Document 59997

li. r
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES
J. DAVIS,
SecretarY
CHILDREN'SBUREAU
GRACE
ABBOTT,
Chief
PUBLICAID TO MOTHERS
WITH DEPENDENT
CHILDREN
PRINCIPLES
EXTENTAND FUNDAMENTAL
By
EMMA O. LUNDBERG
I
No. 162
BureauPublication
( Revised )
UNITED STATLS
GOVERNMENT
PRINTING
OFFICE
WASHINGTON
t92E
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
IINCLE
COPIES OF TEIS
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TNEE
UPON
PUBLICATION
IfAY
APPIICATION
TO
B'
IEE
CEII,DEEN,S BUREAU.
ADDIUONAL COPIES I(AY
Btr PBOCDRED FR,OI( TEE SUPERINITNDENI
OT
DOCUTf,ENTS, U. s.GOVEBNI{ENT PBINIINO OFrICE,
WASEINGTON, D, C
IT
5 CENTS
PDR
COPY
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitv
CONTENTS
MAPS
The adoption of an idea--- - -: - - - --- Beginnings of the mothers-'-;id ;;;;;;;Status of legislation on January 1, 1928-----Standards for mothers' aid legislation
Provisions of mothers' aid laws---Amount of aid as related to standards of living----Extent to rvhieh mothers' aid laws are applied-Public aid to children in their orvn homes.-persons to lt'hom aid may
be given (Map 1)----Public aid to children in their orvn homes-ages under which aid may be
given (Map 2) ----------Publie aid to children in their own homes-local administrative agencies
aeting alone or in coop€ration rvith a State agency (Map 3)---------Public aid to children in their own homes-State administration and supervision (Map 4)----
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
CHILDREN
WITH DEPENDENT
PUBTICAID TO MOTHERS
THE ADOPTION OF AN IDEA
The Conferenceon the Care of Dependent Children-commonly
referued to as the White House conference-called by President
Roosevelt in 1909, was responsiblein large measure for focusilg
attention on the desilabilitv of conselvingthe child's own home. In
the words of the conclusiorisof this confe-rence:
\
Home life is the highest and flnest prodtlct of civilization. It is the great
mokling force of mind and of character. Children should not be depriYed
of it except for urgent and compellirig reasons. Chilclrett of parents of worthy
character, suft'ering frorr terxporary misfortune, and chilclren of reasonably
eflicient and deserving mothers 'who are rvithout the support of the tlormal
trreadwinner, should, as a lule, be kept with their parents, sueh aid being
given as may be neces-saryto maiutain suitable homes for the rearittg of the
children.l
The first legislative provisions for public aid in their own homes
to children deprived of the support of the natllral breadwinner were
made almost simultaneouslvbv Missouri and Illinois. The Missouri
law was promoted by a fri.ter:nal organization, and the Illinois law
x'as proposetlbv Jutlge llerritt \Y. Pinckney as a result of his expeliencdin the'Chicalo jnvenile court. Aftbr thesebeginningsthe
idea spread rapidlv, fostered by the Mothers' Congress_andother
organi^zatiottrof *:o-en. bv juvenile courts, ancl b"y child-welfare
agEncies. So far as legislation i. cott"".ned, the plinciple of '6home
care of dependentchildren t' has met 'with more ready responsethan
any other-chilcl-welfaremeasurethat has ever been plgpgse4.
The recognition of public responsibility and the ideal that has
dominatedthe morrenrentfor prollidinq public aid of a character better fitted to make home life possible for children than the poor
relief commonlv administered are shown in the following excerpts,
the first from ihe leport of the New York State Commission on
Relief for Widowed Mothers, and the secondflom a circular issued
bv the Pennsvlvania State Board of Education when this board was
tl"resupervisoiy agencyfor motherstaid:
The normal development of childhood is one of the main functions of govet'nment. The best education requires a proper home training, and it thereby
becomesthe duty of the State to conserve the home as its most valuable asset
whenever factors other than the il[proper guardianship of the parel)ts threaten
its destruction.
The lmothers' assistancel law has two reasons for its existence-a humanitarian and an economic ole. There are iu our communities a large number
1 proceetlinss of the Conference on the Carc of Depentlent Children, held at Washington,
o. C., ,tanuar-i 25*26, 1t)0r,. Sixtieth Corlgress, second session, -Senate .Document No: 7-2-11
n.'9. fVasninglon. 1909. See also Foster llome Care for Dependent Clrildren, pp. 207-212
?u. S. fnitoren's Bureau Publicatlon No. 136, Washington, 1926)'
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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
2
PUBI,IC AID TO MOTEERS WITE
DEPENDNNT CEILDR,EN
of women with dependent children who ean not maintain their homes wlthout
assistance. We have eome to believe that as a principle of justice no hone
should be broken up for poverty alone. * * * Experience has shown that
priyate resources are not adequate, especially iu cases of long-continued dependency, The State therefore eame to feel responsible for the support of
this group. * * * It is actually cheaper in dollars and cents to maintain
children in their own hones than to support them in institutions, and " home.
made " children, cared for by their own mothers, have the best chance of
becoming health;-, norrnal citizens.'
'zReport of the Nerv York State Commisslon on Relief for Widoryetl Mothers,-p.
1
(Albany, 1914) ; circular on Mothers' Assistance n'und is,sued by PeDnsylYania Stete Board
of Educa.tion, p. 3 (Flarrisburg, 1918).
---provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
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BEGINNINGS
OF THE MOTHERS' AID MOVEMENT
- Before mothers' aid laws were enactecla number of states and
localities,hadrecognizedthe wisdom of the p"l".ipr" oi
u"a
had app-hedit in a limited way. As eaily as^1906"u"i,*aia
the iuvenile
courts of somecountiesof-califoinia granted county aict io ilrildr.r,
in their own homes; in 191r the stat"e began to re"imbursecounties
aid givento half grph.ans..
An O-kiah;-;il;;Tio;os p"o_
+."h
Ill
vrded
for " schoolscholalships_"
to be paid by countiesupon recommendation of the school a-uthoritiesio ctrildren *toiJ-widowed
mothersneededtheir earnin_gs. A Michigan lu* oi rsii also'author-i"aid"t
ized payment f-ron1 school" funds to eiable ct iia.en
p?lelts to attend school. Through a resolution bv the countv
"t
b8ard
o{ Milwaukee county, rvis., in 1"912.aid to -ott".,".-t"-iii.".u""
ot
children in their hoirieswas glven through it"
rn
.;"".rli.""orit.
New Jers3J someaid to depentent childrJn ir tt di. rro-*r rrla n"""
granted rrom countv funds prior to the enactmentof a speciallaw
in 1913.
The first definite legal provision of aid to mothers of denendent
children was passedU;' t[e Missoupi f,ug1.i"t;re ili911.-"Lt
first
rnls provrsron-apprredonry to Jackson county (in which Kansas
V]ty T located), brll!.Ialerin the sameyear it-was extended1o the
grrx-g.rsr..Lours. 'r'he tirst state-widemothers,aid law was enacted
in rilinois in 1911. colorado_adoptedb/ poputu" *i" it-Duri"g
?,"rrioth.".'
submitted
"
at
the
eldctioi
of
Le7Z.
rors
f3rtg::r:"tl:l_1"f,"
lE States enacted mothers, aid larvs.
rlrqracterof muchof this early legislation,due
,"311_."p:I,^1:llp]
rargety
to the hastewith which the idea was adopt"ed.
i" ..u., in the
revlslons and numerousamendmentsfound necassaryas the laws
rele^p1lt into operation.- The first r[nois act was co-"rrletervrevised
the,laws passedin 1918 w*"e io-piutety re::^]3lr.^;,r1_fi_t,u,9hls.
vrseoand m erght others.the laws passedat this time were
u*uhd"d
in 1915.otheichanger+ th& L';" huu"u"." *ua" i" ,"l*q"."t
legislation.but the
m"ajorityor ttre rater'amendmeni,
rruou-r.." to"
T:,-ll:'ry::,_ot uryplfcation
lTp"oling the administrationof existing laws, of
1y:.iifl of
:lull grant or ofmore inclusive,and of incre"asing'rhe
the total apfropriation availabft for
ia9_llt
carrylngout,the
thelr provisions.
