Document 5062

Issues & Media Monitoring from TDC
No. 2
UK scientists challenge
evidence of ETS/cancer
FOUR UK SCIENTISTS have challenged claims that
there is an association between environmental tobacco
smoke (EI'S) exposure and cancer. They say that
epidemiological studies reporting the effect are
flawed, that methods for detecting the effects of
tobacco smoke in non-smokers are unreliable, and
that the alleged levels of carcinogens in ETS are too
low to cause cancer in any case . They conclude,
therefore, that the "claim that ETS causes lung cancer
. . . appears to be more a statement of belief, rather than
a conclusion based on strict scientific objectivity" .
The scientists' review was written in response to a
recent paper which concluded that ETS exposure
increases the risk of lung cancer and to a statement by
British epidemiologist Richard Peto that "the proof
that passive smoking causes lung cancer is not
epidemiological. It comes from the nature of the
carcinogens in tobacco smoke ."
The scientists examined the limitations of the
epidemiology of ETS as well as of the statistical
technique oi meta-analysis, case-control studies,
dosimetry and use of cotinine as a biomarker .
In another review of ETS studies, Dutch scientists Van
Barneveld et at. challenge the conclusion of the
European Working Group on Environmental Tobacco
Smoke and Lung Cancer that ETS is not a primary
lung carcinogen.
Page i8
Aushalian Fedtral Cotlrt nlies that
resealnc councl'1 may take no f arther
aCtion on ETS 1Epolt
AN AUSTRALIAN Federal Court has ruled that the
country's National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) may take no further action on the
proposed regulatory recommendations and
guidelines laid down in a controversial draft report
into the claimed health effects of ETS exposure .
The ruling follows a December decision by Federal
Court Justice Paul Finn that the NHMRC failed to
give genuine consideration to industry submissions,
to provide procedural fairness to industry members or
to consider relevant scientific evidence and
submissions in drafting the report.
The NHMRC was also ordered to pay the legal costs
of the two companies that brought the lawsuit against
the council, Rothmans and Phili Morris, and to the
Tobacco Institute of Australia (7~fA) .
February 1997
Ca„adiangoventnieie!"' t~rvfth• on
The gover pient has said that it would
prooeed witb legit ledon severely reetrictin
c igaretfe tp oneorship of sports and cultural
events, despite representations by the tobacco
PnDe 8
The tobacco industryand ada ertising in the
Eumpaan Union
The tobacco indusfryand advertising in theEu.opean
Union, a report by consultants KY.MG, conclqdea
that tobacco adveitiaing'bane do not redubelhe
conarmxption of tobaccoprodnets and tbat they
have -zm---tnegaHve impacb on economies
are pnt
platefrt ternte of lost
employment, tncome and tax revenue .
Paya 32
Latest airline amok&r g- bans
Trans Wo>!Id Airlines (TWA) has announced that
it wlll ban smoWng oq all flights tnclading
intemational rou4ei ~ of 1 Apol,; q,wlesair wfll
ban 'smo mt tfs araiitrilHartttc rontes from 30
Mase]~, an~thAj;rfcan'Airwayshas
announced a rmoldiigban on all it6' flights to the
US and Australia . t
Pages17,24& 31
Smoking ti•atea amo European .t~outh
AEuropean poll of 100 youtlu .ged 16-24 years
reports that half of fltose t arveyedsrtd they :
smoked more ehan?A eigaret6cs a day. And
despite a number of tobaecotattrol meabnxea,
smoldng rates among'Peenclt 17 to 20year oida
have ;apparently doubkd in 20 years.
Paye 22
HongKongs latiae Council urges total
tobaaco ad.xr~sb
~ g ban
The Legislative Council of Honp Kong has
reportedly passed a motion the
government to impose a totalban on tobacco
No-smokinArnde relaxed {n MaJpysfa
Due to pobffc pmte st the Milayeit Gbine t has
relaxed the non-smwldng rule in sante aonea It
hae aleobanped ander ~ge 18from
ueing or poesesetng+
acaco prodaclp fa paP~ ~
Brand pr ~~ and cigarette trae
Brand pre may~ play an important role in
emoldng initiation and maintenance among
adoleacenty according to reaearcheet ftom ,
universities in Texae,lrtdiana and Michigan ._
Page 25
OlOC 1987. 7Nb p,brGMdl Y oonpild eom p1,8l0
awcw .IdsAaAdna wMae nAMwieMaaiM
Page f8
Editor's Letter
Tobaoao axrerrme8on cenae
2 nsaemeb cenhr
xewerrdye aoea
Dear Reader,
At the end of last year, consultants KPMG published a major study on the
tobacco industry and advertising in the European Union concluding, among
other things, that advertising bans do not reduce consumption (page 32) .
The argument that ad bans do reduce consumption, especially among young
people, is one frequently used by governments to justify the introduction of
stringent advertising legislation .
eMad nve of/F
Tslephorb: a41 p)1818 tv 7788
Tekfac .4i (0)181889 702100
CadWhe BroNne
0enkk Wft
This month we feature a number of articles and studies that appear to
contradict that claim, as well as others that support it .
Despite severe advertising restrictions and other tough tobacco-control
measures, smoking among young people has doubled in France in the past 20
years, according to a French tobacco-control group (page 22) ; additionally, a
European survey of young people claims that more than 50% of people aged
16 to 24 smoke daily (page 22) . The role of parental influence - often cited as a
major factor in a person's decision to smoke - is discussed in a US and UK
study, respectively (pages 17 & 21) .
A study by Robert Volk, et al . in the US suggests, however, that brand
preference may play an important role in smoking initiation (page 10) .
Are there any subjects you feel we're not covering adequately in Infotopics7 We
appreciate your comments on our coverage, and look forward to hearing from
you .
BEOTOPJC3psaenb absbacta of
sebcbd AubrmeeWThefhea been
p ~orls avelleWeh
TOC mekam ao ckim brlhe aawrecy
of Ms bbrmseon aontai sd'n 80
atahac~ed ar8abs . The opi*ne
a~ed en Mase oa8ahedh Yu
aouroe aocunena
TDO Mebomer my aMMditiona or
aqysaeoro b 8`FOTOPlCB.
