Is Gender Such a Big Deal Demystifying the Kenyan Gender Metanarrative

International Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences
(IJRESS) ISSN: 2617-4804 1 (2) 47-55, October, 2018
Is Gender Such a Big Deal?
Demystifying the Kenyan Gender
Wycliffe Ayieko
Educational Foundations Department, SESS, Alupe University College
Alupe University College, P.O. Box 845 – 50400, Busia, Kenya
Type of the Paper: Research Paper.
Type of Review: Peer Reviewed.
Indexed in: worldwide web.
Google Scholar Citation: IJRESS
How to Cite this Paper:
Ayieko W., (2018). Is Gender Such a Big Deal? Demystifying the Kenyan
Gender Metanarrative. International Journal of Research in Education and Social
Sciences (IJRESS), 1 (3), 38-46.
International Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences
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Ayieko (2018)
International Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences
(IJRESS) ISSN: 2617-4804 1 (2) 47-55, October, 2018
Is Gender Such a Big Deal? Demystifying the Kenyan
Gender Metanarrative
Wycliffe Ayieko
Educational Foundations Department, SESS, Alupe University College
Alupe University College, P.O. Box
845 – 50400, Busia, Kenya
Received 15th September, 2018
Received in Revised Form 30th September,
Accepted on 5th October, 2018
Published online 12th October, 2018
Key Words: gender, education, metanarrative, social
construct, trends
The topic of gender, in its various
conceptions, has been doing rounds for a
while; and there seems to be no sign of it
going away anytime soon. Sectors such as
education and development have been
pointed out as among those that have been
significantly affected, and that such effect
development. Whatever is meant by
sustainable development will not be
considered an urgent issue in this paper since it is a dependent variable that rides on the conception of gender
and education. As such, this paper will contend that it is imperative to first establish how the immediate society
conceives ‘gender’, and how this ‘gender’ affects education. In a nutshell, the paper will offer some ‘education’
on how gender may not be such a big issue in education, leave alone sustainable development, at least in the
current society. It will advance that whatever is seen as an issue concerning the gender aspect arise out of the
conception of the term ‘gender’ as bandied around in ordinary discourse. That the Kenyan society must first of
all sort out its terminological inexactitudes before it generalizes a perceived problem as that that affects the whole
African continent. The paper will employ a philosophical method of critical reflection, conceptual and quasitextual analysis to make sense out of local experiences that define the gender metanarrative.
gender attribution is dependent on one’s sex. This
may be the reason behind previous confusion of
The term gender has been preponderant in
modern discourse. Previously, it would
the two terms. In other words, gender has been
commonly be confused with sex. However,
understood to be a social construct. Society looks
persistent discourse around it led to its
at an individual’s sexuality and assigns them
demystification. One can therefore set it apart
certain roles and space. In the same vein, an
from sex which refers to the categorization of a
human being as either male or female owing to
individual looks at another, and in their mind
their biological characteristics. Gender, on the
associates them with certain roles, position or
contrary, has generally been designated to refer to
capability based on their sex. This is the meaning
the social and socio-psychological attributes by
that the current paper has adopted, and will
which persons are categorized as masculine,
consider irrelevant any other meaning that the
feminine or androgynous (Jarry and Jarry, 1999).
term may have.
Whereas the two terms imply different things, the
Whenever the term ‘gender’ and ‘education’
employment of one is dependent on the other:
appear together, they do so largely to bring to the
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fore the issue of access. It so happens that one’s
sex plays some role in determining whether they
will have an advantage in accessing education. Be
as it may, it becomes a valid concern on at least
two grounds. One, education is currently a basic
human right. The Kenyan Constitution of 2010
(RoK, 2010) and other global Conventions agree
as much. No one, more so children, should be
denied access to it. Two, education is the engine
that moves any society to her desired destination.
This implies that anyone without an education is
highly likely to be of no use in so far as execution
of a nation’s development agenda is concerned.
The subtheme ‘Gender and Education for
Sustainable Development’ as it appeared in the
Call for Papers was understood by the author of
this work to imply that sustainable development is
a function of an education that is availed to all,
such that the issue of discrimination on the basis
of one’s sex does not arise. Similarly, gender has
apparently been conceptualized largely in light of
its attendant disparities, and therefore viewed as a
hindrance to education and any other opportunity
available to the educated. Be as it may, this paper
holds that if gender disparity obstructs access to
education, then it must be fought by all means
available. Further, the paper argues that such a
fight will be valid only if it is premised on the
certainty that gender, in its true sense, plays such
a role.
