The Justification for Orthodontic Treatment Advice for PCTs, LHBs and SHAs

Advice for PCTs, LHBs and SHAs
The Justification for
Orthodontic Treatment
This document has been produced by the British Orthodontic Society
The Justification for
Orthodontic Treatment
This document has been produced by the Clinical
Standards Committee of the British Orthodontic
Society. It seeks to provide information for
purchasers and other interested parties about the
specialty of orthodontics. It is divided into eight
sections covering modern orthodontic practice.
1. What is Orthodontics?
page 4
2. Prevalence of orthodontic
page 4
problems
3. Why do people need braces?
page 5
4. Health gains from orthodontic
page 7
treatment
5. Risks of orthodontic treatment
page 10
6. Demand for orthodontic
page 11
treatment
7. What is the best time to carry
page 11
out orthodontic treatment?
8. Providers of orthodontic care
page 12
3
1. What is Orthodontics?
Orthodontics comes from the Greek words “orthos”,
meaning correct or straight and “odontes”, meaning
teeth. It is a specialised branch of dentistry concerned
with the development and management of deviations
from the normal position of the teeth, jaws and face
(malocclusions). A malocclusion is not a disease but
simply a marked variation from what is considered to be
the normal position of teeth. Orthodontic treatment can
improve both the function and appearance of the mouth
and face. Appliances (braces) can be fixed or removable
and are used to straighten the teeth and encourage
growth and development. The main aims of orthodontic
care are to produce a healthy, functional bite, creating
greater resistance to disease and improving personal
appearance. This contributes to the mental, as well as the
physical, well being of the individual.
The photographs show how the treatment of dental
malocclusions, often using fixed appliances, can greatly
improve the aesthetics and function of an individual’s
dentition. These dramatic improvements are known to
have significant psycho-social benefits to the patient.
People with obviously unsightly teeth are very keen to
have them changed. Crowded teeth can be potentially
unhealthy and often provoke teasing or ridicule. Once
straightened, teeth are often less prone to being damaged
and the improvement to facial appearance can be
dramatic.
2. Prevalence of orthodontic problems
The 2003 Children’s Dental Health survey1 found that
approximately one third of children would benefit greatly
from orthodontic treatment. Indicators of treatment need
and outcome have been developed and validated by the
whole orthodontic profession to assess the efficacy and
appropriateness of care. The most widely used are the
Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN)2 and the
Peer Assessment Rating (PAR)3.
The IOTN is divided into two parts called the dental
health component (DHC) and the aesthetic index (AI).
4
The DHC is used to quantify the impact of a particular
malocclusion upon the long-term dental health of an
individual whereas the AI provides an assessment of the
socio-psychological impact through appearance. They
are used to categorise malocclusion into five groupings
measured from 1 to 5 with the most severe being 5. It
is generally accepted that IOTN groups 4 & 5 would
“greatly benefit” from orthodontic treatment as well as
some individuals from IOTN 3 when the AI is high at 6 or
more. The main flaw of this index system is that it fails to
evaluate the child’s perception of need. This may lead to
the denial of treatment of children with a genuine sociodental need4.
Holmes5 found that 38.5% of 12 year olds would greatly
benefit from orthodontic treatment. The most common
severe problems in a normal population are detailed:
Dental Feature
Prevalence
in
Population
(%)
CLEFT LIP AND
PALATE
0.3%
IMPACTED TEETH
8.5%
HYPODONTIA
(missing teeth)
1.8%
REVERSE OVERJET
(lower teeth in front
of upper teeth)
2.1%
LARGE OVERJETS (top
teeth stick out)
8.8%
CROSSBITE AND
DEVIATION OF JAWS
ON CLOSING
3.0%
DEEP OVERBITE
(lower teeth bite on
palate)
4.3%
SEVERE CROWDING
OF TEETH
9.0%
OPEN BITE (teeth do
not meet)
0.7%
3. Why do people need braces?
Evidence suggests that correcting the following tooth/
jaw anomalies with orthodontic appliances will benefit the
patient’s long-term dental health:Crowding: Teeth may be poorly aligned because
the teeth are too large for the mouth. Poor biting
relationships and unsightly appearance may all result from
crowding of the teeth. The upper canine teeth are one of
the most frequent culprits.