7DC Is abN b ob/ain dqAfaBonr
meneonad'n MVFOTOPILS; h oerhln
cgses 8are nryb. a mW ka
® Oaftm TOC,1aD7
Catharine Browne
February 1997 DTDC 1997 . TMs pubacatlon b oanpBeQ Irom pe08a
aoumes an0 NwWd nof BseAbe reNrenoed adbd
51733 5383
Table of Contents by Region
Editor's Letter
North America
Canadian government to proceed with tobacco sponsorship restrictions
The effect of negative information and regulation on returns of tobacco
stocks and smoking trends
Teenagers' recognition of Joe Camel caricature
US cigarette consumption may be rising, despite attacks on industry
Canadian tests report higher constituents levels than stated by manufacturers
Judge dismisses claims in West Virginia Medicaid case
"Third wave" of litigation against the tobacco industry more likely to
succeed, says lawyer
Clinton's tobacco advertising proposals and the Constitution
Concerns about the long-term health and economfc future of the tobacco
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood cancer
Claimed effects of smoking on respiratory system may start during
pregnancy, says study
Nicotine and its effect on schizophrenia
Lung cancer in non-smoking wives of smokers
Parental smoking a"major factor" in onset of smoking among children
TWA to ban smoking
European Union
UK scientists challenge evidence of ETS/cancer association
Dutch report questions conclusions European scientists' report on ETS
Bias in ETS studies can be two way, says UK statistician Peter Lee
Effects of occasional exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on lung
function in children
French employee awarded damages for unfair dismissal for complaining
about smoking
Cambridge economist calls for more evidence on effectiveness of tobacco
advertising bans
Germans continue to oppose ban on tobacco advertising
United Kingdom : Family life and smokm' qm adolescence
BAT chief executive claimed to state that the company would consider
settling damages claims by smokers
80% of Spanish smokers said to be aware of claims about tobacco and health
Half of young Europeans said to smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day
Danish insurance group offers "light" smokers same premiums as
New cigarette filter announced in Greece
French railway fined for failing to enforce tobacco legislation
Non-EU Europe
Hungarian cabinet to consider legislation on advertising in non-electronic
Swissair to ban smoking on transatlantic routes
Polish marketers establish country's first self-regulation council
Australian Federal Court rules that research council may take no further
action on ETS report
Cigarette sales licensing to be 'tar'-based under new South Australian bill
Queensland to raise age for selling tobacco products to young peo le
"Benefits" and "costs" of smoking from the Australian government's
75% of top Australian firms reported to have introduced workplace smoking
Claimed health benefits of quitting smoking for older smokers
February 1997 OTDC 1H97. Thls publlcatbn fs arodrpik0 hora p1ANiC IAIFOTQf'JC86
saxoes and ahoW not ase6be relareeoed adMrd
East Asia
Hong Kong's Legislative Council urges total tobacco advertising ban
Minors in Malaysia banned from smoking or possessing tobacco products
University of Hong Kong turns down donation from tobacco company
Harsh penalties for violating tobacco legislation in South Korea
Pressure for details of 'tar' and nicotine levels in cigarettes in Malaysia
South African Parliament unlikely to consider draft tobacco legislation this
South African Airways bans smoking on flights to US and Australia
Smoking among pupils in Surkina Faso said to be determined by friends and
OTDCf997.ThlspuDWCaObnlsoortpASObGmpu6iC F6bWry1DS7
Table of Contents by Issue
Advertising & Promotion
Teenagers' recognition of Joe Camel caricature
Clinton's tobacco advertising proposals and the Constitution
Cambridge economist calls for more evidence on effectiveness of tobacco
advertising bans
Germans continue to oppose ban on tobacco advertising
Hungarian cabinet to consider legislation on advertising in non-electronic
Polish marketers establish country's first self-regulation council
Hong Kong's Legislative Council urges total tobacco advertising ban
Public Smoking/ETS
TWA to ban smoking
UK scientists challenge evidence of ETS/cancer association
Dutch report questions conclusions of European scientists' report on ETS
Bias in EfS studies can be two way, says UK statistician Peter Lee
Effects of occasional exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on lung
function in children
Swissair to ban smoking on transatlantic mutes
75qo of top Australian firms reported to have introduced workplace smoking
South African Airways bans smoking on flights to US and Australia
Health Education/Public Health
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood cancer
Claimed effects of smoking on respiratory system may start during
pregnancy, says study
Lung cancer in non-smoking wives of smokers
Parental smoking a "major factor" in onset of smoking among children
80% of Spanish smokers said to be aware of claims about tobacco and
Claimed health benefits of quitting smoking for older smokers
Smoking among pupils in Burkina Faso said to be determined by friends and
Canadian government to proceed with tobacco sponsorship restrictions
French railway fined for failing to enforce tobacco legislation
Australian Federal Court rules that research council may take no further
action on ETS report
Minors in Malaysia banned from smoking or possessing tobacco products
Harsh penalties for violating tobacco legislation in South Korea
South African Parliament unlikely to consider draft tobacco legislation this
Legal Issues
Judge dismisses claims in West Virginia Medicaid case
'Third wave" of litigation against the tobacco industry more likely to
succeed, says lawyer
French employee awarded damages for unfair dismissal for complaining
about smoking
BAT chief executive claimed to state that the company would consider
settling damages claims by smokers
Canadian tests report higher constituents levels than stated by
Nicotine and its effect on schizophrenia
Cigarette sales licensing to be'tar'-based under new South Australian bill
Pressure for details of 'tar' and nicotine levels in cigarettes in Malaysia
Fe6ruary 1997 OTOC 1997 . TNs publkatlon b odqnBed hom pubpa
soeraes and anarrd not pseMbe reesreoeee ord .d
15 .
6ocial Costs
Danish insurance group offers'7ight" smokers same premiums as
'Benefits" and "costs" of smoking from the Australian government's
Smoking Trends
The effect of negative information and regulation on returns of tobacco
stocks and smoking trends
US cigarette consumption may be rising, despite attacks on industry
United Kingdom: Family life and smoking in adolescence
Half of young Europeans said to smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day
Cigarette Technology
New cigarette filter announced in Greece
Ethical Issues
University of Hong Kong tums down donation from tobacco company
Concerns about the long-term health and economic future of the tobacco
Queensland to raise age for selling tobacco products to young people
Industry Action
The tobacco industry and advertising in the European Union
The budget doesn't add up : tax campaign in the UK
Advertising campaign aims to raise smokers' awareness of their contribution
to society
Spanish NGO launches campaign to teach young people discrimination
about advertising messages
Update on Consumers International
12 March 1997: UK No Smoking Day
Calendar of Notable Dates Worldwide
1997. T/YS puCtlcaEon is oa/pRed hom pa6Rc
sources and sAaBdnot7nellDe relerenaed ordlso
Canadian Fovernnient to proceed with tobacco
sponsorshlp restrictions
The Canadian government has said
that it would proceed with legislation
severely restricting cigarette
sponsorship of sports and cultural
events, despite "intense" lobbying by
the tobacco industry.
Health Minister David Dingwall
made few concessions to the industry
when introducing amendments to Bill
C-71 on 18 February . The
amendments phase-in restrictions
over one year instead of making them
effective this summer . Dingwall
rejected suggestions by the tobacco
industry and the Alliance for
Sponsorship Freedom that major
international events be exempted,
and that restrictions be phased-in
over three years .
Dingwall had previously stated that
he was open to reviewing the
sponsorship provisions of Bill C-71 .
Liberal MPs are said to be worried
that the bill will provoke an angry
reaction from voters if any big
tobacco-sponsored events are
cancelled, and had pressed for a
phase-in for some events and outright
exemption for international televised
events such as auto races and tennis
tournaments .
Robert Parker, president of the
Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers'
Council, claims that the bill is "an
outright advertising ban, disguised as
something else".
Central to the controversy over Bill
C-71 is a provision limiting the
visibility of tobacco promotions at
sports events and festivals, and many
cities claim they will lose these events
if the bill is passed . In Parker's view,
Bill C-71 "bans tobacco company
event sponsorship by making both
the event and its promotion commercially unworkable. It will cost
millions of dollars in lost economic
activity, the Grand Prix alone brings
C$80 million (US$59 million) a year to
the Montreal ec+onomy."
Condemnation by health groups
Before David Dingwall announced
his amendments to Gn, national
health groups in Canada had
condemned the federal government's
apparent willingness to weaken the
In a press release, the groups, which
included the Canadian Cancer
Society, expressed their concern that
delays to the legislation could cause it
to disappear altogether and that any
concessions and delays will "provide
increased access for this industry to
another generation of kids" .
The health groups claimed that
moves for concessions to the industry
were coming from tobacco-funded
arts and sports events, including auto '
racfng .
The health groups and physicians
challenged the prime minister and
the health minister not to be"bulBed"
by the tobacco manufacturers .