This paper has employed three complementary
approaches to addressing the issue of gender and
education: philosophic analysis, quasi-textual
analysis and a bit of dialectics. At the centre of the
topic is whether gender has a significant effect on
education and hence sustainable development. It
is imperative that one gets clear on what gender
is, what it can do and what it cannot. To achieve
this, philosophical analysis has to come into play.
According to Barrow and Wood (2006),
philosophical analysis clarifies a concept so that it
is understood well. Understanding of concepts,
they add, lays bare the inconsistencies and
contradictions therein, making way for evaluation
and decision making. For instance, the concept
gender is founded upon social and psycho-social
constructs that are attributed to an individual
based on their sex. And such attributes have
grounds. The fact that gender draws its life from a
natural aspect renders itself natural and therefore
neutral. Fighting nature may prove a daunting,
noisy and messy task that eventually yields
Quasi-textual analysis has been employed in
reflecting upon commonplace texts – whether
written or spoken – that may pass as innocent
utterances but on closer scrutiny prove
contradictory. It is discovered that in as much as
some individuals wage a spirited fight against
gender disparities, they at times unconsciously
utter statements that are in support of the
inevitability of the very disparities. This implies
that their subconscious minds accept gender
disparities as a natural fact. Pursuant to this, the
current paper sets out to oppose gender-related
problem statements by exposing their
contradictions and eventually paving way for a
new thesis statement. This is where a bit of
dialectic comes in. The dialectic method seeks to
resolve disagreements through a rational
discussion that gears towards establishing the
truth. It proceeds by unpacking implicit
contradictions so that they become explicit, hence
exposing the flaw in the initial thesis. This gives
way to a counter-argument that result to a new
thesis capable of overcoming the limitations of
the old one. As hinted to in the foregoing, one may
easily claim that gender has a negative influence
on education and by extension development.
Further scrutiny, however, brings in a new angle
that culminates in refutation of a relevant
proposition. This method is attributed to G. W.
Friedrich Hegel, thus named Hegelian dialectic
(Stanford Encyclopedia).
Origin of the Gender Concept
A lot has been written concerning the issue of
gender. To date, the subject dominates various
discourses ranging from social justice to human
rights. Gender-based violence and gender-based
discrimination in terms of access to opportunities
are just but examples of what has been at the
centre of such conversations. This paper explores
one of the many ancient accounts of the gender
concept – the Chinese Philosophy of Gender –
which seems well developed and capable of
explaining the origin of what continues to be a
contentious issue. It also bases on the indubitable
fact that China is one of the highly developed
nations on earth – both politically and
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economically, the kind of development that
Kenya seems to be keen on.
For a long time, the Chinese have used gender as
a basic model for their philosophical inquiries. As
intimated earlier, gender is intertwined with sex.
The Chinese are known to have designated the
male sex as yang, while the female one as yin
(Zang, 2002). Whereas they claim that the terms
do not strictly refer to the male/female dichotomy,
the connotations of the terms are of interest to a
keen reader. For instance, yang which signifies
the male species is occasionally used to refer to
the windward side; the female yin referring to the
leeward side. Those individuals conversant with
geography will tell you that the windward side of
a mountain is the one that receives rainfall, while
the leeward side remains dry. In short, the
windward side which is ‘male’ is depicted as
productive and favourable in contrast to the
‘female’ leeward side which misses out!
Similarly, yang is also used to refer to the
southern side of a mountain that receives sunlight
and warmth. The northern one that misses out is
christened yin.
Another example of gender connotations is where
the Chinese refer to a father as yang, while the son
as yin. Similarly, a senior female is elevated to a
yang when contrasted with a junior boy who now
becomes a yin. This time round, as one can
observe, the difference is not gender-based but
hierarchical. Clearly, one derives a logic where
women are being equated to children. The
hierarchy is further extended when the sun is seen
as yang, while the moon designated yin. Of course
the sun has always been known to dominate the
moon. It is further intimated that the male species
is dominant, powerful and moral; the female one
being weak, subservient, selfish and jealous.