Deep (traumatic) overbite: Extreme (vertical) overlap
of the top and bottom front teeth can lead to them
contacting the roof of the mouth causing significant tissue
damage and gum stripping. In some patients, this can
contribute to excessive tooth wear and early tooth loss in
adulthood.
Increased overjet: Upper front teeth that protrude
beyond normal contact with the lower teeth often
indicate a poor bite of back teeth and can indicate
unevenness in jaw growth. Thumb and finger sucking
habits can also cause prominence of the upper incisor
teeth and increase the risk of trauma and permanent
5
damage to the front teeth. A systematic review of the
available evidence on this topic found that individuals
with an increased overjet had more than double the risk
of injury6.
Open Bite: An open bite results when the upper and
lower front teeth do not touch when biting together. This
leads to all the chewing pressures being placed on the
back teeth, which may cause these teeth to wear down
quicker. It may also make the patient’s biting less efficient,
which may cause social problems especially at meal times.
Spacing: If teeth have either not developed or are
missing, or smaller than average in size, unsightly spaces
may occur between the teeth. This is a less common
problem though when compared with patients who have
significant crowding of their teeth. Some malocclusions
have a greater adverse effect on quality of life than other
types. Individuals with four or more missing teeth have
been shown to have poorer “quality of life” scores7.
Crossbite: This occurs when the upper front teeth bite
inside the lower teeth i.e. towards the tongue. This can
lead to one or more of the lower incisor teeth becoming
mobile with early receding of the gums. It can also occur
on the back teeth and is best corrected at an early age
e.g. 8-10 years, due to biting and chewing difficulties as a
result of the deviated bite and associated displacement of
the lower jaw.
“Reverse” overjet or lower jaw protrusion:
Approximately 3 - 5% of the population have a lower
jaw that is significantly longer than their upper jaw. This
causes them to bite their lower front teeth ahead of the
upper front teeth thus creating a total crossbite of the
teeth. It can also lead to significant wearing down of the
tips of the upper front teeth.
6
4. Health gains from orthodontic treatment
s Improved dental health and resistance to
dental disease: Clinical experience suggests that
poorly aligned teeth reduces the potential for natural
tooth cleansing and increases the risk of tooth decay.
Malocclusion could thereby contribute to both
dental decay and periodontal disease, which would
damage the long-term health of the teeth and gums
as it makes it harder for the patient to take care of
their teeth properly8. However, the evidence linking
periodontal (gum) disease and crowding of the teeth
is conflicting. Some studies have found no associations
between crowded teeth and periodontal destruction9.
Others have shown that mal-aligned teeth may have
more plaque retention than straight teeth but socioeconomic group, gender, tooth size and tooth surface
have greater influences10. Studies seem to indicate that
malocclusion has little impact on diseases of the teeth
or supporting structures as the presence or absence of
dental plaque is the major determinant of the health of
the hard and soft tissues of the mouth. Straight teeth
may be easier to clean than crooked ones but patient
motivation and dental hygiene seems to be the overriding influencing factor in preventing gum disease9.
Having straighter teeth may help moderate tooth
brushers to be more efficient with their oral care.
s Improvements in the overall function of
the dentition: Teeth which do not bite together
properly, can make eating difficult. Individuals
who have a poor occlusion can find it difficult and
embarrassing to eat because of their poor control of
either biting through food or poor chewing ability
on their back teeth. Adults with severe malocclusion
often report difficulties in chewing, swallowing or
speech. Studies have found no causative association
between orthodontic treatment and jaw joint (TMJ)
problems11, 12. In the main, speech is little affected
by malocclusion. However, if a patient cannot attain
contact between their front teeth, this may contribute
to the production of a speech lisp.
s Prevention of trauma to prominent teeth: The
risk of trauma/injury to upper incisors has been shown
to increase to 45% for children with significantly
7
protruding upper front teeth13. These malocclusions
score a Dental Health Component of 5, indicating
a “great need” for treatment. Such trauma to the
mouth of an untreated child can result in a fracture
of the tooth and/or damage of the tooth’s nerve
(pulp). Prominent upper front teeth are an important
and potentially harmful type of orthodontic problem.
