s k n a h T for downloading this sample packet! We are glad that you have downloaded this sample product to review. We want you to be able to fully evaluate our products, so that you can purchase with confidence, knowing how accessible, effective, and delightful our materials are. Free! Classical Academic Press offers several levels of free help! The Free Resources page on the website lists suggested schedules, extra worksheets, audio pronunciation files, coloring pages, handy grammar charts, and flash cards, as well as articles and recorded mp3 talks about teaching. Click here to open the Free Resources page in a web browser. Be sure to check out the free practice for your student at HeadventureLand.com! This free website offers games, videos, stories, and other resources to support students studying Latin, Spanish, and Greek. The activities are geared toward students using curricula from Classical Academic Press, but are useful for any language student. Headventure Land will always be a safe and family-friendly website for students to enjoy and is appropriate and appealing to students of all ages. As teachers and parents, you will find the For Teachers resource page particularly beneficial. It features many downloadable supplements to our curriculum, such as printable flashcards, worksheets, and audio files to aid language pronunciation. Click here to open HeadventureLand.com in a web browser. Discounts! We offer bundle discounts to make it easier to buy the whole curriculum. When you’re ready, you can purchase this curriculum on our website. Click here to open ClassicalAcademicPress.com in a web browser. LATIN C h i l d r r o e f n n i t a L At Classical Academic Press we do not merely create instructional textbooks, we create complete sets of learning tools designed to make teaching and learning both accessible and delightful. For each subject we start with a core text: the student book. We then provide several support materials to give all the aid that a teacher or student could need to feel confident as they master the subject together. These products are all listed below so that you can see a complete view of the entire curriculum. In addition, we created an entire website, HeadventureLand.com, which offers free educational games, videos, and ebooks where students can practice the subject they are learning. The Student Text: filled with the lessons and exercises that are the student’s primary contact with the material. The Answer Key: includes actual full-size worksheets from the student text. Don’t reinvent the wheel, get the answers to quizzes, exercises and worksheets in large bold print. The DVD & CD Set: we have bodies for a reason and we should take advantage of them in the learning process—the visual and audio component of our curricula is a tremendous application of this truth. Watch teachers and students interact, learn from the best tutors, and imprint the material with engaging visuals. Using the intelligence of your ear and eye will make learning vocabulary and other course content natural. Support your student’s understanding of the subject material and give yourself time in the week for other children, planning, and other daily responsibilities. Activity Books: contain over 100 puzzles and games that follow chapter-by-chapter with the student text to help the students practice vocabulary and grammar. History Readers: show students that they can use their newfound knowledge to read. Translation is an incredibly empowering experience for language learners. The readers are keyed to the grammar and vocabulary of the Latin for Children series and correspond to the Veritas Press History card series. They are also an excellent supplementary text for students using other Latin curricula. Clashcards: these bright cards are not only straight flashcards, but also games that you can play! Who said that rigorous learning isn’t fun? Test Packet: Often requested by customers, this set of comprehensive tests to supplement the student book is an excellent and helpful resource! The downloadable packet includes weekly chapter tests, unit tests, and even unit study guides. A complete answer key for the tests is included. Latin Everywhere: Make Latin a consistent and fun part of your life! Have a visual learner for a Latin student? The Latin Word Quest Poster features a translation exercise of all the Latin for Children, Primer A vocabulary words to match with fun corresponding images. Have a wordsmith? Try the Latin Crosswords Book (which includes all the vocabulary in Latin for Children Primers A, B, and C!) and you will learn and practice over 1500 words! For the car and home, the Veni Emmanuel CD is a collection of hauntingly beautiful Latin carols, and includes a 16-page booklet of full Latin lyrics along with literal and poetic English translations. Hours of Latin fun! Classical Latin Creatively Taught Latin for Children Primer A Dr. Aaron Larsen Dr. Christopher Perrin Latin for Children: Primer A © Classical Academic Press, 2003 Version 3.6 All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of Classical Academic Press. Classical Academic Press 2151 Market Street Camp Hill, PA 17011 www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com ISBN: 978-1-60051-000-7 Book design and cover by: Rob Baddorf On-site Italian photographs by: Rebekah Almond Table of Contents Unit Unit I: 1st Conjugation Verbs/1st Declension Nouns Unit II: 2nd Declension Nouns Unit III: Adjectives (1st and 2nd Declension) Unit IV: 2nd Conjugation Verbs/ Imperfect Tense V Introduction to Students IX Classical Pronunciation X Ecclesiastical Pronunciation Chapter Page 1 1 1st Conjugation Verb: amö Verbs and Verb Endings 2 9 Present-Tense Verb Endings: -ö, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt Verbs—Person, Number, and Tense 3 17 1st Declension Noun: mënsa Noun Gender and Number 4 23 1st Declension Noun Endings: Noun Cases -a, -ae, -ae, -am, -ä 5 29 REVIEW REVIEW 6 33 2nd Declension Noun: lüdus Masculine and Feminine Nouns 7 39 8 45 9 51 10 57 Chant Grammar Topics 2nd Declension Noun Endings: -us, -ï, -ö, -um, -ö; Sum (I am) Chant 2nd Declension Neuter Noun: dönum 2nd Declension Neuter Noun Endings: -um, -ï, -ö, -um, -ö Nominative Case Subjects and Predicate Nominatives REVIEW REVIEW Adjective Endings— Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter (1st and 2nd Declensions) 1st and 2nd Declension Adjective: magnus Linking Verb (sum, esse); Sentence Labeling and Translation Neuter Nouns; More About Case Adjectives, Adjective Questions, and Agreement 11 65 12 71 13 77 REVIEW REVIEW 14 85 2nd Conjugation Verb: videö 2nd Conjugation Verbs, 1st Declension Masculine Exceptions 15 91 Sentence Pattern Chant Sentence Pattern A and B Practice 16 97 Imperfect-Tense (past) Verb Endings: bam-, -bäs, -bat The Imperfect Tense Predicate Adjective Sentence Patterns A–C Table of Contents Unit Unit IV (continued) Unit V: Future Tense/ Imperfect Tense of sum Unit VI: Future Tense of sum/ Accusative Prepositions Unit VII: eö, ïre/Ablative Prepositions and Review Chapter Page Chant 17 105 Imperfect-Tense (past) Verb Endings: -bam, -bäs, -bat Translating Present- and Imperfect-Tense Verbs 18 111 REVIEW REVIEW 19 117 Future-Tense Verb Endings: -bö, -bis, -bit The Future Tense 20 123 Accusative Case Endings Accusative Case: Direct Objects 21 129 Imperfect Tense of sum: eram, eräs, erat 22 135 Present and Imperfect of sum Sum: The Imperfect Tense; Pattern D Sentences Accusative Case: Objects of the Preposition 23 141 REVIEW 24 147 25 153 26 159 REVIEW REVIEW 27 163 Irregular Verb: eö, ïre Verbs: ëo, ïre 28 169 1st Conjugation Verb: eö, ïre Compound Verbs with Prepositions as Prefixes 29 175 30 181 31 32 Future Tense of sum: erö, eris, erit Accusative Preposition Flow Chart Grammar Topics REVIEW Future Tense of sum Accusative Case: Objects of the Preposition Continued Ablative Case Preposition Flow Chart Sum, Esse in Present, Imperfect, and Future Tenses Compound Verbs Continued; Verbs: Principal Parts 187 REVIEW REVIEW 193 END-OF-BOOK REVIEW REVIEW 203 My Latin Journey Checklist 207 Reference Charts 211 Glossary by Chapter 223 Glossary by Alphabet 231 How to Teach Latin for Children 232 Helpful