These are the social positions linked to particular
sexes by the Chinese philosophy, and which to an
extent help explain the current gender disparity
issue: it is something that has been around for a
while. By making this observation, this paper in
no way supports gender disparity on its account of
being an age-old practice. In any case, the Chinese
account of the gender concept in the Laozi
explicitly celebrates differences in creation,
seeing them not in terms of deficits but as
complementary and therefore necessary for
coexistence (Roberts, 2001). The Chinese
philosophy acknowledges gender disparities as
captured in their literature such as The Book of
Change and Record of Rituals (Encyclopaedia of
Philosophy). Here, it is documented that certain
practices were usually reserved for particular
sexes and this was never an issue.
Gender Manifestation in the Present Kenyan
The debate around gender as an issue in the
Kenyan society has been trending for a while. The
genesis of it centres on negative discrimination
based on one’s sex. To be precise, the female
citizens were noted to have borne the brunt of this
discrimination. For instance, chances of women
being subjected to violence – whether in the
family set-up, political activities or civil conflicts
– were far much higher compared to that of men.
Further, women were found to be missing out in
key sectors such as formal employment,
leadership and administrative positions, and even
in particular noble professions such as
engineering, law and medicine. They would
equally miss out on property inheritance when
such a situation arose. This state of affairs was
traced to traditions and cultures which considered
women as weak and subservient, and hence
relegated them to particular spaces. As it were,
most cultures viewed women as home makers. As
a result, they were restricted to domestic duties
and such like roles which were presumed to
involve little expertise. This situation greatly
contributed to the practice of subjecting males to
formal education at the expense of their female
Every action has its aftermath. The practice of
denying females equal chance to access formal
education later on led to the imbalance that is
contributing to issues that are now attributed to
gender. For instance, their lack of education
meant that they would not access particular
opportunities in the economic and political
sectors. This effectively disempowered the
women, rendering them vulnerable to all forms of
oppression. A deliberate effort to cure this
situation led to affirmative action that aimed at
uplifting them. This is what made the term gender
to be perceived as a females’ affair. Henceforth,
gender became synonymous to feminism, a
movement that seeks to defend the rights and
spaces of females. This state of affairs has led to
outcries from other quarters who feel that males
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are being neglected as a result of too much focus
on the girl child. This, however, is another topic
Gender is here to Stay: Long Live Gender
Come to think of it, the issue of gender parity may
just be a pipe dream. There seem to be compelling
indications that gender being a derivative of
physiological being may just be as natural as
sexuality. In as much as there are efforts to
achieve parity, such may be futile given the fact
that many individuals have apparently elected to
view gender only in the negative sense: a form of
discrimination. Such discrimination that often
leads to social injustices may be more pronounced
in other sectors than education, and not only
touches females but males as well. And whenever
they appear, they ought to be dealt with as an
offense punishable by relevant laws.
Whereas males have been portrayed as more
progressive than females, such has always been
explained based on historical factors. Traditions,
whether African or otherwise (as exemplified by
the Chinese one) have depicted a systemic
entrenchment of the gender concept. Adopted
religions such as Christianity have clearly defined
the roles of both sexes, the most quoted one being
the biblical verse that commands wives to submit
to their husbands, just as much as husbands are
ordered to love their wives (Ephesians 5:22-33).
Here, men are presented as heads of households,
effectively elevating their role as patriarchs. The
influence that religion has over mankind cannot
be gainsaid. Nevertheless, this paper does not
serve to endorse such state of affairs. On the
contrary, it seeks to describe what there is, and by
extension demonstrate the difficult task that
awaits anyone who harbours intentions of
reversing the situation.
According to Carl Rodgers’ theory of PersonCentered Approach (Rodgers, 1980), every
organism is always seeking not only maintenance
but enhancement of its species:
There is one central source
of energy in the human
trustworthy function of the
whole system rather than
of some portion of it. It is
not only the maintenance
but also the enhancement
of the organism (p. 123).