Providing early orthodontic treatment for young
children (aged 7-9 years) with prominent upper front
teeth is of questionable clinical significance. It may be
prudent to delay treatment until early adolescence.
However, important factors such as psychological
impact and the reduction of associated accidents
(trauma) to the protruding front teeth need to be
evaluated on an individual basis14.
s Treatment of impacted (buried, partially
erupted) teeth: Unerupted teeth may cause
resorption (dissolving) of the roots of adjacent teeth.
Cyst formation can also occur around unerupted
wisdom or canine teeth. Extra (supernumerary) teeth
may also give rise to problems and prevent the normal
eruption of a permanent tooth. Unerupted or partially
erupted wisdom teeth can often be left alone in the
mouth if they are not giving the patient any problems.
s Improvement in dental/facial aesthetics: Often
resulting in improved self-esteem and other psychosocial aspects of the individual. Until recently, this
aspect has been harder to measure and quantify. A
number of studies over the years have confirmed that
a severe malocclusion can be a social handicap. Social
responses, conditioned by appearance of the teeth,
can severely affect an individual’s whole adaptation
to life. This can lead to the concept of a patient’s
malocclusion being “handicapping”.
One of the most significant effects of a malocclusion
is its psycho-social impact on the individual patient.
There is little doubt that a poor dental appearance
can have a profound psycho-social effect on children.
Shaw et al. (1980) found that children were teased
more about their teeth than anything else e.g. clothes,
weight, ears. A person’s dental appearance can have a
significant effect on how they feel about themselves15.
Children and adolescents with poor teeth can often
8
become targets for teasing and harassment from other
children. This results in these patients being unsure
of themselves in social interaction and having lower
self-esteem.
Adolescents who complete orthodontic treatment
report fewer oral health impacts on their daily life
activities than those who had never had treatment.
Groups of children who need orthodontic treatment
exhibit significantly higher impacts on their emotional
and social well-being16. Malocclusion has a negative
impact on the oral health related quality of life of
adolescents. Children aged between 11 and 14 years
old with malocclusion demonstrate significantly more
“impacts” i.e. worse quality of life, compared with a
minimal malocclusion group based on the IOTN17.
Johal et al. (2006) investigated the impact that
a malocclusion has on a child’s quality of life by
assessing the effect of an increased overjet (>6mm)
or spaced front teeth. These groups of children also
had more significant social and emotional issues than
children with well-aligned teeth18. Their research also
found that both these occlusal traits had a significant
negative impact on the quality of life of their parents
and other family members.
Shaw et al. (2007) carried out a major multidisciplinary longitudinal study in Cardiff back in 1981
of an initial sample of 1,018 11-12 year olds. A 20-year
follow-up study looked at the dental and psycho-social
status of individuals who received, or did not receive,
orthodontics as teenagers19. Unfortunately, only a third
(n=337) of the original sample could be re-examined
in 2001 due to a 67% dropout rate. Those patients
with a prior need for orthodontic treatment, who had
treatment completed as a child, demonstrated better
tooth alignment, better self-esteem and “satisfaction
with life” scores. However, orthodontics seemed to
have little positive effect on psychological health
and quality of life in adulthood. Unfortunately, this
long-term study suffered with problems of an archaic
treatment regime (mainly removable appliances being
used), antique methodology and short retention
regime. Its relevance to 21st century orthodontics is
therefore debatable.
9
In summary, it appears that both psycho-social and
functional handicaps can produce a significant need for
orthodontic treatment in addition to the dental health
benefits described.