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
STATUS OF LEGISLATION
ON JANUARY
1, 1928
Laws authorizing assistaneefrom public funds for dependent
children in their ohn homes had been adopted by 42 States,
the
'The
District of Columbia, Alaska, and Halvaii by January 1, 1928.
following States have such laws. variously-termed i'mothers' pensions." tt mothers' allowances,t'tt motherst aisistancefund," tt widbws'
'caid to mothers of
c-ompensation."
"aid for dependentchildren,"
de^pendent
children," qld (in New Jersey) " un act to promotehome
life for dependentchildren":
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Conneeticut
Delaware
X'lorida
fdaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iorva
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Mar}.land
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
NewJersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Obio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhodelsland
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Yermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
TVisconsin
Wyomlng
Not all theseStates,however,have czrried into actual practice the
theory of their mothers' aid laws. The principle of home care for
dependentchildren is generally acceptedln thii country! but the 1?
yeirs' experimentin p*rovidin! such care has by no -u'uns demonstrated that the need has been met. In Marylahd (except for two
counties) the mothers' aid legislation has becohe inoperative because
of a defect in the tax cllusg and in several other States practically
no use has beenmade of the'legal provision. In many Stites exceilent work has beendone in certain localities,whereasin other localities of the same State the provision has been ignored or made inoperative through Iack of adequateappropriatiois.
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provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
STANDARDS FOR MOTIIERS' AID LEGISLATIONs
Althoush mothers' aid lesislation must be drawn with due consideratioriof the conditions"existingin each State or other division
of government,and especiallywith iegard to larvson relatedsubjects,
certain fundamental standards must be observedif such larvs are
to be efrective child-rvelfare measures. These standards may be
summarizedas follows:
1. Application broad enoughto permit aid rvhenever
suchmeansa suitablehomemav be maintained.
bv
"2.
Ase limitation to conform t6 educationand chiltllabor lan's.
3. Amount of aid to be baseclon the needs of each
individual family, with due regard to other available
Iesources.
4. Inquiry in each caseto determine the home conditions and the assistanceneededfor the proper care of
the children.
5. Continued oversight in order that the welfare of
the cliildren may be.protected and the aid adjusteclto
meet chanEinEconditions.
6. Proviiioi of safeguard.snecessaryto protect the
public treasury against fraudulent br unwarlanted
claimsand againstburdensthat should be borne bv other
communities-or by individuals legaliy responsibieand
able to furnish support.
7. Administration lodsed in the public acencv best
fitted to carry out the fiovisions of the law"as ir, constructive child-rvelfare measure.
8. Appropriation adequateto earrv out the purposeof
the larv-,-wifhrespeetbofh to funds iequired fbr aid and
to expensesof administration.
9. Some form of general oversight by tlie State combined rvith educationalactivitiest-odev"elop
hieh standards in the n'ork of the local administrative ag'encies.
The following section shows to n'hat extent these standardshave
beencarried out' in the provisions of existing mothers' aid laws.
I See A Tabular Summary of State Laws Relatlng to Public Aid to Cbtlclren in Their
Own Homes (U. S. Children's Bureau Chart No. 3, Washington, 1925).
78229._28_2
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
PROVISIONS OF MOTIIERS' AID LAWS
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICE AID MAY BE GIVEN
PERSONS TO WIIOM AID MAY BE GIYEN
The central idea in the theorv and earlv discussionof aid to deDendentchildren in their own homesand the most eommoninclusion
in the earlier larvs was aid to widows.a Gradually the conccption
has widened. and the trend of legislation in the various States has
beentoward'increasingthe application of the law, giving the benefit
of the aid to dependent children wherever the circumstancesare
such that the home should be maintained. By January 1, 1928,only
5 (Connecticut,Marvland, New Jelsev, Texas,and Utah) of tlre 42
Stites having mothers' aid laws limiied the grant to ehildren of
widows, though all 42 included widows, directly or by implication.
The prevailing method is either to permit aid to be granted to any
motlier with ilependentchildren or to limit aid to certain types o,f
cases.including-thosewhere the father is dead, deserting,divorced,
physicallvor irentally incapacitated,or imprisoned,with necessary
resirictiohs pertainin"g to cases of' desertion and divorce. (Se"e
map 1.)
nkht Statesand the District of Columbia permit aid to be granted
to ariy mother with dependent children_. IrrWashinglo-n the- larv is
applii'ableto all mothers who are needyl in Maine,-Massachttsetts,
and Rhode Island to motherswith dependentchildren I in Nevada and
New Hampshire to mothers dependenton their own efiorts to support
their ihild"etr; in Colorado-toany parent or otlter persondesig'nated
bv the court. The Indiana liw p-ermitsaid for any cLil-d
found bv the court to be dependentor nellected and committed to a
countv 6oard of children'siuardians. whin it appearsto be for the
best ihterests of the child tb remain with the rnother. The larv for
the District of Columbia permits aid to be granted to the mother
or suardian wheneverthe trarent or parents of a child are unable to
-prdvide proper earein hisbwn homel
In the-otlier Stateswith mothers'aid laws aid is limited to mothers
in certain tvpes of cases. In 21 States children of desertedmothers
and in 9 S'tdteschildren of divorced mothers may be granted aid.
tr'amiliesin which the father is totallv incapacitatedmay be helped
in 25 States;16 Stateshavespecificpiovisio-nsauthorizingaid if the
father is in'an institution for the insane or is feeble-m1nded,and
22 Statesif the father is in a penal institution. Michigan' Nebraska,
and Tennesseespecifieallvauthorize aid to unmarried-mothers, and
in someother Sti,testhe l"awmay be so applied.
aThe Illinols act of 1911 wss entitled "Ilunds
to parents act," and the Colorado act
of lCl2 included a Darent, or parenls, who because of poverly were unitble ro provide
nionerlv for a denerrdent child, ln llllnois. however, rerision has limitcd thc application of
ine-taw to dependent chlldreu whose fathers are dead, deserting, or totally incapacitrtetl.
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
pRovrsroNsoF MorHEEst ,q.tnLaws
z
lo rr'latiresor guardianshaving eus. 4 f."* Statesgive assislance
tody of a,dependent
ehild, as follo$s: Any n.omanstandingin loco
parentisto a dependentchild or children,in Delawareand Rhode
f s l a n d l a g u a r d i a ni,n t h e D i s t r i c to f C o l r r m b i a ; ag u a r d i a n f. e m a l e
reJative,or custodian up_9n'whom a child is dependent,in X'lorida,
Idaho. Virginia. anrl Wiseonsinl a \rolnan n'ho has assumedthe
responsibilities of mother rvhen' both parents are dead. in New
JerseyI a relative n'ithin the seconddegreeof either parent if the
mother is_dead.in Nerv York: a stepmoiher,in Minnefuta and Virginia; and a grandmotlrer,in l\Iinnesotaand Wisconsin. In Colorado, fdaho, Nebraska.North Dakota, and Oregorrprrymentmay be
M A P 1 . _ P U B L I CA I D T O C H I L D R E N I N T H E I R O W N H O M E S
P E R S O N ST O W H O M A I D M A Y B E G I V E N
(Includes l€g:i$lation in etrect Jan. 1, 1928)
I
Tn$t$,:*e$'53!*co^t
child orchildEi
. T-h"9m'@th.r:;[email protected]@lativgq€uerdiaup4wlmchitdi6dag€hd€rqsanyw&tid"
Ind in [email protected] mr"ntis.
entig.d to bcn fite ol law in colorado, Fenn6yvania,
Frpcpund mqthere-nay be aided if dhe.wi.e
Vhdinia.and [email protected] orcgprcifially
lrclud€d in law ol Mohidan, [email protected], and. [email protected]
Uimairi.d
6drur
Olllot6
made to the mother or other person designatedbv the administering
agencyl and in Arizona and California aid may be granted foi'
full orphans as well as for half orphans .who are livin! in private
homes.
_ Aid may.be sranted to expectantmothers in Colorado,Missouri,
Pennsylvania,South Dakotai Virginia. and Wisconsin.