It is argued that the actualizing tendency inherent
in every human being enables them evolve their
potentials. This paper adds that such potentials
may include the ability to perform certain roles
and not others, and may be in a better way than
other organisms. As herein intimated, the male
species of human beings apparently had an edge
over the female ones – whether by default or
design. This had necessitated the former to be
ahead in many fronts including education. Going
by Rodgers’ theory of the Person-Centered
Approach, it will be unreasonable to imagine that
the male species will just sit there and wait to be
overtaken by the female one in those fields that
the former is considered progressive. Naturally,
the male will strive to either maintain status quo
or move higher. Simply put, the male species has
either to come down to the female one, or make
no effort of improving itself (unnatural, thus
unlikely) so that the female one catches up. This
is the only way, according to this paper, through
which gender parity can be achieved. Otherwise,
the stage seems naturally set for every species to
perform better in certain positions than others. In
as much as the female species are likely to catch
up with males (this has happened in some
instances), a situation that depicts obedience to
natural laws, the males are equally likely to devise
new tricks of evolving and thus elevating
themselves so as to remain ahead in their various
Have females in this country accepted the reality
that gender is? This paper answers in the
affirmative. True as fidelity to fact, certain roles
are a preserve for particular sexes. Consequently,
the various sexes are somehow wired
psychologically to accept such differences.
Consider the following common parlance:
 Be man enough! (What in your opinion
does this statement imply? Does it
denote parity?)
 Don’t
(Surprisingly, many women believe that
gossip is their province; though others
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view the statement as demeaning to their
 Behind a successful man, there is a
woman. (Women delight in this
statement, forgetting that their supposed
role in the success seems auxiliary! The
statement could have served better if it
read, ‘Behind the success of a man is a
 What a man can do, a woman can do
better (The statement defeats the logic
behind parity! As a fact, it serves to
promote disparity since it elevates
women against men, and hence affirms
that gender differences are natural)
 I cannot feed a man! (This is often heard
from radical women who believe that the
man should naturally be the provider. If
this thought was to be entertained, then
logic would have it that this man be
given preference in being prepared for
his role as a breadwinner. This includes
being given first chance in education!)
 A real man does not fight a woman!
(Who should be fought? Why should
women not be fought? Are they beyond
reproach? Are they incapable of
withstanding a fight?)
 (Often heard in plenary sessions, when a
particular sex is apparently being
ignored) Observe gender! (If this
demand was to be literally obeyed, then
the presumed bias would be upheld!
Gender celebrates disparities by
acknowledging that a particular sex has
its sphere of influence, hence no
likelihood of equality).
These are just but a few instances where gender
disparity is acknowledged. These disparities are
bound to live on, albeit in different forms. Why
are women, for instance, preferred to men when
certain jobs are considered? Look at receptionists,
salespersons, nurses, early childhood educators
and the likes. Is it because of the lowly nature of
the jobs? If so, who are then preferred when it
comes to duties such as unblocking sewage lines?
Interring and disinterring the dead? Carrying out
deep sea fishing using canoes and dinghies? How
do individuals interpret a situation where a
woman is seen holding a man’s hand down the
street? Are men not the ones that obviously are
expected to hold their women’s hands during an
off duty stroll? In reference to the Chinese Book
of Changes (Lynn, 1994), it is recorded that yin
represented receptivity while yang stood for
power. Every sex therefore epitomised particular
strengths. Whereas men are portrayed as grabbers,
women are depicted as trustworthy and therefore
custodians. This natural state of affairs should not
trouble anyone so that they unnecessarily spent
their resources whining over it – a vacuous
venture that creates more heat than light. Instead,
humanity should celebrate their natural
differences. It is often said that diversity is
beautiful, and that there is unity in diversity.
This paper holds that both sexes should view
themselves as one, each a complementary set of
the other. A case in point is a situation where both
men and women are relatively comfortable with a
female voice from the other side of a telephone
answering machine, for instance when being
informed that the person one rang is not available.
Similarly, both men and women will sleep at ease
when they have knowledge that the individual in
charge of security in their compound is male as
opposed to female. This does not imply that a
particular sex cannot do particular tasks; it simply
means that they may not do as well. Whereas this
may be dismissed as a perception, it remains the
reality. In any case, one can only dismiss
perceptions at their own detriment. Gender roles
should be seen in the same light as division of
labour and specialization, which have a huge
influence on productivity – a precursor to
Education, among other functions, is believed to
be instrumental in achieving gender equity. It is
argued that if both sexes are subjected to equal
opportunities in education, they will have equal
chances of accessing factors of production and
therefore participate on equal grounds in matters
national development. The burden of proof lies on
those who subscribe to this assertion.