Resources Ablative Case and Prepositions INTRODUCTION TO STUDENTS W e are glad that you will be studying Latin! Latin is an old language that was spoken by some of the most interesting and famous people who ever lived—the ancient Romans and many other people throughout Europe (which contains such countries as England, France, Spain, Germany, and Italy). The Romans are famous because of their excellent ideas and accomplishments. They were the very best builders of the time and built many roads and buildings that still stand today after 2,000 years. They were very well organized and formed a government that created many useful laws. The Romans were also very good at fighting and had the best and strongest armies. They conquered and ruled over most of modernday Europe and every land that bordered on the Mediterranean Sea! The Romans were also interested in art and literature. They admired the Greeks (whom they conquered) and tried to copy much of the art that the Greeks had made. They copied Greek sculptures, paintings, and buildings. There were also some great Roman writers who wrote many very interesting and famous stories, poems, and plays. Some of the Romans were such good writers and thinkers that people have continued to read and study them for over 2,000 years! Even today people read and enjoy their books and ideas. Two of the most famous Roman writers are Caesar and Cicero. Caesar was a great army general (and later a dictator) who wrote about his victorious battles, and Cicero was a famous senator (a kind of ruler) who wrote books about how to speak well. Other famous Latin writers include the poet Vergil (who wrote a book called the Aeneid), another poet named Horace, and some writers of history named Livy and Tacitus. page V People have been studying Latin for a long time . . . Did you know that for nearly 2,000 years most boys and girls going to school in Europe studied Latin (and usually Greek, too!) when they were young students? Children learned Latin because Latin was spoken by so many people, and because so many good books were written in Latin. The Latin language has been so popular for the last 2,000 years that many other languages have borrowed words from Latin! Did you know that about five out of every ten English words come from a Latin word? When you learn Latin, you are also learning a good bit of English. Here is an example: If someone said, “Let me demonstrate how the aquarium is a habitat for this turtle,” you would discover that six of the twelve words (in italics) in this sentence are from Latin words. We hope that you can see that learning Latin words will be very interesting and enjoyable. It will take some hard work, however, like anything that is really worth learning. We will do all that we can to make learning Latin enjoyable, and will help you to clearly understand everything we teach you, step by step. So now you have seen that studying Latin will help you understand a lot more about your own language (your “mother tongue”—the language you have grown up speaking). But there is another good reason to study Latin. Studying Latin will help you one day to read some of the world's very best books in the language in which they were written. You will be able to read Latin books in Latin! page VI How to study and learn Latin using this book Latin will be enjoyable to learn if you first learn how to learn it! Your teacher or parent will be of great help to you, but you must be ready to do your part. Here are some important tips: • Do your exercises faithfully and well. Your assignments should not be too long, but you will have at least two every week. • Try to speak Latin as soon as you can, even when you only have learned a little. • Ask questions whenever you are not sure of something. • Now for the most important thing you can do: Memorize your Latin words. You will only have to learn about ten words a week! Here are some tips to help you memorize your words so that you will never forget them: • Chant or sing your words, just like you will learn them in class. It is much easier to remember what you sing or chant. • If you have the video or DVD that accompanies this book, sing and chant along with the students in the video. • Review your Latin words every day (or night) for about five to fifteen minutes. A little bit of review every day is very, very helpful. Keep reviewing words from earlier chapters to make sure you have really mastered them. • Make Latin vocabulary cards and put them on a ring. You can put the Latin word on one side and the English word on the other. You can also purchase fabulous, colored Clash Cards from our website at www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com. Clash Cards are designed to be helpful, easy-to-use flash cards, but they are are also a card game that makes practicing vocabulary words fun and exciting! • Chant and sing your words because it is much easier to remember them when you do so. Try to look at the words you chant while you are chanting them, so you are using your eyes and your voice. page VII • If you have the LFC History Reader that accompanies this book, use it weekly for additional translation work and to learn some Greek and Roman history. • For a fun way to review vocabulary and grammar, make use of the LFC Activity Book! that accompanies this primer. You can preview samples online at our website. • Quiz your classmate or anyone else taking Latin. Quiz your teacher or parent, and have them quiz you. Have contests to see who can get the most right or who can give the answers fastest. Make your own written test and see how many you can get right. • Try and find new derivatives (English words that come from Latin) for the Latin words you know. • Visit www.HeadventureLand.com for free games, videos, and readers that will help you practice Latin in a fun and creative way! Review your vocabulary online by playing Latin FlashDash—the game that tests your vocabulary chapter by chapter. The site also has additional worksheets, exercises, and tests. • Questions? Feel free to ask questions on our online forum, and check out other supplemental material at www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com. We hope that you will find your study of Latin this year rewarding and a lot of fun. Please contact us with questions and ideas at our website (www. ClassicalAcademicPress.com) or contact us on Facebook! We would love to hear from you. Pax (Peace), Dr. Christopher A. Perrin and Dr. Aaron Larsen page VIII Classical PRONUNCIATION There are twenty-four letters in the Latin alphabet—there is no j or w. The letters k, y, and z were used very rarely. Letters in Latin are never silent. There are two systems of pronunciation in Latin—classical and ecclesiastical. Latin Consonants: Consonants are pronounced the same as in English with these exceptions. Letter Pronunciation Example Sound b before s or t like English p urbs: city urps c / ch always hard like English k cantö: I sing kahn-toh g always hard like English goat gaudium: joy gow-diyum gn in the middle of the word like English ngn in hangnail magnus: big mang-nus i before a vowel it is a consonant like the English y iaceö: I lie down yah-keh-oh r should be rolled as in Spanish or Italian rëgina: queen ray-geen-ah s always like the s in the English sing servus: servant ser-wus v always as an English w vallum: wall wa-luhm DipHthongs: Diphthongs are two vowels with a single sound. ae au ei oe as in eye as in out as in stray as in coil ui not a diphthong; pronounced oo-ee Latin Short and Long Vowels Vowels can be short or long in Latin. When they are long, they have a little dash called a macron placed over them. Long vowels take about twice as long to say as short ones. Short Vowels Long Vowels Letter Example Sound Letter Example Sound a in Dinah casa: house ka-sa ä in father stäre: to stand stah-reh e in pet deus: god deh-us ë in they vidëre: to see wi-dey-reh i in pit silva: forest sil-wah ï in machine ïre: to go ee-reh o in pot bonus: good bah-nus ö in hose errö: I wander e-roh u in put cum: with kum ü in rude lüdus: school loo-duhs page IX ecclesiastical PRONUNCIATION Classical or Ecclesiastical Pronunciation? Both dialects are