RESIDENCE
AND
CITIZENSIIIP
in
- Eligibility requirementsas to residenceand citizenshipvary
the di=frereni
States. Most Statesdo not require citizensh'ipor "du.laration of intention to becomea citizen of the United States.but 10
States and the District of Columbia have this requirement. Thirtynine require a period of residencein the State;'? of these contain
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
8
puBr,rc ArD To MornrtRs wrrrt DUPENDENT
oHTLDREN
no further nrovision. 16 specifv resicleneeboth in the State and in
only (or
the loeal p,ilitical rrnit. an,l t6 rrrentionroun(y residence
spe-cify
the
Twenty-three
unit).
political
local
in
other
residence
1 or 2 yeals.6 -reqttire
in the State; 14 require
lenqth of residence
-Thirty-tt'o
require f-r'om6
3 rTears.and J reqrtire 4 or i yetlrs.
mdnths" to 5 years' residenceiri the specifi-edlotal political unit.
Five of the 39 States require the fathei to haYebeen-a resirlent of
the state at the time of his cleath or disability. The District of
columbia requiresone year,sresidencepreceding'applicationfor aid.
OWNERSHIP
OF PROPERTY
f n t l r e m a i o r i t v o f t h e S t a t e sn o s p e c i f i cm e n t i o n i s m a d e o f o w n e r s h i p o f p r o t i c r t r ' 1b r r t i n s e v e i ' a l a n l s t h e r e i s e i t h e r a p r o h i b i t i o n o f
amorlnt
.uch olr.^ne.iliip"or a nlore reasonable provision limiting..the
((
of sut'h p.opei'ty. For example, in tlie Wisconsin larv the olvners l i i n b v ' a r r i o r h 6 ro { a h o m e s i e r r ds h a l l n o t p r c v e n t t l r e g r a n i i n g o f
aid' *" * * if the t'entll tlrereof rrorrld-not exceed tlle rental
rvhich a family of the -samesize as the fanrily of sueh palent, rer:eivjn thc
ing aid. ttoukl be obliced to pav fol living qttartcis," or
Ni'Lraska larv. "a motlier shatf nbt t'eceile such rclie{ n-ho is the
orrner of real'propelty or personal property other than the ho'useholtl goods of more tltan $2,000."
FURTIIEP"
CONDITIONS
,
Conditions determining to rvhotn aid should be granted are cons hility^to sive the clrild propel'care
c e r i l e dm a i n l y n ' i t h t l r e r n o t l r c r . ' a
l
x
u
m
p l e s b f g i , o t l p r . o v i s i o n su l e f o r r n d
n
e
e
r
l
.
and rvith ecdnomic
a r n o n s t h e t ' e q u i r e m e n t si r r t h e l h r v s o f A r k a n s a s . F l o r i r l l ' , l d a l t o ,
I l l i n o i s . J , o r r i s i a n a .M a r \ ' l a n d , 1 \ I i n n e s o t a ,M i s s o t r l i , N e b r r s i i n , N e vada. New Hampshire. ){ortlr Daliota. Ohio. Oklahonra. Sorttlr I)a, ashingiotr. West Virginia. rrnd W;'olring.
I < o t a .T e n n e s s e e , ^ U t a l tW
The'follorving is quoted flom the Arkansas law:
such rllowanceshali be nlade * * * onlI upou the follxving conditions:
(1) The child or children for rvhose benefit the ailorvanee is made must be
* * anrl whert
living with the mother of -such child or childl'en; (2) *
nrith her chilat
home
to
remain
he
able
n'ill
she
allowance
by nieans of such
dren; (3) the mother must. in the judgment of the court, be a proper person'
physicalll', morally, ancl mentally, for the bringing up of her children ; (4) -such
^albwance
shall. iir judgment of ihe court, be neeessary to saTe the chiltl or
children frour negleet.u
Imnortant items arc inclucledin tl-relaws of tn-o States (Pennsylthe educalion
vania and West Vi rEinia) in reqard to safegttarding
that "no payaid. Pennsvlvania'provitleof the childrenreeeiv-ins
"anv
child of propel age and
ment shall be made oi aeeonntof
nhvsical abilitv unless satisfaetorv ledort has been made lrv the
in rvhiehsrrchbrrpii is enrolled.stating tlrat such
i"o".hu.of the s"chool
chilcl is attendingschool.t,west'vi'rginia requircsthat-"satisfactorv reports muit be siven bv the teacher oT the district sehool
staiingihat the childre-nof thd recipient of this fund are atte-nding
schoo[ provided they are of proper age and physicaliy able to do so."
A;l;;mi;t1h". amount of time the mofber may be away at work without
itu iit'iiiniio
-her
health or legject of the ghildrcn'
injury to
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provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
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E
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PRovrsroNsoF MoTEERStero r,Aws
I
AGES OF CIIILDRENWIIO MAY BE GIVEN AID
The most important considerationin regard to the age to which
a child may be granted aid is that the age limit shall be in conformitv
with comp"ulsoivschool attendance and child labor laws. In CoIo"rado aid riray be granted to the a$e of 1-8years,and in Michigan and
Tennesseet6 the" age of 1? yeais. Indiana fermits aid u[ to 1?
MAP 2._PUBLIC AID TO CHILDREN IN THEIR OWN HOMES
AGESUNDERWHICH AID MAY BE GIVEN
(Includes
!
ffi
ffi
m
Nl
unac ra.
uncer tt
unoer tO.
under t5.
t,ndqr t4.
D
Nomothcrs'aid !qw.
_
V
_
I
O
i*
l%islatior
in efrect Jan. 1, 1928)
"1{
_}
rocord:
Ar!?ndin6
6chool with
foc worK:
satisfacrory
Riode
Itt or incapacitated
Maryl3n,
tstandfor w-ork:
wast virCinia.
or with
record,
AltendinC
ochool reCularry
Sarisfaccory
or i^[email protected]
Pcnn3vlvan;d.
law to attend
Massachuset6.
Unabla
b gccure
emDtc
Minnesota.
[email protected]_bv
School:
(supplemen&d
grant
law
menr ceftificate:-Wiscongin.
wadegl6s
ftaaimum
under
lhe
bi
than
allolmenr
equal
to the differencd);
Oragon.
u^til
ta:
Louis;6na.
Not entitted
6choolinCt
ceftificaa:
Itl or incapacitatd
for
b recelva
recelya
workl
work;
ade and 6chooling
a€e
Ohic
Ohio.
Noteoccified:
d phy3ical
Inc€ipablz d *lf-ouppff
on [email protected]
disabili!v:
Nevada.
lf for b6t
interGt
d child:
F torida
l?: tndiana.
UniJzr t4inSt.Lo-ui5,
Boys iJnder 16, llirts-under
l6throughoutremainderofStak:
Mi$ouri.
in Maryland.
in but lwo
cou^t:6
Law operalive
vears for Eirls and to 16 vears for bovs. In 30 States and the
ilistriet oftolumbia. aid m"avbe sranted to children until thev are
16 vearsof age. ( Seemap 2.) Eight of thesefix the age at 14 fears
but provide lhat'rrnder sieci'fiedcdnditionsit may be"continuid to
16 years, and 4 pelmit aid, under certain conditions,beyond 16
yeais. The States-which perioit aid to 16 years of age are:"
Arizona
California
Connecticut
F lorida u
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Louisiana I
Maine
Maryland r
Massachusetts8
Minnesotao
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
New Hampshire
Nevada u
New Jersey
New York
Oliiot
Oregon'
Pennsylvania t
Rhode Island 8
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia 8
Wisconsin "
0Aid to be continued beyond 16. No age limitation
(See map.)
specifled,
?Aid may bp continuFd to 18 utrder specified conditions.
tSee map.)
EAid may be granted to l6 under speiined cotrditions,
(See map.j
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
10
PUBLIO AID fO MOTtrERS WITE
DI]PENDANT CEILDIiEN
INVESTIGATIONAND CASESUPERYISION
The laws of most of the States include a statement relatinE to
investigationof each application to deterrnineeligibility undeithe
law, thi characterof thti home,and the amountof aid required. Continried oversight of the families'granted aid is also provided for,
which makes-possiblethe appilca-tionof principles of social case
work. In order to adiust the-allowancestb changing conditionsit
has been found desirablein some States to provlde-for review of
the grants at regular intervals-in most instanies oncein six months.
