10th MANILA International Conference on Arts, Social Sciences, Humanities and Interdisciplinary Studies (ASSHIS-17) Dec. 17-18, 2017 Manila (Philippines) Improving Fast Food Chain Operation through College of Business and Accountancy and a graduate school professor.Leadership Effective Supervisory Dr. Alejandro Jimenez1 Dr. David Cababaro Bueno2 Prof. Carlito S. Galangue3 Dr. Eric A. Matriano4 Columban College, Inc. –Olongapo City Abstract—The study aims to assess the leadership practices of fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. The researchers utilized the descriptive-survey design of method with the use of survey-questionnaire and interview as main tools in gathering the data needed. The study involved the total number of ten day shift supervisorrespondents and fifty (50) purposively selected day shift rank-in-file employees from various fast food chains. The data gathered were treated statistically using Percentage, Mean, and t-Test. The supervisors usually practice the concepts of leadership for the attainment of the goals of the organization based on the “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership”. There is significant difference in the assessment of the two groups of respondents on the leadership practices of the fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. Successful leaders know that building team spirit is the key to business growth like the fast food chains in Olongapo City. There truly is power in numbers, and the whole is indeed greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, the findings of the study offer excellent fast food chain operation tips on how to effectively build teams around various leadership practices of the supervisors. The rank and file employees should view supervisory leadership practices as avenue for them to become effective store supervisors when promoted. Open communication and continues feed backing techniques should be properly practiced within the organization. Keywords –Business operation, supervisors, leadership, fast food chain, descriptive-survey design, Olongapo City, Philippines Manuscript submitted on September 2, 2017 for review. This work was funded by the Research and Publications Office of Columban College, Inc., - Olongapo City, Philippines. The 1st author, Dr. Alejandro Jimenez, is a graduate school professor at Columban College, Inc. teaching business courses; the 2nd author, Dr. David Cababaro Bueno, is the Dean of the Graduate School, and concurrent Director of Research and Publications Office of Columban College, Inc.; the 3rd author, Prof. Carlito S. Galangue, is graduate school research staff and concurrent Director for Extension Services, and a professor of business courses at Columban College, Inc.; and the 4th author, Dr. Eric M. Matriano, is Dean of the I. INTRODUCTION An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals (Greenberg, 2015). Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success (House & Podsakoff, 2014). Thus, supervisors study leadership in order to influence the actions of employees toward the achievement of the goals of the organization. Leadership studies can be classified as trait, behavioral, contingency, and transformational. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves. Yet, traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness (House, Rousseau, & Thomas-Hunt, 2015). Thus, later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. These behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the relationship between what the leaders did and how the employees reacted, both emotionally and behaviorally (Katerberg, & Hom, 2011). Behavior cannot always account for leadership in different situations. Thus, contingency theories of leadership studied leadership style in different environments. Transactional leaders, such as those identified in contingency theories, clarify role and task requirements for employees (Klein, Dansereau & Hall, 2014). Contingency cannot account for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to compete in today's global marketplace. Newer transformational leadership studies have shown that leaders, who are charismatic and visionary, can inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization. Leadership is a dynamic relationship based on mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change (Beyer, 1996). Thus, fast food chain supervisors should have the knowledge and characteristics needed to provide leadership to the supervision of staff and other members of the organization (Markham, 2008). Ideally, supervisors are or have been exemplary supervisors and are well-grounded in the knowledge, skills, and experiences of effective supervision (Markham & McKee, 2011). They have developed their own models of supervision and know its steps, procedures, and a wide repertoire of techniques. It is beneficial for them to have the basic skills to better assure the success in the organization within their responsibility. Several factors and elements are considered very important in the operation of a restaurant and fast food chain (McFarlin & Sweeney, 2012). In order to operate a restaurant successfully one must at least have a restaurant background or do intense research on the subject. If one has spent his or her working life as an electrician or doctor, the person is not likely equipped to operate a restaurant. When a person has ten years of experience in a field the person has become more knowledgeable than the majority of the population in that area and would benefit from opening a business related to that field (Howell, 1997). People should not open a business in a field where experience was not obtained (Howell 1997). Lee, Renig, and Shanklin (2007) found, based on an independent survey of food and beverage directors and administrators of assisted living facilities, of thirty-four attributes required to be an effective manager the top ten were as follows: One should act as an effective team leader and team member. One should manage all aspects of the operation (House & Mitchell, 2014). Ensure the operation follows state and federal regulations. Demonstrate effective time management practices. A manager should