Press campaign warns against
effects of proposed tobacco
Advertisements issued in the name of
Canada's three tobacco manufacturers have been running in major
Canadian dailies, asking the
government to reconsider and amend
Bill C-71 . The ads claim that the
Canadian tobacco industry accepts
and agrees with the idea of
responsible regulations on tobacco
advertising, but believes that Bill C-71
goes far beyond reasonable
regulation . The first three advertise•
ments are called "A message from the
sponsor", "Regulation versus
prohibition", and "Freedom of
expression" . Two more ads are
planned. U
Kemedy, Matk Dirpwall vront
buffgBt on tObeeee ade. The
OBewe Cidien (20 February
1007) p. F10
Refererqe :
VYOs, Terrertce . Tough tobacco
bbbyshakes federal
povsmmeM reaohre. The
Oaaxa Riren (5 February
1997) p. D12
Puffery. Tora* San
(5 February 1997) p . 10
Reference :
Healtlt groupe agered over
threat to tob®ceo lepisls6on.
(Press relsase] Catsd'rrt
CaraerSociery, ef aG
(5 Februery 1997) 2 pp.
Canade's tobaxo
manufacturers (Fetxuary 1997)
3 ads
Refereae : U15040
FeGruary 1997 OTDQ 1997 . TNs pabECatipi b cornpped 6aa pu6ic IfyFpTpPICg 9
aourm and aaadd nof ItreNee rerererwyd or du9d
Health Scares
Scheraga, Cad and John E.
CaNee. The ndustry e8ecls of
infonna6on and regula6on in the
agarette market :1950-1065.
Journal d Pudic PoNcyd
MarkeArg (Faf 1996) 15 (2)
The effect of negative information and regulation on
returns of tobacco stocks and smoking trends
In a recent report, Carl Scheraga and
John Calfee examined the effect of
negative information and regulation
on returns of tobacco stocks and
smoking trends. They did this by
examining patterns of stock returns of
major cigarette retailers during
crucial events in the years between
1950 and 1965 .
tended to affect the industry earlier
than some may generally assume : fa
1950 and 1951 (when the "earliest
The events analysed were "the cancer
scare: 1950-54"; "'fear advertising' :
1953-54"; the 1960 Federal Trade
Commission (FfC) ban on'tar' and
nicotine advertising ; the 1962 report
of the UK Royal College of Physicians
and the 1964 US Surgeon General's
report; and the FTC's proposal to
require health wamings on cigarette
forces atnused in 1963 and 1954 by
Scheraga and Calfee say their results
suggest that "spontaneous infonnation shocks and competitive reactions
(such as the cancer reports of 1950,
which brought the'fear' advertising
of 1953-54) hurt the industry while
encouraging consumers to smoke
less, whereas regulatory intervention
served mainly to dampen these same
necessarily harm that industry - even
More specifically, they conclude that
new adverse health fnformation
Institute in Washington, DC . C!
reliable cancer reports were
published") and in the wake of the
1962 UK Royal College of Physicians•
report, rather than after the 1964 US
Surgeon General's report.
They further argue that "competitive
the cancer reports tended to harm the
Industry Qust as price wars and other
more traditional forms of competition
do) while arguably adding to
consumer information about
Scheraga and Calfee also make the
point that "regulatory actions
targeted at an industry do not
when the interventionv have popular
appeal and the fndustry is
Scheraga is assistant professor of
business strategy and technology
management at the School of
Business aat Fairfield University
[Connecticut]; John Calfee Is resident
scholar at the American Enterprise
Teenagers' recognition of Joe Camel caricature
Brand Preference
we9s, Melanie . Kds Imow Joe
Camel, bul they follow Marboro
Man. USA Today(31 January
1997) 2 pp .
Vok, Roberl J. ef aL SmoVug and
preference for brand of dgaretle
among adolescents . Journal of
Subsmnce Abuse (1998) 8 (3) pp .
Reference :
A survey by USA Today suggests that
98% of teenagers recognize the Joe
Camel cartoon character and 49% say
the Camel ads make smoking more
appealing . Slightly fewer recognized
the Marlboro cowboy and 40% said
Marlboro advertising made smoking
more appealing .
The survey claims, however, that
more teenagers smoke Marlboro
because the cowboy is seen as
"rugged" and "cool", because of the
brand's promotional goods and
because many teenagers have been
around parents who smoke Marlboro .
Critics of tobacco advertising claim
that teenagers choose Marlboro
because it is seen as a"cooler', "more
adult" brand .
The survey results are illustrated by
means of graphs, indude quotes from
teenagers about their attitudes to
smoking and provide information on
claimed ad spending and ad agencies
used by the tobacco companies, as
well as key findings of the survey
relating to the Camel, Marlbo%Kool,
Benson & Hedges and Lucky Strike
Brand preference and cigarette use
Brand preference may play an
important role in smoking initiation
and maintenance among adolescents,
according to researchers from the
University of Texas Medical Branch at
Galveston, Purdue University and the
University of Michigan . y'
51733 5389
INFOTOPICS 10 OTDC 1897. 7Nfs pubsration Js oompaed Irom peAlc FiGWry 1997
sanoes and ahoWdnot NaeMbe rNeronad or clMd
The authors examined the association
between having a preferred brand of
cigarette and smoking in AfricanAmerican, Mexican American and
White 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th graders
[aged 11 to 171 in two counties of
Indiana and Illinois, respectively .
Cigarette use status was evaluated
using two questions : "Have you ever
smoked?" and "How much have you
smoked cigarettes during the past 30
days?" Students were also asked : 'Do
you think you will smoke cigarettes
when you are older?" and "Do you
prefer your brand of cigarette over all
The claim is that the results of the
study suggested that the prevalence
of having a preferred brand of
cigarette increased with grade level,
with more than 20% of the 11th
graders [aged 16-17J reporting having
a preference. Brand preference was
said to be related to cigarette use in a
dose-response fashion for all
subgroups, with preference highest
among African-American students
who reportedly smoked at Last half a
pack of cigarettes daily.
The authors suggest that there is a
strong association between having a
brand preference and current daily
cigarette use, whereas preference also
was related to intention to smoke
cigarettes when older . U
US cigarette consumption may be risingr despite
attacks on lndustry
According to an article in The Wall
Street Journal, despite a barrage of
new claimed health discoveries and
an unprecedented legal and
regulatory war on the tobacco
industry, cigarette consumption in
the US held steady in 1996 and may
even be increasing . The paper claims
that one reason for this is that a new
generation of smokers in their late
teens and early 20s are embracing
smoking as "hip" .
The US Department of Agriculture
reported that Americans bought 487
billion cigarettes in 1996, the same as
the 1995 figure . That followed a long
drop from a 1981 peak of 640 billion
to 485 billion in 1993, after which the
department's numbers started to
increase. Reports of an increase in
consumption were claimed to have
stirred alarm among public-health
advocates, after a year that brought
new claims about smoking and health
and the alleged "addictiveness" of
nicotine . The federal government also
proposed tough regulations aimed at
curbing smoking by the young . The
Wall Street Journal quotes some
analysts as saying say that
demographic patterns promise to
help lift cigarette sales in the future,
as the first generation of baby
boomers' children reach adulthood.
According to a recent study by the
Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, which examined only
data as recent as 1994, overall
smoking rates in the US remained
essentially flat that year. However,
the smoking rate among 18 to 24
year-olds increased significantly, to
27.5% from 25.8% in 1993.
Srtakkp Trends
Hwany, Suein L Ciparepe qles
steady as young flnd habit hip.