really quite similar, so ultimately the decision is not a significant one. The classical dialect attempts to follow the way the Romans spoke Latin (an older dialect), while the ecclesiastical dialect follows the way Latin pronunciation evolved within the Christian Church during the Middle Ages, particularly within the Roman Catholic Church. The main difference between the two dialects is the way c/ch and v are pronounced. The classical dialect pronounces c/ch as an English k, whereas the ecclesiastical pronounces it (Italian style) as an English ch (as in check). The ecclesiastical pronounces v as the English v (as in victory), whereas the classical pronounces it as an English w. In the ecclesiastical dialect a j occasionally appears in place of an i, and the t has a special pronunciation, like ts as in cats. See the chart below in which the ecclesiastical pronunciation is shaded. So, take your pick and stick with it! Either choice is a good one. Our audio CDs and DVDs contain both pronunciations. There is no w. The letters k, y, and z were used very rarely. Letters in Latin are never silent. Latin Consonants: Consonants are pronounced the same as in English with these exceptions. Letter Pronunciation Example Sound b c c g g gn before s or t like English p before e, i, ae, oe, and y always like English ch before other letters, hard c like English cap soft before e, i, ae, oe like English germ before other letters, hard like English goat in the middle of the word like English ngn in hangnail urbs: city cëna: food cantö: I sing magistra: teacher gaudium: joy magnus: big urps chey-nah kahn-toh mah-jee-stra gow-diyum mang-nus j r s t v like the English y in yes should be rolled as in Spanish or Italian always like the s in the English sing when followed by i and another vowel, like tsee always as an English v jaceö: I lie down rëgïna: queen servus: servant silentium: silence vallum: wall yah-keh-oh ray-geen-ah ser-vus see-len-tsee-um va-luhm DIPHTHONGS: Diphthongs are two vowels with a single sound. ae as in stray au as in out oe as in stray ui not a diphthong; pronounced oo-ee Latin Short and Long Vowels Vowels can be short or long in Latin. When they are long, they have a little dash called a macron placed over them. Long vowels take about twice as long to say as short ones. The ecclesiastical short and long vowels are pronounced in the same way as in the classical pronunciation. See the table on the preceding page. page X Chapter 1 C hapter 1 Week Unit I1 MEMORY PAGE: Chapter Maxim: In prïncipiö erat Verbum (In the beginning was the Word—Latin Vulgate) New Chant: 1st Conjugation Verb: amö Singular Plural 1st person amö amämus 2nd person amäs amätis 3rd person amat amant Vocabulary: amö, amäre, amävï, amätum dö, dare, dedï, datum intrö, inträre, inträvï, inträtum labörö, laböräre, labörävï, labörätum NOUNS = a person, place, or thing närrö, närräre, närrävï, närrätum english I love, to love, I loved, loved I give, to give, I gave, given I enter, to enter, I entered, entered I work, to work, I worked, worked I tell, to tell, I told, told aqua, aquae water fäbula, fäbulae story porta, portae gate silva, silvae forest terra, terrae earth page 1 VERBS = show action LATIN Unit I CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE VERBS: ACTION WORDS In this first chapter you will learn five verbs and five nouns. The first five words on your vocabulary list are verbs. Verbs are words that show action. For example, in the clause “I work in the forest,” which word is the action word? Well, “work,” of course! The way we say “I work” in Latin is labörö—so labörö is a verb, a Latin action word. Sometimes verbs can also show a state of being, too, but we will teach you that later. LATIN: FEWER WORDS THAN ENGLISH, BUT MANY WORD ENDINGS There are a lot of words in English, but they rarely have different endings. For example, the verb “love” stays the same whether we say “I love,” “we love,” or “they love.” Sometimes we do add an ending, like when we say “he loves” or “we loved.” In Latin, though, the verb for love (amö) changes its ending very often! We will learn the various endings that come with Latin verbs (and nouns) so that we can know what they mean and how to translate them. (To translate a Latin word, by the way, means to write out—or tell—what a Latin word means in English! The translation of amö is “I love.”) Now you know that Latin is a language of many endings but fewer words than English! As you travel along your Latin journey, check off your progress using the checklist that begins on page 203. Enjoy the journey! PAGE 2 page CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT. Unit I Look at the chart on the preceding page. It shows you one of the most common words in Latin (the verb “love”) with all of its endings—six endings in all. When we list a verb with all of its endings, that is called conjugating a verb. You can also see that a Latin verb such as amö actually contains two words in English! The word amö means “I love,” so it contains not only the word “love,” but also the word “I.” The ending of the verb (-o in this case) tells you that it is “I” who is doing the loving. Words such as “I,” “you,” “he,” “she,” “it,” “we,” and “they” are all little words called pronouns that tell you who is doing the action of the verb. The ending of a Latin verb tells you which pronoun to use! We will study these endings next week, so don’t fret too much about them now. The chart below, however, shows you how the verb endings change: Singular Plural 1st person amö: I love amämus: we love 2nd person amäs: you love amätis: you all love 3rd person amat: he, she, or it loves amant: they love Remember, practice makes perfectus! Practice using free downloadable worksheets, tests, and quizzes as well as online games, readers, and videos! Visitwww.HeadventureLand.com page 3 Unit I CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT. A Verb in Four Parts: The Four Principal Parts If you look at the Memory Page, you will see that each Latin verb has four different forms (amö, amäre, amävï, amätum). We call each form a principal part. Why do we call each form a principal part? Because each part is an important form that shows us how to make other forms of the verb. It is a principal part because it is an important part to know. No need to worry about the other forms that come from these principal parts—you will learn those in good time. Learning the principal parts now, however, will be fun and will save you a lot of time later! Here are the names for each of the four principal parts: amö Present amäre Infinitive amävï amätum Perfect Passive Participle or Supine Nouns You will learn five nouns in this chapter, too (aqua, fäbula, porta, silva, terra). Nouns are used to name a person, place, or thing (or sometimes an idea). You can see that nouns, like verbs, also have endings. For example, aqua, aquae are both forms for the word “water”—one form ends with -a (aqua) and the other form ends with -ae (aquae). Don’t worry now about the endings for nouns—you will learn these in chapters 3 and 4. PAGE 4 CHAPTER 1: Worksheet Unit I A. TRANSLATION: 1. amö _____________________________ 7. aqua____________________________ 2. intrö_____________________________ 8. porta____________________________ 3. dö_______________________________ 9. närrö___________________________ 4. labörö____________________________ 10. silva____________________________ 5. fäbula____________________________ 11. terra____________________________ 6. In prïncipiö erat Verbum _________________________________________________ B. CHANT: Conjugate the verb amö. See if you can remember how to fill in the boxes. amö C. GRAMMAR: 1. In Latin, both _____________________ and ______________________ have endings. 2. Latin is a language of fewer ___________________ but many ____________________. 