AMOUNTOF AID PERMITTED
Experience in the administration of motherst aid laws has shown
that it is desirableto avoid strict limitation of grants and instead
to be basedupon the needsbf each individual
to permit assistance
familv. In tletermininctl)e amount of the grant requireddue considerdtionshouldbe giien to the needsof the family as determined
bv its composition,ai well as to the avrrilableresourcesfrom earnirics of membersof the familv, aid from relatives,and other sources.e
the larvsof six States (Aiizona. Colorado,Maine. llassachusetts,
Rhode fsland, and \-irginia) and'the District of Columbia do not
specifv the amount of iiia that may be granted to each chilcl or to
e^achfamilv but plovide that the amorrntmav be fixed b.y the adin eachfamily
tvith what is-needed
ministrativ"eaEeniyin accot'tlance
to nrovide pro"perlvfor the children' In New York also the amount
is iot snecihed.bul the law statesthat it shall not exceedthe cost of
institutional care.
In most States providing for a maximum grant-this is specified
as a siven amount^fol eacfi child. In order to make a comparison
oossifflethe maximum urnountsspecifiedin the laws of the various
'Stut..
are here reducedto the maximum rvhich might be allorved
the States as follows:
for a family with three children, grouping
-Stafis.-.California,
Connecticut,''
M ani.4nut;.I 50-870 a nt'on'th: s
Indiana. Kansas.Michigan.Minnesota,Neva<la'Ohio.
.Marir:trum, SJ0-$49 a' tttontlt': 7 States.-Florida, Nort h,Dakota,
Pennsylvanii. South Dakota, IJtah, West Virginia. and Wy-oming.
Maiimun,'830-$")9 u moniht l0 States.-Ilfinois," Iorva, Louisiana. Missouri,'2 l\{ontana' Nebraska,North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee.and lYisconsin.
Maaimrum. 820-$29 a m'onth: I0 States.-Arkansas, Delaware,
Iclaho, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey,Oklahoma,Texas,
Vermont. and Washineton.
The laws of 11 State"sspecifv a maximum amount for a family of
anv sizeranging from $40to $60a rrronth-Kansas,Louisiana,Mqtyland, Missoriri,i'Montana. Nebraska.Nevada'North Carolina, Oregon, Utah, and. lVest Virginia.
s Fbr furtier discussion see Standards of Aid. p. 5'
*eekly buagel is given ]n detail in _the law. This,.bxdget provides for
childrer of u'idows) and for different amounts for
tne"A-mtii;um
wleoweA iother (riid is-iiriit"dio
ages.
children
' - ' i i n ' s n . iof
i a i -dlfferent
provlslon
-ieiating
p e r n i t s $ 5 ; , a m o n t b f o r t h - r e ec h l l d - r e n .
l o C b i c u g o-maxinium
aliowauce is $3'50 a \Yeek for each
ti""irr"'iiti'i,i'S;.
fiirl;:To*1vE-tfi"
cniro abproilinatety 6+Z u month for three cbildren.
1 3 E x c e p ti n J a c k s o n C o u u t y '
---ts-:-
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
pnovrsroNs orr trtoTHERs'AID t,AWs
11
ADMINISTRATIONAND SUPERVISION
Responsibility for the administration of mothers' aid laws has
been given to _variousagenciesdepending upon when the original
law was passedand npon which existing agencieswere considlred
best fitted-to undertakeihe new work. ln-onlv 4 of the42 States having such legislation (Delaware,New York, P6nnsylvania,
and Rhode
-In
fsland) has a new agencv been established.'n
32 States local
agencieshavechargeoT adininistrationand in 9 other Statesthey cooferate with a Statieboard having administrative functions.i5 ir u
MAP 3._PUBLICAID TO CHILDREN IN THEIR OWN HOMES
LocAL ADMINIsr RArIvEA3?r
(Includes
i'5i^1".t1[? fro
l€gislatioD
NEo RINcoo pERArIo N
in effect Jan. 1, 1928)
r
NI
[m
ffi
N
D
o
w
t
*o
[email protected]
instbuis.
majority of theseStatesthe local administrativeasencvhas countvwitl-ejurisdicti-on._fn one State (Delaware) admin'istrd'tionis soleiy
in the handsof a State agenc.y(seemap 3).'
Seventeenof the thirt-v:twd Siates in wfich State agenciesexercise
no administrative functions have someform of State"supervisionof
local administration. fn eight of theseStates rather general supervisory powersare given to a State agencv:in nine the only provilion
for Staie supervisionis that ihe local ag"ncy must make"annualreports concerning all its work, including mothers' aid, to the State
department.
t'Thq Maine law (I4ws of I91?, ch. 222) origiDally provided that loco.l boards migbt
be specially constituted for motbers'aid
u'irrk or be co'mposed of ovcrseers of the po:or.
but fl 1919 amendment (Laws of 1919, ch. 171) constituted tbese boards as boartis of
children's guardians also, with gcneral poners rilating to tbc investigation and prosecutlon o[ cascs of cruclt.v or viulatlons of l:rws for tbe protectlon of cbil-dren.
DIn lwo other States tMinncsotr trild Virginia) tba'laws rlive the State agency certalD,
powers which have not beell genorally exercised.
administrative
-'-
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
12
PI'BLIC
AID
TO MOTITERS
1VITTT DEPENDENT
LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE
CHILDREN
ACENCIES
Chieflv because the mothers' aid movement was in the beginning an
outgrowih of the jurenile-court movement, 19 States have placed admin-*istrationin cottrts haling jurisdiction over casesof delinquent.
dependent, and neglected childien. The types of local administrative
ug^encyin the States having mothers' aid laws may be sumrnarized as
follows:
Local adminlstrative
Number ot States
agency
42
Total------------------_!
Juvenile court-------County poor-relief officials.-----County or city board having other functions----------------Special county boarrl------Sihool boardNo local administrative agency----
13
5
3
1
1
Juvenile court.
The 19 States'u in which administration of mothers' aid has'been
placed in a court having juvenile jurisdiction are:
Arli&nsas
Colorado
Idaho'"
Illinois
Iowa
Louisiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Montana
Nebraska
New Jersey'?
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
South Dakota
Tennessee^
Vermont'"
-Washington
Wisconsin
Poor-relief ofrcials.
The 13 Statesin which countYor town officialsgranting poor relief
Connecticut(seadministerthe mothers' aid law are: Califot'nia,2o
lectman,\varden,mayor, or other local offrcialmakesrecommendation
aet upon report and
to State'asencv).Fl6rida (count.yeommissioners
recommendatibn'ofcountv board of public instruction),Kunsas,
(in
Marvland (act operativein only tu'o iounties). Massachusetts
rrith'State asencv). l\tissouri (except in St' Louis and
coop"eration
Ja&son County). Nevada,Xbittr Dakota. Texas, Utah. West Virginia, and lVyoming.
County or city board having other functions.
The five States" in which a countv or eitv board having other
functions relatinq to child .rvelfareoi public welfare also administers mothers,aid are: Arizona (State board also has administrative
authoritv). Indiana. Maine (state board also has administrative
authority), North Carolina,arid Virginia$ fn one other State (trIissourl) aalministration 1s ln the juvenile court in .Tackson
C
- ounty.
rz Aid is sranted bv courts and superYisionof families is by a State-board'
ta Childie"n are coirmitted by couits or oyerseers of tbe poor to the State departmen!
lor care in their own homes.
o'Ihe court acts upon approval of the county commissioners.
. e i t l , i - J i t r e i e d i a A e n c l e i ' a i e e m p l o y e dt h r o r i e b o u t t h e S t r t e i n t h e a d m i n i s l r a t i o n o f
nn"otr..outi"ii.i-,rna h-ottieis;aia: ind out'r'elief supel'intondont.county supervisors. indig e n t a g e n t , p r i v a t ( ' a g o n c y ' o r o b a l i o n - o f f i c l r . w g l f a r e d e p a r t m a n t ' c l e r k o r a - u d i t u r 'n [ l r s e
;"-rinv;tciah.' In San"Franciico-the administration is in part by a special \vidows' pension
b
u r e a u a n d i n p a r t b y t h e J u v t ' n i l ec o u l t .
