural
backgrounds. I looked at the meaning and relevance the different lullabies had for the
participants, as I encouraged them to share and fully describe their experiences during the
music listening (more information will be given about participants and data collection in
point 2.4 Data Collection).
9
I used two forms of phenomenology to collect the data. First, I used the reflexive form
(Ferrara, 1991; can Kaam, 1959; can Manen, 1990), utilizing Ferrara’s method (Ferrara,
1984, 1991) of musical analysis, which will be described further. Second, I used the
empirical form (van Kaam, 1959; Fiorfi, 1975; Colaizzi, 1978), collecting data through
the description of the participants’ experiences during the music listening. Using both the
reflexive and empirical forms of phenomenology allowed me to gain a better
understanding of the lullabies themselves, as well as the various emotions that are evoked
in listeners from different cultural groups.
2.3 ST A NC E OF T H E R E SE A R C H E R
I am aware that the selection of the musical material under analysis was entirely my own
and worthy of analytical scrutiny.
The reasoning behind this research is abductive
because of my previous knowledge, preferences and experiences with music therapy and
lullabies. This put me at risk of interpreting the data selectively and neglecting some
possibilities of meaning over those that correspond to my preexisting theoretical
framework (Ruud, 2005, p. 42).
In order to increase the study’s trustworthiness, the data was gathered from several
sources (researcher’s analysis and participant questionnaires of the musical recordings).
More over, the musical selections were reviewed by research peers, and musical reviews
in the literature were also found. This provided me with three ways of validating the
study, as my interpretations were compared to those of unbiased peers, participants and
descriptions found in the literature on lullabies and emotion. To increase the credibility
of the lullabies used in the data collection, I selected the music by referring myself to the
10
details in the CD booklets, as well as asking the opinions of colleagues who were from
the same cultural background as some of the lullabies (Japanese and South American
lullabies).
2.4 DA T A
Data C ollection
I first set out to look for multicultural lullabies that were vocal only, meaning that they
would have a single voice without any instrumental accompaniment. The initial search
proved difficult and it was decided that some instrumental accompaniment would be part
of the chosen lullabies. I looked at lullabies from various CD collections in different
libraries and stores. I observed that multicultural lullaby CDs were very rare, and often
did not have a very wide range of culturally diverse lullabies.
I decided on 6 lullabies that I deemed represented the biggest and widest cultural groups
of the world. They will be named shortly. These lullabies were selected from 4 different
CD sources.
- Le monde en berceuses
- Putumayo Presents - African Dreamland
- Doudou: Le monde des berceuses à capella, Vol. 1
- 48 Berceuses du Monde
11
The selected lullabies are as follows, with the language they were sung in as well as the
region of the world from which they come, and the English translation. The reader is
welcome to listen to the lullabies as you read through this section.
-Y alla T nam R ima: sung in Arabic it comes from Lebanon, Palestine, Syria,
Jordan region
G o to sleep R ima
Go to sleep Rima
Let her sleep in peace
Let her learn to pray
Let her learn to fast
Let her enjoy good health
Day after day
12
Go to sleep
Go to sleep
I will grab for her a dove
Don’t believe it
I am teasing Rima to let her go to sleep
Cute little Rima
Her hair is fair and well-fixed
Those who love her will kiss her
And those who don’t will not be kissed
Oh, the seller of grapes
And the vineyard
Tell my mother
Tell my father
The Gypsy took her to Mary’s tent
Tishidshe Tishidshe
The prunes under the apricot tree
Every time the wind blows
I will pick an apricot for Rima
Go to sleep
Go to sleep
(Le monde en berçeuses, Montreal Children’s Hospital Foundation, 2009; Translation
from Booklet)
-I kope Y e T ollo: sung in the Bubi language, from Equatorial Guinea in Central
East-Coast Africa
“Ikope Ye Tollo” means “The Birds are Sleeping” in the Bubi language. In the background you
can hear the sounds of the forest and the soft whistles of the birds. “Little darling, don’t cry
13
anymore. Your mother is going to bring a delicious vegetable casserole and the little boy in the
hut will bring you a little dream.”
(Booklet from African Dreamland)
-V idevisan: Swedish, Northern Europe
W hicker shr ub
Sleep little whicker shrub
Because it is still winter
The primrose are still sleeping
The pink and the golden button
Spring is still far
As well as the rowan-tree
Sleep little whicker shrub
Because it is still winter
The eye of the sun covers you with heat
It’s rays rocks you in it’s arms
Soon the forest path will green
And the flowers lift up their colors
Listen to the advice of the sun:
Little whicker shrub bloom
The eye of the sun covers you with heat
It’s rays rocks you in it’s arms
(Doudou: Le monde des berçeuses à capella, Vol. 1, ;Translated from French by Tanya
Lavoie)
-Duer me Negr ito: Spanish, from Cuba, Argentina
Sleep little black one
Sleep, sleep little black one, your mama’s in the fields, little one.
Sleep, sleep little one. She’s going to bring quail for you,
She’s going to bring fresh fruit for you, she’s going to bring pork for you,
She’s going to bring many things for you.
14
And if the little black one doesn’t go to sleep,
The white devil will come and – sap! – he’ll eat your little foot!
Sleep, sleep little black one, your mama’s in the fields, little one.
She’s working hard, working, yes, and they don’t pay her.
Working, and she’s coughing; working, yes, for her sweet little black one.
(48 Berçeuses du Monde; Translation from:
http://www.bellevuechamberchorus.net/Research/WorldMusic/Music/DuermeNegrito.ht
m)
-E do No K omor i Uta: Japan
T okyo L ullaby
Sleep, sleep, fall asleep
You, my son, is a good child, so sleep
Sleepy, where did the care taker go?
Went over the mountain to the village
What was the souvenir from the village?
Den-den drum and a shou flute
Woken up little monk with a side ways drum
(48 Berçeuses du Monde
http://www.komoriuta.jp/db-a/gakufu; translated by Naoko Matsumura McKee)
-C ape B r eton L ullaby: sung in English with the verse sung in Gaelic, from
Nova-Scotia, Canada
C ape B r eton L ullaby
15
Driftwood is burning blue
Wild walk the wall shadows
Night winds go ridin’ by
Ridin’ by the lochie meadows
Until the ring of day flows Mira’s stream singin’...
Sleep Laddie, sleep Laddie
Sleep the starts away.
Far on Beinn Breagh’s side
Wander the lost lambies
Here, there and everywhere,
Everywhere, their troubled mammies
Find them and fold them deep
Fold them to sleep singin’...
Sleep Laddie, sleep Laddie
Sleep the stars away.
Daddy’s on the bay
He’ll keep the pot brewin’
He’ll keep things from tumblin’ down
Tumblin’ down to rack and ruin
Pray, Mary, send him home,
Safe from the foam singin’...
Sleep Laddie, sleep Laddie
Sleep the starts away.
(Doudou: Le monde des berçeuses à capella, Vol. 1; Translation in Booklet)
Data Pr epar ation
Because this is a major research paper, sampling was relatively small. I chose 6 lullabies
based on the definition given in the introduction, each from a different cultural
background. I attempted to choose lullabies that are as traditional and authentic as
possible to their cultural background. Authenticity was verified by an extensive research
16
of available music, as well as asking the opinion of colleagues from those cultural
backgrounds. These colleagues were not used as participants for the data collection.
R esear cher
According to the reflexive phenomenological rules (Ferrara, 1984, 1991; van Kaam,
1959; can Manen, 1990), I used myself as part of the data collection, by analysing the
lullabies before presenting them to the participants, to limit being influenced by the
participants’ responses.
Using Ferrara’s method, I focused on my own listening
experience and reflected on this experience to analyse the lullabies.
F er r ar a’ s M ethod of M usical A nalysis :
I analysed the 6 chosen lullabies using Ferrara’s Method (Ferrara, 1984, 1991), listening
to the meaning of the music as well as listening for the different elements that make up
the lullabies.
These 5 stages of listening were adapted for music therapy purposes by Forinash &
Gonzalez (1989):
1. Open listening - subjective response: On the first listening I wrote down the
subjective response, including any impressions that stood out (Forinash &
Grocke, 2005, p. 324).
Example from song 2 - little fly buzzing around, near the river.
17
2. Listening for syntactical meaning - describing the sound as it is heard: In this
stage I wrote down all the musical sounds that I heard, including instruments,
embellishments, dynamic changes, and features of melody, rhythm, and harmony
(Forinash & Grocke, 2005, p. 324).
Example from song 1 - sound is fluid, subtle movements in the melody, A section rubato.
3. Listening for semantic meaning: On the third hearing I described what I thought
the meaning of the music was, what mood it suggested, and how I felt (Forinash
& Grocke, 2005, p. 324).