3. What kind of word names the action or state of being in a sentence? _______________ 4. To __________________ a verb is to __________________ all of its ________________. D. DERIVATIVES: 1. Aesop is famous for his _________________________. (fäbula) 2. Reward will follow hard ________________________. (labörö) PAGE 5 page Unit I CHAPTER 1: Derivative Worksheet Thousands of English words come from Latin. We call these English words derivatives because they are derived—taken—from an original Latin word called the Latin root. For instance, from the Latin root amö we get the English derivative “amity,” which means “friendship” and “peaceful harmony.” The word “derivative” is itself a derivative, which comes from the Latin words de (down from) and rivus (river, stream). This means that a derivative is a word that flows down or off a river of . . . words! A. Study Study the following English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week: Latin English amity, amorous, enamor, amateur amö donate, donation dö entrance, introduce, introduction intrö labor, laboratory labörö narrate, narration, narrative narrö aquatic aqua fable, fabulous fäbula portable, port porta Pennsylvania silva extraterrestrial, terrain, terrarium terra B. Define In a dictionary, look up one of the English derivatives from the list above and write its definition in the space below: _______________________________________________________________________ C. Apply 1. The Latin phrase terra firma is still used by English speakers today. Here is an example of its use: “After being on a plane for six hours, it sure felt good to walk on terra firma.” What do you think the phrase terra firma might mean? Write your answer below: _______________________________________________________________________ 2. The word “Pennsylvania” is another Latin derivative. Pennsylvania was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. It was founded by William Penn. What do you think the word “Pennsylvania” might mean? Circle your answer below: a. The land of big pencils b. The land of Penn PAGE 6 c. Penn’s Woods CHAPTER 1: Quiz A. Vocabulary: Unit I Latin English amö, amäre, amävï, amätum dö, dare, dedï, datum intrö, inträre, inträvï, inträtum labörö, laböräre, labörävï, labörätum närrö, närräre, närrävï, närrätum aqua, aquae fäbula, fäbulae porta, portae silva, silvae terra, terrae B. CHANT: C onjugate the verb amö. See if you can remember how to fill in the boxes. amö C. GRAMMAR: Define the following words. 1. Conjugation: ______________________________________________________ 2. Verb: ____________________________________________________________ 3. L ist the four principal parts: _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ PAGE 7 page Chapter One Use games & puzzles to supplement ever y LFC chapter in our Latin for Children: Primer A • Activity Book ! Find out more at www.ClassicalAcademicP ress.com Enter the Maze... There are three Latin words stuck in the maze. You need to go in there (if you dare) and find exactly which three words are on the pathway to the exit. Find those words and only those words, then enter them in the space provided at the bottom. You might want to use a pencil until you find the correct path... intrö terra ENTER silvae portae amävï inträtum närrö aqua amö fäbulae dedï labörö amävï närräre fäbulae EXIT The 3 Latin words are: ___________________, ___________________, ___________________ Can you translate them? ___________________, ___________________, ___________________ PAGE 6 Chapter 2 Unit I MEMORY PAGE: Chapter Maxim:In prïncipiö erat Verbum (In the beginning was the Word—Latin Vulgate) New Chant:Present Tense Verb Endings: -ö, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt Singular Plural 1st person -ö -mus 2nd person -s -tis 3rd person -t -nt VOCABULARY: LATIN via, viae english road, way fossa, fossae ditch mënsa, mënsae table mëta, mëtae pägina, päginae cëna, cënae patria, patriae turning point, goal page dinner fatherland aura, aurae breeze rëgïna, rëgïnae queen ïnsula, ïnsulae island page 9 Unit I CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE Present Tense Verb Endings Singular Plural 1st person -ö -mus 2nd person -s -tis 3rd person -t -nt NUMBER Take a good look at the chart above. You will see a column that is labeled “singular” and another labeled “plural.” This means that all the verb endings in the singular column tell us that just one person (a single person) is doing the action of the verb. If “I” work—well I am just one person doing work. If you work, you are just one person, too. If our friend John works, he is just one person doing work. I, you, and he are singular. However, if you and I together do work, then we are doing work, and we aren’t singular anymore—we’re plural! If two of you (you all) are doing work, then you are plural. If our friends John and Susan are doing work, then they are working, and they, too, are plural! When we speak of a Latin verb’s number, we are asking how many people are doing the verb’s action, and the answer is always either one person or several people, singular or plural! Tense We are going to be learning how to form Latin verbs in the present tense. This means that we will be learning how to use verbs that show action in the present time. The word “tense” simply refers to the time when a verb is taking place. “I love” takes place in the present time (or tense). “I loved” takes place in past time so it is a kind of past tense. Can you guess what tense “I will love” is? Right—it is the future tense since “I will love” is love that takes place in the future! You will learn more about tense later on in this book. PERSON So now we know what it means for a verb to have number. Latin verbs also have another trait, called person. Whereas a verb’s number asks, “How many are doing the action?” a verb’s person asks, “Who is doing the action of the verb?” We divide the kind of people who can do the action of a verb into three categories: 1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person. The 1st person can be either “I” or “we” PAGE 10 CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT. Unit I I you he, she, it -o -s -t 1st 2nd 3rd plural singular (singular and plural versions). The 2nd person can be either “you” or “you all” (singular and plural). The 3rd person can be either “he”/“she”/“it” or “they” (singular and plural). The drawing below may help you understand a verb’s person. we you (all) they -mus -tis -nt 2nd 3rd 1st Now by studying the chart at the top of the previous page, try to answer these questions: What is the 1st person, singular verb ending? If you answered -o, you are correct. What is the 2nd person, plural ending? Your answer should be -tis. What is the 3rd person, singular verb ending? The answer is -t. In the next section below, we will learn how to attach these endings to verbs—and conjugate them! CONJUGATING A VERB When we put together all the different forms of a verb, we call it conjugating a verb. You have already seen one verb conjugated when you learned amö, amäs, amat, amämus, amätis, amant in chapter 1. Singular Plural 1st person amö: I love amämus: we love 2nd person amäs: you love amätis: you all love 3rd person amat: he, she, or it loves amant: they love page 11 Unit I CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT. Notice that the verb endings (-ö, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt) are all underlined in the table. These endings are simply added to amä, which is the verb stem. How do we find the verb stem? It’s easy. We go to the 2nd principal part, which is amäre, and drop the -re, leaving us amä. Study the diagram below: amö amäre amävï amätum amäre = amä Let’s try conjugating another verb—intrö, inträre, inträvï, inträtum. The stem will be inträ after we take the -re off of inträre. So our conjugation should look like this: Singular Plural 1st person intrö: I enter inträmus: we enter 2nd person inträs: you enter inträtis: you all enter 3rd person intrat: he, she, or it enters intrant: they enter You will note that the full stem (inträ) does not appear in the first person singular where we have intrö. This is because the -ö replaces the -ä in inträ. The same is true for amö. The -ö replaces the -ä in amä. Remember, practice makes perfectus! Practice your vocab with FlashDash— the free online flashcard game. Visitwww.HeadventureLand.com PAGE 12 CHAPTER 2: Worksheet Unit I A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary 1. amö _____________________________ 7. amätis___________________________ 2. rëgïna____________________________ 8. intrant__________________________ 3. via_______________________________ you tell 9. närräs*__________________________ 4. patria____________________________ we work 10. labörämus*______________________ 5. fäbula ___________________________ 11. dat*_____________________________ he/she gives 6. In prïncipiö erat Verbum _________________________________________________ B. CHANT: Give the present tense verb endings and fill in the boxes. *Note that these verb forms come from the conjugation of narrö, labörö, and dö. See previous page. Can you conjugate these verbs in all their forms? -ö C. GRAMMAR: 1.The number of a verb answers the question “ _______________________?” 