RESEARCH/ THESIS/ DISSERTATION SEMINAR-WRITESHOP Dr. Dave Cababaro Bueno Dean, Graduate School Director, Research and Publications Why Are We Here? 1. To define, explain, the 4-chapter prepare, format of a thesis/ criticize, dissertation. propose, and defend Why Are We Here? 1. To list, express, interpret, appraise, synthesize, and value other matters related to thesis/ dissertation writing. WHAT is RESEARCH? An exploration combined with learning. It is a "detailed study of a subject in order to discover information or achieve a new understanding of it." Research is a process of searching, discovering, and investigating information, as well as collecting, interpreting, and evaluating the information you find. One must know how to apply the tools and techniques for finding, evaluating, and using information effectively— a set of skills known as information literacy. Research contributes to an expansion of knowledge through inquiry, investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery of facts, theories, or laws. Survivor Tip: To be a successful researcher, you will need to develop knowledge and skills in information literacy and research and build upon those skills year after year. Therefore: RESEARCH is a SYSTEMATIC and ORGANIZED way to FIND ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. SYSTEMATIC because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the research process that are always done in order to get the most accurate results. ORGANIZED in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope. FINDING ANSWERS end of all research. Whether is the it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. QUESTIONS are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose. What is a THESIS? A THESIS is a complete record of an argument or a series of arguments combined with the description and discussion of research undertaken for a graduate/ postgraduate degree. What is a THESIS? It analyzes and synthesizes the existing research about a particular topic and describes the writer’s own idea for a new knowledge, based on the assessment of gaps or problems in the research literature. What are the Steps in the Research Process? “The 4-Chapter Thesis/ Dissertation Format” Part 1 THESIS ARRANGEMENT PRELIMINARY PAGES TITLE PAGE APPROVAL SHEET ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES THE TEXT: MAIN BODY CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Research Locale Theoretical Framework Statement of the Problem Hypothesis/ Assumption Scope and Limitation Significance of the Study Definition of Terms 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Population/ Sample Instrument Validation of Instrument Data Gathering Procedure Treatment of Data 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES AND SUPPLEMENTAL SECTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE PRELIMINARY PAGES TITLE PAGE The full title of the Thesis/ Dissertation. All capital letters. On top of the paper. Placed at the center in inverted pyramid form. Researcher’s name (Complete). The program/ degree. Month and Year. APPROVAL SHEET Contains the endorsement statement (with the full title of the thesis and name of the candidate) of the Thesis Adviser; the acceptance and approval of the Members of the Thesis Committee; and the Date of Oral Defense. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS An acknowledgments page is a brief note of appreciation for assistance given the candidate in the research and preparation of the thesis. The word ACKNOWLEDGMENTS should be centered at the top of the page. ABSTRACT An abstract is a concise, clear and coherent summary of the study. An abstract should be limited to a 200-250 word statement capturing the relevance/purpose/importance of the study, the methodology, and the highlights of the findings/ conclusions/ recommendations. TABLE OF CONTENTS It is suggested that the candidate make a temporary Table of Contents as soon as the outline of work has been approved. The entry and appropriate page numbers of the Table of Contents must appear on the Table of Contents. LIST OF TABLES When tables are used, a List of Tables should be placed on a separate page immediately following the Table of Contents. Center and position the heading, LIST OF TABLES. Table numbers should be presented. The complete table title must be shown. LIST OF FIGURES When figures, process flow charts, or similar schematics are used, a List of Figures should be shown on a separate page immediately following the List of Tables. Center and position the heading, LIST OF FIGURES. Figure numbers should be presented. Each figure or illustration must have a legend or title. The figure legend is presented in lowercase letters except for the first letter of the first word, which is capitalized. THE TEXT: MAIN BODY Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction The introduction is the part of the research that provides readers with the background information or overview of the area involving the study. Guiding questions: Why is this an important area? What has been the historical development of the topic? Are there different points of view about the topic? Guiding questions: Have there been significant investigations, studies, or reports concerning the topical area? What is the current status of the area of your interest? What are the major outstanding concerns in the general area? Research Locale This part describes the locale of the study with Figure 1 as the Location Map. The researcher must consider only the relevant characteristics of the place/ locale that have something to do with the research problem. Theoretical Framework It uses abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables and relations that explain and predict how observed phenomena exist and operate in the investigation. The researcher should fully discuss the various variables relative to the field or focus of investigation. Statement of the Problem It should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study. The specific problems must possess the characteristics of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound). Research Problems One or more sentences indicating the goal, purpose, or overall direction of the study General characteristics: ◦ Implies the possibility of empirical investigation ◦ Identifies a need for the research ◦ Provides focus ◦ Provides a concise overview of the research Ways of Stating the Research Problems ◦ General Statement of Research Problem: typically a rather general overview of the problem with just enough information about the scope and purpose of the study to provide an initial understanding of the research. Ways of Stating the Research Problems ◦ Specific Research Statements and/or Questions: more specific, focused statements and questions that communicate in greater detail the nature of the study. Assumptions/ Hypotheses Assumptions are presumed as true statement of facts related to the