The WaABtreef Joumal
(30 January 1997) p. 8-14
Referenoe :
The Wall Street Journal goes on to
claim that cigarette makers s d
tens of millions of dollars tivating
a young market . It alleges that they
stage bar parties and advertise lavish
giveaway promotions requiring proof
of purchase. Also, there seems to be a
resurgence of smoking among young
actors and actresses in films, which is
said to be making smoking fashionable once again. l]
. .~
February 1997 OTOC 1997 . TMS puDpcs6on ts conpDed from pi6tFC
sources ard shoWd not fbelfbe relereiwred oreMsd
Canadian tests report higher constituents levels than
stated by manufacturers
Constituents Testing
Kerber, Ross . Do approved
cigarette tests understate tar?
The WaAS6eetJoumal
(30 January 1997) pp . B-1, &14
According to a study by Labstat Inc .,
of Kitchener, Ontario, smokers
receive far higher doses of'tar',
nicotine and carbon monoxide from
cigarettes than tobacco companies
disclose . The study was performed as
part of a broader effort by officials in
the US state of Massachusetts to force
the disclosure of ingredients and the
alleged health effects of tobacco
031675 products under the terms of a state
~ law passed last year .
The 10 brands chosen were Camel
Filters, Camel Lights, Camel Lights
Menthol, Camel Ultra Lights, Carlton,
Carlton Ultra, Marlboro, Marlboro
Lights, Merit Filters 100s, and Merit
Ultra Lights, some of the most
popular brands in the state .
produce more accurate ratings of
nicotine intake but would merely
produce higher ratings than those
produced under the current FTC
standards because of the more Intense
settings used on the testing madtirtes .
A press article suggests that ads for
"light" and "low tat" brands might be
imperDed by the Massachusetts
study. Studies including a 1994 report
by the National Cancer Institute
maintain that the FTC should take
account of what it claims is smokers'
tendency to inhale more deeply and
more frequently than the industry
tests suggest and to cover the
ventilation holes found in some
cigarette filters with their lips and
The study used methods reportedly
meant to reflect smoking conditions
that are more true to life than those
used in the current tests approved by
the Federal Trade Commission (FTC),
and a table illustrates the findings of
tests done on the brands by both the
FTC and the Massachusetts study .
While FTC officials have spent more
The study claims that nicotine levels
for the "average smoker" in most
cases ranged from 46% to 98% higher
than what they say are tobacco
industry numbers . For example, the
study reported Marlboro as having
25.9 mg of'tar', as opposed to the 16
mg declared in industry ratings .
disclose additives and nicotine levels
According to the article, tobacco
companies argue that the tests do not
than a year studying whether to
propose new test, 'ng Procedures ,
some states are already acting. The
results of the Massachusetts study ane
to be released in a hearirtg designed
to make rules under a MassaChusetts
law that takes effect on 1 Julx" . Under
that law, tobacco companfes must
in their products to the state . In
response, the manufacturers have
sued to prevent the disclosures,
arguing that they would yield trade
secrets and that the states do not have
the right to pre-empt federal laws and
guide '~es O
* f^fotapics January 1997 p. 9
Judge dismisses claims in West Virginia Medicaid caf#e
West Yrginia rul'aig favors
tobacco companies . Reuters
(14 February 1997)
Reference :
A West Virginia judge has dismissed
the essential claims of the state
attomey-general's Medicaid lawsuit
against tobacco companies, ruling
that two state agencies have no
independent right to sue for personal
injuries allegedly caused by smoking .
Judge Irene Berger granted, in its
entirety, the tobacco industry's
motion to dismiss 11 of 14 counts in
the West Virginia Medicaid suit . A
motion to dismiss two of the
remaining counts is scheduled to be
heard later this month. O
51733 5391
INFOTOPICS 12 OTDC 1997 . Thls pub/katlon /s oonpiNd Irom publk FiMrary 1097
soumes and slioufd not NssMbe ra/erenaed ordAVd
'Third wave" of litigation against the tobacco industry
more likely to succeed, says lawyer
Writing in the'Legal issues in
medicine' section of The Nem England
Journal of Medicine, George J . Annas, a
lawyer with a master's degree in
public health, claims that we are
seeing the "third wave" of tobacco
litigation, and that these cases are
much more likely to succeed than
previous lawsuits because of the
discovery of a vast array of "internal"
documents that he says undercut the
industry's own arguments .
He adds that whereas previous cases
have been "outgunned financially" by
tobacco companies, third wave cases
are being brought by teams of law
firms and by state attorneys-general
with the help of private lawyers .
Annas explains that the first wave of
tobacco litigation dates from the time
medical research first demonstrated
the alleged risks of cancer from
smoking and continued until the
early 1970s (1954 to 1973) . The second
wave (1983-1992) began in the early
1980s and ended with the dropping
of the Cipollone case . The third wave
began with Castano ro . American
Tobacco Co . in 1994, and includes
lawsuits that claim the industry
"imew" nicotine to be "addictive" .
Annas also discusses reimbursement
suits in which a number of US states
and cities have sued tobacco
companies on behalf of taxpayers to
recover the share of Medicaid costs
claimed to be attributed to so-called
"smoking-related diseases" .
Should one or more of these cases be
successful, Annas suggests, the
question of measuring damages may
be difficult . The extent to which
federal financial burdens and benefits
should be factored into state-level
judgments, or whether the federal
government should itself be a party
to these cases, remains to be
determined .
The author concludes his article by
discussing the possibility of global
settlements which follow the decision
by the Liggett Group to settle with
five states and pursue settlements
with the other states . Another
global-settlement proposal was
floated last year by lawyer Richard
Scruggs, who works with the
Mississippi attomey-general'.
Arm, (isape J . Tobeceo
fi'tgation as cancer prevention :
dealing with 1hs devA. Ths Now
Enqlend Joamaf of Meati'ciie
(23 Jaeuery 1997) 398 (4)
pp. 3d1-308
Reference :
Annas claims that the acceptability of
any global settlement will depend on
the required goals in the so-called
"tobacco wars" . He says that
protecting individual choice while
minimizing the alleged health
hazards seems reasonable, as does
putting tobacco under the jurisdiction
of the Consumer Protection Agency .
He concludes that the key to public
health action on the tobacco front
seems to lie in combining strategies to
discourage children from smoking
and in producing a "safer" and "less
addictive" cigarette for those who
cannot, or will not, "resist the
temptation to smoke". A truly global
settlement, he says, must transcend
US boundaries and a US settlement
should help set up worldwide
standards for'tar' and nicotine . O
* See Injotopics September/October
1996 pp . 11-12
1997. TNS pubNceBon is coapRSd han puNic AJFOTOPICS 13
sources and ahorAd nof ltrea be referenced or eNed
Advertising Bans!
tddCay, Sandra E. et a/. The
FDA's proposed rules regulating
tobacco and underage smoldng
and the eamierdal speech
doctrine . Journal of PLtrfc PoGby
andAfarke0ng(Fa119g5)15 (2)
pp. 2g6-3ai
Reference :
Clinton's tobacco advertising proposals and the
Sandra McKay ef aL, from
Southeastern Louisiana University
and Arizona State University,
examined the tobacco advertising
regulations proposed by US President
Clinton in an attempt to determine if
they meet certain criteria under the
US Constitution .
The Supreme Court traditionally has
distinguished commercial speech
from other speech and recognition
that commercial speech has some
constitutional protection dates back
to 1975 . In 1980 the Supreme Court, in
the case Central Hadaon and Elufrrc
Corporatian v. Public Service
Commission, set out four criteria to
determine whether specific
commercial speech comes within the
protection of the First Amendment .