";ii;
Si. Loriis,-U'o., dtdo' aOintnistration is.vested in the city board of children's
Cotumbia admlnistration of the law is in -the board o!
Eoa"^O'iati"'.ln-Tie-biitrict-'of
;hich--iso-h-as Ou-tiel-ietatlve to the suaralialqlip and placing out of
ii6iii:?6rrrii.
feii-itoriai :urtsdictibn ihe boartl hirs the antire lrdminlsin"-iimit"a
i'frirti""ri.-d*irg'?"
tration of the act.
provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown Universify
PROVISIONSOF MOTITENS'AID I,AWS
13
fn Arizona county child-rvelfare boarcls investigate applications
for aid and report their findings to the State child-rvelfare boarcl.
In addition to their duties in connection with the mothers' aid law
the county child-welfare boards investigate the case of a1y orphan,
rvaif, or neglected or abandonect child and report conditions to the
judg6 of thE-State supreme court and also to the State child-weifare
board.
Aid to dependent
*countv children in their orvn homes is administered in
boards of children's guardians. rvhich are also
Incliana bv
responsible for placing dependent and ne[lected children,in family
In Maine minicijral boards of ihildren's guardians havhoies.
ing general pon'ers relating to t.he inveltigation and ,prosecution
of caies of ciuelty or violation of la'lvs for the plotection of children make investigations of applications for m6thers' aid. They
transmit reports and recommenclations to the clepartment of public
r.elfare (constituted ex officio a State board of children's guardians)
and supervise the families grantecl aid by thc State board.
In North Carolina administration is placed in the county boards
l tn
r trileesn.t
o f e h a r i t i e s a n t l u u b l i e ' r t e l f n r e . r r h i c l i h a v e v c r v 'gscunpcctl''ai nl rt e
C n s e sr r e i n r e s t i g a t e r la n r l s t r p e r v i s c cbl p ' t h e c o u n i . r '
of public rrelfare (in efrect the executive officer of the cottnty board).
Th'e State boartl of charities and public lvelfare has geneiral overs i-Aclniinistration
s l r t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a l i o no f t h e l d w .
of the \rirgrnia mothels' aicl larv is placecl in
county or citv boards of public welfare. nhich ha,ve general porvers
Where no sucir boarcls exiit, juvenile or
as in"North"Carolina.
domestic-relations courts serve as administratir-e agencies. Thc
State boarcl of public welfare has general supervisory authority.
Specialboard.
The States in ri'hich special corutv. citv. or torrn boarcls have been
createrl to atlnrinister nl6thels' aid are Neri York. PennsYh'ania, and
Rhode Island.
Under the New York law. county child-rvelfare
boarcls have been especially created for ihe administration of
rnothers' aid. but a lair passed in 7922 provides that thev maY be
reorganized and gi ven additional poo e.s relat ing to depenilent
children.'- Pennsylvania has special county boards of trustees of
the rnothers' assislance funcl. in New Y<irk the State boarcl of
charities and in Pennsylvania the State department of n'elfare are
given general supervision of the administration of the law. Cit.y
br towir boards oi mothers' aid in Rhode fsland make investigations
and aclminister the lan' in cooperation with the State buriau of
mothers'aid.
School board.
New Hampshire has made local school boards, in cooperation
with the Statb board of education. the administrative agencies.
sIn three counties (Dutchess, Sufolk, and Westchester) administration of the law is
Dlacealin boards with other aluties in relatiou to publie rvelfare, in accordance $'ith special
Iegislatioe
provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
PUBLIC AlD To MoTEERS wITIT
14
STATE
Administrative
ADMINISTRATIVE
AND
DEPENDENT cEILDR,EN
SUPERYISORY
AGENCIES
agencies."
fn only 1 of the 10 States in which State agencieshave administrative duties has a special mothers' aid boald been created. In
this State (Delawale) the specialboard has entire responsibilityfor
mothers' aid administratiori. In the other g States existins State
agencieshave been designated to act in cooperation with locaTagencies, (Seemap 4.)
MAP4.-PUBLIC AIDTO CHILDRENIN THEIR OWN HOMES
STATE ADM INISTRATIONAND SUPERVISION
(Includes legislation in efect Jan. 1, 1928)
ri
Law opgrdilvo
Stab
in bu! two @u^ti"a
qdie^cy oG
in Marytand.
alone in Oelawarci
zlawarci
in @opsratio^
with
[email protected]
[email protected]
agenc)r in thsothor
agenc)'
the othcr
gtatce
ning
nino gtoG
Special State board.-fn Delaware a specialmothers'pensioncommissionhas beenestablished,
composedof nine memberi.three from
eaehcounty. Application for aid is made to the State'commission
and referred to the membersof the commissionfrom the countv of
the mother'sresidencefor investigationand report. The commission
determinesthe amount ancl durat-ionof aid.
State board haainq otfur funet,ions.-The States in which no
special State agency
has been createdto administer mothers,aid
"Ariiona.
are as follows:
California. Connecticut.Maine. Massachusetts, New Jersey, Rhode fsland. and Vermont. The District of
Columbia is also-classifiedwith this group.
23It has been difficult in some cases to decide on
the basis of the law wh€ther the
function of the State agency ls administrative
or supervisory.
A State agency has been
dcslgnated as having administratiYe
functions if. in addition to superyision, il approves
grants or visits families receiving aid.
in gdditlon to the 10 States listed undei tbis
give State departments
heaal the laws of Minnesota
and Virglnia
certain admini.stratiye
powers, but administratiye
responsibility
has uot leen generally
exereised.
------,=
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
=-
PROVISIONS OF MOTHERS, AID LAWS
15
fn Arizona the State child-welfare board acts upon reports of
county child-welfare boards. In California the bureau of children's
aid of the State department of finance works in cooperation with
courts or county ofrciials. In Connecticutthe widows' a-iddivision of
the departmenfiof State agenciesand institutions acts upon report
ancl re'commendationof lodal officers. In the District of Colurirbia
the home-caredivision of the board of nublic welfare administers
the law.
In l\{aine the State department of public welfare is ex officio the
State board of children'sguardians,and works in cooperationwith
municipal boards of children's guardians, either espticially constituted or composeclof overseersbf the poo.. fn Mdssachusettsthe
with local boards of
State departrirentof publie welfare coofueraies
public welfare. fn New Hampshire ttie St:i: board of education
acts upon recommendationof loial schoolboards. In New Jersey the
State board of children's guardians under the State department of
sirpervises
the families: aid is grantedby
institutionsand ageneies
courts. fn Rhocle-Islandthe burean of motherst'aid, esta'blishedby
with loeal boards
cooperates
the State public-welfarecommission,
of mothersiaid. In Vermont the departmentof public rvelfarereceiveschildren for care through juvenile courts or overseersof the
poor.
The division of authority in these States betweenState and local
agenciesma.y be stated as foilorvs: The State agency determines
whether aid shall be granted and- the amount. acting upon report
anclrecommendationof loeal agency,in Arizona, Connecticut,Maine,
New Hampshire, and Vermont. In California local authorities
granting aid may be reimbursedby the State, within specifiedlimits,
fhe State agency investigating applications for. aid and supervising
homeslrher-eaid is grranied. Th6 local agencyin Nerv Jersey determines n'hether aid ihall be given and t[e airount, commitding the
familv to the State board of children's guardians, which pays the
allowiince from countv funds and surrervi-ses
^asencv the familv. fn li{assachusettsancl RhocleIiland the local 'Statb determinel whether aid
board being requiredto
shall be granted and the amount,the
cooperatewith and supervisethe work of local agencies,visit families
in receipt of aid, and approve expendituresbefore the local treasury
mav be'reimburJeclfroriiState fuhds. (For conditionsin Minnesot"a
ancl\'irginia seefootnote23. p. f4.)
Supervisory agencies.
The eight States in which the law gives the St,ateagency rather
genelal supervisorv powers are: Minnesota, Missouri, I{ew York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin.2st
In Minnesota the State board of control is directed to promote
e{ficiencyand uniformitv in the administration of the law by the
juvenile courts.to advise''andcooperatewith the courts,suppiy forms,
to recordsof courts
visit and inspectfamilies granted aid. have aceess
and other agencieseoncerningallowances.and require reports.
