Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) 2(4): 86-102
(ISSN: 2518 -0827)
Africa International Journal of Management Education and
© Oasis International Academic Journals, 2017
(ISSN: 2518 -0827)
SYLVESTER MAKHULO- Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Received on 20th September, 2017
Published in 12th December, 2017
Renewable resources are natural resources that are capable of regenerating after harvesting and use and have the
potential for use into posterity. Most of these resources are biological (wild animals hunted for food, wild plants
gathered for food and medicine, forest biomass harvested for timber, fibre and fuel and soils from which we obtain crop
yields), although some are non-biological(such as groundwater and surface water resources replenished by the
hydrological cycle etc.). The objective of this paper is a reflection on Africa’s exploitation of renewable resources within
the perspective of global development trends in the midst of rapid population growth. Based on document analysis, it
examines whether Africa’s renewable resources are being depleted, and if so, then resource use sustainability must be
pursued. But can sustainable resource use in Africa be achieved? Research indicates that world population growth is
estimated to reach 9 billion people by 2050 and the hourly destruction of about 240 acres of natural habitat is directly
linked to human population growth. Furthermore, 80% of the decline in bio-diversity (land and soils, forests, fisheries,
wildlife and surface and groundwater resources) is caused by habitat destruction. This paper therefore concludes that
Africa’s renewable resources are being overexploited or misused due to an ever urbanizing society and the ever rising
demands on societal livelihoods. This paper thus recommends that management policies and strategies at national,
regional and continental levels have to be adopted against potential depletion of these resources and the associated
environmental damage arising from their unregulated exploitation. Sustainability through resource management and
conservation is a pre-condition that should be realized. Renewable resource use in Africa should, thus, be at rates that
are equal to or smaller than the rates of regeneration.
Key Words: Renewable Resources, Harvesting, Sustainable Development
Renewable Natural Resources
This refers to natural resources that are virtually unlimited or which can be replenished by natural
processes fast enough. Most renewable resources are biological but some are non-biological. The former
comprises wild animals hunted for food, wild plants foraged for food source and as medicine, forest
biomass that yields timber, fiber, fuel and soils. The latter is inclusive of surface and groundwater sources
whose renewal and replenishment is engineered by the hydrological cycle and sunlight, an input to earth
in form of radiation.
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Good conservation practices can enhance the rates of regeneration but mismanagement or overuse would
lead to degradation, and, eventually, a collapse of their stock, synonymous with using a renewable resource
as if it was non-renewable. The list of renewable resources also includes renewable energy sources such as
solar energy, hydro-electric power, geothermal power, wind, tidal, wave and biomass energy but these
types are outside the limits of this analysis.
Theoretical underpinnings
This paper is anchored on the premise that the achievement of a sustainable exploitation of Africa’s
renewable resources cannot be possible through conventional economics. Traditional or conventional
economic theory largely ignored the environmental costs of harvesting source materials, such as costs of
depletion to future generations. It was, too, oblivious of the environment as a sink for waste and pollution.
Technological optimists and proponents of this economic theory-the Cornucopians-strongly argue that
resources of all kinds, renewable or non-renewable, will never be depleted since human ingenuity and
emerging technological capacity will result in a world of growing affluence and well-being; that population
control is unnecessary since it will naturally plummet through economic growth in Less Economically
Developed Countries(LEDCs). In support of this school of thought is the Anthropocentric World View
which is deeply grounded within the Judeo-Christian ethic based on the biblical myth of creation in which
divine providence empowered humans over natural resources. In a nutshell, humans have the right to
draw from the environment whatever they want for subsistence or economic benefit, as to them, this is
inexhaustible (White, 1967). From the pure ecological perspective, this is an arrogant attitude but which,
unfortunately, permeates world dominant cultures and religions; dogmatic principles and tendencies not
in compliance with sustainability.