The criteria are the following:
• The speech being regulated must be
lawful and cannot be misleading .
∎ The government must have a
substantial interest in protecting the
public .
• The regulation must directly
advance the government interest
being asserted.
Tobacoo Growing
a The regulation cannot be more
extensive than is necessary to serve
the government interest.
In their analysis, the authors suggest
that the proposed regulation
restricting the format of advertising
to minors should withstand a
constitutional challenge, as should
the proposed restrictions on outdoor
advertising .
As regards the restrictions on
advertisement content in print media
and the bans on promotional items
and brand sponsorshi p of events, the
proposed rules move beyond
previous adv restrictions,
according to the au cs. The
continuing erosion of First Amendment protection of commercial
speech,theysa y,a tojustify
the tobacco and adv~reertising
industries' focusittg their lawsuits on
the jurisdictional issues involved in
this case .
McKay d al. conclude that the Food
and Drug Administration is
attempting to capitalize on the
Supreme Court's apparent desire to
support governmental restrictions on
currently perceived vices or threats to
health, especially that of minoss .0
Concerns about the long-term health and economic
future of the tobacco farmer
Amid a backdrop of reportedly policy-maker resistance to tobacco
declining American tobacco
consumption and increasing
In March 1995, Altman et al .
American tobacco-com
u rch
Altrnan, David G. stal Tobacco ase
interviewed 529 tobacco growers and
~~ and ~~~ : of foreign-grown tobacco and
417 allotment owners by telephone.
oppalunities arM 6®rtiersm production facilities, diverse groups
They were questioned on their
Tobaoco Conhof (Autunn 19g6) such as elected public officials, health
attitudes to, knowledge of, and
.1g2-1f)8 professionals and growers have
5(3) pp
experience with diversification and
begun exploring together ways to
attitudes towards an increase in the
help the American tobacco farmer.
Reference : 031657
federal excise tax on tobacco.
Joossens, Luk . Dioersificatlon 's
the luture fa many tobacco
farmers. Totaaro Control
(AuWmn 1996) 5 (3) pp.177-178
Reference :
Researchers from the Bowman Gray
School of Medicine [Wake Forest
University, Winston-Salem, NC) and
the Center for Sustainable Systems
[Berea, Kentucky] claim that
diversification away from tobacco
into other crops and the subsequent
economic development it produces
will decrease public and
The results of the telephone survey
suggested that half of the respon- N
dents had done something to leam ~
about on-farm alternatives to tobacco, W
had an interest in trying other
on-farm ventures to supplement w
tobacco income, and found W
alternatives that were profitable . w
lNFOTOPICS 14 OTDC 1997 . Tfds pubase0'en Is colrp/Nd ho/n pu6Nc Fabmlry 1997
souroes and ahaAd not MaaCae re/sranced ora'Nd
Younger farmers were reportedly
more willing to be interested in or try
alternative enterprise than older ones .
Luk Joossena claims some tobacco
farmers struggling with huge
Structural and economic obstacles to
diversification were noted by
respondents (especially younger
respondents), but 73% supported an
increase in the federal excise tax on
tobacco if the money was used to
help farmers overcome these barriers .
The Altman et ai . article was
discussed in an editorial in Tobacco
Control by Luk Joossens, of the
International Union Against Cancer
(UICC) . Joossens claims that while
figures show that growing tobacco
seems to have a promising future, in
several parts of the world tobacco
farmers are struggling with huge
problems for different reasons .
When respondents were asked
whether they smoke cigarettes or use
chewing tobacco every day, some
days, or not at all, 22% reported
smoking cigarettes and 22% reported
using chewing tobacco "some days"
or "every day" . Two out of three
respondents (63%) thought that
"smoking is harmful to people' .
He briefly discusses these problems,
which he says include non-competitive
prices; low-quality tobacco and poor
adaptation to varieties in commercial
demand; a declining domestic tobacco
market; overdependence on earnings
from tobacco; and low-ttcomu provision for the small tobacco farmer . 0
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood
US researchers Mark Kiebanoff and
colleagues, from the National
Institute of Child Health and Human
Development, at the National
Institutes of Health, conclude that
maternal smoking during pregnancy
was not associated with an increased
risk of childhood cancer in their
study population.
The authors examined data on 54,795
live-bom children between 1959-1966
[of which 51 had cancer] for a
cumulative incidence of cancer of 1 .1
per 1,000 by 96 months of age .
Maternal smoking was determined at
each prenatal visit; 52% of mothers
reported smoking at one or more
visits . By age eight years, cancer had
reportedly occurred in 1 .4 per 1,000
children whose mothers had not
smoked during pregnancy, compared
with 0.9 per 1,000 children whose
mothers had smoked .
The results of the study suggested
that there was no dose-response
effect of smoking compared with not
smoking .
Klebanoff et aL conclude that
childhood cancer is very different
from cancer in adults . They say that
epithelial tumours compriselhe
majority of cancers In adults
compared with a small minority of
tumours in children of the age range
studied. They state that as smoking is
allegedly associated primarily with
epithelial tumours in adults, it may
not be biologically plausible to expect
a positive association between in utero
tobacco exposure and childhood
cancer .
Childhood Canosr
lOebanoB, MarkA etaf
Matemal amokFp durirp
pfBpIlBfl6y alld Chlldhood
oanoer. Mtsrkan .burns/ ot
f:pfdemRttogy(1996)144 (11)
Refeence : 031618
They stress, however, that the
relatively small number of cases in
their study - 51 - precluded
extensive examination of individual
types of cancer. 0
.qVFOTPtQSfsourandl otIbeHmkrnadole
Respiratory Diseases
Claimed effects of smoking on respiratory system may
start during pregnancy, says study
Jonathan Samet and Peter Lange
claim that the alleged effects of
smoking on the respiratory system
begin to appear even earlier than
thought, and possibly even start
Samet, Jonathan M. and Peter
Lange. Longitud'naI sludies ol
active and pass'rve smoldng .
American Journal of Respfratay
and (;nDcal Care Medreiie
(December 1996)154 (6)
pp. 5257-S265
Reference :
during pregnancy.
"Passive smokm' g may continue to
adversely affect lung growth as
exPosure occurs throughout
childhood and possibly during
adulthood as well . Active cigarette
smoking may also anpair lung
growth during the teenage years .
Thus, both passive and active
smokinR durinp childhood may
reduce the mawmum level of
function aohieved at the completion
of lung growth," the authors state .
In their paper in the American Journal
o Respiratory and Critfcal Care
Medicine, Samet and Lange
summarize and synthesize the
evidence on active and'passive'
smoking and respiratory health . U
Nicotine and its effect on schizophrenia
Neergaard, Lauran. Scientists link
sch¢ophrenia gene, nico6ne . AP
(2o January 1997) 2 pp .
Reference :
According to scientists Dr . Robert
Freedman and colleagues of the
Denver Veterans Affairs Medical
Centre, nicotine appears to override,
briefly, a brain defect characteristic of
schizophrenia, providm' g patients
with a few minutes of calm .
It is reported that many schizophrenics are unable to filter out
unnecessary sights, sounds and other
stimuli, so they essentially suffer
information overload .
Freedman and colleagues claim that
this trait is inherited and they linked
a gene that appears responslble for
schizophrenia to a brain receptor that
helps filter information and which
can be stimulated by nicotine. In their
view, this could suggest that schizophrenics who smoke get enough
nicotine to switch on this receptor for
brief relief.