Example from song 3 - nighttime story about a child in a large landscape near a river,
talking about nature.
4. Listening for ontological meaning - the lifeworld of the composer: In the fourth
hearing I put the music into the lifeworld of the composer and tried to understand
what the composer was saying (Forinash & Grocke, 2005, p. 324).
Example from song 5 - Felt like I was being introduced to a dream, allowed to go on a
journey.
5. Open listening - the meaning dimension of all the hearings of the music: In the
final stage of listening, all of my impressions and perceptions from the previous
four hearings were synthesized and integrated to create a final description of the
work (Forinash & Grocke, 2005, p. 325).
18
Example from song 6 - Fire, wind, water, earth, the four elements of nature. Falling
asleep under the stars. Elements of protection in the lyrics, that make me feel safe. There
does not seem to be any emotion in her voice.
Par ticipants
I recruited participants from Wilfrid Laurier University as well as from my own work.
The research setting was at Wilfrid Laurier University, in the John Aird Center, in a
closed room of the music therapy department. Prior to beginning, participants were read
the research information and asked again for consent. There were 3 participants, each
from a different culture group (Asian, Middle-Eastern, and North-American French
Canadian).
Participants were given a questionnaire to complete, which was explained prior to
starting the listening (See Appendix A). Participants were not told that the songs they
were going to listen to were lullabies. They answered three questions for each song:
- How did it make you feel?
- Did you have any images? What were they?
- Did you experience any physical sensations? What were they?
Once the listening was completed, participants answered the final four questions:
- Which piece did you prefer, and why?
- Which piece did you least like, and why?
- Would you consider any of these pieces as lullabies?
- What is your reaction in knowing that all of these pieces are lullabies?
19
Data A nalysis
Once the data collection was completed, I began to analyze the data, using Nvivo 8 for
the open coding.
I then proceeded to categorize the participants’ data within the
individual songs and questions, as well as to separately analyze the data collected using
Ferrara’s method. Once this phase was completed, I continued to categorize, combining
the musical analysis data with the participants’ data so as to join certain categories
together, but also to create new ones. I also began to think about what titles would best
encompass these categories.
All of the categories were song specific, with the exception of the category ‘It’s all in the
music’. Each song had a category to best facilitate the analysis of the differences and
similarities of the musical elements. The data from each song were placed in a table and
categorized within that table to ensure clarity. As for the final four questions mentioned
above, I decided to code these separately as they are unique in that they encompass all of
the songs together.
Once the categorization was complete, it was suggested that I make a graph of the data. I
was unable to make one graph of all the data, because the nature of the research separates
the data into specific sections. I did the same with the graphs, making one graph per
section. More information about the graphs will be given in the results chapter. Making
the graphs allowed me to see the data from different points of view and gave me a little
more clarity and direction in how to begin writing about the data in the results chapter.
20
A data analysis workshop was held with my classmates where they filled out a similar
questionnaire to the one the participants had filled out. Because my research was also
investigating the musical elements present in the 6 lullabies, for the workshop I asked
that my classmates also listen for the clinical aspects of the music, as well as any
emotions, images and physical sensations they should have during the listening. The data
analysis workshop allowed me to bring validity to the categories found in the data.
21
C H A PT E R 3: W H A T I T ’ S A L L A B OUT
I ntr oduction
Because of the nature of the research questions, the results chapter will be divided into
three specific sections. First I will describe the data in the category ‘It’s all in the music’.
Next I will look at the number of responses present per song to see if there are any
significant differences in the number of responses for each song. I will continue with a
description of all the other categories, including the most prominent findings for each.
All of the categories came out of the data analysis. A more detailed description of my
thoughts and ideas about the categories, as well as the validation of these categories will
follow in the discussion chapter.
3.1 I T ’ S A L L I N T H E M USI C
This category represents all of the musical elements found in the lullabies. The data used
to create this category comes primarily from the musical analysis data. All of the
lullabies were sung by female vocalists, with lullaby number 5 having two female
vocalists. Two out of the six lullabies had simple instrumentation; lullaby number 4 was
accompanied by a drum, and lullaby number 5 was accompanied by a chinese lap harp.
Lullabies 2 and 5 also had some light nature sounds in the recordings.
In each of the 6 songs, 2 main sub-categories were present: ‘Dynamics’ and ‘Melody’. In
song 4 there was also the sub-category ‘Dancing to the rhythm’, in song 5
‘Instrumentation’, and in song 6 ‘Lacking emotion’. Please look at the table below for
the complete list of codes.
I T ’ S A L L I N T H E M USI C
22
Song 1
Song 2
Song 3
Dynamics
consonants
decrescendo
rhythmic
rubato
light vibrato
pulse
low
Dynamics
decrescendo
lilts
louder
whisper
rhythmically
emphasis
Dynamics
very soft
even
M elody
downward
female
melodic pattern
melody
mezzo
no distinct pulse
phrases
upward
voice
M elody
melodic pattern
melody
melody range
mezzo
modal
modulation
rocking pulse
repeated
rhythm
voice
singing
female
simple
Song 4
Song 5
Song 6
Dynamics
acceleration
dynamics
louder
rubato
triplets
humming
Dynamics
unhurried
unfinished
sharpness
light
nasal quality
Dynamics
flat
glissando
rubato
tremollos
volume increases
soft
natural
M elody
melodic patterns
melody
musical range
fluid
space
phrases
downward
upward
subtle movements
clear
not rushed
voice
M elody
female
low tone
major scale
melody
movement
voice
Dancing to the r hythm
drum, drum, drums
beat
rhythm follow the rhythm but slow
pace
dancing to the rhythm of the music
dancing people
slow dance
dancing around as a group
people having fun dancing
dance slowly
2nd part dance fast
M elody
2 voices
female voice
upward
sparse
space
pattern
melody
lower notes
pentatonic mode
I nstr umentation
rain stick
lap harp
harp
a lady playing a string instrument
M elody
female voice
melodic
melodic range
melody
mezzo
min7th
octave intervals
pulse
vocal, voice
L acking emotion
doesn’t seem to be any emotion in her
voice
indifferent
sombre
When looking at what affected listeners the most in the music, it appears that the melodic
aspects were the most prevalent. Over half of the responses to all the songs in the ‘It’s all
23
in the music’ category can be placed in the ‘Melody’ subcategory. In this subcategory,
certain words appear in the data for many lullabies: space, pulse, pattern, phrase,
movement and the tonality or mode. These, and synonyms of these words, were also
found in the Data Analysis Workshop (appendix p. 67).
In the subcategory ‘Dynamics’, the volume, tempo and quality of the music was noticed:
crescendo and decrescendo, louder, soft, acceleration, unhurried, sharpness, light, rubato,
flat quality, and nasal quality.
The subcategory ‘Dancing to the rhythm’ is particular to song 4. The instrument in this
song, the drum, was mentioned many times, as well as the word ‘rhythm’. Almost all
participants, including my classmates who completed the Data Analysis Workshop
questionnaire (appendix p. 67), wrote the word ‘dance’ in response to this lullaby.
Whether it was simply ‘dance’, ‘dancing to the rhythm of the music’ or ‘people having
fun dancing’, it was the most prominent.
In subcategory ‘Instrumentation’, the instruments that were heard in song 5 were
identified:
rain stick, lap harp, harp, and the image of ‘a lady playing a string
instrument’. There was also the subcategory ‘Lacking emotion’ which was named in
song 6. The data show that the participants felt indifferent to the lullaby as they couldn’t
perceive any emotion in the singer’s voice. This was supported by the information taken
from the Data Analysis Workshop as well as when the participants were asked to choose
their least liked song. A more detailed analysis of the least liked category will follow
later in this chapter.
24
For a visual representation of the distribution of responses in each subcategory, please
refer to Graph 1:
I T ’ S A L L I N T H E M USI C
3.2 R E SPONSE S T O AL L SONG S
25
The number of responses for each song was looked at to determine which songs produced
the most responses. According to Graph 2, Song 5 had the most responses with 23%,
followed by Song 6 with 22%. Song 2 had 18%, Song 4 had 15%, Song 3 had 12%, and
Song 1 had 10%. This could indicate that the songs with higher percentage generated
more emotional, image and physical responses than the songs with a lower percentage.
R E SPONSE S T O A L L SONG S
26
3.3 C A T E G OR I E S
These categories were created with the data pertaining to the emotional, physical and
image reactions of the lullabies. Graph 3 demonstrates the number of responses present
in each category formulated by the data. The other categories found were ‘Mother
Nature’ and ‘Sleep in Peace’; ‘Along the river’ and ‘... and everything in between’:
‘Calming of the heart’; ‘Moving towards something...’; ‘Being in the Garden’ and
‘Finding joy in daily life’; and ‘Being in a coffee chop with friends’ and ‘From the old
Mother Land’.