Africa’s renewable resource harvesting and sustainable development can only be realized through
ecological economics. Also known as green economics, this theory views society and the natural
environment as a single system. In contrast to conventional economics, ecological or environmental
economics incorporates environmental considerations in its theory and practice. The gist of this theory is
that the environmental costs and benefits of resource extraction, pollution and production activities have
to be included in economic calculations. Ecological economics concerns sustainable growth, not the
reverse, as the latter is basically anchored on the idea of’ infinite’ resources, maximum resource use and
economics’(Mckinney&Schoch,2003). In their studies on environmental ethics and philosophy, the
utilitarians spearheaded by Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832) and his brilliant protégé, John Stuart Mill (18061873) aver that the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of humans is to be educated and to act
according to enlightened humanitarian principles. This kind of utilitarianism inspired Gifford Pinchot and
the early conservationists who argued that the purpose of conservation is to protect the resources for the
‘greatest good, for the longest time’ (Cunningham, et al, 2005).
Land Degradation in Kenya
Kenya’s population is estimated to increase at an average of 1 million people per year. Census records
indicate that the population was about 27 million people (1999), 38 million (2009) and currently stands at
over 45 million. This burgeoning population has precipitated an unprecedented unsustainable land-use,
this leading to land degradation. Land degradation is the long-term loss of ecosystem function and
productivity caused by disturbances from which the land cannot recover unaided (Bai, et al, 2008). It has
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long-lasting impacts on the rural folk who become increasingly vulnerable (Muchena, 2008). The most
severe form of land degradation is desertification. This is defined by the United Nations Commission to
Combat Desertification (UNCCD) as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry land areas resulting from
various factors including climate variability and human activities. Deforestation and heavy rainfall often
lead to erosion and soil loss (Fig 1).
Figure 1: Soil Degradation
Kenya’s 2002 National Action Programs on desertification reported ecological conditions in dry lands as
harsh and fragile. Frequent droughts and influx of human populations into these arid areas from high
potential areas has created vulnerability to desertification owing to overgrazing and land fragmentation
into uneconomic parcel sizes (Government of Kenya, 2002). Over 20% of all cultivated areas, 30% of forests
and 10% of grasslands are subject to degradation, largely due to expansion into marginal lands (Muchena,
2008). Areas around Lake Turkana and marginal cropland in Eastern Kenya were identified as those with
the sharpest decline ( Bai and Dent, 2006). In El Wak in Mandera County, in North Eastern Kenya, efforts
by the government, non- governmental organizations and multi-lateral donor agencies to create boreholes,
wells and earthen dams has, incidentally attracted sedentary life, increased livestock numbers and, thus,
serious land degradation. In Laikipia County, population pressure in the south west and north eastern
parts of the plateau has resulted into land sub-division in recent decades. The impact of population
pressure and small farms by 2003 can be seen in the satellite imagery of the degraded land surface of the
south west (Fig 2).
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Figure 2: Land degradation in South West Laikipia
Similar degradation challenges are experienced in Samburu County- an area with major ecological
characteristics, including a rich variety of wildlife but faced with population pressure challenges. In the
highland areas, east and west of the Rift Valley, cultivation along steep slopes , vegetation removal and
overgrazing have brought about changes in drainage and infiltration patterns which has , in turn,
destabilized soils, thereby resulting in landslides during heavy rainfall periods. Murang’a County has
registered many such catastrophes (Fig 3).
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Figure 3: Muranga Landslide
In Kakamega County in Western Kenya, the twin landslides at Khuvasale in August 2007 remain the most
dramatic such event to-date in this part of the country. (Fig 4).Unconfirmed reports indicated that 7 people
lost their lives with 39 others injured.
Figure 4: Kuvasale landslide
Forest Ecosystems
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( a) The Congo Basin Forest Complex
The Congo Basin Forest Complex is the world’s second largest after the Amazon. Stretching from the Gulf
of Guinea in the west to the Albertine Rift in the east, the ecosystem’s biodiversity is of worldwide
importance since the flora and fauna found here do not exist anywhere else on earth, be it at the species,
genus or family level (The Brussels International Conference Report, 2007).The ecosystem complex covers
Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the
Central African Republic.
This forest resource is coveted but under threat. The aspirations of the population lead to increasingly
localized and unsustainable extraction of forest resources. The sale of forest products to large urban
markets by local populations, farming, charcoal burning, small-scale artisan logging, all have worked
singly or jointly to upscale deforestation (Table 1).
Table1: Forested area and annual rate of deforestation in central African countries
(Source: Congo Basin Forest Partnership, 2002)
Areas of evident deforestation in Central Africa are as illustrated (Fig 5).