2.Latin is a language of many___________________ and fewer ______________________. 3.Write the ending that fits the description below: Description........................................... Ending 1st person singular................................ __________ 3rd person plural................................... __________ 2nd person singular.............................. __________ 4. T o conjugate a verb is to list all of its ______________________. D. DERIVATIVES: 1. To find out about dinosaurs you must dig up a ______________. (fossa) 2. To find out what happens next in the story, turn the _____________. (pägina) PAGE 13 Unit I CHAPTER 2: Derivative Worksheet A. Study Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week. Latin via fossa mënsa pägina cëna patria aura rëgïna ïnsula English way, viaduct fossil, fossilize mesa page cenacle patriot, patriotic aroma reign, regal insular, insulate B. Define In a dictionary, look up two of the English derivatives from the list above and write their definitions in the spaces below: 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ C. Apply 1. The Latin word via is still used by English speakers today. Here are some examples: “He traveled here via airplane.” “Come via the freeway. Don’t drive through the city streets.” In these sentences, via probably means: a. very b. by way of c. quickly 2. The Latin word patria means “fatherland.” In the patriotic song “My Country, ’Tis of Thee” what clue can you find that helps you understand why people often call their country their “fatherland”? My country, ‘tis of thee, ________________________________ Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing; ________________________________ Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside ________________________________ 1 Let freedom ring! Samuel Francis Smith, “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee.” Available at: <http://www.hymnsite.com/lyrics/umh697.sht>. 1 PAGE 14 CHAPTER 2: Quiz A. NEW VOCABULARY: Unit I Latin English via, viae fossa, fossae mënsa, mënsae mëta, mëtae pägina, päginae cëna, cënae patria, patriae aura, aurae rëgïna, rëgïnae ïnsula, ïnsulae B. REVIEW VOCABULRY: Latin English dö, dare, dedï, datum labörö, laböräre, labörävï, labörätum aqua, aquae silva, silvae terra, terrae C. CHANT: Give the present-tense verb endings and fill in the boxes. -ö D. GRAMMAR: Define the following terms: 1. Number: __________________________________________________________________ 2. Person: ____________________________________________________________________ PAGE 15 L at i n F or C h i l d r e n , P r i m e r A • A c t i v i t y B o ok r in our plement every LFC chapte Use games & puzzles to sup Book! er A • Activity Latin for Childrereatn:wwPrw.Cim m s.co res lassicalAcademicP Find out mo w o T r e t p New Criss Cross Complete the puzzle using the clues shown below. Can you draw a line between the correct person/number and its appropriate pronoun(s)? It 3 Person Plural rd 1 2 3 4 Down 1. dinner 2. ditch 4. breeze 6. queen 7. road, way 8. turning point, goal 5 We 8 You He You (all) 2nd Person Plural 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Singular She They 3rd Person Singular 9 Across 3. ae 5. ae 8. ae 9. ae 6 7 I 1st Person Singular Word Crossing C a h Across 3. page 5. fatherland 8. table 9. island Down page 1. ae dinner fatherland 2. ae ditch table 4. ae breeze island 6. ae queen 7. ae road, way Henrietta the hamster got out of her cage again. 8. ae turning point, goal Holes She loves to chew on paper and, well... you get the picture. Help fill in the holes. SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Person -ö -mus 2nd Person -s -tis 3rd Person -t -nt PAGE PAGE16 8 Chapter 3 Unit I MEMORY PAGE: Chapter Maxim:Arma virumque canö* (Of arms and the man I sing—Vergil’s Aeneid) New Chant:1st Declension Noun: mënsa Case Noun Job Nominative Singular SN, PrN** mënsa: table Genitive PNA Dative IO Accusative DO, OP Ablative OP VOCABULARY: mënsärum: of the tables mënsae: to, for the table mënsïs: to, for the tables mënsam: the table mënsäs: the tables mënsä: by, with, from the table mënsïs: by, with, from the tables LATIN stö, stäre, stetï, statum parö, paräre, parävï, parätum spectö, spectäre, spectävï, spectätum sum, esse, fuï, futürum ** These are abbreviations for noun jobs that will be explained in chapter 9. Note them but there is no need to memorize them. mënsae: tables mënsae: of the table errö, erräre, errävï, errätum * Canö is a synonym of cantö. Both verbs mean “I sing.” Plural ancilla, ancillae (f) english I wander, to wander, I wandered, wandered I stand, to stand, I stood, stood I prepare, to prepare, I prepared, prepared I look at, to look at, I looked at, seen I am, to be, I was, about to be maidservant glöria, glöriae (f) glory ïra, ïrae (f) anger unda, undae (f) wave fenestra, fenestrae (f) window page 17 Unit I CHAPTER 3: GRAMMAR PAGE Noun Declensions Do you remember what a noun is from your English grammar class? Just in case you forgot, a noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or sometimes an idea. Do you remember how in the last chapter we found that verbs have all sorts of different endings? Well, nouns have a whole set of endings all their own. As we have learned, when we put together all of the different forms of a verb, we call it conjugating a verb. When we do the same thing for a noun, we call it declining a noun. Take a look at the declension of mënsa on the preceding page. Notice how, just as with the verbs, the chart has two columns going up and down. Just as with the verbs, the column on the left is for the singular forms of the noun (which means just one, remember?) and on the right are all the plural forms. No problem so far, right? We call the difference between singular and plural in nouns their number, just like we do for verbs. Number is the only thing that both verbs and nouns have in Latin, though. Another thing that Latin nouns have common in is gender, and verbs don’t have that. English nouns have gender, too. In English, “boy” is a masculine noun, “girl” is a feminine noun, and “table” is a neuter noun, meaning that it’s not really either a “boy-table” or a “girl-table” because tables aren’t boys or girls... they’re just tables. Well, this may surprise you, but in Latin, all tables are girls! At least they are in Latin grammar. In fact, all of the nouns from this week and last week are feminine, which means that they’re “girl-nouns” (Don’t worry, boys; we’ll give you lots of masculine nouns next chapter.). Make sure to note that nouns ending in -a, -ae (we call them “1st declension” nouns) will almost always be feminine. Note that the -a, -ae endings are the nominative and genitive singular, not the nominative singular and nominative plural. Case Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Singular mënsa mënsae PAGE 18 Plural CHAPTER 3: Worksheet Unit I A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary 1. errö _____________________________ 7. fossa____________________________ 2. spectö____________________________ 8. cënae (Nom)*____________________ 3. stö_______________________________ 9. patria___________________________ 4. ïra_______________________________ 10. mënsae (Nom)*__________________ 5. undae (Nom)* ____________________ 11. via______________________________ 6. Arma virumque canö _______________________________________ *These three words could be genitive singular, dative singular, or nominative plural! In this case, translate them as nominative plural. B. CHANT: Fill in the endings and translate the forms of mënsa given below. The first one has been done for you. Case Singular Plural Nominative a: table mëns_________ mëns_________ Genitive mëns_________ mëns_________ Dative mëns_________ mëns_________ Accusative mëns_________ mëns_________ Ablative mëns_________ mëns_________ C. GRAMMAR: 1. A _________ names a __________, __________, ___________ or ___________. 