possess the ability to coach team members. Managers need the ability to communicate verbally and in writing, effectively manage projects and be involved in self professional development. Furthermore, Kerrii Anderson Executive Vice President of Wendy’s International said the restaurant business is the toughest to operate successfully, in order to do so; the restaurant must be operated by finding new ways to cut costs while developing new products and approaches (Heffes, 2004). Supervisors are involved in relationships with a numerous of dynamics (Lovelace, Manz, & Alves, 2007). Prerequisite to skilled supervisors is having the interpersonal skills necessary to counsel, supervise, and administer (Mathe & Slevitch, 2013). Relationships develop and interactions occur between them and their subordinates, and between supervisors and their superiors (McCleskey, 2014). They should likewise establish a productive climate within which their organization operates (Silverthorne & Wang, 2001). Their values are reflected in the organization and by the subordinates (Vecchio, & Boatwright, 2002). If they value ethical practice, the worth and dignity of each individual, such are the values of the department, agency, or business. If their personal interactions are characterized by trust and respect, those become hallmarks of the interpersonal climate of the staff (Turner, 2002). As with the other leadership skills and practices, supervisors are able to match their own administrative behaviors to the needs of their employees under their care. Thus, this particular undertaking will enable the researchers to become knowledgeable about leadership behavior and practices of a today’s fast food chain supervisors. With the foregoing observations and claims, the researchers are very eager to venture on the leadership practices of fast food chain supervisors in Olongapo City as baseline information for the improvement of fast food chain operation. II. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The study assesses the supervisory leadership practices of fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. It aims to analyze the (1) supervisory leadership of fast food chains managers; (2) rank-in-filerespondents’ assessment on the leadership practices of their supervisors; (3) significant difference in the assessment of leadership practices of the fast food chain supervisors; and (4) implications of the findings towards improving fast food chain operation. III. METHODOLOGY This study utilized the descriptive-survey design of research. Bueno (2016) defined descriptive-survey as a design, which aims to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause of particular phenomena. The study involved the total number of ten-day shift supervisors and fifty (50) conveniently selected day shift rank-and-file store crews from various fast food chains in Olongapo City for more convenient distribution and retrieval of the questionnaire. Thus, convenient sampling technique was only done in the selection of rank-and-file employees. A survey-questionnaire-checklist was used. The instrument was subjected to expert validity. It was tried to some fast food chain store supervisors and crews at the Subic Bay Freeport Zones, and graduate and undergraduate school professors of business and hospitality management courses, and store operators. The draft of the validated questionnaire was tested for reliability using Test-Retest Method. A coefficient values of .89 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Thus, the instrument was reliable and consistent. A permit was secured from the office of the fast food chain managers and operators. A separate letter was provided to the participants to personally explain the purpose of the study, and to give assurance of anonymity and confidentiality of any information and data gathered. The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-Test for independent samples at .05 level of confidence. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Assessment of Supervisors on their Supervisory Leadership. The supervisors are very optimistic in answering that they are always setting personal example of what they expect from others. Moreover, they also talk about future trends that will influence how their work as supervisor gets done which will encourage cooperative relationships among the people they work within the organization. They believe and practice praising people for a job well done. Likewise, they are trying to challenge themselves to try new and innovative ways to their work and follow through on promises and commitment they make in the operation of the store and in dealing with their subordinates. In addition to these practices, they always treat others with dignity and respect, making sure that people is creatively rewarded for their contributions to the success of the projects, and publicly recognizes people who exemplify commitment to shared values, as well as finds ways to celebrate accomplishments in the success of the operation. This means that they are clear about their philosophies of leadership. They speak with genuine conviction about the higher meaning and purpose of our work, and ensure that people grow in their jobs by learning new skills and developing themselves. In addition to aforementioned practices, the supervisor-respondents themselves usually seek out challenging opportunities that test their own skills and abilities, spend time and energy making certain that the people they work with adhere to the principles and standards that they have agreed on, and actively listen to diverse points of view. Good thing to note also that, they usually make it a point to let people know about their confidence in their abilities but they are also open for feedback on how their actions affect other people’s performance, and in return they usually practice supporting the decisions that people make on their own. These are vital in building consensus around a common set of values for running the organization. The overall mean of their assessment as to their leadership practices is 4.16, which means that they usually practice the aforementioned concepts of leadership for the attainment of