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Figure 5: Map showing forests of Central Africa and areas of deforestation (Congo Basin Forest
Partnership, 2002)
In the case of DRC, deforestation is steadily increasing. Consequently, several rare and endemic animal
species have virtually disappeared or are about to do so (BICR, 2007).
In the high mountains of the Albertan Rift, forests have been replaced by intensive permanent agriculture,
a demographic time bomb that day after day sends people into the lowland forests to the west. Fauna has
disappeared from vast areas and is only found in’ pockets’ while many tree species are dispersed by
animals (birds, primates, ungulates, rodents, et cetera). Direct threats to the Congo Ecosystem include
poaching and trade in bush meat, permanent or intensive agriculture with a very short or even a nonexistent fallow period, unsustainable industrial logging due to international market demands, informal or
artisan logging, mining and oil extraction (Ibid). Indirect threats comprise population growth, road
construction and lack of development of national parks, yet this would be an important means of
attenuating conflicts between conservation and human activities.
( b) The Mau Forest Complex (Kenya)
This is the largest closed- canopy forest ecosystem in Kenya. The forests of this complex provide critical
ecological services to the country in terms of water storage, river flow regulation, flood mitigation,
groundwater recharge, reduced soil erosion and siltation, water purification, conservation of diversity and
micro-climate regulation. Through these ecological roles, the Mau Forest Complex supports key economic
sectors in the Rift Valley, the Western and Nyanza regions of Kenya, including energy, tourism, agriculture
and industries. The forest complex is a source of water supply to several urban centers and supports the
livelihood of millions of people living in rural areas. It is also home to a minority group, the Ogiek (Prime
Minister’s Task Force Report, 2009).
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The Mau Forest Complex is strategically important as a water catchment area, even beyond Kenya. Its
forests form the upper catchments of 12 main rivers that drain into five major lakes; Baringo, Nakuru,
Turkana, Victoria and Natron. Three of these lakes are international water bodies; Victoria
(Kenya/Uganda), Turkana (Kenya/Ethiopia) and Natron (Kenya/Tanzania). Considering that 5 of these
12 rivers flow into Lake Victoria, the Mau Forest Complex is important to the River Nile Basin Water
Resources (PMTFR, 2009). However, human activities and encroachment poses major challenges. For
instance, a series of forest excisions and encroachments over the last 15 years has resulted in some 107,707
hectares (about 25% of the forest complex area) being converted to settlement and farmland (Ibid).
The mainstay of households in Mau Forests is engaging in farming activities, more especially for a
subsistence livelihood. The various products accessed from the Mau Forests are as indicated (Fig 6).
Figure 6: Various Products accessed from Mau Forests (Source: Chepng’eno 2014)
Although a new Forest Act was passed in 2005 and operationalized in February 2007, establishing the
Kenya Forest Service, the essential reforms have remained slow and inadequate. However, the degradation
of the Mau Forests is a violation of several multi-lateral environmental agreements to which Kenya
subscribes. This includes the East African Community Treaty, African Convention on Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources, the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands, the Convention of Biological
Diversity, the Convention of Migratory Species and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (Ibid).
The degradation of the forest complex is also characterized by commercial logging, commercial tea farming,
charcoal trade and a host of other activities of deforestation .This has also impacted negatively on the
ecosystem as an Important Bird Area (IBA) with over 450 recorded species. The rural population gets its
wood from the land it cultivates. Growing populations are putting increasingly heavier demands on the
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fuel wood sources and the fallow cycle. To the villager, wood fuel possesses the overwhelming advantage
of being free and it is commonly used as firewood (Gleave, 1992).
The aforementioned scenario of wood fuel extraction from tropical forest areas in Africa is commonplace
in the Mau Complex. This has potential negative impacts on the ecosystem. For instance, about six
mammals of international conservation concern are found here including Bongo, Yellow-backed Duicker,
Giant Forest Hog, Golden Cat, Leopard and African Elephant. There are also a diversity of forest types
(PMTFR, 2009). It cannot be gainsaid, therefore, that the degradation of the Mau Forest Ecosystem has
national and international ramifications.