C A T E G OR I E S
27
M other Natur e
In Song 1, the images of mother and people were very prominent, as well as some
elements of nature. Words such as ‘earth’, ‘water’, ‘warm breeze’, ‘gentle’, ‘softness’,
and ‘soothing’ were found in this category.
Sleep in Peace
Babies are often held and rocked in order to calm them and encourage them to fall asleep.
In song 1, these words and more are illustrated in the sub-categories ‘Holding’ and
‘Calm/Relaxed’. The word ‘calm’ and it’s various forms are present 4 times, the word
‘relaxed’ is seen 3 times, as well as the word ‘rocking’.
Song 1
Mother Nature
Sleep in Peace
Natur e
Clear sky
earth
field in the spring
warm breeze
water
flowers
H olding
cradle
held
holding
rocked
rocking
rocking
baby
sleep
M other /People
female
gentle
mom
soft
softness
soothing
walking away
humanitarian
being home as a kid with family
islamic cultured people praying
light clothing
Other
easy
small
story
scary image of kidnapping
C alm/R elaxed
calmness
calm
calming
relaxed, relaxing
calming in the heart
being nice and relaxed
feeling of praying
28
A long the R iver
The image of nature is very strong in this second lullaby. There are words such as
‘chirping’, ‘insect’, landscape’, ‘river’ ‘outdoors’, and ‘one with nature’. To me this
brings up an image of being along a river and seeing all the life that surrounds it.
... and ever ything in between
When trying to make one category out of all the sub-categories in song 2, I admit it was a
little difficult; ‘Calm’, ‘Happy’, ‘Movement’, ‘Night and Day’, ‘People’. How could
these sub-categories all fit together under one category? I quickly wrote down ‘and
everything else’ and continued on to another song. When I returned to it, I saw that it
made a sentence with the first category of song 2: ‘Along the river ... and everything else.
Song 2
Along the river … and everything in between
T he r iver E ver ything
buzzing ordinary
chirping strength
forested desert not sure
hot story
insect Amazon with natives
landscape children
little fly buzzing around child
nature night time
outdoor early morning
outdoors movements in muscle (small)
river dance
open walking
birds
thick trees C alm/R elaxed
being outside in nature calm, calm, calming
being outside relaxed, very relaxed
one with nature
H appy
happy
joyful
joy
uplifting
content
29
I felt that this worked and altered it to ‘Along the river ... and everything in between’.
This allowed me to combine many smaller sub-categories under this one bigger category.
C alming in the hear t
‘Calming in the heart’ is a code that was present in the first song, but captured well all the
codes of the third song: ‘love’, ‘calm’, ‘gently coax’, ‘daily routine’, ‘evening’, ‘being
tucked in bed’, and ‘holding’.
Song 3
Calming in the heart
L ove
love
being cared for
baby
calm
soft
rocking
Stor y
holding
flowers
meadow
story
gently coax
sad
simplicity
Or dinar y
brief
daily routine
ordinary
chores
Nighttime
kitchen
evening
being tucked in bed
sleepy
tired
want to go to sleep
someone - myself sleeping
asleep
sleep
30
M oving towar ds something...
Song 4 was said to have, and inspire, a great deal of movement, specifically dance.
According to the data it had elements of excitement, adventure, happiness, holding,
containing, and love, but also danger, strength and protection.
Song 4
Moving towards something...
H appy/E xcitement
happy, happy
joy
excitement, excited
fun
adventure
passion
encouragement
starting something new
moving towards something
H olding/C omfor t
comforted, comforting
containing
held, holding
rocked
safe
soothing
love
Pr otection
dangerous, dangers
protect, protecting
stronger
mother
world
groups of people
mostly women
Other
african culture
evening
31
B eing in the G ar den
In this category of Song 5, ‘Being in the garden’ feels like a dream or a story. There are
shapes and illusions, with a baby watching the sky. There are also waterfalls, streams,
and rivers or lakes. There is a feeling of calm and enlightenment.
F inding joy in daily life
In Song 5 there is also this category that describes the simple things people do in daily
life: eating, smiling, relaxing, being happy and celebrating.
Song 5
Being in the Garden
T he G ar den
story
journey
dream
dangers
garden
illusion
sky
shapes
possibilities
plays
magical
clouds
Mother
watches
cradle
baby
woman
M ood
languid
enlightenment
calm
inclination to wish to view inward
can concentrate on other things
better
background music
F lowing water falls
waterfall
water, water
stream
rain
being near water
river or lake
flowing waterfalls
niagara
walking by a river or lake
wanting to enjoy the outdoors
spring
butterfly
B eing in a coffee shop with fr iends
Finding joy in daily life
Daily life
finding joy in daily life
celebration
eating
joy, happy
smiling
relaxed
not too passionate
simple
spiritual
people relaxing
32
This category speaks of being with friends, being happy and relaxed, feeling joy,
exhilaration and contentment.
F r om the Old M other L and
This is another category that has many elements of nature and the feeling that it is a story.
Earth, fire, water, wind, green glades, home, being on the family farm, and listening to
the mother tongue. In this last lullaby, the data show that it also encouraged sleep and
gave images of nighttime.
Song 6
Being in a coffee shop with friends
C offee shop
Talking in a coffee shop
wanting to be with friends
just enjoying life
happy
relaxed, relaxation
calmness
M ood/F eelings
contentment
exhilaration
joy
mood
safe
strong
sweet
From the Old Mother land
Stor y
animals
baby, baby
family
family farm
father
Gaelic
green glades
home, home
mother tongue
story
daily routine
solitary
protection
sensation to pause to observe what is
happening (something very simple)
directed
E lements of Natur e
bay
earth
four elements
field
fire
nature
water
waved
wind, winds
Nighttime
asleep
night
star, starry
mid afternoon to early evening
sleeping
33
C H A PT E R 4: W H A T T O DO W I T H I T
I ntr oduction
In this chapter I will attempt to answer my research questions by looking at the cultural
aspects and musical elements found in the 6 lullabies. I will also develop a dialogue
between the results and the literature review. I will continue with what the potential
implications for music therapy clinical practice are, using the information found
throughout this research.
4.1 E M OT I ONA L A SPE C T S A ND I M A G E R Y
Singing to babies and children by parents and other caregivers is prevalent across cultures
(Cass-Beggs, 1969; Trehub, Unyk, & Trainor, 193; Unyk, Trehub & Schellenberg, 1992).
Each culture has its own musical style. This section will look at the cultural aspects of
the lullabies, including the translated text and the elements prominent in the lullabies. In
this section I will also attempt to answer the following research questions:
What
emotions and/or images are evoked when listening to lullabies from different cultures?
Are there any significant differences or similarities when adults from different cultural
backgrounds listen to lullabies from different cultures than their own?
As mentioned previously, the lullabies are from various cultures, as are the participants
who answered the research questionnaire.
Song 1 is an Arabic lullaby called Yala Tnam Rima, ‘Go to sleep Rima’. It is a wellknown lullaby according to the participant who is from a Middle Eastern background.
This participant also mentioned that they had never heard this version before, that they
34
only knew the verse. So although it was recognized as a lullaby that the participant’s
mother used to sing to them as a child, it was still a new experience to hear the different
sections of the lullaby. As this participant also could understand the language, they
experienced two different kinds of emotional reactions. The beginning of the lullaby
evoked happiness and reminded them of being with their family when they were a child.
During one of the verses, however, they felt a feeling of nervousness and worry, and had
an image of being kidnapped as the lullaby was singing about the baby being taken away
by Gypsies (you may refer back to p.9 for the translation of the lullaby). When the
chorus returned, ‘Go to sleep’, happiness and calm also returned for the participant. This
is an example of when the associations of the listener impact their emotions when
listening to previously heard music (Jusling & Sloboda, 2001).
Another image
experienced during this lullaby was that of ‘Islamic cultured people praying’ which
suggests that the listener recognized the Middle Eastern feel of the music.
Song 2 is an African lullaby called Ikope Ye Tollo, meaning ‘The Birds are Sleeping’
from the country of Equatorial Guinea. Images of nature were strongly evoked from this
lullaby. While listening, one participant had an image of the Amazon natives. Although
the Amazon is a dense forest of South America, I would suggest that the lullaby reminded
the participant of the jungle, which is an association that I believe most people have with
Africa as well as South America, myself included. This belief is supported by the fact
that the words ‘jungle’, ‘rainforest’, ‘thick forest’, ‘lush forest’ as well as ‘African
woman’ were present in the Data Analysis Workshop. With this lullaby, the response of
emotions and images evoked were similar with all participants.