Their reported finding may explain
why many schizophrenics are said to
chain smoke, according to the
authors. However, Freedman and
colleagues say they do not recommend that people take up smoking to
try to coapbat their schlzophrenia
because the effect literally tasts just a
few minutes.
Freedman et a! .'s study was published
in the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Scfences. O
Lung cancer in non-smoking wives of smokers
Envimnmental Tobacco Smoke
Study finds more evidence that
nonsmoking women married to
smokers have higher lung cancer
death rates PR Newswie
(20 January 1997) 2 pp.
Reference :
PR Newsmirerepo rts that a study by
researchers at the American Cancer
Society and Emory University
suggests that never-smoking women
married to smokers have about 20%
higher lung cancer death rates than
women married to never-smoking
men .
The results of the study, published in
the journal Cancer Causes & Control,
are claimed to be consistent with
prior studies by the Favironmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and other
scientific groups, and contribute to
the overall clauns that exposure to
environmental tobacco smoke (ET'8)
from smoking spouses may adversely
affect lung cancer risk in neversmoking women .
The researchers analysed data from
the American Cancer Societyrs Cancer
Prevention Study II(CPSIq. The risk
of lung cancer in 119,286 female and
18,549 male never-smokers married
to smokers was compared to that In
7I,D00 female and 77,000 male
never-smokers whose spouses did
not smoke.
The current study pertains lar$ely to
lung cancer among never-saw
women married to smoking men; too
few never-smoking men were
married to smokers and insuf6dertt
information is available on their fiTS
exposure outside the home to
interpret the data on men in CPS-II,
the authors state. O .
51733 5395
aVFOTOPlCS 16 OTDC 1997. TNS puDliaae0n k COrtplkd avm publ/c Febmary 1997
souroes and shouM not aaMDe ret.rencvd or db0
Parental smoking a "major factor" in onset of smoking
among children
In a study examining the relationship
between smoking and anti-smoking
practices of parents and the early
onset of smoking among elementary
school children, Christine Jackson,
from the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Lisa
Henriksen, from Rutgers University,
claim that children are more likely to
smoke when one or both parents are
current smokers . The fact that some
parents quit does not eradicate the
possibility of parental modelling by
children, they add .
The authors further note that
smoking parents who give dear
anti-smoking messages to their
children may well be able to influence
the decision of their children to start
The results of the authors' study
suggest the following :
s children's likelihood of early onset
of smoking increases with level of
exposure to parent smoking
• if one or both parents are current
smokers, children who have never
tried smoking have asignificantly
greater likelihood of intending to
smoke, perceiving easy access to
cigarettes, and being ambivalent
about smoking;
s"risk" rates for children of former
smokers indicate that parents'
quitting smoking does not eradicate
the effects of parent modelling ;
a children whose parents engage in
anti-smoking socialization have
significantly lower rates of smoking
onset, even if parents are current
Sntokilp tnlNaUon
Jackson and Henriksan conclude that
the cross-sectional design of the study
limits the applicability of these
findings to intervention planning . In
addition, the ability to generalize
from the findings may be limited
because the sample was drawn from
central North Carolina .
Jedcson, Christine and Liea
HenrRcsen . Do as I say. parental
smakitp, antiemokinp
soclaraetion and srnokkg orreal
amap children. Addktft
8ehatdoras (January-Felxuary
1997) 22 (1) pp.107•114
Reference: 031668
Psychological and social factors
significantly Influence smoking
Still on the subject of why people
smoke, Unger tt al ., of the University
of Southern California, examined the
predictive value of a measure of
susceptibility to smoking among
schoolchildren. The authors contend
that a number of psychological and
social influences are useful predictors
of the onset of smoking and claim
that smokingby friends was a high
predictor of smoking maintenance
among young people .
linger, Jenniler B. et a/.
Iden6flcation of adolescents at
risk for smoldnp hqiation :
val~IdellOn of a measure of
susoepGltlGly. Addwirve
Behavfoars (January-Fetxuary
1007) 22 (1) pp . N1-91
They therefore suggest that measures
should be instituted in school to
ensure that those children who are
most likely to start smoking should
be identified and targeted for
smoking intervention and prevention
programmes . U
TWA to ban smoking
Trans World Airlines has announced
that it will ban smoking on all flights,
including international routes,
beginning 1 April .'IWA says the
move follows a successful trial of
nonsmoking flights between the US
and Britain, France and Germany .
The airline joins a number of other
carriers, including Delta Air l.ines
and USAir Group, that have
instituted system-wide smoke-free
services. U
Kieft SCeet JotartaiFtpnpe
(14-15 February 1887) p. 8
Reference : 031744
February 1997 01 DC re97. 7his pu6laetion Is cwmpard hom puWc aVFOTOPICS 17
sau.aos anu s7io~ not assilbe nvlemoced orc/WO
United Kingdom
Environmental Tot acoo Smoke
Artnilage, AK et ai
Environmental bbaoco smoke -'s
it neaiy a canonogen? Medcal
Sclsnoe Research (1997) 25
pp . 3•7
Reference :
UK scientists challenge evidence of ETS/cancer
In a study published in Medirnl Science ed to pmde0ermined levels of
Resmmh, four UK scientists challenge
the evidence that there is an association
between environmental tobaeco smoke
(ECS) exposure and cancer. They say
that certain epidemiological studies
reporting an effect are "seriously
flawethat methods for detecting the
effects of tobacco smoke in nonsmokers are unreliable, and that the
alleged levels of carcinooens in E15 are
too low to cause cancer in any ca8e.
They conclude, thernfore, that the
"claim that ETS causes lung cancer . . .
appears to be more a statement of
belief, rather than a conclusiort based
an strict scientific objectivity".
The scientists' review was written in
response to a mcent~raper Iaw and
Hackshaw in the Bntrsh '
Bulletin, which concluded that ETS
exposure increases the risk of lung
cancer, and to a statement by Richard
Peto in the New Scfent'st that'The proof
that passive smo" causes lung
cazuer is not epidemrologicaL It comes
from the nature of the carcinogens In
tobacco smoke."
The scientists begin by discussing the
limitations of the epidemuology of ETS.
They claim that the epidemi .l.gical
case against ETS is based primarily
upon uncontrolled observadonal
studies, yet the results are interpreted
as if they were obtained from
controlled experiments with
non-smokers randomly selected from
defined non-smoker populations and
They then discuss the limitations of
aretaawl ysts, daiming that the
individual E1'S studies on lung cancer
have $et>erally produced no
statisbcally &gnificant overall rewlt
Several studies have thendorebeen
combined in an cat
attem to form a
definite coztelustwi metatheanlysic
y achieve this
it is subject to po6entially serious flaws
whlch fine scientists discuss briefly.
Amiitage d go on to look at
problems with case-caattrol studiea that
are adopted to avoid some of the
problemsofm' t«p unrontrolled
eptdemiologk lka dacondude
that case-control method has
beenwidetyappliedinepidemfology, .
butnumemus incan4lstenaesbetween
different studies of the same
phenomena have kd to severe
misgivings about the 6echnique .