Eastern African Fisheries
East African Fisheries is an exclusive economic zone covering over 4 million km2 and fourteen states, five
of them landlocked. Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, with Madagascar and Somalia having the largest
coastline on the continent. Fisheries in Eastern Africa play a major role in food security, livelihood and
employment and it is a source of income to government budgets through fishing agreements, license fees,
taxes, et cetera (United Nations Economic Commission For Africa-UNECFA-2015).
The yields from fisheries in the zone comprise freshwater catches of the Nile Perch and Nile Tilapia in Lake
Victoria; the former largely for exports while the latter is for local consumption. Lake Tanganyika, a major
freshwater fishery water mass has a variety of freshwater fish. Other fishing areas include Lake Albert and
Lake Kyoga (Uganda), Lakes Turkana, Baringo and Naivasha (Kenya) and Lake Malawi (Tanzania).
Smaller lakes include Jipe, Chala and Kenyatta in Kenya (Waters and Odero, 1986). Man-made lakes which
have been constructed across rivers as dams to generate hydro-electric power are also sources of fish food.
They include Kindaruma, Masinga, Kamburu, Gitaru and Kiambere. Fresh water fish are also produced
through aquaculture (fish farming). This has been practiced in Kenya for a long time now, particularly in
the western part of the country, central Kenya and the Coast (Ibid). Rivers, too, act as fishing sources and
a source of proteins for local fish-consuming households. River Tana in Kenya is one such example with a
variety of indigenous fish species that have a ready urban market in Mombasa city. Generally the common
fresh water fish species in East Africa include black bass, Nile perch, tilapia and trout.
Marine fishing in Eastern Africa includes the catching or trapping of crustaceans (lobsters, prawns and
crabs), molluscs (oyster and squid) and turtles. Fishing is both for pelagic fish (those found near the surface)
and demersal fish (those found at sea bottom such as fin fish, molluscs and crustaceans). Industrial fisheries
in Eastern Africa mostly target tuna and other pelagics such as sail fish and barracuda. The Seychelles,
Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar and Kenya, respectively, are the main exporters of fish products, though
they also import fish like the other remaining countries (Fig 7).
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Fig 7: Fish Exports and Imports in Eastern Africa (Source: Monnereau, 2015)
Fishing methods commonly used in this fishing economic zone are categorized into those for inland or
fresh water fishing and marine fisheries. Traps, arrows and bows, spears and hooks are applied in the
remote rural fishing sites, for example, among the El Molo community around Lake Turkana and the
Njemps of Lake Baringo (Ibid op cit). Otherwise, hand lines, beach nets and drift nets are the widely used
methods in inland fisheries. Within marine fisheries, beach nets (an on-shore method commonly used in
the Indian Ocean), drift nets and trawl lines (the most preferred method in deep off-shore ocean waters)
are applied. A majority of fisheries in Eastern Africa are small-scale, characterized by high levels of postharvest losses and limited availability of fish and undernourishment.
There is a concomitant problem of lack of a fish-eating culture especially among pastoral communities. In
addition, there are challenges such as limited capital and fishing technology and environmental limitations.
For instance, in the tropical ocean areas off East Africa, the continental shelf is not wide enough and the
off-shore areas of the Indian Ocean are too deep for plankton upon which feed the fish. Consequently,
certain profitable marine fish including cod, plaice and herring are absent (Ibid). Other challenges comprise
limited fish preservation technology, especially refrigeration or cold storage facilities and canning
technology. Above all is the problem of overfishing and fish poaching? Currently, there is a tremendous
decline in the Nile Perch stock (its fillet is a delicacy in Western Europe) and if measures to mitigate this
are not put in place, the species may become extinct. Coastal fisheries are also becoming increasingly
depleted. These factors have worked individually or collectively to compound the problem of food
insecurity in Eastern Africa (Fig 8).
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Figure 8: Fisheries and food security in Eastern Africa (Source: Ibid)
With global population nearing 6.9 billion people, human kind is having an unprecedented impact on
earth’s natural resources. The status of global fish stock is as hereunder (Fig 9)
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Figure 9: The global fish stock (2008)
Countries such as South Africa are also faced with depletion of some threatened fish species. Abalone
(Haliotis Midae), a highly prized seafood delicacy in the Far East is the best example. Its catches have
steadily declined owing to illegal harvests that have exceeded the legal commercial catch by more than 10
times in the last decade (World Wildlife Fund Report, 2011). The challenges to fisheries in Africa are,
thus, not only limited to those Eastern African fishing grounds.