research problem. They are clearly stated to provide the reader foundation in analyzing the conclusions. A hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables. A researcher’s tentative prediction of the results of the research. Hypotheses are ideas to be tested. Considered as the most specific statement of a problem or objective. Must be stated in a null form. Types of Hypotheses Non-directional – a statement that no relationship or difference exists between the variables. Directional – a statement of the expected direction of the relationship or difference between variables. Types of Hypotheses Non-Directional Directional There is no relationship between Math attitudes and Math achievement. There is a strong positive relationship between Math attitudes and Math achievement. There is no difference in Students using technology will the achievement of have higher levels of students using technology achievement than students or not using it. who are not using it. Scope and Limitations The scope explains the focus (general problem) of the study as well as the range of the study in terms of geographical location, time frame, samples, areas, dimensions and others. Limitations - these are constraints to the study that are beyond your control but that may influence the data. Limitations may emerge at any time during your study. Delimitations - deliberately selfimposed constraints on the research. You define the boundaries in the problem area within which the study will be done, and the population or situation to which the findings may apply. Significance of the Study This section provides answers as to what the study will contribute. It should specifically state the value of the study. Why is this study important to? Definition of Terms There are two ways in defining the key terms namely, conceptual or operational. In conceptual, the meaning of the term is usually taken from the dictionary (source). Definition of Terms In Operational, the definition is based on an observed characteristics and how it is used in the study. The terms must be arranged in alphabetical order. Chapter 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The purpose of this chapter is to provide, in detail, clear and understandable statements describing EVERY STEP you will take in carrying out your study. It explains the research method/ design and its appropriateness to the study. Research Design If the study is descriptive research, you have to choose one of the types of descriptive research. If the research is experimental, you have to choose the right design. If the study is qualitative, you have explain the specific procedure/ technique Types of Research Design Research Designs Quantitative Non-Experimental Qualitative Case Study Concept Analysis Phenomenaology Historical Analysis Experimental Descriptive True Ethnography Comparative Quasi Grounded Theory Correlational Single Subject Causal Comparative Analytical Study Mixed Method Population/Sample/(Participants, if qualitative) Carefully identify the sample and describe in detail the manner in which it was chosen. if you are including all possible subjects, you are dealing with a population. In this case, you describe the characteristics of the population. Participant/ Subject/ Sample Participant or Subject ◦ Person from whom data are collected. Sample ◦ The collective group of subjects or participants from whom data are collected. Instrument (Data Collection, if qualitative) Identify each instrument you will use to measure the variables in the study. There should be a separate subsection for each instrument. Instrument (Data Collection, if qualitative) Information should be provided regarding the development of the instrument, the history of its use, data regarding its validity and reliability, data regarding how the instrument is administered and scored and anything else that will give insight into its appropriateness. Instrument (Data Collection, if qualitative) Additionally, provide a rationale for the selection of your instruments. Generally, a copy of the instrument should be included in the appendix (for the proposal and the final thesis). Data Gathering Procedure Describe each and every step taken to do the study. It is a type of "road map" that others must follow if they choose to replicate your study. If you are conducting qualitative inquiry, explain your data collection procedures. Data Gathering Procedure Include the steps you took to contact the concerned people, how you obtained their cooperation, how the instruments(s) were administered, how the data was handled as it was returned, how follow-ups were handled, etc. Copies of all letters, instruction sheets, etc. should be placed in the appendices. Treatment of Data The statistical parameters are discussed together with the principle for testing the significance of the measured data. Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately (Percentage, Mean, z-Test, tTest, Pearson Rank, ANOVA, etc). Indicate briefly any analytic tools you will have available and expect to use (e.g., SPSS). Chapter 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Tell the reader how you have organized the findings. Typically, you would organize them around your study's research questions or hypotheses. There should be an analysis of each section and tables/charts included. The narrative portion of the section should stand on its own Tables/ Charts. Other illustrations should only verify or elaborate points made in the text. The discussion part should present the principles, relationship and generalization shown by the results. The results need to be compared and interpreted with those in previously published works (Studies and Literature review). Interpretation & Discussion This gives you an opportunity to move beyond the data with inferences and implications. Guiding questions: Have you provided an overview of the significant findings of the study? Have you discussed the findings and compared them to existing research studies? Have you presented implications of the study for education? Have you discussed the applications of your findings? Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary - this is an overview of the study and not a summary of your findings. Restate the problem, research questions, hypotheses and a short summary of the procedures you followed in conducting your study. Conclusions - these are the conclusions you draw from your findings. Number the conclusions. The conclusions must relate directly to the findings. Recommendations - these should be based on the conclusions. Number the Recommendations. Guiding questions are: Are the recommendations concisely and precisely stated? Are the recommendations justified by the data gathered? Does the study suggest related problems that need to be investigated? Are your recommendations data-based and stem directly from the data and the conclusions? REFERENCES AND SUPPLEMENTAL SECTIONS REFERENCES The list of references contains sources consulted during the course of your research Follow APA (American Psychological Association, 6th ed.) referencing style carefully. Include only the sources that were used in the study. APPENDICES Appendices are labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. One appendix might include the raw data from the study when appropriate. One appendix might include copies of materials or instruments used in the study when appropriate. CURRICULUM VITAE This section gives the biographical information of the researcher. A curriculum vitae is a longer (two or more pages), more detailed synopsis than a resume. It includes a summary of your educational and academic background, as well as teaching and research experience, publications, presentations, awards, honors, affiliations, and other details. Part 2 THESIS FORMAT AND APPEARANCE Suggestions about Thesis Form and Style One official guide should be followed consistently for form and style throughout the thesis. Students are urged to become familiar with contents before beginning to write. Frequent reference to the guide may spare the candidate much revision and rewriting. General Formatting Guidelines The specific requirements, which follow, supersede guidelines in any other publication. TITLE Your document begins with its title centered on page one. Titles longer than one line should be single-spaced. PAPER AND PRINTING White paper, 8 1/2 x 11 inches, must be used. A letter-quality laser printer should be used for printing the thesis. Good quality (black and white only) photocopies are also acceptable. Print must be clear and distinct with clean, sharp letters, and even blackness throughout. The thesis is to be printed on only one side of the paper. FONT (TYPE) One type style must be used throughout the text of the manuscript. The type must be Times New Roman. Broken, colored or faint print is not acceptable for text. Figures, tables and their titles as well as appendix material are not considered text of the manuscript and be different type styles. FONT (TYPE) One type size must be 14 point. Major headings must be 14 point and in boldface. Tables, figures and their titles are not considered text and can vary in point size. MARGINS A margin of one-inch (1) must be provided at bottom, and right-hand sides of each page and a margin of one and one-half (1.5) inches on the top and left-hand side of each page. All writing (text, tables, figures, appendixes, etc.) must be placed within the margins (with the exception of the page numbers). SPACING The text of the manuscript must be double-spaced. Block quotations, tables, figure legends, lists in text, and table and figure titles can be single-spaced. Headings and subheadings must have at least two full lines of body text below them. If only one line of text fits below a heading, move the heading to the next page. SPACING Use single spacing in the following situations: ◦ For headings longer than one line ◦ For figure titles/legends ◦ For bibliographical and reference citations ◦ For direct quoted material ◦ For items listed within the body of the text (optional) BLOCKED QUOTES Use Blocked Quotes for quoted material longer than three lines. Use the smaller font size (12 point). Single-space the quotation, and indent it evenly on both sides. There is no need to justify quotations. PAGINATION Each page must be numbered. For the preliminary pages such as the Approval Sheet, Acknowledgements, Abstract,, Table of Contents, etc., use small Roman Numbers (iii, iv, v, etc.). These numbers should be centered at the bottom of the page. The The printed numbering should begin with iii. title page counts as i (one), the approval sheet as ii (two), but these numbers do not appear. PAGINATION For the remaining part of the thesis, including the text, illustrations, bibliography, and appendices, use Arabic Numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). The numbering begins with 1 and runs consecutively to the end of the thesis and should be placed at the top right-hand corner. On pages carrying a major heading, such as the first page of a chapter, the page number should be counted but do not appear on the page. TABLES, GRAPHS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS Tables are numbered with numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) and the title is placed at the top of the Table. Any calculations must be carefully checked. Illustrative material drawn in dark ink will reproduce satisfactorily. Lines on a graph/ tables should be identified by labels or symbols rather than colors. TABLE CAPTION Are located above the table, on the same page as the table. Table captions should contain the illustration number, i.e., Table 1 and its title. You may number tables consecutively throughout the text or within the chapter (Table 1 ). CORRECTION OF ERRORS Erasures, the use of correction fluid and corrections made by hand, or by strikeover, are not acceptable. If the thesis has pages where excessive corrections are obvious, the thesis will not be accepted by the GS Office and CHED. REFERENCES Use the same font size as within the text. Single-space each citation, and use adequate and consistent spacing ( one line) between citations. Part 3 THE FINAL MANUSCRIPT After the thesis has been defended and approved by the committee, the student makes arrangements for word processing of the final manuscript. The final copy of the thesis is then submitted to the Dean for approval. Proofreading This essential requirement is the candidate's responsibility. All materials, submitted for examination should represent the candidate's best efforts, and should be carefully proofread for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, word processing format etc. It is worth emphasizing that the quality of typescript is the sole responsibility of the candidate. Copy Permission The completed thesis is the property of the College. The right to publish and copyright the thesis shall remain with the author. After the oral defense, the author of the thesis shall sign a form authorizing the College to make copies, at its discretion, of the thesis upon request by individuals or institutions or for publication. Copy Permission However, extensive quotation or further reproduction of the thesis by persons or agencies other than the University may not be made without the express permission of the writer. When the University lacks signed permission from authors to copy theses (as will be the case, for example, for theses accepted before this policy took effect), the University will seek such permission when these copies are requested by individuals or institutions. Important Note: Do not use previously approved theses as a guide to the preparation of the manuscript unless it exactly meets the current requirements/ guidelines. This current guidelines will be enforced. QUESTIONS? THANK YOU!!!
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