The benefits of orthodontic treatment include an
improvement in dental health, function, appearance and
self-esteem. These perceived benefits are described in
more detail below. Prospective patients (and their parents)
seem to be confident of the gains that they expect to
achieve by undergoing a course of orthodontic treatment.
The benefits of orthodontic treatment often go beyond
improving a person’s dental health. People may feel they
look better, which can contribute to self-esteem and one’s
overall quality of life20.
5. Risks of orthodontic treatment
In the vast majority of well-planned cases, the benefits
of orthodontic treatment outweigh the possible
disadvantages. Patient education and the selection of
appropriate treatment plans for individuals reduce this risk
considerably. The most important aspect of orthodontic
care is to have an extremely high standard of oral hygiene
before and during orthodontic treatment21.
i. Early tooth decay: poor oral hygiene (tooth
brushing) can lead to damage of the teeth around
orthodontic braces. Early tooth decay (decalcification) will
occur when plaque accumulates around a fixed brace in
the presence of frequent sugar intake. Thorough dietary
advice, excellent oral hygiene and the use of fluoride
supplements are used routinely by orthodontists to
minimise this risk.
ii. Root Resorption: mild loss of tooth root tissue
(dissolving) is very commonly seen as a consequence of
tooth movement but this does not cause any long-term
problems for the vast majority of patients.
iii. Loss of Periodontal Support: if a patient’s oral
hygiene is poor during treatment, orthodontics may
exacerbate gingival inflammation and susceptibility to
periodontal (gum) disease. Patients who have undergone
orthodontic treatment do not have any increased predisposition to developing periodontal disease22.
10
6. Demand for orthodontic treatment
Orthodontics has played an increasing role in dentistry
over recent years and this trend is likely to continue in
the future. Recent surveys of the long-term effects of
orthodontic treatment reveal that the vast majority of
individuals who have undergone orthodontic treatment
feel that they benefited from the treatment and are
pleased with the result. Many patients will demonstrate
dramatic changes in their dental and facial appearance.
It is well known that not all patients with malocclusion,
even those with extreme deviations from normal, seek
orthodontic treatment. The perceived need for treatment
is influenced by both social and cultural factors and
currently the demand for treatment greatly exceeds the
resources available. There has been a marked increase in
demand from both children and adults seeking treatment
since the 1980s as a result of more dental awareness
by the public in conjunction with an increased social
acceptance of fixed braces.
7. What is the best time to carry out
orthodontic treatment?
Each year, in excess of 130,000 patients (most of whom
are children under the age of 18 years) have braces fitted
under the NHS in England & Wales. There is a wide range
of opinion on the best time to start orthodontic treatment
but the vast majority is carried out on children who have
lost all their baby (deciduous) teeth and have most of
their adult teeth (except for wisdom teeth) present in
the mouth. This means that the earliest the majority
of children commence their orthodontic treatment is
between 11-12 years of age.
Orthodontic treatment provided whilst many baby teeth
are still present in the mouth, i.e. at age 7-9 years, is
regarded as early or interceptive treatment. A common
example of this type of orthodontic treatment is in
cases with anterior and/or lateral crossbites with jaw
displacement on mouth closure23, 24. Simple expansion
appliances (removable or fixed types) are usually
employed to deal with this clinical situation over a
11
few months. Another example of valid interceptive
orthodontic treatment is where the timely removal of
a baby tooth can enable the spontaneous (natural)
correction of a dental centreline shift or allows an “offtrack” (ectopic) adult tooth to erupt into its correct
position in the mouth without the need for braces.
Most UK orthodontists do not favour early treatment
to correct increased overjets, deep overbites or severe
dental crowding and prefer to carry out this treatment
at the more “ideal” age of 10-12 years or later. Early
treatment for increased overjets is commonplace in
the USA and mainland Europe. It is described as “two
phase” treatment as it involves a period of early active
treatment with a functional or removable appliance
followed by a second phase with fixed braces once all
the adult teeth are present in the mouth. This compares
with “one phase” treatment of adult teeth where the
functional and fixed brace treatments are combined
thereby reducing the overall treatment time and possibly
cost. The optimal timing for treatment of children with
increased overjets remains controversial25 and needs to
be based on individual indications for each child. Good
communication skills can identify specific children whose
psychological well being can be improved by early
treatment26.