23trUnder the probation law of 1925. which is interpreted as qpplying--to court ofrcrers
who administer inothers' aid, the State department of public welfare, in Ohio' is beginning
to exercise general supervision over mothers' aid work.
---
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
16
puBr,rc ArD To r\torrIERSwrrrl nEPENDENT
crIrLnREN
fn Missouri the State board of charities and correetionshas Eeneral supervisory power and control, except in Jackson County,. It
is the clutv of-the county courts.juvenile courts, county boards of
public
to cooperatervith the State
'board rveffare,and similir organiz"ations
and to' furnish inforilation rvhen req^uested.The county
clerksmust make a completeannual report to the State board.
In New York the State board of charities is vesteclwith general
supervision or.er local boards of child welfare and may require repo'r'ts
and revoke allowancesobtained in violation of law.
fn North Carolina the law provides that the State board of charities and public welfare shall have general oversight of the administration oT the law by the county boards of charities and public welfale, furnish necessaryblanks, give advice and help, receivereports
on each case,and gii'e appror,-il or d::eppror.al df reimbursement
from State funds.
In North Dakota the State board of administration is directed to
promote efficiencyand uniformity in the administration of the law
bv
'Inlocal poor-relie{ offlcials.
Pen?rsylr'ania
the State departmentof public welfare is charged
rvitli the suiervision of the rpec^ialcountv boards that administerlhe
Ian'. 'l'he State supervisor on the staff of this department is to
prornulgaterules of procedure,visit eachcounty boald at least twico
& vear. and act as general field organizer under the law.
In Virsinia the State boarcl of nublic welfare is authorized to
supelvise'local
administr.ative
ageneies
anrl citv or corrntyboarclso{
pubtie welfare as to methotls"of investigation,sttp"r-vision,
ancl
i'ecordl<eeping. ft mny requirerepolts. and is direct'edto visit and
inspect familils granted aicl and 1o approve reimbursementfrom
State funds if State appropriations are madetherefor. (None appear
to have beenmade.)
In \\risconsin-where the juvenile court is the local administrative
agency-the approval of the State boarcl of control is necessary
before any countv mav be reimbursedfrom State funds.
The nine Statbs in" n'hich the only supervision exereisedby the
State agencyis to require that annual reports be submitted to it are
Coloradb, Florida, Idaho, fndiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan,
Nebraska,and Ohio.
FROM STATEFUNDS
PAYMENTOR REIMBURSEMENT
State appropriations to supplementlocal funds have been made in
someStatesto encouragelocal grants and to raise standardsof relief.
States in which the application of mothers' aicl laws was originally
left to the initiative of local officials have frequentlv found it desirable to amend the laws so as to make approlrriatibns mandatory
instead of permissiveand to apply someform of assistanceor supervision by the State to carry out the intent of the laws.
In twb Stites (Arizona hncl New Hampshire) the entire expenditure for mothers' aid is made from State funcls. Twelve of the
42 States havins mothers' aicl laws are authorized to share with the
counties or municipalities the exrrenseof aid. In New Jersev the
cost of administration is borne Uy the State, the countiespayirig all
-a.-------
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
- -
t
PRovrsroNs oF MoTHERS ern lews
17
the allowance. In Dela'ware, Maine, I{orth Carolina,'a Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, and Vermont the State divides equally wilh the counlY,
town, or municipaiity the expenditures for aid. In California the
State furnishes one-half or mole of the aid grarrted. In Connecticut
and Massachusetts the State furnishes one-third. and local units
furnish two-thirds, of the expenditures. In Wisconsin a portion of
the expenditure is from State funds, the amount available being
limited by the maximum annual appropriation of $30.000 fixed by
Iaw. In Virginia the countv may be reimbursed by the State (if
appropriation. u.e made for-this lrurpose), but no Slate appropriation has been made. In Maine ancl l\{assachusetts all the aid to
families in which the mother has no legal settlement in any town is
chargeable to the State.
2aThe latv also lj.mits tlle mirximun
State aid permitted,
apportiotreal among the counties on a per capita basis.
tbe amount
specifled being
-
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
AMOUNT OF AID AS RELATED
LIVING '5
TO STANDARDS OF
Questionsare often askedin regard to the comparativecnst of care
of a chiid in his own home and in an institntion. Thoush it can be
demonstratedeasilv that home care-either in a child's oivn home or
in a boardinghom6in wlriclrhe is placedby a child-t'aringagencyis more econ-omical
financiallyt,.rn care in an institutionof fairlv
adequatestandards.this should not be the point that is given emphasis. The important considerationis l'hat the lack of home care
coststhe child. Deprivation of his own home is a very seriousthing
for any child, and it i. itr line with the best principlbs of rvork foi
dependentchildren that every effort should be made to conservethe
home.
The most desirableprovisions for aid do not limit the amount of
the grant for eachfaniily but make it possibleto supplv sucli aid as
for the
ts neeessarv
and the brrclqet'nieded
ln yle\\.of oiher l.esorlrces
proDer ma'intenance
of tlre familv. ]Iost families lrave sonrereiouices. such as assistancefrom leiatives. earninss of older chilclren
or of the mother, saving of rental through ou'nership of the house,
or recluctionin food coits tlirough use of-garden prohucts raised bv
the family. In many instanceswhere the maximum amount of aid
is specifie"rl
in the larv it is too small to cover the family's needsand
must be. supplementedby aid fro.m. some other prtblirc or private
agencyI in more unusnalinstancesit is largel than the family would
require if other resoulcesrveredeveloped.
The aid giren should be sufficientto enablethe family, after utilizing other possible resources.to maintain an adequatestanclard of
livring. It has been shorvn in various studies-the most extensive
being that made by the LTnitedStatesBureau of Labor Statistics'6thatlhe living costin workmen'sfamilies is considerablygreater than
the amounts generally available for the families of dependentchildren rvho aro aided in their or'r'nhomes. According to the Bureau
of Labor Statisticsstrrdv.the averase
eost of livine for 1918was
'father,
mother,*andthree ehil$1434.3?for a family consistinqof
dren under 14 years of age.'? To anirre at'the expensesof a family
consistingof a mother an-dthree ehildren under 14 (the Eroup taken
as the basis of study of the maximum grants permitted by the laws
of the various States,seep. 10), the co-stof the husband'i food and
clothine has been cleductedfrom the $1.434.37.in actordance with
'?6See Standarats of Public -{itl to Children In 'Ihelr Ov'n Homes, by I'lorence Nesbitt
(U.
S. Chiltlren's Bureau Pu,.blication No. 118, Washington, 1913).
'
,b Cosl of tlving in the United States,
United Stnte; Bureau of Labor Slatistics Bulle(The pcriod covercd by tbis sttldy ranged from the ye&r
1924.
tin 357. Washinston,
y
p
r
r
ended July 31,1918, to lbc
e n d e d . h ' c b r u a r y : . 1 Sl.1 l l 9 . )
rIuid.,-p.5.
(As report6d, the average sizp of families r|as 4.9 persons') -with the
vear 1913'as a base thc'cost of livins index for .tune, 1925, is rFported lry tbe Bureau of
Labor Statistics as 173.5, as compried vith 174.4 in Decamber. 1918. so that tlre- qsur.c
*Gel mav be taken as representaiivc of present costs. See " Prlces and cost of living,"
in the Mrjntbly Labor Review, vol. 21, No. 2 (August, tgZ5), p' 76.
18
.-------,-
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
:-
AMOUNT OT'AID AS NELATED TO STANDARDS OT' LIVING
19
data contained in the cost-of-Iiving studv cited. The amount thus
arrived at is $1,19?.?8. Assuminithat ihe expenditures for some
other items shouid also have beenil-educted.
$1.00bmav be considered
as the amount required {or a mother and'three depeirdentchildren,
on the basis of actual expendituresreported by more than 12,00d
families in almost 100citiei in the Unite'clStates"in1918.