Gender disparities in education have been
manifest in terms of not only access to schools but
also retention and enjoyment of the full
opportunities that such schools offer. Much has
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been done to mitigate the disparities, which
happen to affect girls more than boys, as
demonstrated earlier. For instance, many girl
schools have been established. Also, awareness
on issues affecting the girl child has been
intensified, prompting remedial measures such as
provision of hygiene tools, and subsidization of
costs for basic education (both males and females
have benefitted). Further, girls are at liberty to
pursue disciplines such as mathematics and
sciences which were earlier on thought to be a
preserve for boys. Also, textbook images than in
a way depicted females as inferior has been done
away with. All these have been done with the aim
of achieving parity in education, both physically
and psychologically.
This paper argues that no one should expect
instant outcomes from such efforts. It also
advances that the narrow view of the issue of
gender, where it is often limited to liberal
feminism, may prove counterproductive by
achieving reverse discrimination. This is already
being witnessed, where boys are becoming more
deviant, more truant and irresponsible. Much
attention has been provided to girls as compared
to boys, making the latter feel neglected. This
state of affairs has been prompted by
misconception of the term gender, followed by
reactions that were not thought out well.
Competing metanarratives have been fronted to
justify the problematization of the gender
concept, depicting it as baseless and wholly evil.
This paper contends that whatever is being
addressed in the name of gender is a different
complementary and therefore beautiful. It
deserves praise, and not mourning. If gender
happens to bestow particular strengths to
particular individuals, then let those strengths be
harnessed for common development. Anyone
addressing gender in terms of its disparities,
therefore, should do so purely for descriptive
purposes without necessarily pretending to solve
a non-existent issue.
When it comes to the issue of access to education,
this paper holds a view different from that held by
the crusaders of the gender metanarrative. In the
current dispensation, it is uncommon to find a
certain family preferring to educate a particular
sex of their children to the other. This may have
happened before, but under circumstances that
have been explained. Nowadays, what matters to
a larger extent is the economic status of a family.
For instance, children born of a financially
crippled family will miss out on education
regardless of their sex, while those from well-todo families will get educated even if they are girls
only. Being born a boy does not for instance give
one a direct ticket to education. Similarly, girls are
not congenitally condemned to miss out on
Following the noted happenings, it is imperative
for one to find out the real factors that either push
or pull students (whether boys or girls) in or out
of school. And the factors are transient, thereby
calling for continuous objective investigations.
For instance, the nature of girls demands that they
spent more for their welfare and hygiene. This
would occasionally keep out of school those who
have financial problems. Of recent, many
programmes have been instituted to offer
assistance to such girls. For instance, sanitary
towels are being provided in a number of schools.
This is a systemic issue which can just be solved
once and for all through policy framework that
would require such to be considered as a budget
item in the fiscal plans of the government. While
girls are being kept in school, one should not close
their eyes to the reality that boys are on the other
hand dropping out. What is it that pulls them from
school, given that their demands are fewer? A
report from the Kenya National Examination
Council indicates that in recent years, the
percentage of boys sitting the national
examination was almost similar to that of girls.
Instructive to note is that the percentage of girls
completing schooling was increasing at a rate that
was likely to outdo the boys.
Previously, girls would drop out of school and
take up domestic jobs as house helps and baby
sitters. This has significantly reduced following
subsidization of education and criminalization of
child labour. As more girls remain in schools, it
now seems the turn for boys to leave. Many have
dropped out of school to take up jobs that
guarantee quick money such as bodaboda
enterprise (ferrying of passengers using motor
bicycles). Seemingly, it is some sort of an
alternating current: as efforts are made to keep
girls in school for parity purposes, a section of
boys upset the balance by quitting school. This
seems a law of nature; to keep disparities alive.
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For those in doubt, there have been rumours in the
air that whereas majority of the highly educated
women contribute to national development, they
on the other hand undermine the family
institution. For instance, some believe that their
income is not to be spent within the family; for it
is the duty of the man to provide. Others abandon
their spouses and live as single mothers since they
are capable of fending for themselves. The result
is an increase in the number of single mothers and
children brought up in the absence of fathers. The
effects of such an arrangement can only militate
against national development in the long run.
Sociologists can explain this better, including
conducting a study on the same. Efforts to achieve
gender parity therefore may just be likened to the
futile exercise of digging a hole to fill another.