8. Providers of orthodontic care
In the United Kingdom (UK), orthodontic care is provided
within the state funded NHS at no direct cost to the
patient or their parents. All Specialist Orthodontists are
Dentists but only about 3% of Dentists are Orthodontists.
An Orthodontist is a specialist in the diagnosis, prevention
and treatment of dental irregularities and facial growth
anomalies. An Orthodontic Specialist must complete
an initial 5-year dental undergraduate programme at a
University Dental School and then successfully complete
an additional 3-year post-graduate programme of
advanced education in orthodontics. By the completion
of their specialist training, trainees will have undertaken
a Masters Degree and the Membership in Orthodontics
from one of the Royal Colleges. Currently, hospital and
university trainees complete two years of additional
12
training before they can become eligible to apply for
consultant posts.
At present, there are approximately 1200 orthodontic
specialists in the UK. These are made up of specialist
practitioners, hospital consultants and community
orthodontists. Compared with the rest of the developed
world, the UK is severely short of qualified orthodontists.
The UK is 15th out of 17 European countries in terms of
orthodontic provision with 1 orthodontist per 73,000
population - only Spain and Turkey are worse off.
Germany and Austria top the table with 1 per 30,000
- the average is 1 in 55,000. Many other European
countries utilise orthodontic therapists to work along
side orthodontists as part of the orthodontic team. The
number of funded training places and the very recent
introduction of orthodontic therapists in the UK will
influence the future availability of orthodontic care.
There is a wealth of evidence to show that orthodontic
treatment is more likely to achieve a pleasing, successful
result if fixed appliances rather than removable appliances
are used27-30 and if the operator has had some postgraduate training in orthodontics31, 32. The likelihood that
orthodontic treatment will benefit a patient is increased
if a malocclusion is severe28 and if appliance therapy is
planned and carried out by an experienced orthodontist29.
However, the likelihood of either a health or psycho-social
gain is reduced if the malocclusion is mild and treatment
is undertaken by an inexperienced operator33.
13
References
1. Lader D, Chadwick B, Chestnutt I, Harker R. et al. Children’s dental health in the United Kingdom 2003.
Summary Report Office for National Statistics: March 2005.
2. Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. European Journal of
Orthodontics, 1989; 11: 309-320.
3. Richmond S, Shaw WC, O’Brien KD, Buchanan IB. et al. The development of the PAR index: reliability and
validity. European Journal of Orthodontics, 1992; 14: 125-139.
4. De Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G and O’Brien KD. Oral health-related quality of life and the IOTN
index as predictors of children’s perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. British Dental
Journal, 2008; 204: E12.
5. Holmes A. The Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1992; 19:
177-182.
6. Nguyen QV, Bezemer PD, Habets L, Prahl-Andersen B. A systematic review of the relationship between
overjet size and traumatic dental injuries. European Journal of Orthodontics, 1999; 21: 503-515.
7. Wong AT, McMillan AS, McGrath C. Oral health-related quality of life and severe hypodontia. Journal of
Oral Rehabilitation, 2006; 33: 869-873.
8. Roberts-Harry D, Sandy J. Orthodontics. Part 1: Who needs orthodontics? British Dental Journal, 2003;
195: 433-437.
9. Geiger A, Wasserman B, Turgeon L. Relationship of occlusion and periodontal disease. Part 8:
Relationship of crowding and spacing to periodontal destruction and gingival inflammation. Journal of
Periodontology, 1974; 45: 43-49.
10. Davies T, Shaw W, Worthing H. et al. The effect of orthodontic treatment on plaque and gingivitis.
American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 1988; 93: 423-428.
11. Sadowsky C. Risk of orthodontic treatment for producing temporo-mandibular disorders: A literature
review. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 1992; 101: 79-83.