Such a standard of aid can be maintained in but few of the
Statesunder presentmothers'aid laws. The maximum expenditures
permitted by- the laws o{ 35 of the 42 States having moihers' aid
laws would amount to lessthan $800 a vear for a mother and three
children. fn 20 of these Statesthe amount would be lessthan $480
a year. Small as are the amounts specifiedin the laws, the actual
grants are frequently much less,eithei becausethe appropriations are
i-ladequateor'becadsethe officia.lsin charge of ttre acl'ministration
of thii aid grant a small arbitrary amount;ithout specialreference
to the needs-ofthe family.
fn order to form the basis for a good sta:dard of mothers, aid,
there{ore, the laws must permit the a-dministrative agenc-yto furnish
aid that, in the words of the Massachusettslaw, shill ,,-besufrcient
to enable the mothers to bring up their children ploperly in their
own homes." When a maxiriuni amount is stat6d in the la-w it
should be such that the individual familv mav be nrovided for in
accordancewith their need and should n6ver 6e coristruedto mean
an arbitrarv amountto be granted in every case----either
the maximum
stated in the law or any fraction of it, as is frequently done. It is
probable that an actuai saving oc"urr when thd law"permits such
leeway..thatthe administrativiagency can apply modein principles
or ramllv casework.
Many"administrative agencies,under both the general tvpe of
provision and the form limiting the srant to a cErtain a"bitrarv
amount, work out family budgits aftei careful study of the needs
of each family being ionsiddred for aid. The giants are then
made on the basis ol the requirementsso far as"appropriations
make this_possible,,supplement'ary
aid requiredbeing securedfrom
othe-rpublic or privale agencies. It is dnlv in thiS way that the
welfare of the chlldren cai be assured,and i[ is found thdt ecot<-rrny
in the useof public.funds resultswhen f,amily needsand resourcesare
grven proper consideration.
_
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
DXTENT TO WHICH MOTHERS' AID LAWS ARE APPLIED
complete data could not be obtained as to the extent to which aid
wus qi ue.t in all the 42 States,as many of the Stateshave no form
of S&te supervisionof motheris'aid w6rk. The annual expenditure
for motheri, aid, the number of families receiving this assistance,
and the number'of children in these families for whom aid was
srantecl were obtained,holever, from 25 states and the District of
0olumbia (seethe follorving table).
Annual, erpend'iture for matluers' aiitr, numbe,r of families' and n'u.m.ber o f
States anil' tho Distfict of
chiltlren recei'ring aid, on January 1,792i;25
Colunrbi'a
bv tho
furnished
rulv 1, 1e26'
ur sutftteui*.i1]LilfjliTSr8t"or?.tftu,tot
tlatasunotier{
[Mothers'pension
Population
of State
A r i z o n a - -- - - - - - - C o l o r a d or - - - - - - - Connecticut---- - Delaware-------Idalto-- ---
llinnesota- --- -Nlontana--,-New IlampshireNew Jersey ro. .
PernsJlvania---.
Rhodo Island- - -South Daliola-\ \ ' i s e o n s i n - - - - -- District of Columbia---- ----
445,000
1,059,000
t, 606,000
240,000
522,N0
3, 124,m0
1,919,000
790,000
4, r97,000
4, 396,000
2,651,000
695,000
454,000
3, 660,000
11,304,000
2,858,000
6, 600,000
2,342,040
877,000
9, 614,000
ii93, 000
689,000
15352,428
2, 519,000
2,885,000
528,000
I Includes cost of administration.
2 Averaqe for }ear ended Juue 30, 1927.
3 Informationisgarding mothers'aid is for 62 of the 63 counties.
r Erpendituro not reported; $180,19{sppropriBted.
o Eiiimate, based on avorago numbei irf chiklren per family (2.86) in fanilios receiving aid for which
the number ol children was reportod.
b Total for vesr ended Octobor I, I926.
z Erpendituro not, reported; $123.000
sppropriatod by 5 of the 6 parishesI hat grant motbers' pensioDs.
t Total families aided in lhe 6 parishos.
, Total for year 1926.
rc Includes children boarded ix their own homes bv stato board of children's guardians
lr ReDortsfrom seDaratecounties aL closeof tbeir fiscal yoars.
r?Toial for last half of 1926.
13Information regarding mothers' aid is for 31 of the 36 counties for Novembor' 1926.
l{ Fox 54 of the 64 counties for year ended July 1, 1926'
15PoDulation Jan. l, 1920;decreasdl9l0 1o 1920.
t6Foi year ended July l, 1926.
u Infoimation regarding mothers'aid is for rhe one city and the one county tbat grsnt mothers'pensioDs.
tETotal June 30, l9Z.
All but four of these States (Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, and
South Dakota) had someform of'State supervtslon.or-\Yerereqilired
to report to a State agency. Details wele not obtained,however,as
20
--------
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
-
EXTENT
TO WHICII
MOTEERS'
AID
IJA]MS ARE APPIJIED
2I
to the extent of the application of the mothers' aid laws within each
of theseStalesla feri^of the leports definitelystatethat onll.some
of the countiesin the State were pr.ofitinubv Itiis t vpe of assistanee.
ln consideringthe comparativelvsmalinuinberof ihildren in relation to the totil populafion for whom aid was gr.antedin certain
States, it must be-taken into account that in soire sectionsof the
country not only the need for this form of public assistance,
but
also the need foi the care of dependentchildren in institutionsand
by child-placingagenciesis less prevalent than in others. On the
olher hand,the lack of appropriationsby State or Iocal[q21dsn'as
responsiblein somelocalilies Tol the faiiure to carry out the provisions of the law. althoush aid mav have been needeh. Even in the
States reporting the highest proiror.tionsaided. the possibility of
eonllnrctiveapplication"ot tniito.rn of aid has by no mean. reuthecl
its limits.
It is estimatedthat at this time, on anv one date, approximatelv
200.000ehildren are ret'eivingprrblicaid"in their on.i'homes. I'f
estimate n'ere made of the total number of children in the LTnited
Statesfor .w.homaid should be Eranted in their orvn homes.it rvould
be closerto 400.000and probably even bevond this if all tvpes rf
more or lesspermanentfahilv di"sabilitvt-i're includecl.
Since the standards of aciministration in larse cities are more
nearlv uniform, data in regard to the extent of care given in cities of
at least 100.000inhabitantsare more yallable for com'arative pur'posesthan clata from the States as a s.hole. Information in reiard
to annnal expenditures for mothers' aid. the number of faniilies
receivingthis assistance,
and the number of childr.enin thesefamilies
for rvhom aid was granted was obtained from 61 cities of at least
100.000or countiesiontaininq such eities. In the 44 localities inclucled in the following tablJ motherst aid was administered on a
c-ountJ'basis. In_some-ofthesecountiesthe city is coextensivewith
the countyI in others the city, though territoriilly smaller than the
county,containsa large proportion of the population:
whereasin a
'the
few ebuntiesthe citSr'includ'es
less than half
population of the
county.
A nua,l, enpaniliture far m,others' aiil,, nunrbor of f,ami,Iias,and nttmber of oh,il,dron recei,oing aid Janua,rg 1, 1927, anil estbnoteit popula,tio,,1,of cefiain
cou,nties granting aiil. to mothnrs
[Mothers'pe_nsiondata supplied by mrrnty ofdeials with the erceptioD of those for Tulsa. whjch wero
gg4.Pileg, by tho author,fro_m local records. Estimated population, July t. t926, furriisneU try rtre
t'nlto(l slales lJureau ot tno ('ensusl
Principal city (population
oYer 100,000)in county
Oakland and Berkelov-----Los Angeles---- -San Diego-------San Francisco----
Number of
children receiving aid
J^\. L,7927
aid erclusive of cost
of administratiorl
409,800 I $340,m0
I I,650,000
N. R.
146,100
70,153
566,800
N. R.
, 631
| 1,2r5
I 160
692p
2 I, 536
| 3 , 4 75
6 420
6 2,32L
r i.pproximate number or amount.
2 Total for January, 19?7.
a Obtained from county offcers.
{ Fl"timate bmed on avorage number of children per family (2.86) in families receiving aid for which
numDer ot cnlldren \vas reDorled.
6 Total for year ending Jirne 30, 1926.
6 Includes those rsported by tho widows' pension bureau md others receiving aid through
the juvonilo
court.