Receding Lake Ecosystems
(a) Lake Chad
Located in West-Central Africa, Lake Chad’s dynamic nature as seen in its size, shape and depth is
constantly changing due to climate variability. The rates of hydrological changes in the basin are great.
Between 1960 and 2000, the region within which the lake is found experienced one of the most substantial
and sustained reduction in rainfall events recorded anywhere in the world (Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change-IPCC-2001). In 2003, the lake was classified among the 10 most water-impoverished
locations in the world.
This paper posits that the significant driver of environmental impacts on Lake Chad remains climatic
variability and change. That notwithstanding, population dynamics and socio-economic conditions are the
principal factors affecting water supply and demand ((United Nations Environmental Program, 2005).
Where renewable water resources are severely limited, conditions of discontent and desperation may
emerge, especially when socio-economic development is constrained as a result (Gleick, 2008). The human
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population dynamics around Lake Chad are driven by a southward migration where a relatively richer
pool exists than in the north. The region’s population is well over 30 million, growing at a rate of between
2.5% and 3.0% annually (Hall, 2009). There are over 70 ethnic groups around the lake, dominated by the
Hausa and Fulani (Nigeria), the Mousgoun (Cameroon), and the Sara and Kotoko (Chad).
The importance of the lake’s trans-boundary waters creates a situation where conditions in one country
can create adverse repercussions in another. Since 2005, water shortages and loss of livelihoods due to
the lake’s recession has posed regional insecurity and conflicts. The emergency of violent jihadist
militants- the Boko Haram-which has killed over 10,000 people in the lake’s Nigerian portion has been
linked to loss of livelihoods and joblessness created by environmental degradation around the lake
(Ifabiyi, 2013 ) ( Fig 10).
Figure 10: Overview of linked environment vulnerability – conflict (Chad)
Source: Okpara et al, 2014
It can, therefore, be argued that the vulnerability of Lake Chad to a number of external shocks combines
with the region’s vulnerability in terms of livelihoods to create pathways for insecurity.
(b) The Lake Naivasha Ecosystem( Kenya)
Lake Naivasha is a closed basin, shallow, freshwater lake, about 100km from Nairobi. It receives 90% of its
flow from the Malewa and Gilgil rivers while the remainder is from seasonal streams,direct precipitation
and ground seepage. Its catchment is the Aberdare Ranges and Kinangop Plateau. The lake is useful for
commercial fishing, irrigation agriculture, geothermal power generation at the nearby Olkaria Geothermal
Plant, tourism and recreation owing to ranching and game farming and the great aesthetics of the lake
scenery. It is also valued for it’s a wide biodiversity of flora and fauna.
The lake ecosystem faces threats of degradation from rapid population growth. Land sub-division,
intensive irrigated farming, use of agro-chemicals, deforestation and urbanization of Naivasha are all
causal factors. Further threats emanate from the pumping of large amounts of water from the water mass
annually into horticulture and into geothermal power production at the nearby Olkaria. This has impacted
on the lake’s water balance. The bottom line is how to achieve sustainability and a balance between
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utilization and conservation of the lake environment (Abiya, 1997). Similar problems face Lake Elementaita,
once part of a larger lake that includes present day Lake Nakuru .The lake has , thus, receded from its size
of 18.5 sq. km(1970s) to currently(Muchena,2008) .
Biodiversity in Kenya
Kenya ranks second highest in bird and mammal species richness and has high levels of Species endemism
(Kenya Forest Working Group, 2008).The country is home to some 35,000 known species of flora and fauna
(Thaxton, 2007). The country’s closed canopy forests hold about half of Kenya’s tree species, provide habitat
for about 40% of its larger mammals, 30% of its birds and 35% of its butterflies (KFWG, 2008).More
biodiversity is provided by the coastal and western plateau forests, the Taita Hills and the marine
environment with about 456 species of fin fish, 169 coral species, mammals, reptiles as well as plankton
species (GOK, 1998).
Biodiversity hotspots in Kenya comprise the eastern arc mountains and southern rift and coastal forests.