the goals of the organization based on the “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership”. A key finding is that leaders educate their subordinates in which knowledge growth and role development are constructed. Educational leadership research is consistent with this finding in that leaders create growth through clear, explicit and ambitious goals that foster a collective professional learning community (DuFour, 2004; Leithwood, 1992). Effective leaders educate their subordinates through analyzing their surroundings to improve and challenge their subordinates’ level of achievement. The finding of educational leadership relates to situational leadership because the manager is using both a high task/low relationship and high relationship/low task style. The manager is using high task/low relationship when stating company policy as well as high task/high relationship to involve the employee to support company policy and to provide opportunities for the employee to mature in their role. By the manager stating what policies the employee should follow, illustrated the high task/low relationship style because the manager is stating tasks of how to address and treat the customer, and high task/high relationship because the manager is attempting two-way communication and trying to sell these policy decisions to the employee. The next narrative entails high relationship/ low task because the manager is sharing the opportunity decision with followers by using the word “we” numerous times; and by using opportunity instead of mistake, may build maturity in the manager’s followers. Assessment of the Rank-and-File- on the Leadership of Store Supervisors. The assessment of the rank-and-file-respondents validate the assessment made by the supervisors themselves. It is surprising to note that according to the rank-in-file-respondents, the supervisors always develop cooperative relationships among the people they work with. In doing this, they praise people for a job well done and treat others with dignity and respect. Another good practice by the supervisors is asking for feedback on how their actions affect other people’s performance, and "What can we learn?" when things do not go as expected. Thus, there is a support from them when their subordinates are making decision on their own. The same observations are given by the rank-in-file-respondents in saying that their supervisors are publicly recognizing people who exemplify commitment to shared values. They are doing these by finding ways to celebrate accomplishments. Moreover, according to the subordinates, their supervisors speak with genuine conviction about the higher meaning and purpose of our work. Thus, this shows that the supervisors are clear about their philosophies of leadership. Majority of the concepts of good leadership are usually practiced by these supervisors as exposed by the rank-in-file-respondents. But there also concepts which are sometimes practice only by the supervisors as mentioned like letting people know about their confidence in their abilities, and following through on promises and commitments they make. Listening actively to diverse points of view is seldom practice by the supervisor. Thus, the overall mean for the assessment of the rank-in-file-respondents on the leadership practices of the supervisors is 3.91, which means that the store supervisors are usually practicing these good concepts of leadership for the attainment of the organizational goals. Difference of the Assessed Supervisory Leadership of Store Supervisors. The difference as to the assessment of the two groups of respondents on the leadership practices of the fast food chains supervisors in the City of Olongapo is analyzed. It is noted that the overall means of the assessment are 4.16 and 3.91 for the supervisor assessment and rank-in-file assessment respectively. Based on the computed t-value of 2.32 with the degree of freedom of 58, the critical value is 2.00. These values lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Thus, there is a significant difference in the assessment of the two groups of respondents on the leadership practices of the fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. This can be traced due to higher overall mean assessment of the first group of respondents. Managers in the quick-service restaurant context utilized teamwork to control stress. Consistent to this finding, teamwork research conveyed that leaders who reciprocate shared values, helpfulness, responsibility, and a positive attitude, essentially contribute and develop a cooperative and synergistic teamwork environment (Crichton, 2005; Griffin, Patterson, & West, 2001; Jones & George, 1998). Leaders that communicate teamwork through high involvement, and create a common goal have been found to motivate a job satisfaction increase from subordinates in which teamwork is highly reliable (Baker, Day, & Salas, 2006; Griffin, Patterson, & West, 2001; Jones & George, 1998). Consistent with these findings, the theme of Teamwork illustrated primarily high relationship/high task and high relationship/low task styles. First, with high relationship/high task, the manager trained their employees on how to transition from using a screen to fill orders, using two-way communication to promote teamwork and sell the follower on communicating with the manager to control the situation of stress. Secondly, the high relationship/low task style was communicated by the manager because by the manager participating in the stressful situation and handling it, the employee should be handling the stress too. In other words, the manager is setting an example of high relationship by being right alongside the employee, not just telling the employee a task and then not being involved. Future research should seek to understand how these situational leadership styles influenced the follower to mature in their role and how effective the leader was in using these styles. Implications to Fast Food Chain Operation. Successful leaders know that building team spirit is key to business growth like the fast food chains in Olongapo City. There truly is power in numbers, and the whole is indeed greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, the findings of the study offer excellent fast food chain operation tips on how to effectively build teams around various leadership practices of the supervisors. Fast food chain owners know that running a company is not a oneman show. It takes a team of committed and capable employees to get the job done. But good teams do not just happen. They are the results of an intentional effort and practices on the part of the company’s supervisors and owners to create a work environment in which every person feels like his/her contribution is a vital and valued part of the organization’s success. Establish clearly defined roles. Successful teams share a common characteristic – every person knows the role they are expected to play as well as the roles of the other team members. As the business supervisor, it is his/her job to make sure that every employee clearly understands the role he/she plays in the organization. They can accomplish this by ensuring that every employee has received an accurate job description that is reviewed annually, perhaps during the employee’s annual review. Tools such as organizational charts and staff meetings provide a way for employees to see how they fit into the big picture and to discuss role-related conflicts. Maintain open channels of communication. Communication is the building block of an effective business team. With that in mind, it is critically important for you to create and maintain open channels of communication with your employees. This means not only maintaining a clear channel of communication between supervisor and the rank-in-file employees, but also helping the employees maintain clear channels of communication with each other. There is no substitute for constantly reminding the employees that the supervisor door is always open and that he/she is always willing to listen to their concerns. Develop a way to resolve conflicts. Inevitably, the team will experience conflicts. Ignoring those conflicts will only cause them to grow until they become a major problem. So instead of ignoring them, develop conflictresolution skills with the employees and create a mechanism for them to address grievances if they cannot resolve their conflicts on their own. Model a positive attitude. Teams tend to adopt the attitude and practices of their leader. If the leader is positive and upbeat, then team members will tend to be positive and upbeat as well. But if the leader demonstrates a negative or critical attitude, the team will suffer because of the attitude of the team members. By modeling a positive attitude and practices for the employees, the supervisors are setting the standard and creating an expectation of the qualities he/she wants to see reflected in his/her team. Celebrate achievements as a team. Since every employee plays an important part in the success or failure of store operation, it only makes sense to celebrate achievements as a team. Depending on the size of the achievement, celebration can be a simple one. The important thing is that every team member has the opportunity to celebrate a job well done. V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Majority of the supervisor-respondents are female, single, and college graduates. The mean age of the group is 28, and have been in the service as supervisor for six years now. The overall mean of the supervisors’ assessment as to their leadership practices is 4.16. This means that they usually practice the concepts of leadership for the attainment of the goals of the organization based on the “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership”. The mean assessment of the rank-in-filerespondents on the leadership practices of the supervisors is 3.91, which means that the store supervisors are usually practicing these good concepts of leadership for the attainment of the organizational goals. There is a significant difference in the assessment of the two groups of respondents on the leadership practices of the fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. Successful leaders know that building team spirit is key to business growth like the fast food chains in Olongapo City. Their truly is power in numbers, and the whole is indeed greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, the findings of the study offers excellent fast food chain operation tips on how to effectively build teams around various leadership practices of the supervisors. The supervisors of the various fast food chains should pursue upgrading themselves by attending graduate studies and supervisory leadership trainings. The supervisors should further enhance their leadership practices guided by the “Path-Goal Theory” of leadership for effective fast food chain operation. The rank-in-file should view supervisory leadership practices as avenue for them to become effective store supervisors when promoted. Open communication and continues feed backing techniques should be properly practiced within the organization ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors acknowledge the cooperation of the store supervisors and crews during the data gathering process; the assistance of the research staff; the MBA students in monitoring the gathering of data; and Columban College, Inc. for funding the study. REFERENCES Baker, D. P., Day, R., & Salas, E. (2006). Teamwork as an essential component of high‐reliability organizations. Health services research, 41(4p2), 1576-1598. Beyer, Janis M. (1996). Cultural Leadership in Organizations. Organization Science Journal, 3(2), 23-30. Crichton, M. (2005). Attitudes to teamwork, leadership, and stress in oil industry drilling teams. Safety Science, 43, 679-696. Crichton, M. (2005). Attitudes to teamwork, leadership, and stress in oil industry drilling teams. Safety Science, 43, 679-696. DuFour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 1-6. Greenberg, J. (2015). A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review, 12, 9– 22. Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A. (2001). Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 537-550. Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A. (2001). Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 537-550 Heffes, E. (2004, December). Restaurants hungry for growth and profits. Financial Executive, 24-28. House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (2014). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97. House, R. J., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Leadership effectiveness: Past perspectives and future directions for research. In J. Greenberg (Ed.), House, R. J., Rousseau, D. M., & Thomas-Hunt, M. (2015). The meso paradigm: A framework for the integration of micro and macro organizational behavior. In L. L. Cummings, & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, Vol. 17 (pp. 71–114). Howell, J. H.(1997) A conversation with Gary Nelson. Wenatchee Business Journal, 11, (12),10. Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (1998). The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 531-546. Katerberg, R., & Hom, P. W. (2011). Effects of withingroup and between-groups variation in leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 218–233. Klein, K. J., Dansereau, F., & Hall, R. J. (2014). Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis. Academy of Management Review, 19, 195– 229. Lee, K. I., Renig, V. M., Shanklin, C. W., (2007). Competencies and attributes required for foodservice directors in assisted living facilities. The Journal of Foodservice Management and Education, 3, 1 – 13. Leithwood, K.A. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49(5), 8-12. Lovelace, K.J., Manz, C.C., & Alves, J.C. (2007). Work stress and leadership development: The role of selfleadership, shared leadership, physical fitness and flow in managing demands and increasing job control. Human Resource Management Review, 17,374-387. Markham, S. E. (1988). Pay-for-performance dilemma revisited: Empirical example of the importance of group effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 172– 180. Markham, S. E., & McKee, G. H. (2011). Declining organizational size and increasing unemployment rates: Predicting employee absenteeism from withinand between-plant perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 952– 965. Mathe, K., & Slevitch, L. (2013). An exploratory examination of supervisor undermining, employee involvement climate, and the effects on customer perceptions of service quality in quick-service restaurants. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37(1), 29-50. McCleskey, J.A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130. McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 626–637. Silverthorne, C., & Wang, T.H. (2001). Situational leadership style as a predictor of success and productivity among Taiwanese business organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 135(4), 399-412. Turner, E. (2002). Attracting the best to corrections. Corrections Today, 45(3), 12-26 Vecchio, R.P. (1987). Situational leadership theory: An examination of a prescriptive theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 444-451. Vecchio, R.P., & Boatwright, K.J. (2002). Preferences of idealized styles of supervision. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 327-342. Prof. Dr. David Cababaro Bueno is a holder of Doctor of Education, Master of Arts in Science Education, Master in Public Management, Master in Business Administration, and Bachelor of Arts degrees. He is a candidate for graduation leading to the degree of Doctor in Business Administration and currently taking Doctor in Public Management. He is one of the awardees for the Sectoral Engagement grant to conduct research on “Human Resources Skills Comprehensive Development Plan for Region 3 under Commission on Higher Education’s Faculty Development Program for K-12 Transition. He authored and co-authored books in Research and Thesis Writing, Statistics for Research, Practical Quantitative Research, Practical Qualitative Research, Biological Science for College Students, Physical Science for College Students, Human Resource Management, Organization and Management, Curriculum Development, Environmental Science, Research Writing Made Easy for Business and Hospitality Students, Elements of Biological Science, Food Safety and Sanitation, Fundamentals of Physical Science, and Introduction to Human Biology. He is currently the Dean of the Graduate School and concurrent Director of Research and Publications at Columban College, Inc. Dr. Bueno is an active member of various national and international professional organizations, research technical committee and reviewer of various international conferences, statistician, seminarworkshop speaker and multi-awarded research presenter in the ASEAN community. Prof. Eric A. Matriano, Ed. D., Ph. D. is a graduate of Doctor of Education at Columban College, Inc. in 2002 and Doctor of Philosophy major in Business Management at MLQU in 2014. He finished Bachelor of Arts in General Science in 1994 and took Master of Arts in Education major in Science Education and Master of Business Administration. He is one of the awardees for the Top Management Program at the Asian Institute of Management under Commission on Higher Education’s Faculty Development Scholarship Program for K-12 Transition. He is book co-author of Chemistry Manual and Work-Text, Environmental Science: An InquiryBased Approach and Research Writing Made Easy for Business and Hospitality Students. He is currently the Dean and Research Coordinator of the College of Business and Accountancy at Columban College, Inc. Dr. Matriano is also a graduate school professor, research committee reviewer, statistician, seminar-workshop speaker and multi-awarded research presenter. Prof. Carlito S. Galangue is a graduate of Commerce major in Accountancy, Master in Management and Doctor in Business Administration. He is currently the Director of community Extension Services Office at Columban College, Inc., a research staff and a graduate school professor handling business courses. Prof. Alejando Jimenez finished PhD in Business Administration at Angeles University Foundation. He is bank manager, supervisor, and an entrepreneur. He is a graduate school professor at Columban College Graduate School handling business courses.
© Copyright 2020