1-
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
22
PUBLIC
AID
TO MOTEERS
WITH
DEPENDENT
CEILDREN
Annuatr, eopenal/rturefor m,oth,ers' ai,il,, nuntber of fanti,.l,i.esanil. mtmber of olt'ih
ilrem receioing aiil, Januarg 1, 192'1,elc.---Continued
[Mothors' pensioD data supplied by courty officials \rith tho exception of tboso for Tulsa, which wer€
ggmpi&d by lhe autbor from local records. Estimated population, July 1, 1926, furnished by tho
I'nil€d States Buroau of the CeDsusl
Principal city (population
orer 100,000) in county
County
Colorado:
Denver---------- ---Delaware:
New Csstle---------F lorida:
Duval--------------.
Illinois:
Cook---------------Indiana:
Allen--------------Marion-- - - - - - -- - - - Iowa:
Polk------ -- - - - - -- -Michigan:
Kent- --- --- ---- ---Wayne- -----------Minnesota:
Population
of county
AnDml expenditue
Nmberof
families
aid oxclur0coiYing
siYe of cost aid Jan. 1,
ts27
of adminis.
tration
Number of
children re
ceiving aid
Jan. 1,7927
Denver-----------
2&5,400
s97,830
180
615
Wilmington--- - -,
165,000
38,885
143
3U2
Jacksonville--- - - -
156,600
30,74
86
137
C h i c 8 g o - - - - -- - - - -
3,486,7N
7U,176
\n2
3,330
Fort Wsyne,----Indianapolis------
128,300
4U,Un
5,94t)
-3,067
Dos Moines------
173,7$)
43,4O4
Clrand Rapids---Detroit------- ----
199,000
1, 610,200
8Z 695
715,961
159
1,1!l
5n
| 3,347
125,353
8 251
333
r 1,005
1,001
415
Minneapolis-----St. Paul---------Duluth------ - --- Kansas City- - ---
C u y a h o g s -- - - - - - - - - F r a n k l i n - - -- - - - - - - - - ,
Ilamilton---- --- -- -Lucas---------------Montgomery-------Stark---------------Oklahoma:
Oklahoma----------T u l s a - - - -- - - - - - - - - - ,
Oregon:
Multnomah--------Pennsylvania:
Alleghany----------Berks---------------E r i e - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - _
Lackawanna----- -- - Philadelphia------- -Tonnessee:
Shelby-------_-_-_-_
Ters:
Dallas- -- - - - - - -- - - - - Earris--------------Utsh:
SaltLeke-----------Washington:
King- - -------------P i o r c o -- - - - - - - - - - - - - Wisconsin:
Milwaukee- --- -- ----
470,3N
258, 500
235,300
74,447
724
111
66
v
500
lil
424,300
e)
66
174
228,6n
37,486
144
| 412
199,300
705,4U)
400,m
272,lftj
199,200
442,tN
69, 536
265,389
59,950
57,8J0
74,U3
147,Ur
r0169
10414
t0 7g
r o1 1 9
r0 100
t0m
1, 148,400
325,7U)
515,700
331,300
u0,w)
2r3,m
?45, 930
105,855
215,180
72,593
45,000
49,725
fi7,[n
157,700
I 8. (n0
t 8; ooo
u 275,898
\n7,w)
2L2,7(n
u 1&3,
536
304,2m
2,UJ7,zffi
18,000
7,741
u,439
25,507
58, 095
37442o
480
3n
456
243
276
r44
62
m
525
7n
.t
146
835
rr ll5
244,ffi
36 000
260,600
234,N0
t3 32,?72
12,895
217
r0 441
l o1 , 3 5 7
r0398
t0372
r0430
r0708
1,569
980
1,240
721
725
456
rm
I 150
400
t, 756
392
xn
3n
2,865
12m2
510
231
177,5$
47,785
31E
807
325,000
r59,7oo
113,915
50,000
516
rr 305
I, 168
610600
183,832
lr 463
r5 1,466
I Approximate number or amount.
7 Number [email protected] sid June 11, 1927.
t Nmber rec€iYing aid Dec. 31, 1925.
0 Exp€nditure not reported; $12,000appropristod.
r0Number recFiving aid at the end of tho fiscal year.
1l PoDulation I92012Total for Anrii. 1927.
r3 Not reported whether this ercludes administretive €rp€lses.
u Total for the year 1926.
1l Total for December, 1926.
ar=-----
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
EXTENT TO WEICE
MOTEERS' AID LAWS AR,E APPLIED
23
Motherst aid is administered bv cities or towns in three of the
states (connecticut,Massachusetti,
and Rhode tsland) Irom which
ctty rnformation was obtained (seethe following tabl'e). fn addi_
Iron to the 14 cities in these states, B cities in Statesri'hereaid is
p"alty adminisleredon a county basiswere also reporteaas naving
munrclpat admrnrstratron.
An!y!,l eapen.ali,ture_formothers, ai.d., num,ber of fa,mdties,amd,number of chi,L
q!e? rec9r::it:{^aid,.January 1, iqg,l, and estinxateil,popul"atinm
of certaim ci.ties
of ouer 1UU,0A0
population granting oial,to moth,6rs
[Mothers'p-ensiondata suppliedbv c_ityg$cials with th€ excoptionof thoso for st. Louis, which woro
qomplled!-y lhe aurhor iiom rec-ordsbrt ne ciiv oiji, ifor 6i,iifi
guardims' Estimal'edpopulation
Jury I, 1926,furnishedby r,hounired sl,atosBureau of tho cejseunsi
City
Population
of city
Annual expenditure for Number of Number of
families
children
mothers' aid
receiving
receiYing
exclusive of
Jan.
aid
1,
Jan. I,
aid
cost of sd7527
79n
ministratioa
I 155,000
7M,XX)
181,900
I 1I5,000
287,IW
ln,w)
131,000
: 110,296
104,000
, 119,539
100,400
145,000
r93,400
830,400
5,Wm
274,8N
189,100
36, 619
37,U0
74,445
30,913
746,879
90, 6
43,977
100,128
41,273
48,895
40,770
19,681
70, 006
ol
58
t31
63
845
113
1e3
48
67
@
z2
101
43,726
3100
5, 156,4ii6
r 9,907
74,%5
7,595
156
188
360
169
3,043
404
220
590
155
846
262
90
372
I 310
| 2q 096
134
oD/
r22
r7g
I Obtaioed from local officialsl_opulat,ion Sral,e census, 1925; decrease 1920to j92S.
.1 Number
on ADrrt 1.7927I Numbor receiving aid at tho ond of tbo fiscal y€ar,
, Total for January, tgn.
.rf. a comparis.onis made for difierent loealities of the number
of ehrldren receiving aid. .as related to the total population, it is
evident that even in fhesecities there i" -o"L
ili'extent
""ri"tI"ii" to inadequate
to which aid to mothers rvas granted. rn addition
app.ropriations,
rvhieh1naybe the primary factor in limitinqihi aid
avarlab-le
rn mrny localities,the numberof ehildren r.eceiviigaid is
afiectedqI th: tegal hmrtation as to.tfe personseligible foriid, the
tie.chrtctrel
nfiom.ai{ js granred, and the liberality
lF"-:
-"1
io,r
ot
the.
potreresadopted
by^the administrativeagencies.
A,srmrlar,c.omparisonof the annual expenditires for aid and the
number of children receivingaid indicatei that there is much variation in the standardsof care"given. rn someof the tocatitiesmothers,
aid more nearly resemblesp6or relief, smail grantt uelt s ;0"
tor
the maxrmumnumber of children who are eligible. rn olher localities adequategrants and careful casework are-provided-for a smaller
nt'mberbf children.
---
provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
24
puBrJrc ArD To MoTHERSwrrg DEpENDENTcErrrDa,EN
Mothers' aid administration offers the most obvicus evidence of
the seriousnessof placing laws on the statute books but failing to
make them practically eflectivethrough adequateappropriation and
propel administration. It is recognizedthat the chief problem at
present in connection with mothers' aid work in most of the 42
Statesis not to obtain new State lesislation or amendrnentsto existing laws but to obtain,adequateapprropriationsand to raise the standard of administration so that the laws may mean adequatecare for the
children they are intended to benefit.
O
1 - -
provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University