Granted, there is no serious study which has
impossibility!) leads to sustainable development.
All that is required, in its stead, is a deliberate
strategy to allow each a chance to access
education, and let then compete favourably so that
the best candidates meritoriously fill up available
The Way Forward
The issue of gender has often been approached
emotively, trampling upon reason and objectivity.
It continuous to be a fertile ground for studies to
the extent that it makes up whole departments in
some of our universities. Further, it has attracted
global funding, and in some cases turned into a
sort of full time business; providing jobs through
state departments, educational institutions, nongovernmental organizations (public benefits
organizations), among others. This enterprise is
not going away soon, for the sole reason that its
object of concern is a natural, eternal
Nature presumes some arrangement, and has a
way of balancing itself. Accepting this fact will
form a basis for sober reflection. For instance,
females are known to excel in languages – holding
all factors constant. This implies that the few
males who are gifted in that field are exceptional
cases. Why then should there be a storm when
some study present males as more progressive in
sciences than females? Of course there are
females who excel in sciences – exceptional cases
as well! This study contends that individuals
should be allowed to voluntarily pursue those
fields that they naturally fare on well, and be fully
supported to achieve their best. Let it not be a
gender contest. Should there be need for
affirmative action as it were, let it address
disparities that have either been artificially
occasioned, or those arising out of certain
handicaps. For instance, we can have categories
such as the poor, the marginalized, and the
disabled being supported to actualize their
This study holds that gender is an issue of mind
over matter: if one does not mind, it does not
matter. Individuals ought to regard it as a strength
rather than a problem that requires a solution. That
done, various sexes will delight in that which they
are naturally endowed to perform better, and
therefore excel. Heated debates on gender only
serve to accentuate the stereotype, consequently
pushing some individuals into exploring
territories that they may not be well suited for.
The Laozi (ch. 3) considers distinctions (read
disparities) as not necessarily problematic.
However, issues arise when such differences
become a basis for value discrimination. This
observation is very true. Whereas many genderbased crusaders may not agree with this paper, a
keen observer will note that the debate on gender
roles gained currency when some roles were
valued above others. It is not common, for
example, to find women (they dominate the
gender discourse) agitating for equality in areas
such as blue collar jobs. They instead focus on
those careers that are deemed prestigious. As this
happens, men are increasingly taking on pink
collar jobs that were undervalued. Is this not a
Have there been crusades
advocating inclusion of men into such? This paper
sets out to deconstruct beliefs around the gender
conception so as to open way for candid
reflections. The result of such engagement may
just open another perspective altogether.
The conference about gender and its attendant
issues was an opportune moment for learners to
meet and ventilate over that which they believe is
an issue: lack of equality. (‘Learners’ herein refers
to anyone that appreciates life-long learning).
Unfortunately, the main theme got mixed up with
a very fundamental concept – gender. This paper
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concluded that the organizers of the conference
may have given the term ‘gender’ a working
definition that bordered on equality. ‘Gender
equal Africa’ as the conference slogan is an
oxymoron, since gender predicates disparity. If
equality has to be achieved in the true sense, then
sex differences (wherein gender is derived)
should be done away with (an impossibility!)
Whichever way, gender has been unfairly
problematized following the value individuals
place on particular positions and spaces.
Consequently, resultant issues have been
responded to with emotion as opposed to reason.
Whereas this paper supports some form of
equality, more so in education, it adds a rider that
such equality should be limited to facilitation of
equal access to education and thereafter let things
settle on their own. Here, the best candidate in
whichever field should be allowed to take up that
which they are excellent at. This is what will
result to true development. Gender, being a
natural phenomenon, cannot be wished away. On
the contrary, affirmative action in the area of job
placement may lead to inefficiency, just as much
as it will discourage those who have naturally
merited. This will in effect militate against the
much desired development.
Barrow, R. & Woods, R. (2006). An Introduction to Philosophy of Education, Fourth Edition. London & New
York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
Holy Bible. New International Version
Jarry, D. & Jarry, J. (1999) Dictionary of Sociology. Glasgow: Haper Collins
Lynn, R.J. (trans.) 1994. The Classic of Changes. New York, NY: Columbia University Press
RoK, (2010).The Constitution of Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer
Roberts, M. (trans.) 2001. Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way. Berkely: University of California Press
18 th
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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