35
Song 3 is a Swedish lullaby called Videvisan which means ‘Whicker shrub’. It sings of
sleeping through winter and waking with the spring where it will grow and show it’s
colors (translation in booklet of Doudou: Le monde des berçeuses à capella). There were
no significant culturally related images evoked by this lullaby, but a great deal of gentle
emotions and feelings were found in the data: love, being cared for, holding, peaceful,
relaxing, calm. Many specific images of babies, mothers and sleep were present as well.
For example, ‘being tucked in bed’, ‘want to go to sleep’, ‘mother and baby going to
sleep’, ‘mother silhouetted against window singing to baby’. No significant differences
in images or emotions were observed in this lullaby.
Song 4, Duerme Negrito, means ‘Sleep little black one’. It is a fairly dark lullaby,
singing about the hardships of the mother’s work conditions and how she will bring him
all these good things for the baby if he sleeps. If the baby does not sleep however, a
white devil will come and eat its foot. This lullaby is originally a traditional Cuban song
that was later adapted and popularized by the Argentine folk singer and social activist
Atahualpa Yupanqui. The first part of the lullaby is like any other, promising sweet
things to encourage the child to sleep. The second part, however, reflects the conditions
endured
by
slaves
for
generations
in
parts
of
South
America
(http://www.bellevuechamberchorus.net/Research/WorldMusic/Music/DuermeNegrito.ht
m). Another strong element of the song is that the singer is accompanied by a drum. The
drum evoked a great deal of images of dance, rhythm and people, as well as feelings of
excitement and passion. It also elicited feelings of danger, strength and protection. Just
like the words of the lullaby, the data show two distinct sides of the music: love and
safety versus danger.
36
Song 5 is a Japanese lullaby that means’ ‘Tokyo Lullaby’, Edo no Komori Uta. The two
singers are accompanied by a Chinese lap harp and background water sounds. Again, the
data does not show any culture-specific images or thoughts, but a great deal of nature and
water-related images.
Song 6 is a lullaby sung mostly in English, with the first half of the chorus sung in
Gaelic; from Nova-Scotia, the Cape Breton Lullaby. The data mention Gaelic and green
glades and is supported by the Data Analysis Workshop that speaks of the Moors of
Ireland and green grass. Once again, the image of nature is very present in the data,
perhaps because the words of the lullaby allude to it: driftwood, lochie, meadows, Mira’s
stream.
Even though all the lullabies were culturally different from one another, many of the
significant musical and emotional elements appeared in each lullaby. Melody, and the
perceived feelings and images of soft, calm, relax, holding, and rocking, all appear to be
key elements of a lullaby.
4.2 M USI C A L E L E M E NT S
When asked which song was preferred, the results were varied. Song 1 through 4, Yalla
tnam Rima, Ikope Ye Tollo, Videvisan, and Duerme Negrito, were deemed preferred.
Yalla Tnam Rima was preferred because it was calming and resting. According to the
data this lullaby ‘alerts the sadness’, ‘rests the soul’, ‘touches the inner feelings’ and
37
‘speaks to the heart’. Ikope Ye Tollo sounded fun and full of happiness, and Videvisan
sounded cute and nice. Duerme Negrito kept the listeners’ attention and was rhythmic.
Keep in mind that the listeners were not yet told that all of these songs were lullabies.
A similar situation occurred with the Data Analysis Workshop. All the songs were
preferred with the exception of song 4, Duerme Negrito.
The word ‘calm’ is also
mentioned here, as well as ‘peaceful’, ‘relaxing’, ‘warmth’ and ‘love’. The musical
elements mentioned are also similar to what was found in the data: melody, contour,
colour, rise and fall (of phrases), rhythmical, and mode.
In the data, the least liked songs were numbers 6, Cape Breton Lullaby, and 3, Videvisan.
For Cape Breton Lullaby in particular, the data show that the listeners felt there was little
emotion from the singer, it was boring, it was difficult to imagine and did not attract
them. Videvisan lost the listeners’ attention and began to put them to sleep. Not knowing
that this is a lullaby, perhaps putting the listener to sleep is a good indication that
Videvisan is an effective lullaby.
In the Data Analysis Workshop, Cape Breton Lullaby was also among the least liked, as
well as E do No K omori Uta, because they were irritating and annoying, and they were
difficult to appreciate. The Duerme Negrito was the least liked because it did not sound
like a lullaby. It was felt that it was too busy and stimulating to be a lullaby. Going back
to the data, when participants were asked if they would consider any of these songs to be
lullabies, Duerme Negrito was not one of them. It was deemed too ‘up beat’ to be a
lullaby. However, according to the isoprinciple (Wigram , 2002), when singing a lullaby
38
to a baby, one must first match the baby’s emotional state and make that emotional
connection before changing the style of singing to a more calming and relaxing one
(Baker & Mackinlay, 2006). We could therefore consider Duerme Negrito as a lullaby
that could match a baby or child’s high energy or distress, and then would gradually
become less up beat, perhaps slowing down the beat and making the phrases a little more
round as the baby or child calms down and settles.
In answer to my first question, the findings of this research suggest that the most
important musical elements of a lullaby are: predictability, steady rhythm or pulse, simple
melodic pattern, fluidity of the melody, rise and fall of phrases, slower tempo and the
space in between the notes. Bargiel (2002) adds that repetition is also an important
element: “repetitions of refrains, of musical phrases, and notes” (p.7).
Trehub and
Trainor (1998) state that the designation of the “lullaby in Western societies, privileges
certain sonorous patterns such
as humming, syllables
without signification,
onomatopoeia, the repetition of syllables, and the diminutives of words” (in Bargiel,
2002).
Likewise, when selecting music for fragile, premature babies in the NICU,
Schwartz and Ritchie (1999) emphasize simplicity, gentle rhythms, flowing and lyrical
melodies, simple harmonies, and soft tone colours.
These musical elements are broad and can be easily adapted to any song. The elements
that are used as well as how they are used in each song appears to vary between each
culture. Cass-Beggs (1969) observed that lullabies from Central and South America have
a certain vitality and richness to their rhythms, as well as a passion that is not as
prominent in other lullabies. With Scandinavian lullabies, Norwegian in particular, there
39
is no sense of fear or anxiety present in these songs, only contentment and satisfaction.
So it is possible to sing a lullaby within any scale or mode and style, within a small or a
large melodic pattern, and with an even, steady beat or with a more powerful complicated
rhythm. It appears that the intention of singing the baby to sleep is often enough, as
adults seem to have a natural way of adapting their tone to meet the baby’s needs
(Trehub, 2001; Trehub, Unyk & Trainor, 1993).
4.3 C L I NI C A L A PPL I C A T I ONS OF L UL L A B I E S
Pr ematur e I nfants
As I have mentioned previously, my reasons for choosing lullabies as my research topic
is that I would like to specialize my practice in paediatrics in hospitals and clinical
settings. I would like to be able to work with young children and babies, and more
specifically with premature infants.
With the advancement of medical technologies, babies who are born premature can
survive at a very early gestational age. This initial survival, however, leads to immediate
and future physiological and psychological difficulties due to the noisy and invasive
hospital environment, as well as the lack of physical and emotional contact with the
mother (Nöcker-Ribaupierre, 1999; Stnadley, 2003). Music therapy with this population,
when used carefully and through close monitoring, can be very beneficial in
counteracting the effects of stress and agitation caused by the high and invasive noise
levels of the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit). I say “used carefully” because too
much musical stimulation when the infant is not yet ready can also be detrimental
(Standley, 2003; Cassidy & Standley, 1995). Having a large repertoire of lullabies, and
40
being informed about their musical and emotional qualities, will allow me to select
appropriate lullabies for the individual babies.
As I will be working in a culturally diverse environment, understanding the messages of
the music and the significance these may have, as well as what cultural elements may be
present, will help me in being more culturally aware of the music I select for patients.
Being culturally aware is important when we live in a country that has so many
wonderfully diverse cultures. This research as well as Stige’s work (2002 ) on cultural
aspects of music therapy, has inspired me to look at my own culture and encourages me
to be culturally aware of those I work with.
F or the M other s
As the research results and literature suggest, listeners have their own preferences and
associations to music. This is also true of babies and their mothers. (Baker & Mackinlay,
2006). Nöcker-Ribaupierre (1999) observed that the relationship between a mother and
her infant can become almost non-existent when the infant is born premature and
hospitalized for a long period of time. The mother often experiences anxiety, guilt and
fear about her child’s predicament.
Using informed lullabies with the mother may
facilitate the continuation of this relationship, allowing an emotional connection between
the two. It is said that lullabies are used not only to calm the baby, but the mother as well
(Trehub, Unyk & Trainor, 1993).