2. Singular and _____________ are the two options for ________________. 3. Number answers the question “____________________________?” 4. Masculine, ______________, and neuter are the three options for ___________. 5. G iving all of the endings for a verb is called conjugating it, whereas listing all the forms of a noun is called _____________ it. D. DERIVATIVES: 1. Watching football on the couch can be called a __________________ sport. (spectö) 2. T o __________________ something is to throw it out the window. (fenestra, preceded by dë for “out”) PAGE 19 Unit I CHAPTER 3: Derviative Worksheet A. Study Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week: Latin errö stö parö spectö ancilla glöria ïra unda fenestra English error, erroneous station, stationary, static prepare, parry, pare spectator, spectacle, spectacular, speculate ancillary glorious irritate, irate, irritable undulate, inundate defenestrate B. Define In a dictionary, look up three of the English derivatives from the list above and write their definitions in the spaces below: 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ C. Apply 1. Erräre hümänum est. This is a famous saying from the Roman philosopher Seneca. Can you figure out what it means? (Hint: hümänum means “human.”) Give your translation here: ________________________________________________ 2. Inundate, a derivative of the Latin word unda means “to flood with waves of water.” The following sentence uses inundate and several other derivatives. Underline all the derivatives in this sentence: The secretary was inundated with so much paperwork that she made error after error and became extremely irritated. 3. Now write your own sentence using at least two derivatives from this week’s vocabulary list above. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ PAGE 20 CHAPTER 3: Quiz A. NEW Vocabulary: Unit I Latin English errö, erräre, errävï, errätum stö, stäre, stetï, statum parö, paräre, parävï, parätum spectö, spectäre, spectävï, spectätum sum, esse, fuï, futürum ancilla, ancillae glöria, glöriae ïra, ïrae unda, undae fenestra, fenestrae B. CHANT: Give the chant for the declension of mënsa and fill in the boxes. Noun Job SN, PrN PNA IO DO, OP OP C. GRAMMAR: Define the following terms. 1. Noun:_____________________________________________________________________ 2. Declension:________________________________________________________________ 3. What question does the number of a noun answer?_______________________________ 4. What are the two options for number?_________________________________________ 5. What are the three options for gender?_________________________________________ PAGE 21 L at i n F or C h i l d r e n P r i m e r A • A c t i v i t y B o ok r in our plement every LFC chapte Use games & puzzles to sup Book! er A • Activity Latin for Childrereatn:wwPrw.Cim lassicalAcademicPress.com Find out mo C h e r e h T r e t girly nouns p a Sister Susie wants to have a tea party, but she’s not sure which teabags go with which cups. Can you help by drawing a line from the teabags to the correct teacups? Make sure to match both words on each item. ïra via ïnsula fenestra cëna aura cëna unda pägina aura ïnsula esse Su gar sum via rëgïna sum dinner island breeze window unda glöria queen I am I am road anger road dinner wave page breeze wave glory _____________ virumque _____________ (Of arms_______________ I sing—Vergil’s ____________) PAGE22 11 PAGE island to be Chapter 4 Unit I MEMORY PAGE: Chapter Maxim:Arma virumque canö* (Of arms and the man I sing—Vergil’s Aeneid) New Chant:1st Declension Noun Endings: -a, -ae, -ae, -am, -ä Case Singular Plural Nominative -a -ae -ae -am -ä -ae -ärum -ïs -äs -ïs Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative VOCABULARY: LATIN puella, puellae (f) fëmina, fëminae (f) fïlia, fïliae (f) english girl woman daughter germäna, germänae (f) sister magistra, magistrae (f) female teacher discipula, discipulae (f) female student domina, dominae (f) famula, famulae (f) female master female servant* serva, servae (f) female slave* amïca, amïcae (f) female friend page 23 *Certainly slaves “served” their masters, but they did not serve freely—they had to. A famulus could be a slave, too, who served in a household. Unit I CHAPTER 4: GRAMMAR PAGE CASE: Last week our topic was gender and number, two characteristics of a noun that are very important to remember. This week we’re going to learn about the last characteristic of a noun, case. Case helps us to figure out how the noun is used in a sentence. In Latin, case tells us how the noun relates to the other words around it. Nouns in English don’t have case. Looking at the chart on the previous page, we see the cases in bold. The names of the cases need to be remembered along with the endings of the nouns. To help us remember the names of the cases, we will use a mnemonic tool. The word “mnemonic” simply means “made to aid memory.” The tool we will use to help us with this memory job is called an acrostic. An acrostic is made by taking the first letter of each listed word and creating a saying or sentence from them. You could come up with your own, but we find this one easy to remember: Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative “NEVER GIVE DAVUS ANY APPLES” The N in “never” stands for nominative. The G in “give” stands for genitive, et cetera (and the rest). We will discuss the uses of the specific cases in a later chapter, so don’t stress about that just yet! Once this is memorized, we will be able to recall just what is asked for with 1st declension nouns. For instance, what is the 1st declension, nominative plural ending? If we go to the chart, we can follow the nominative row over to the plural column and find the ending -ae. Now find the 1st declension, accusative singular ending. You should see that the ending is -am. Practice this. It will come in very handy! NO WORD FOR “THE” OR “A” IN LATIN In your vocabulary list, notice that puella is translated as “girl,” which is correct. Because there is no word in Latin for “the” or “a” (called article adjectives), you can also translate puella as “the girl” or “a girl.” How will you know whether to translate puella as “girl,” “the girl,” or “a girl”? You can choose the translation that makes the best sense in English! Once you start translating Latin sentences, the other Latin words in a sentence will help you choose whether or not to use “the” or “a” (or “an”) in your translation. PAGE 24 CHAPTER 4: Worksheet Unit I A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary 1. discipula _________________________ 7. puella___________________________ 2. ancilla ___________________________ 8. spectö___________________________ 3. domina __________________________ 9. germäna ________________________ 4. ïra_______________________________ 10. magistra ________________________ 5. fenestra __________________________ 11. fëmina__________________________ 6. Arma virumque canö _________________________________________ B. CHANT: Fill in the 1st declension endings and the boxes with the missing labels. Plural Genitive -ae Accusative C. GRAMMAR: 1. What does the case of a noun tell us?_______________________________________ 2. What are the options for case?____________________________________________ 3. Give the present tense verb endings.