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Organ
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J(mA / m 2 ) E(mV/m) J(mA / m 2 ) E(mV/m) J(mA / m 2 ) E(mV/m)
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Organ-averaged
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Organ-averaged
Max. (1 cm 2)
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cord
Organ-averaged
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Organ-averaged
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92.69
234.69
185.39
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120.08
296.86
240.16
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130.33
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18.15
86.68
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23.63
114.57
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Max. (1 cm 2)
36.41
88.08
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250.19
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Organ-averaged
Max. (1 cm 2)
85.11
234.21
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402.80
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68.55
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317.93
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P ancreas Organ-averaged
Max. (1 cm 2)
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86.33
188.08
567.63
38.64
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254.02
622.87
46.72
85.43
307.19
561.64
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The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wavelength
(m)
1.2x10 14
3x1028
10 -20
1.2x10 10
3x1024
10 -16
1.2x10 6
3x1020
10 -12
1.2x10 2
3x1016
10 -8
1.2x10 -2
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1.2x10 -6
3x108
1
1.2x10 -10
3x104
10 4
Ionizing
Radiation
vio
l et
Frequency
(Hz)
Ult
ra
Energy
(eV)
Visible
3
400
500
600
Red
700
Infrared
800
Infrared
Microwave
Radiofrequency
Extremely low frequency
1.2x10 -14
Ultraviolet
Violet
Blue
Green
Yellow
Orange
Wavelength
(nm)
300
10 8
Extremely high frequency
Super high frequency
Ultra high frequency
Very high frequency
High frequency
Medium frequency
Low frequency
Very low frequency
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( + A The energy
carried in an electromagnetic wave is usually expressed in terms of the energy passing through a
fixed area per unit time. For an electromagnetic wave this power density S at any point may be
calculated from the vector product of the electric and magnetic field strength vectors, i.e., E x H
= P. P is called Poynting’s Vector and represents the power density and the direction of energy
propagation. The Poynting vector points in the direction in which the electromagnetic wave is
traveling, thus transporting energy in that direction. The magnitude of the power density
propagated in the wave can be calculated from the vector product:
ExH
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sin 4
For 4 = 90°, as is the case for a plane wave in free space:
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Note that if E has dimensions of V m-1 and H is in units of A m-1 the dimensions of P and/or S
are given in W m-2. In the United States, typically in hazard analyses S is expressed in per square centimeter (mW cm-2). Power density W m-2 can be equated to E and H as follows:
47CB6X(+B99XB99+
(B)
Polarization is another important property of electromagnetic waves and is characterized
by the oscillatory behavior and orientation of the electric field vector. A wave referred to as
being linearly polarized means that the electric field vector varies in amplitude in only one
direction as it travels. It is conventional to describe polarization in terms of the electric field
only, not the magnetic field. An electromagnetic wave may exhibit linear, circular, elliptical, or
random polarization (such as in a light bulb). A receiver (or absorber) of electromagnetic
radiation must have the same sense of polarization as the incident wave for it to be detected or
absorb energy from it most efficiently.
Suppose we could "freeze" the motion of an electromagnetic wave traveling in free space
that we have previously discussed and take a snapshot of its E and H fields. The ratio of the
electric field strength to the magnetic field strength is known as the characteristic impedance (or
wave impedance Zo) of free space. Therefore:
X.4 Zo =
E/H .
(4)
Note that Zo is the ratio of E to H and is independent of their absolute magnitudes and has a
value of 120S or approximately 377 ohms. Therefore, in the far field, if one can measure either
field component (E or H), it is easy to calculate the other. Unfortunately, in many cases
measurements are needed to be made in the so-called “near field”, where the orthogonal
relationship between E and H does not hold. In this case, both E and H fields must be measured.
It is usually assumed that near field conditions are present below 300 MHz; certainly this is true
for emitters with frequencies below 100 MHz.
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