While still communicating and conveying her
emotional state, the mother can diminish her anxiety and fear through lullaby singing.
41
This also allows her to relax and be better able to connect with her baby, which in turn
calms and sooths the infant. Stern (1995) and Trevarthen (2010) have written extensively
on the importance of the mother-child bond to both the child and the mother. This bond
develops through many modes of communication including speech, gestural, emotional
and also musical communication.
In the context of music therapy and this research, I can find out more about a mother’s
preferred use of music and facilitate the selection of lullabies for her to sing to her baby.
Baker and Mackinlay (2006) noticed that first-time mothers often did not know more
than 4-5 lullabies, nor did they sing to their babies prior to participating in the study.
Once the emotional and developmental value of singing and lullabies was explained to
them, they became more willing and in turn more comfortable singing to their babies.
Being better informed about the qualities and cultural nature of different lullabies will
allow me work with mothers of premature infants and help them in their lullaby
selections, as well as assist them in becoming more comfortable singing to their baby.
In a similar program, Kaplan (2010), created lullaby groups with at-risk expectant and
parenting teens and adults, where the properties and characteristics of lullabies were
defined. The group learned a variety of lullabies and practiced them in the group with
their babies. They also learned to personalize the songs, how to identify calming music
for their babies as well as what type of activities to use while singing lullabies. The
importance of lullabies in facilitating a relationship between mother and child is even
more pronounced when the mother suffers from a mental illness. Babies of mothers with
mental illnesses often show signs of chronic stress, have difficulty meeting cognitive and
42
physical milestones of infancy, and both mother and baby experience insecure attachment
(Field, 1998; Murray, 1992; Lyons-Ruth, Connell et al, 1990; Lyons-Ruth, Zoll et al,
1986; Goodman et al, 1993; Rosenblum et al, 1997; Seifer & Dickstein, 2000; Teti et al,
1995; in Kaplan, 2010).
Another area of music therapy work being developed is with expectant mothers to
facilitate the child birthing process (Browning, 2001; Allison, 2006). In Allison’s study,
music was selected approximately 32 weeks into the pregnancy so as to facilitate the
integration and assimilation of the music in connection with different tasks. For example,
stronger rhythmic music to play during house work that would be used during the
contractions; calming, relaxing music for the periods of rest in between the contractions.
In Browning’s study, the study group received music therapy prior to and during labour,
while the control group did not. Using music during the child birthing process showed
that the mothers had a greater tolerance for the pain, experienced more personal control
and were able to relax faster, than mothers who did not have music during childbirth. In
this context it could also be suggested that the mother write or adapt a song and create it
into a lullaby or welcome song for their new baby.
As I will be working with culturally diverse populations, being aware of the cultural
aspects, content and associations of various lullabies will be important when suggesting
this type of music to mothers and parents.
Paediatr ic Pain
43
Another area of work in a hospital setting is pain and stress management. With children
this can be more difficult as they do not often have many tools to deal with pain and the
stress of hospitalization. Music therapy can distract children from their immediate pain
and discomfort, bringing their attention elsewhere and allowing their bodies and minds to
relax. Although lullabies are initially sung to babies, they can still be very useful to
younger and older children, especially if specific lullabies were used by their parents at
home or at a younger age. Knowing what the basic elements of a lullaby are, I can adapt
almost any song that a parent or child wants into a lullaby. Gradually slowing the pulse,
softening the melodic line, or perhaps simply repeating the chorus of a popular song until
the desired calming effect is observed, are all effective methods of adapting a regular
song into a lullaby.
Stress and anxiety are big factors in paediatric pain, for the patient and the parents, but
for the treatment team as well. Working with the parents and child, I could encourage
them to sing a lullaby that they all know, or learn a new lullaby together. Lullabies can
calm the singer as well as the listener (Baker & Mackinlay, 2006; Kaplan, 2010). In a
tense situation such as when a child is receiving a painful procedure or treatment, singing
a lullaby together, or having the parents sing to their child, could release some of that
tension, put everyone a little bit more at ease, and decrease not only the child and
family’s anxiety, but the treatment team as well.
There is also the possibility of working with the patient and family in writing their own
song for coping with the hospitalization and the various treatment procedures. The child
can express his or her feelings about the situation, and use the song as a tool to deal with
the pain and anxiety by singing it themselves, or by having the music therapist or a parent
44
sing it for them. Being able to sing their own song themselves could give patients an
added sense of control over the situation. The song could be used to indicate when the
patient is ready to receive the treatment, by having the team wait until the song has been
sung at least once. The patient could also indicate to the team or music therapist when
the procedure is becoming too difficult, by singing louder or softer. These indications
would be discussed prior to the procedure in order for everyone to understand the signals,
should they present themselves. These can be used as tools to alleviate anxiety during
stressful moments of the patient’s hospitalization.
The emotions that are evoked by music are often associated to memories of our past
(Juslin & Sloboda, 2001; Lutz, 2008). Knowing about the music previously listened to
by our patients, or music that was played in the home, will help us select appropriate
music during periods of stress and pain. However, one should stay aware of the risk that
listening to preferred music during stressful or painful moments might create new
associations to the music for the patient, such as associations of pain and tension.
Preferred music may be comforting and soothing for patients, but they may no longer be
able to listen to that music once they return home. An alternative could be to select
music that is similar in style, but not the same specific bands or songs. It can all become
very tricky.
Personally, I believe that whatever appears to help the patient during
moments of anxiety and pain should be further explored and used, whether it’s a play
song, a rock song or a lullaby.
L ive ver sus R ecor ded L ullabies
45
It has been observed that babies have a system of preferences when it comes to the voice
and to singing. First, babies generally prefer a female voice over a male voice. Second,
babies will always pay more attention to their mother’s voice then that of any other
female voice (Rock, Trainor & Addison, 1999; Trehub, 2001). Third, a baby’s attention
will remain fixed on the mother longer if she is singing rather than speaking. Lastly,
baby’s attention will be sustained the longest when his mother’s singing is directed at him
(Tafuri, 2008). It is noticed that with infant directed singing, the singer’s voice has a
deeper emotional quality, and allows the singer to emotionally connect with the baby
(Rock, Trainor & Addison, 1999; Tafuri, 2008).
In a music therapy context, this information is important when developing a program for
hospitalized infants and babies as they are placed in an unnatural environment. When
deciding on appropriate interventions and music, live music is always preferred. It
allows for a better adaptation to the child’s immediate state, and the dynamics and tone of
the music can be altered to follow the changing behaviour of the baby. I can share this
information with the parents and educate them, if need be, on how to be aware of their
baby’s reactions and how to adapt her singing to meet his needs. When the parents or
music therapist cannot be present, making a recording of the mother singing to her baby
would be a good alternative to other lullaby recordings (Trehub, 2001).
When deciding on using lullaby CDs, the selection will be important.
I would be
referring back to the results found in the data. Choosing lullabies that have simple
harmonies, that have a slower tempo, relatively high pitch, and that have melodic
contours would be best. According to the data, it would also be important for the
recordings to have a high emotional quality that can be heard from the singer. For
46
example, even though Cape Breton Lullaby was musically pleasing, it was deemed
lacking in emotion, and may therefore not be an appropriate choice.
Another thought to keep in mind when selecting lullaby CDs is to choose lullabies from
various cultures. The pitch contours and prosodic patterns appear to be similar across
cultures. It appears that infants respond to lullabies of any culture, as emotions are
present and identifiable in all of them (Rock, Trainor & Addison, 1999). Choosing
lullabies from a variety of culture not only allows music therapists to build a large
selection of lullabies, but also promotes learning music from various cultures in general.
Bringing different kinds of music into an environment that perhaps has not been exposed
to a great deal of musical diversity can be interesting, stimulating, and enriching for
clients.
There are many options and opportunities to use lullabies in music therapy, for example:
with infants and babies in the NICU, with mothers who have babies and who have less
opportunity to emotionally bond with their child, or with mothers who need to learn to
control their own anxiety in a constructive way. Music therapy can also be helpful for
older children, who may need the familiar, soothing effects of lullabies to help them get
through the pain and anxiety of hospitalization and various treatments. The lullaby can
be used in various situations, usually with the objective of reducing anxiety, as well as
calming and relaxing the listener and/or the singer.
L ullabies in Palliative C ar e
As lullabies are sung at the beginning of life, would it not also benefit the end of life?