For example, in the latter are the endemic primates- the Tana River Red Colobus and the Tana River Crested
Mangabey. Unfortunately, these endemic primates are threatened by shifting cultivation, irrigation dykes,
and a decline of the water table owing to climate change. The Kwale-Usambara sub-center of endemism on
the Kenya/Tanzania border is an exceptionally important part of the hotspot but affected by agricultural
activities (Conservation International, 2007).
Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Kenya comprise Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve, (a refuge of six globally
threatened bird species), Lake Nakuru National Park (for its immense numbers of flamingoes and other
water birds) and many other unprotected ones. The most severely threatened sites consist of Yala Swamp,
Busia Grasslands, Mukurwe-ini valleys and Mau Narok/Molo Grasslands (Otieno et al, 2004). Gaps in
vegetation cover due to fragmentation and water degradation through siltation can isolate populations of
certain species of birds and lead to their demise (Peltorinne, 2004). A second major threat to biodiversity in
Kenya is invasive alien species, for example, the larger grain borer (prostephanus truncatus) and the water
hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) which compete with native species or invade new areas.
So why Sustainable Development?
The concept of sustainable development is a brainchild of the ‘Brundtland Report’ of the World
Commission on Environment and Development, published in 1987. It was defined as a development mode
having a goal of ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs ‘(Cunningham and Cunningham, 2008). It is a middle ground that seeks to promote
appropriate development in order to alleviate poverty while still preserving the ecological health of the
We have reflected on Africa’s renewable resource harvesting and use and it is apparent from available
literature that these resources are generally harvested and used recklessly, dictated by selfish interest for
profit. But we need renewable resources more readily than non-renewable ones. We can survive without
copper or oil but not so with freshwater to drink or soil to grow food (Arms, 1994). This attitude of selfish
interests is prevalent in open access or commonly held resource areas ( communal pastures, forests,
fisheries, water sources, wildlife zones and so on), what a leading biologist, Garret Hardin( 1968) refers to
as the’ commons’. Hardin argues that the net result from the totality of the actions of every over-exploiter
is the eventual collapse of the resource.
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Hardin’s major conclusion that ‘freedom in a commons brings ruin to all’ has generally been true of the
reckless way in which many renewable resources have been used ((Freedman, 2004). In the use of Africa’s
renewable resources as the ones in question, nature’s replenishment ability should be sustained. We should
not behave as though we have no children, as though there will be no next generation (Lomborg, 1998).
The Way Forward
Policies and strategies adopted by African countries in renewable resource use would ideally be similar
since many such states subscribe to the same Conventions, Agreements and related Multilateral
Organizations. They revolve around the following:
Development of regional synergies among the states and regional blocks to strengthen
trans-boundary activity monitoring( BICR,2007)
In the case of the Mau, strong partnerships should be established among stakeholders,
including ministries, to ensure conservation( PMTFR,,2009)
Strategic management plans should be developed but involving stake holder
participation from respective countries
auditing of land ownership to identify genuine occupants in all countries
resettlement of minority groups outside diversity hotspots and critical catchment
areas( eg the ogiek of the Mau and the Congo pygmies)
modernize training in technology of resource harvesting, handling, processing,
preservation and conservation
strengthen control and enforcement capabilities with sufficient monitoring and
surveillance against overfishing, poaching, deforestation et cetera
more policy emphasis on alternative energy use sources to protect forests( Gleave, 1992)
sustained gazetting of forest reserves and bird sanctuaries to conserve threatened flora
and fauna
comprehensive population policies that motivate population control at national and at
household levels, and
Resettlement policies that are informed by the squatter problem and landlessness.
This paper concludes that Africa’s renewable resource exploitation is done at a pulse that is faster than the
natural processes of regeneration. A burgeoning population and high poverty levels have precipitated this.
This pre-supposes that the cumulative effect of the rural activities of the poor majority is what has largely
exacerbated resource degradation. It is strongly argued that if sustainable development has to be realized,
African governments have to upscale and escalate their policy efforts and strategies towards renewable
resource conservation and environmental management. Going forward, achieving long-term sustainable
development, alleviation of poverty and equity and ecological health would call for optimal management
and conservation of the natural resource base or its natural capital, in our case, renewable resources.
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