12. Luther F. Orthodontics and the TMJ: Where are we now? Angle Orthodontist, 1998; 68: 295-318.
13. Todd J, Dodd T. Children’s dental health in the United Kingdom. London: Office of Population Census
and Surveys, 1985.
14. Harrison JE, O’Brien KD, Worthington HV. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth in
children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007; Issue 3.
15. Shaw WC, Meek SC, Jones DS. Nicknames, teasing harassment and the salience of dental features
among school children. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1980; 7: 75-80.
16. De Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. The relationship between normative orthodontic treatment need and oral
health-related quality of life. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 2003; 31: 426-436.
17. O’Brien C, Benson PE, Marshman Z. Evaluation of a quality of life measure for children with
maloccluson. Journal of Orthodontics, 2007; 34: 185-193.
14
18. Johal A, Cheung MYH, Marcenes W. The impact of two different malocclusion traits on quality of life.
British Dental Journal, 2007; 202: E6.
19. Shaw WC, Richmond S, Kenealy PM, Kingdon A, Worthongton H. A 20-year cohort study of health
gain from orthodontic treatment: Psychological outcome. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial
Orthopedics, 2007; 132: 146-157.
20. Turpin DL. Orthodontic treatment and self-esteem (Editorial)
American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2007; 131: 571-572.
21. Travess H, Robert-Harry D, Sandy J. Orthodontics. Part 6: Risks in orthodontic treatment. British Dental
Journal, 2004; 196: 71-77.
22. Sadowsky C, BeGole EA. Long term effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal health. American
Journal of Orthodontics, 1981; 80: 156-172.
23. Harrison JE, Ashby D. Orthodontic treatment for posterior crossbites. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews, 2001; Issue 1.
24. Pietilä I, Pietilä T, Pirttiniemi P. et al. Orthodontists’ views on indications for and timing of orthodontic
treatment in Finnish public oral care. European Journal of Orthodontics, 2008; 30: 46-51.
25. Tulloch JFC, Proffit WR, Phillips C. Outcomes in a 2-phase randomized clinical trial of early Class II
treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2004; 125: 657-667.
26. O’Brien K. et al. Effectiveness of early orthodontic treatment with the Twin-Block appliance: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Part 2: Psychosocial effects. American Journal of Orthodontics &
Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2003; 124: 488-494.
27. Jones ML. The Barry Project – a three-dimensional assessment of occlusal treatment change in a
consecutively referred sample: Crowding and arch dimensions. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1990; 17:
269-285.
28. Richmond S, Shaw WC, Stephens CD, Webb WG, Roberts CT, Andrews M. Orthodontic standards in the
General Dental Service of England and Wales: a critical appraisal of standards. British Dental Journal, 1993;
174: 315-327.
29. O’Brien KD, Shaw WC, Roberts CT. The use of occlusal indices in assessing the provision of orthodontic
treatment by the hospital orthodontic services of England and Wales. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1993;
20: 25-35.
30. Turbill EA, Richmond, Wright JL. A closer look at General Dental Service orthodontics in England and
Wales I: Factors influencing effectiveness. British Dental Journal, 1999a: 187: 211-216.
31. Fox NA, Richmond S, Wright JL, Daniels CP. Factors affecting the outcome of orthodontic treatment
within the General Dental Services. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1997; 24: 217-221.
32. Turbill EA, Richmond, Wright JL. A closer look at General Dental Service orthodontics in England and
Wales II: What determines appliance selection? British Dental Journal, 1999b: 187: 271-274.
33. Mitchell L. 2007 Chapter 1.6 ‘The effectiveness of treatment’, page 5, in ‘An Introduction to
Orthodontics’ 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, England.
15
Produced by the Clinical Standards Committee of the
British Orthodontic Society 2008
British Orthodontic Society
12 Bridewell Place London EC4V 6AP
Email: [email protected] www.bos.org.uk Telephone: 020 7353 8680 Fax: 020 7353 8682
Registered Charity No: 1073464
CB 1 July 09
`