________________________________________ D. DERIVATIVES: 1. W e have learned that first declension nouns are almost always ________________ in gender. (fëmina) 2. If someone is friendly he or she can be called ___________. (amïca) PAGE 25 Unit I CHAPTER 4: Derivative Worksheet A. Study Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week: Latin fëmina fïlia germäna magistra discipula domina famula serva amïca English feminine filial germane magistrate, magisterial disciple, discipline dominate, dominion, domain family, familiar, familiarize servant, servitude amity, amicable B. Define In a dictionary, look up two of the English derivatives from the list above, as well as the word “family,” and write their definitions in the spaces below: 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Family: ______________________________________________________________ C. Apply A famula was a female servant or slave in a Roman household. A male servant was called a famulus. A household of servants or slaves was called a familia. We get our English word “family” from the Latin words famula, famulus, and familia. When you looked up the word “family,” you saw that it is used in several different ways. We can even speak of a family of Romance languages that all came from Latin (the language of the Romans). Do you know what some of the Romance languages are? Circle the languages below that you think might have come from Latin. (Hint: It will be hard for you to be wrong.) Italian Spanish Romanian Portuguese French PAGE 26 CHAPTER 4: Quiz A. NEW Vocabulary: Unit I Latin English puella, puellae fëmina, fëminae fïlia, fïliae germäna, germänae magistra, magistrae discipula, discipulae domina, dominae famula, famulae serva, servae amïca, amïcae B. REVIEW Vocabulary: Latin English errö, erräre, errävï, errätum sum, esse, fuï, futürum stö, stäre, stetï, statum ïra, ïrae unda, undae C. CHANT: Give the 1st declension noun endings and fill in the boxes. -a D. GRAMMAR: Answer the following questions. 1. What does case help us figure out?___________________________________________ 2. Give the acrostic for remembering the cases.___________________________________ PAGE 27 r in our plement every LFC chapte Use games & puzzles to sup tivity Book! Ac • A er im Pr n: re ild Ch r fo Latin m w.ClassicalAcademicPress.co Find out more at ww PAGE 28 Chapter 5 Unit I REVIEW CHAPTER: N ow that you have learned forty Latin words (ten words in each chapter), it is time to review them to make sure you won’t forget them. Remember to practice reciting these words for five to ten minutes every day. Try to give the English words for each Latin word on the following list. For each word that you miss, put a check in the circle next to that word. Then work really hard on those checked words until you have them mastered! If you want to, write the English words by the Latin words. Remember to chant or sing the words several times every day. Review this list at least once every day this week. Verbs: Verbs: Nouns: Nouns: amö________________________________ dö _________________________________ intrö________________________________ labörö______________________________ närrö_______________________________ aqua________________________________ fäbula_______________________________ porta_______________________________ silva________________________________ terra________________________________ via_________________________________ fossa________________________________ mënsa_______________________________ mëta________________________________ pägina______________________________ cëna________________________________ patria_______________________________ aura________________________________ rëgïna_______________________________ ïnsula_______________________________ errö________________________________ stö_________________________________ parö________________________________ spectö_______________________________ sum________________________________ puella_______________________________ fëmina______________________________ germäna____________________________ fïlia_________________________________ magistra____________________________ discipula____________________________ domina_____________________________ famula______________________________ serva________________________________ amïca_______________________________ ancilla______________________________ glöria_______________________________ ïra__________________________________ unda________________________________ fenestra_____________________________ page 29 Unit I CHAPTER 5: Review Cont. Derivative Study Derivatives are English words that come from Latin words. For example, “aquatic” is an English derivative word that comes from the Latin word aqua (which means “water”). Then there is the strange English derivative word “defenestration,” which means “the act of throwing something out the window”! This word comes from the Latin root word fenestra (which means “window”). The English derivative “amicable” comes from the Latin word amïcus (friend). During this review week, we will learn many more derivatives that help you learn the Latin words better and learn some more about English, too! Review the lists below that contain your Latin vocabulary for the last two chapters along with some English derivatives. Verbs Verbs Amö: amity (friendship), amorous, amateur, enamor (showing love to someone) Dö: donate, donation Intrö: entrance, introduction Labörö: laboratory (a place where you work!) Närrö: n arrate, narrative, narration (a story, something told) Nouns Errö: error, erroneous (to be in error) Stö: stationary, station, static (not moving) Parö: pare, parry, repair, compare, separate Spectö: s pectacular, speculate, spectator, spectacle (a sight to be seen!). A Roman gladiator fight was called a spectäculum! Nouns Aqua: aquatic (having to do with water) Fäbula: fable, fabulous Porta: portable (something you can carry), port (a place where things are carried— often in ships!) Silva: Pennsylvania (William Penn’s woods) Terra: e xtraterrestrial (from another planet), terrain (the lay of the land), terrarium Via: way, deviate, devious, obvious, trivia, trivium, viaduct Fossa: fossil, fossilize Mënsa: mesa (large flat plain—like a huge table) Pägina: page Cëna: cenacle (a fancy name for a dining room) Patria: patriot, patriotic Aura: aroma (something in the air that smells good) Rëgïna: reign (to rule), regal (like a king or queen) ïnsula: insular (all alone like an island), insulate (to surround something—like an island is surrounded by water). Fëmina: feminine, female Germäna: germane (closely related—like a sister!) Fïlia: f ilial (having to do with a parent and child relationship), affiliation Magistra: magistrate (a ruler or judge), magisterial Discipula: disciple (someone who follows and learns from another), discipline Domina: dominate (to control) Famula: family, familiar, familiarize Serva: servant, serve, servitude Amïca: amicable (friendly), amity Ancilla: ancillary (helpful) Glöria: glory, glorify Ïra: irritate, irritable, irascible (easily angered) Unda: undulate (moving up and down), undulation (a wave or something like a wave), inundate (to flood) Fenestra: defenestration (the act of throwing someone or something out of a window) PAGE 30 CHAPTER 5: Review CONT. Unit I Working with Derivatives Did you know that in some English dictionaries (usually thick ones) you can find Latin words as part of the definition for English words? Here is an example from Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, using the word “fable”: Fable: n. [ME, fr. MF, fr. L fäbula conversation, story, play]: a fictitious narrative or statement as a legendary story of supernatural happenings. The ME means “Middle English” and the MF means “Middle French.” The two little letters fr. mean “from.” Guess what the L means? Yes, it is an abbreviation (a short way of saying something) for Latin! You already know what fäbula means! So the word “fable” is from Middle English, from Middle French, and originally from Latin (from fäbula). This dictionary also tells us that fäbula can be defined as “conversation, story, play”—but you already knew that. The Latin words in these definitions can be called roots since the English word grew up out of the “root” of the Latin word. The Latin root for fable is fäbula. The derivative of fäbula is fable. Now choose one English derivative from each column and look them up. Try to find them in a good dictionary that has Latin roots (your teacher or parent can help you). Can you see how the dictionary gives you the Latin root? List the derivatives you looked up below: 1. English Derivative:___________________ Latin Root:___________________ 2. English Derivative:___________________ Latin Root:___________________ Try writing a sentence that uses at least two derivatives that you have learned. Underline the derivative and put the Latin root in parentheses right after it. Here is an example: John was irritated (ïra) after losing his fossil (fossa). Now write your sentence: ________________________________________________________________________ Now try writing a short little story using as many derivatives as you can. Be creative—this could be fun. Underline the derivatives you use and put the Latin root it comes from in parentheses, just as you did in your sentence above. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 31 Unit I CHAPTER 5: Review CONT. The Latin Family Tree S tudy the Latin family tree and see where Latin came from and what languages came from Latin! The oldest language is listed on the bottom of the tree, and our language (English!) is listed on the top. Portuguese Amigo: friend Filia: daughter English! About 50 percent (half) of our English words come from Latin, sometimes directly from Latin, but often through French. Many professions get lots of important words from Latin—especially law, science, medicine, music, philosophy, and theology. Also, English literature is filled with Latin quotations! Spanish Amigo: friend Hija: daughter All of these five languages are called Romance languages because they came from the language of the Romans—which was Latin! They are all similar. If you learn Latin well, you can easily learn any one (or several) of these Romance languages. You can see how closely these languages are related to Latin (they are germane to Latin!) and to each other by looking at the words for friend and daughter in each language. Latin is a father, and the five Romance languages are like sons—they are brother languages! French Ami: friend Fille: daughter Italian Amico: friend Figlia: daughter Latin! Spoken in the region of Latium on the west coast of central Italy— where Rome is! Amïcus: friend Fïlia: daughter Latin-Faliscan: an early language that gave birth to Latin. Italic: an early language spoken in the region of Italy. Proto-Indo-European Language: spoken through most of Europe as far back as 5,000 years before Christ (5000 BC) PAGE 32 Romanian Amic: friend Fiicà: daughter s e l p m a S of all our products are available at www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com Latin! Latin is a rich, ancient language, and is still very much alive in the modern languages that we speak today. It plays a vital role training students in grammar, in categorical thinking about how a language works, in logical reasoning, and greatly expands a student’s English vocabulary. Caveat emptor (let the buyer beware), these programs have made Latin the favorite subject of many students around the nation! Spanish! After English, Spanish is arguably the most easily applied second language for North American students to learn and master. Classical Academic Press’s Spanish curricula are a blend of immersion and grammar-based study. We start with songs and vocabulary and go on to teach Spanish grammar for conversation—from its parts to its whole—so that students will know how to make sentences as well as recognize them by ear. Greek! Greek is one of the mother tongues of the English language, with many English words having been derived from Greek. Greek is also a perfectly orderly language, ideal to help us understand the structure of any language. Koine Greek, which is the focus in our texts, is also the history-rich language of the New Testament. Logic! There are several branches of logic, and our three levels of curriculum focus on teaching informal and formal logic, as well as supplying students with the tools to create their own logical arguments. Each logic text recognizes that students are living in the 21st century and applies logical concepts to real-life, and often humorous, examples. Mastery of logic is a requisite skill for critical thinking in any discipline and for the classical learning education. Bible! If you would like to teach your students the narrative arc of the Bible and show them how God has been at work in His people since before creation, you will find God’s Great Covenant to be a unique and excellent Bible curriculum. Taught from a covenantal and reformed theological perspective, and rooted in Scripture, you will find this series to be a blessing to your classroom, Sunday School, or family. Poetry! If you have ever felt mystified by poetry, this book will lead you step-by-step to an understanding and love of this branch of literature, guided by a gifted poet and teacher. This accessible curriculum demystifies the practice of reading a poem slowly and carefully, introduces students to the elements of poetry (such as imagery and metaphor), and highlights the historical forms that poems have taken (such as sonnet and open verse). Learn how absorbing the best words in the best order changes your relationship to ideas. s e c r u o s e R because we all could use a little help. Here at Classical Academic Press we understand the need for thorough explanations, enjoyable practice materials, independent student activities, encouraging collaborations, and the means to ask questions of other teachers! We also understand that these needs will vary among teachers and students, as well as their teaching and learning styles, and that learning happens in community. Our goal is to provide for you the resources you need, so that our curriculum is easy to use and so that your student’s studies are enjoyable, relevant, and complete. Here are just a sampling of the resources available to you: . HeadventureLand com Be sure to check out this free practice for your student! HeadventureLand.com offers games, videos, stories, and other resources to support students studying Latin, Spanish, and Greek, particularly for students using curricula from Classical Academic Press. Headventure Land will always be a safe and family-friendly website for students to enjoy and is appropriate and appealing to students of all ages. As teachers and parents, you will find the For Teachers page particularly useful. . ClassicalAcademicPress com The Free Resources page at ClassicalAcademicPress.com offers suggested schedules, extra worksheets, audio pronunciation files, coloring pages, handy grammar charts, flash cards, articles, and mp3s. Also available is the “Ask the Magister (Teacher)” page, where you can submit questions to our magister (teacher) about any of our texts, subjects, or even specific questions of a text’s content. . Classical Academic Press on Facebook com Join us on Facebook for the most recent news, reviews, and discounts, and to give us your opinion on up-and-coming products! Also, preview texts and audio before they’re available to purchase! . InsideClassicalEd com On the Inside Classical Education blog, Dr. Chris Perrin acquaints newcomers and veterans with the history of the Classical education movement. He reports on current developments, presents analysis and review, and interviews leaders in the movement through blog posts, articles, and podcasts. . ClassicalEducator com ClassicalEducator.com fosters collaboration among classical educators and administrators in the U.S. and abroad. Join this site to read blog posts from other classical educators, to enjoy helpful audio and video lectures, to read and ask advice in the forums, and to connect to other teachers. . ClassicalParent com Most of us have not received a classical education ourselves, making it a challenge to give it, or support teachers providing it to our children. Read about how other parents are fostering classical education in their homes. Find links to helpful articles, correspond with other classical parents, and hear how parents are learning classically alongside their students. Monthly Newsletter Be sure to sign up for our monthly newsletter where we always offer further resources, as well as occasional discounts on our curricula and other opportunities in the classical education movement.
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