In their discussion on dosimetry, the . .
scientists consider the use of cofhtitte as
a biouwrker of Ef8 dose and its
limitations.lltey then discuss
metabolic carrsideratians relat ing to'the
use of cotutirte asbiomlarkerartd
environmental monittuittg data, and
cottelude that the use of a st
cotinine asssay as a measure
cetta9ttly not valid . They finishostheir
papa by discussing the scientific
evldec to support the existenoe of
thresholds for gettotoxk carci<togens
irrluding dose-respottse curves and
ttu carcinogenic prooess . 0
Dutch report questions conclusions of ETS report of
European scientists
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Recently, the European Working Environmental ProteetionAttency
Group on Environmental Tobacco (EPA) that environmental tobacco
Smoke and Lung Cancer published a smoke does cause 1 cancez
report on exposure to environmental Furlhermore, the wor ~ group fails
Van Barneveld, et al. Passiel
roken en bngkankerr een n'ieuw
rapport in parspectief. Afed
T'qsohr. Geneeskd(18 January
1997) pp .132•136 [Dubh]
Reference :
tobacco smoke and the risk of lung to present compe11~' ence that
cancer*. The report concludes that the results of theepidemtological
environmental tobacco smoke is not a studies in this field can be explained
primary lung carcinogen . by bias or confounding, or that the
association between environmental
According to Dutch scientists Van
tobacco smoke and lung cancer is
Bameveld et al ., however, a critical
Implausible. Therefore,
evaluation of the report indicates that
we see no reason to modify the
this conclusion is not justified.
conclusion of the EPA that'passive'
smoking causes lung cancer ." O
They state that "results of recent
epidemiolog'~c studies suppo rt the
earlier conclusion of the US
• Infotopics May 1996 p.17
INFOTOPICS 18 orUC 1997. n,rs pu6aaeaonls corplNd arom pqeac Febrt,ey 1997
. I
Bias in ETS studies can be two way, says UK
statistician Peter Lee
In a letter responding to an article by
George Davey Smith and Andrew N .
Phillips in the British Medical Journat
called Passive smoking and health .
Should we believe Philip Morris's
experts?", Lee, an independent
consultant in statistics and epidemiology in the UK, suggests that bias in
reporting and bias in studies on
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
"is not something that can occur in
only one direction".
Lee contends that it is not only
unreasonable to assail him personally
in the scientific media because of his
differing views on the science of ETS,
but it is also unreasonable for Davey
Smith and Phillips to ignore that
there is strong evidence of misclassification and scientific bias in many of
the studies that claim to demonstrate
an association between ETS and lung
Phillips wrongly criticize his work on
bias due to misclassified smoking
habits by ignoring the claim that
spousal smoking inaccurately
measures total exposure . They say
that "associations between diet and
lung cancer could be due to
confounding by smoking" . But
associations with diet are seen for
many cancers, regardless of their
relation to smoking, and studies of
lung cancer have shown stmng
associations in non-smokers, Lee
adds .
UMted Kingdom
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Lee, Pe1er N. Many dekns
about'passhre' smokinp are
inadequately ]usdfied . 8rfth
A1e" .bumel(1 Felxuary
1987) 314 p. 371
Reference :
Lee also claims that given their keen
awareness of residual confounding,
he finds it remarkable that the
authors consider the association of
cot death and maternal smoking to be
due to EfS when other studies have
reported that adjustment for
numerous risk factors massively
weakens the association . O
In Lee's view, Davey Smith and * Infotopics November 1996 p . 20
Effects of occasional exposure to environmental
tobacco smoke on lung function in children
In a paper published in the American
Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care
Medicine, researchers from the Lazio
Epidemiologic Unit and the National
Institute of Health [Rome, Italy] and
the University of Massachusetts
[USA] conclude that there is no
threshold dose of ETS below which
an effect will not occur .
Their conclusion is based on an
investigation into the effects of
occasional exposure to environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS) on lung function
in 317 healthy non-smoking children
and adolescents aged 12 to 15 years
living at home with nonsmoking
adults .
The urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio
(CCR) was taken as the biologic
indicator of exposure, and children
were classified according to CCR
The results suggested that lung
function, as measured by standard
tests, were lower in children with
higher CCR values.
The researchers report that the effects
remained significant when possible
confoun- ding by father's education
and urinary creatinine levels had
been taken into account, and when
children whose parents' smoking
status may have been misclassified
were excluded.
Corbo et atL caution that their findings
must be interpreted in the light of the
very high reported prevalence of
smoking in Italy. In the entire sample
of schoolchildren, 50% of fathers and
32% of mothers were claimed to
smoke. Furthermore, at the time of
the study, smoking was permitted in
most public buildings . They claim
that because background exposure of
children to ETS seems to be
associated withfunctionalchangesln
the lung, further studies are needed
to determine whether the association
is causal. U
February 1997 OTOC 1997. TMs puNCaEfonls oarrpYad eorn poplo
sources and saou/d not aseUbe rohainrod or c4lad
Envirorunental Tobacco
Corbo, Gaseppe M. et af. Lug
function in ehildren and
adolesoeMS wilh oaasbnal
e>Qoeure 1o enviionmenfal
tobeoco snake . Mierican
JoumaIa ftesp6atory and
(September 1886)154 (3)
pp. B *700
Reference :
Petry, Mtoiie . Tabagisme passiN.
38.000 F d'indemnitds. !'Es1
Repuf loa'rr (28 January 1997)
1 p. [French)
French employee awarded damages for unfair
dismissal for complaining about smoking
A female worker from Fl€ville,
France, has reportedly been awarded
Ffr 38,000 (USS6,725) in damages by a
tribunal in Nancy after being unfairly
dismissed for complaining about
smoking in the workplace . As the
only non-smoker at an automobile
business, the administrative worker
was dismissed in June 1995 after
complaining she could not
concentrate on her work because of
tobacco smoke, in what was
reportedly a poorly-ventilated area . 0
Cambridge economist calls for more evidence on
effectiveness of tobacco advertising bans
European Union
Advertising Bans
Bate, Roger. The fularboro Man
cant make you smoke . The Watl
(15 January 1997) p. 6
Writing in The Wall Street Journal
Europe and in the context of
Belgium's announcement that
tobacco advertising would be
banned, Cambridge University
economist Roger Bate suggests that
proponents of such bans "should
produce more than speculative
evidence that fewer people would
smoke as result of these measures" .
He points out that in Norway and
Finland, where tobacco advertising
has been prohibited for many years,
total smoking has either not changed
or has increased . Whereas in the UK,
Belgium and the Netherlands where
more advertising has been allowed,
there has been some reduction in
smoking .
Bate discusses the book Adoertiaing
and Markets, published by NTC in the
UK`, which addresses why bans may
be ineffectual or even counterproductive . He suggests that a ban
would not reduce total demand, but
would reduce the likelihood of
consumers switching brands. He
discusses the impact of advertisements such as the Joe Camel cartoon
caricature on supposedly influencing
children to smoke and suggests a
number of other reasons why young
people begin to smoke, such as peer
The author cites an EU survey of
9,312 young people conducted in
1991 which suggested that peer
pressure accounted for over 60% of
the reasons given for smoking, while
advertising accounted at most for
1 .5% . He suggests that young people
are more attracted to smoking if It is
considered taboo and that they are
more influenced by real life images,
such as their favourite sports stars
smoking, than by advertisements .
Bate also cites a KPMG study as
claiming that a tobacco advertising
ban in Belgium will cost the
advertising network some US$70
million and 250 jobs . A ban could also
lead to sports sponsorship losses
estimated by KPMG to be in tens of
millions of dollars .
Bate concludes by suggesting that
"the only way to be sure that the
politicians in EU countries are serious
about the health effects of tobacco
would be when they remove the $1 .2
billion EU subsidy to tobacco
production, and not if they bring in
an advertising ban. For the moment
tobacco advap~glegislation may
be politically t, but it does
not reduce smo "O
• See lrrfotopica January 1997 p . 18
INFOTOPlCS 20 07DC 1997 . TWS pqbNCadon b ompA'sd trom putMle feWrWy 1Y87
souroes and aAadd not kaell be rskranciM or aYed
Germans continue to oppose ban on tobacco
Germany's State Secretary for Health,
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, has said that
her country's government is against a
total ban on tobacco advertising .