Loewy (2005) describes lullabies as being a wonderful tool in helping patients transition
47
toward the end of life. She explains that the theme messages in lullabies are those of
safety and holding. End of life is often filled with fear, anxiety, and anger for both the
patient and for the family. Singing a favourite or childhood lullaby of the patient could
allow them to ‘let go’ and be held by the music, allowing the transition from life to death
to be made more peacefully. O’Callaghan (2008) has also looked at combining lullabies
and laments, ‘lullament’, to sooth patients in palliative care and their families, and
facilitate the transition from life to physical death.
48
C H A PT E R 5: H OW I T E NDS
The focus of this research was on the emotions and images evoked when listening to
lullabies from various cultures.
This allowed me to determine if there were any
prominent emotional elements that appeared in the different lullabies as well as what
musical elements may be contributing to these feelings being evoked. I also interested in
discovering if there were any significant differences or similarities in the musical and
emotional elements when the lullabies from different cultures were played for listeners
who were also from different cultures.
The initial stage of finding lullabies was unexpectedly quite difficult. There were few
lullabies that fit the criteria of what I wanted to research: vocal only lullabies from
various cultures.
Vocal only, because I chose to recreate as close as possible the
experience of when a mother sings to her baby. When mothers sing their babies to sleep,
they rarely have an instrumental accompaniment in the room with them.
Once the 6 lullabies were chosen, I began with my analysis using an adapted version of
Ferrara’s musical analysis, and then proceeded to recruit participants. This also proved
somewhat difficult as there were not initially any responses. In the end, I was able to
recruit 3 participants, whos information was invaluable to this research and gave me
insights into the selected lullabies and the results that emerged from the research.
The results showed that there was a general consensus in how the lullabies were
perceived by the listeners. As mentioned earlier, the data show that the key elements that
appear to make up a lullaby is melody, phrases, soft, calm, relax, holding, and rocking.
49
All very general terms that can be achieved through various tonalities, modes, rhythmic
patterns and tones, It could be suggested that no matter the culture, the lullaby is at the
same time unique and universal. Adults and babies can listen to lullabies from any
culture and recognize them for what they are (Trehub, Unyk & Trainor, 1993; Rock,
Trainor & Addison, 1999). There are always exceptions, of course. When asked to
consider which songs they had heard could be lullabies, the participants found that all of
them could be lullabies with the exception of lullaby number 4, Duerme Negrito, because
of its faster rhythm and stimulating middle section.
Through this research, I have learned that there is not simply one way to musically define
a lullaby. Across cultures, lullabies appear to serve one purpose: it is a song that is sung
or played to babies and young children with the objective of calming, soothing, and
lulling them to sleep. How it is done musically is most often through a slower, steady
tempo with a repetitive melody and simple rhythm. But there are always exceptions to the
rule.
In music therapy, we can use the qualities of lullabies with specific therapeutic goals in
mind. It can be used to relax, calm and sooth younger patients when they are upset or
uncomfortable. It can assist them in dealing with the pain and anxiety of hospitalization,
and the painful treatments and procedures associated with it. Lullabies can be used for
parents as well, gibing them an active role during their children’s hospitalization and
treatments. It can allow them to feel some sense of control in comforting their children
by singing to them through difficult times. Singing lullabies may help the parents to
relax and decrease their own anxiety over the situation.
50
I enjoyed listening to the many different and interesting lullabies. It allowed me to
discover new lullabies that I can use in my clinical practice, and perhaps with my own
family. I also learned about music from various cultures, and what makes some cultures’
music different from others.
I recognize that this is a relatively small research. I hope that this project will be a start
for future research on multicultural lullabies. A possible path would playing various
lullabies from different cultures for healthy infants and babies to observe their reactions.
Afterwards, based on those results, playing those same lullabies for at risk babies or
infants in a hospital environment to investigate if their reactions are similar and if they
would be helpful.
For the near future, I think I would like to remain focused on pediatrics, more particularly
in pain and anxiety management and reduction, then perhaps moving on to parent anxiety
management and support groups.
Even though lullabies have been around for a long time, possibly as long as mothers have
been having children, and that it appears to be a natural thing that people o with their
children, I feel that it is still worth investigating in to the possible therapeutic qualities of
lullabies. It also appears that recorded music is taking precedence over singing to our
children ourselves. When people stop singing, even in the privacy of their own homes,
something is lost.
By looking into and doing more research about lullabies, and
specifically multicultural lullabies, I hope that it will encourage more people to learn and
51
use them, and allow us to keep building on our traditional lullabies as well as adding
culturally various ones to our musical libraries.
52
R E F E R E NC E S
Ahonen, H. (2009). Qualitative research. PowerPoint Presentation presented to MU606
Qualitative Research Course at Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON. Slides in
possession of Tanya Lavoie.
Aldridge, G., and Aldridge D. (2008). Melody in Music Therapy: A therapeutic narrative
analysis. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Allison, D. (2006). Music Therapy at Childbirth. In Bruscia, K. E. (Ed.) C ase Studies in
Music Therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Baker, F., and Mackinlay, E. (2006). Sing, sooth and sleep: A lullaby education
programme for first-time mothers. British Journal of Music E ducation, 23:2, pp. 147160.
Bargiel, M. (2002). Lullabies and Play songs: Theroretical considerations for an early
attachment music therapy intervention through parental singing for develpmentally atrisk infants. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy Vol. IX, no, 1.
Browning, C. A. (2001). Music Therapy in childbirth: Research in practice. Music
Therapy perspectives. Vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 74-81.
Cass-Beggs, B., and Cass-Beggs, M. (Eds), (1969). F olk Lullabies. New York, NY: Oak
Publications.
Cassidy, J. W., and Standley, J. (1995). The effect of music listening on physiological
responses of premature infants in the NICU. Journal of Music Therapy 32:4, pp. 180192.
Colaizzi, P. F. (1978). Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In R. S.
Valle and M. King. (Eds), E xistential-phenomenological alternatives for psychology, pp.
48-71. New York: Oxford University Press.
Duerme Negrito lullaby information and translation. Bellevue Chamber Chorus.
http://www.bellevuechamberchorus.net/Research/WorldMusic/Music/DuermeNegrito.ht
m. Retrieved on February 20th, 2010.
Definition of Lullaby. Oxford Music Online.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/17160. Retrieved
on January 21st, 2010.
E do No K omori Uta lullaby liberal translation, Naoko Matsumura McKee, April 25th,
2010.
Ferrara, L. (1984). Phenomenology as a tool for musical analysis. Musical Quarterly,
vol. 70, pp. 355-373.
53
Ferrara, L. (1991). Philosophy and the analysis of music: Bridges to musical sound,
form, and reference. Contributions to the study of music and dance. vol. xxii, pp. 360.
Forinash, M., & Gonzalez, D. (1989). A phenomenological perspective of music therapy.
Music
Therapy, 8, 35-46.
Forinash, M., and Grocke, D. (2005). Phenomenological Inquiry. In Wheeler, B. (Ed)
Music Therapy Research, second edition. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Giorgi, A, (1975). Convergence and divergence of qualitative and quantitative methods
in psychology. In A. Giorgi, C. T. Fisher, and E. L. Murray (Eds), Duquesne studies in
phenomenological psychology. Vol. 2, pp. 72-79. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University
Press.
Hailstone, J. C., Omar, R., Henly, S. M. D., Frost, C., Kenward, M. G., & Warren, J. D.
(2009). It’s not what you play, it’s how you play it: Timbre affects perception of emotion
in music. The Quarterly Journal of E xperimental Psychology. 62: 11, pp. 2141-2155.
Juslin, P. N., and Sloboda, J. A. (2001). Music and emotion: theory and research.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, R., S. (2010). Lullaby 101: A program for At-Risk Expectant and Parenting
Teens and Adults. Presentation presented at Canadian Association for music Therapy
Conference, in Halifax Nova Scotia. Handout in possession of Tanya Lavoie.
Loewy, J. V. (2005). The Use of Lullabies as a Transient Motif in Ending Life. In C.
Dileo & J. V. Loewy (Eds.). Music Therapy at the End of Life. pp. 141-148.
Lutz, J. (2008). Music, memory and emotion. Journal of biology, vol. 7(6):21.
Nöcker-Ribaupierre, M. (1999). Premature birth and music therapy. In T. Wigram & J.
De Backer (Eds.). Clinical applications of music therapy in developmental disability,
paediatrics and neurology. pp. 47-65.
Nordoff, P., and Robbins, C. (2007). Creative Music Therapy: A Guide to Clinical
Musicianship. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
O’Callaghan, C. (2008). Lullament: Lullaby and Lament Therapeutic Qualities
Actualized through Music Therapy. American Journal of Hospice & Palliatice Medicine,
vol. 25(2), pp. 93-99.
Pierce, C.S. (1965). Collected Papers of C.S. Pierce, C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss (Eds.).
Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Rock, A. M. L., Trainor L. J., Addison, T. L. (1999). Distinctive messages in Infant
Directed Lullabies and Play Songs. Develpmental Psychology Vol. 35:2, pp. 527-534
54
Ruud, E. (2005). Philosophy and theory of science. In B.L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music therapy
research (2nd ed.) (pp. 33-44). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Schwartz, F., and Ritchie, R. (1999). Music listening in neonatal intensive care units. In
C. Dileo (Ed.), Music therapy and medicine: Theoretical and clinical applications.
Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association, Inc., pp. 13-22.
Smeijster, H. (1997). Multiple Perspectives: A Guide to Qualitative Research in Music
Therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Standley, J. M. (2003). Music therapy with premature infants: Research and
developmental interventions. Silver Spring, MD: The American Music Therapy
Association.
Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis
and Development. New York: BasicBooks.
Stern, D. N. (1990). Diary of a Baby. New York: BasicBooks.
Stern, D. N. (1995). The Motherhood Constellation: A unified view of parent-infant
psychotherapy. New York: BasicBooks.
Stige, B. (2002). Culture-Centered Music Therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Tafuri, J. (2008). Infant Musicality : New research for educators and parents. Trans.
Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Titon, J. T., and Slobin, M. (2002). The Music-Culture as a World of Music. In Titon, J.
T. (Ed): Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’ s Peoples. Boston,
MA: Thomas Shirmer.
Trehub, S. E. (2001). Musical Predisposition in Infancy. Annals New York Academy of
Sciences. Vol. 930:0, pp. 1-16.
Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., and Trainor, L. J. (1993). Adults Identify Infant-Directed
Music
Across Cultures. Infant behavior and development, vol, 16, pp. 193-211.
Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., and Trainor, L. J. (1993). Maternal singing in cross-cultural
perspective. Infant behavior and development, vol, 16, pp. 285-295.
Trehub, S. E. & Trainor, L. (1998). Singing to Infants: Lullabies and Play. In RoveeCollier, C.,
Lipsitt, L. P. & Hayne H. (Eds.) Advances in Infancy Research: Vol. 12 (pp. 43-77). Standford,
CT: Ablex Publishing.
55
Trevarthen, C. (1979). Communication and cooperation in early infancy. A description
of primary intersubjectivity. In M. Bullowa (Ed.), Before Speech. The Beginning of
Human Communication. London: Cambrige University Press.
Trevarthen, C., Malloch, S. (2010). Communicative Musicality: E xploring the basis of
Human Companionship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Unyk, A. M., Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., and Shellenberg, G. (1992). Lullabies and
Simplicity: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Psychology of Music, 20. pp. 15-28.
van Kaam, A. L. (1959). Phenomenal analysis: Exemplified by a study of the experience
of “really feeling understood.” Journal of Individual Psychology 15(1), pp. 62-72.
van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action
sensitive pedagogy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Wheeler, B. (Ed.) (2005).
Barcelona Publishers.
Music Therapy Research, second edition.
Gilsum, NH:
Wigram, T., Bonde, L. O. and Pederson, I. N. (2002). A comprehensive guide to music
therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Zentner, M., Grandjean, D., and Scherer, K. R. (2008). Emotions Evoked by the Sound
of Music: Characterisation, Classification and Measurement. E motion, Vol. 8(4), pp.
494-521.
56
Discogr aphy
Le monde en berçeuses
Putumayo Presents - African Dreamland
Doudou: Le monde des berçeuses à capella, Vol. 1
48 Berçeuses du Monde
57
A PPE NDI C E S
A PPE NDI X A - E thical R eview A ppr oval L etter
58
A PPE NDI X B - C onsent F or m
WILFRID LAURIER UNIVERSITY
INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT
You are invited to participate in a research study. The purpose of this study is to
discover if and how cultural elements influence/vary the emotions and images evoked in
music from different cultures? The researcher is Tanya Lavoie, a Master’s of Music
Therapy Candidate at Wilfrid Laurier University. The research supervisor is Dr. Heidi
Ahonen, professor in the music therapy department, (519) 884-0710 ext. 2431,
[email protected],
Information
The purpose of this research is to determine if different emotions and images are evoked
when listening to music from different cultural backgrounds. Because this research
project is looking at culturally diverse music, the participants would also be culturally
diverse. Preferably, the participants would come from strong cultural backgrounds.
Selection will be based on cultural diversity and the number of participants interested in
this research. Researcher will select 6-7 participants, 1 participant per culture group (eg,
asian, north-european, African, middle-eastern, north-american, south-american,
european).
The amount of time required of the participant will be between 45 minutes to an hour.
Participants will be asked to listen to 6 pieces of music and write down the emotions,
images and/or sensations evoked after each piece. At the end of the listening,
participants will be asked to identify which piece they favoured and attempt to explain
why.
R is ks
The participants will have to come to WLU. Those with cars may have to pay for
parking. The participants may fall asleep during listening. The participants may also
experience some strong emotional responses during the listening.
Research will ensure that the participant is comfortable prior to starting the listening and
throughout the listening process. The lullabies played will be short, and discussions will
occur in between each lullaby. Water and light food will be provided during the listening.
Name and location of counselling services in the area will be provided.
B enefits
The participants will experience music from other cultures. The sharing of emotions,
images and sensations will help researcher better understand possible elements in the
pieces of music.
C onfidentiality
Name, gender, age and religious background will not be used in the research report and
findings. Because of the nature of the research, the general cultural background of the
participant will be identified. The listening will take place in a closed room at WLU.
Researcher will be the only one with identifying information of the participant and this
information will be kept in the researchers personal computer, which is password
protected. This information will be destroyed at the end of the study in September 2010.
59
The research will be presented during an oral defence. The research may also be
presented at music therapy conferences and workshops.
The researcher may use the participant’s responses in the study, as well as quotes
acquired during the discussions. The participant’s responses to the listening will be video
recorded and transcribed by the researcher. No video or audio excerpts of the
participants will be used in the presentation of the research,
C ontac t
Participants are invited to ask the researcher questions about the study, the procedures
and their rights, prior, during and after the listening and discussions. The researcher can
be contacted by telephone at (519) 616-9817. If the participant feels that their rights
were not met, or if they experience any adverse effects during the listening and
discussions, they must contact the investigator and Research Office immediately, (519)
884-9170 ext. 3131.
The Research Ethics Board at Wilfrid Laurier University has reviewed and approved this
project. If you feel you have not been treated according to the descriptions in this
information letter, or your rights as a participant in research have been violated during
the course of this project, you may contact Dr. Robert Basso, Chair, University Research
Ethics Board, Wilfrid Laurier University, (519) 884-1970 ext. 5225, or [email protected]
P articipation
Participation in this study is voluntary. Participants can refuse to participate or
discontinue participation without any penalty or loss of benefit to which they are
otherwise entitled. If participants decide to withdraw from the study, all the data
collected will be destroyed and not used for the research. Participants also have the
right to refuse to answer any questions or participate in any activity.
F eedbac k and P ublic ation
This research is for a Major Research Paper, as part of the Master’s of Music Therapy
program. The research will be presented in September 2010 for an oral defence
involving 3 WLU professors and any audience members who wish to attend.
Participants are welcomed to be present at the oral defence. Once completed, the
research will also be put on the LCMTR web site. The research could also be published
if accepted by a music therapy journal.
C ons ent
I have read and understood the above information, acknowledge having received a copy
of this form, and agree to participate in the study.
Participant’s signature _________________________________ Date______________
Researcher’s signature_________________________________ Date______________
60
AP P E NDIX C -P artic ipant Ques tionnaire
First piece
How did it make you feel?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Did you have any images? What were they?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Did you experience any physical sensations? What were they?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
61
After having listened to all the pieces Which piece did you prefer, and why?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Which piece did you like the least, and why?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Would you consider any of these pieces as lullabies?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
62
What is your reaction in knowing that all of these pieces are lullabies?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
A PPE NDI X D - Data A nalysis W or kshop Questionnair e
63
First piece
How did it make you feel?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Did you have any images? What were they?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Did you experience any physical sensations? What were they?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What clinical meaningful aspects did you hear in the music?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
After listening to all the pieces -
Which piece did you prefer?
64
Which piece did you least like?
What musical and emotional elements contributed to that preference?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
A PPE NDI X E - Data A nalysis W or kshop L istening R esponses
Song 1
65
C linical Aspects
E motions
I mages
Physical Sensations
M usical E lements
acapella
clean rhythm
diversity
descending line
frequency
form
harmony
held notes
human voice
melody
melody was grounded
musical contrast
predictability
range of voice
repetition
repetitive
rests
rhythmic consonants
rhythms
slides ~ glissandos
structure
tonic
volume
voice
C alming/C omfor t
Calming
Comforted
Grounded
Hugged
Peaceful
Relaxed
Soothing quality
W oman
30 years old
Brown skin
Longer black curly hair
Old in spirit
Woman
Woman singing
Young of face
Singing
- western clothes -
R elaxed
Body relaxation
Gentle and warm breeze
Slowly turning wind
Warmth
Night time
Creek of light
Dark
Dark night
Darkness
Evening
Moon
Stars
Other
Resonance in my heart
– chest
Anxious
Chest cavity was a
hollow steel vessel
Eye twitched
E motions
balance
calming
containing
holding
relatable
safe
understandable
Other
aesthetically pleasing
beautiful voice
brought me inward
simplicity
R eflective
Brought me inward
Internal
Reflective
Wondering
E motions
Interested
Liked it in general
Lonely
Longing
Sad
Wanting
Yearning
Adventurous
Engaged
mesmerizing
C ultur e
Foreign
Middle eastern Arabic
feel
Other
Deep voice
Not being able to
predict
surrounded
L andscapes
Arabic landscape
Cave
Desert
Middle East
Sand
Sky
Summer
Sun
Waves
Wind
Blurry
Echoey place
Empty concert hall
Pleasant
Round
vision
feeling
Sadness
Longing
Nostalgia
66
Song 2
C linical Aspects
E motions
I mages
Physical Sensations
M usical E lements
-Accapella
-melodic line
-musical breaks
-musical space
-phrasing
-Range of melody
-repeated
-repetition
-rise and fall
-Same note
-space
-tone
-tonic
B ody
-dance
-dance-like
-flowing rhythm
throughout my body
-relaxed
Natur e
-bird sounds
-birds chirping
-butterflies flying and
playing
-Jungle
-wild but safe jungle
-water dripping off the
leaves
-middle of a rainforest
-middle of a thick
forest
-open meadows
-summer sun
-sun shone through a
waterfall
-surrounded by lush
forest
-trees
M ovement
-dance
-rhythmic body
movement
E motions
-calming
-comfort
-containing
-curiosity
-grounded
-sense of momentum
-validating
Other
-movement
-clarity
-constant
-beautiful voice
Soothing
-“I know you're
hurting, but it will be
ok soon”
-calm
Other
-cheerful
-curious
-Flat
-foreign sounding
-happy
-introverted
-joyful
-like it
-internal
-interested
F igur e
-woman singing
-wearing an orange
robe
-african woman
-arms outstretched
Other
-warmer country
-african woman
-beautiful place
-interpretive ~ modern
dance
Other
-smile
-strained in back of my
throat
67
Song 3
C linical Aspects
E motions
I mages
M usical elements
clear melody
repeated
easy to remember
form
melody
C alm
Calm
Comfortable
Familiar
Peaceful
Relaxing
Simple
Soothed
B aby
Baby’s eyes fight to
Contraction
stay open and on
mother’s face
Sleepy
Mother and baby going
to sleep
Tensing
Mother silhouetted
against window singing
to baby
Pushing a child slowly
and gently on a swing
Rocking
Rocking cradle
M emor able
Catchy
Clarity
Clear
Continuous
Memorable
Simple
Simplicity
Other
Western sounding
Potential for
improvisation
H appy
Happy
Happier
Positive
Almost energetic
Loved
Other
Hopeful
Irritated
Drowsy
Cared
W oman
Woman singing in a
field of yellow flowers
(in the middle of the
field)
A trickster female
clown
The person singing was
smiling and maybe
tapping
Darkened room
Physical Sensations
68
Song 4
69
C linical Aspects
E motions
I mages
Physical Sensations
M usical elements
ABA form
clean tempo
clear return to ~A~
theme
constancy of drum beat
grounds
contrasting sections
decrescendo
downbeat pulses
drum roll
drumming as the
foundation
dynamic change
interesting vocal
techniques
rhythm
rhythmic
rhythmic entrainment
sustaining notes
varying textures
Angry
Annoyed
Distracted
Irritated
Irritating
Less authentic
Too strong
Troubling
Natur e
Drum in Columbian
forest indigenous
culture
Jungle
M ove
Moving my body
Wanted to move-dance
constant
drive
excitement
grabbed my attention
holding by returning to
the familiar
stimulating
articulate in words
cultural meaning of
song
grounding
motivation
predicting
transitionary feature
Comforting
Intrigued
Positive
Energized
Excited
Fun
Like moving
Liked the beat
Real
Restless
Stimulating
Strong
Wake up
Stimulating
Clenching jaw
G r oups/People
People sitting around a Dizzy
fire at night playing
My heart beat
drums and singing
Person singing
Female dancers
moving-dancing with
small movements
Moving
Dancing
Drumming
W oman
The singer
The woman singing
dancing next to the
drum player
Twirling round in
circles
30 years old
A long red dress that
flares out
C ontinent
Africa
South American
cultural drumming
ceremony
Symbolism
Drum beat was
symbolic of my heart
beating
Intricate rhythms of the
earth and entire
universe
70
Song 5
71
C linical Aspects
E motions
M usical elements
C alm/R elaxed
limited accompaniment Calm
long vowels
Calming
melodic line
Peaceful
melody
Relaxed
Pentatonic
Relaxing
phrases
Satisfied
repetitiveness
Soothing
rise and fall
Sway like
slow
slow pace
Cheesy
Distracted
Insincere
E motions
calming
comforting
Lonely
happy
Nostalgic
interesting
relaxing
Normal
Qualities
Authentic
Beautiful
Momentum
Not predictable
Pure
Simple
Echoed
Opportunity for
improvisation
Happy
Wanted to laugh
Adventurous
Anticipatory
Curious
Instrument
Rain sounds
I mages
Physical Sensations
J apan
T ension
Ancient Japan
Tight stomach
Boy in Kimono with a Tightness in chest
Japanese haircut
Geisha
Almost fell asleep
Japanese landscape
Japanese 3 year old Laughter
Japanese garden
Smiling
Nap in the Tatami
room
Supported
Stone, moss,
Sustaining
shishiodoshi
Sparseness of
accompaniment
Sounds
Grandmother singing Voice stands out
Harp of heaven
Sound of money
clinking
Stringed instrument
accompanying herself
Singer
Lonely female singer
Old Asian grandma
Tapping boy’s
stomach as he falls
asleep
Woman sitting
Seasons
Changing seasons
Fall-Spring-Summer
Natur e
Birds soaring
Clear river
Nature
Water
Waterfall
Wooden bamboo
water wheel
A tmospher e
Ambient
Beautiful place
Calm day
Dark
Lit stage
Restaurant
Other
Graceful
Lying down
No blankets
72
Song 6
C linical Aspects
E motions
I mages
Physical Sensations
M usical elements
understand the lyrics
colours
lyrics
melody
Mode
passing tones
pop song
structure
unsteady rhythm
clear form
Not liked
Criticizing
Did not enjoy
Distracted
Irritated
L andscape
By the cliff
Cliffs
Fields
Green grass
Huge rocks
Ireland
Ocean
Moor of Ireland
Sea
Seashore
Stony walls
The coast
H ear ing
Didn’t listen to the
words
E motions
feelings
soothing
Place
feels like the coast
C alm/R elaxed
Calming
Relaxed
Comforted
Soothed
Like going home
Refreshing
Liked it
Nice
Searching
Yearning
Natur e
Birds
Enjoying the nature
Gentle waves
Water
Waves
Wind blowing
Stars just coming out
Sunset
Summer
W oman
Celtic long haired
blond harp player
Irish-Caucasian woman
singing
Young female
Difficulties of her real
external life situation
Young woman trying to
escape
Creating a fantasy
Buckles
Straight jacket
Skin
Feeling a cooler,
evening breeze
73
L east L iked
Pr efer r ed
Number s
4th (5; least lullaby-like)
5th (2)
6th (2)
Number
1
2 (2)
3 (3)
5 (2)
6 (2)
annoying
cheese
fake
irritating
mocking
stimulating
too busy
un-authentic
instr umentation
harp
rain stick
cartoon-like
difficult to appreciate
laugh
less clear form
Qualities
Aesthetics
Beautiful clear voice
Clear
Committed voice
Gentle
Interesting
Fell in sleep
M usical qualities
Contour
Colours
Ends phrases
Fast
Form
Melody
Mode
Musical landscapes
Not much vibrato
Predictability
Regularity
Rhythmical
Rise and fall
Slowing
Style
Tempo
F eelings behind the music
Calm
Comfortable
Connection
Emotions
Energetic
Fulfilling
Hope
Love
Peaceful
Positive feeling
Relaxing
Strong
Warmth
Bird sounds
Culture
Dance like
Identified
Images
Language
People
74