Bergmann-Pohl was responding to a
question in parliament about a ban
on tobacco advertising at a Formula
One motor racing event in Germany .
The state secretary was reported as
saying that a tobacco advertising ban
at the Nurburgnng race would make
it impossible to hold the race there
andpose serious economic problems
for tfie Eifel region . She also said that
if the tobacco ads were banned, the
race would be moved to another
location where ads were not banned
and still be broadcast back to
Germany via television. o
European ~
Adrerbefnp Bans
Kein Werbeverbot fitr Tabak am
RinO. (ienerafAnzelpsr
(30 January 1997) p . 26
Reteranoe :
United Kingdom : Family life and smoking in
University of Aberdeen researchers
Anthony Glendinning et al . claim that
early experiences of family life would
appear to be related to adolescent
health and to adolescent health
behaviours independently of the
socio-economic circumstances of the
family. More specifically, they allege
that parents'smokin~,
neighbourhood depnvation,family
structure and family "bonding" had a
significant effect on the likelihood of
a youn person smo ' regularly,
although family social c did not.
In addition, they say their findings
indicate that an unsupportive home
environment with fewer controls (i.e .
where parents were seen as neglectful) was related to an increase in
smoking prevalence. O
UnJtear Kin do.m
alendenning,Anlhony et at.
FamNy Wfe uwl smoldng in
adolesoenee, Socief Scknos
andAfeditahs (1997) 44(1)
pp. 9&101
BAT chief executive claimed to state that the company
would consider settling damages claims by smokers
The chief executive of BAT Industries
plc, Martin Broughton, has stated that
the company would consider settling
damar claims brought by people
suffering from sotalled "smokingrelated illnesses" if doing so would
end the growth of legal claims against
the industry, the International Herald
Tnbune claims . "Clearly there would
have to be some kind of payment to
somebody" if the industry can secure
a settlement, Mr . Broughton said on
the BBC's The Money Programme .
They want a big payoff, and we
want a peaceful life," he added.
Three months ago Mr . Broughton
said that a government-endorsed
settlement of US liability claims
would be a "common sense"
In late October 1996, Mr Broughton
reportedly stated that he doubted an
agreement could be reached because
it would not be in the interests of
plaintiffs or their lawyers .
Mr. Broughton is not the first tobacco
executive to raise the possibility of a
settlement . Steven Goldstone, chief
executive of RJR Nabisco Holdings
Corp., said in March 1996 that the
industry would consider a settlement
"if the terms were right" . He said the
industry would consider paym' ~for
costs alle~edly associated wfth smoking mciuding charges such as
state Medicare bills, in ex e for
US government immunity for ' ility
claims related to smoking.
One analyst claims to be sceptical that
a settlement could be arranged as so
many different interest groups would
have to be satisfied, namely : the
plaintiffs; their lawyers; the industry;
and Congress as well. However a
settlement would be "a desirable
outcome" for shareholders in tobacco
companies, it is claimed. O
British Tobeoco CEO to
eonsider settlemeet ior fsdlity
daans . fnlsrns6onaf HsraM
Ttl'xas (11 Febugry 1997) p. 2
Reference : 031714
Editor's note : Despite the ht'gh profile
of the interview, Mr. Broughton's
comments did not announce any
change of BAT company policy . He
was quoted last October as saying
that the company would consider any
sensible settlement that was on offer,
"it if were in the shareholders'
interests, but so far none is on offer" .
Feoruary 1997 OTDC 1997. 7Ms pubSceson Is oonpFed hom pebAo
souraes an0 000 not 60 be retererwed ordi.d
UNted Kingdom
80% of Spanish smokers said to be aware of claims
about tobacco and health
Risk Awareness
Fumadaes conaendados . El
PaEs (13 January 1997) p. 24
Reference :
According to a recent report prepared
by the Spanish Ministry of Health
and Consumption, eight in every 10
smokers are aware of the claimed
health hazards of smoking, while
around 62% of smokers said that the
"dangers" of smoking are too
exaggerated . Nearly 34% of smokers .
reported fhat they began smoking
before the age of 14 . Approximately
55% of smokers further claimed they
have tried to quit at least once . O
Half of young Europeans said to smoke more than 20
cigarettes a day
A European poll reports that half of
the 1,600 youths aged 16-24 years
surveyed said they smoked more
than 20 cigarettes a day. The poll,
conducted by the MTV pop music TV
channel, also reported that 44% of
young people surveyed in France,
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK
had used drugs such as cannabis,
ecstasy or "speed".
Smoldng Trends
Majendie, Paul. Young
Europeans donY want EU to
interfere - poll . Reuters
(6 Febniary 1997]
Smoking has reportedly doubled
among young French in 20 years
In France, despite continued rises in
Campag e . Le Ligue contre le the cost of cigarettes, warnings on
cancer pirate une mention I6gale . cigarette packs, and the introduction
C.B. Mews (10 February 1997) of the anti-smoking Evin Law in 1991,
1 p . (French] 60"/" of French people between 18 and
20 years of age smoke cigarettes,
which is about double the rate in
1977. In response, the French
Anti-Cancer League planned from 10
February to 1S February to conduct a
poster campaign in all cities
throughout France with more than
100,000 inhabitants.
The campaign warns of the claimed
dangers of smoking and turns around
one of France's health warnings to
say: "Stopping smoking seriously
harms cancer ." The poster shows a
red match ("healthy lung' ) beside a
black burnt match ("diseased lun
On 14 February, the busiest travel day
of the year, the cam paign was carried
out in 31 French railway stations,
with 300,000 pencils in the form of
matches distributed free with an
information brochure .
On 31 May, World No Tobacco Day,
100 departmental committees of the
League will sponsor activity at local
level . O
Danish insurance group offers "light" smokers same '
premiums as non-smokers
A Danish insurance company, PFA have not previously been heavy
Pension, reportedly has decided that smokers . .
people who smoke about five
Both ICraeftens Bekaempelse [the Anti
cigarettes a day will get the same
Cancer Association] and Dansk
conditions for their life insurance as
Kraeftforskningsfond [Danish Cancer
non-smokers .
Insurance Premiums
Selskab giver reg6i rabat 61
rygere. Berigslce Tiderde
(13 January 1997) p. 4
(DerisNEnglish translation]
Reference :
Research Foundation] have
The company had earlier decided to welcomed PFA's initiative, although
charge higher premiums to smokers . a Cancer Association official has
However, the company said that stated that he does not know any
there is no proof that "light" smokers method that can detect whether a'
run more "health risks" than person has smoked any further back
non-smokers and customers who than two months . PFA has stated that
only smoke a little will be charged the it will verify customers' smoking
same rates as non-smokers, if they status by a urine test, if the sum
insured is more than DKr2 million
(US$312A00) . o
1997. 7Nis pdiNeeaOn Is eonplbd GOm prblk faWyay 1s87
awrces anQ shaid not Awll be mlarenoed or d/ed
New cigarette filter announced in Greece
Three Greek university professors,
Professor loannia Stavridis, Professor
George Delikonstantinos and
Professor Stephanos Geroulanos,
have announced a new cigarette filter
that they claim will make smoking
"less harmful".
The discovery was announced at a
press conference organized by the
Greek Cooperative Tobacco Industry
SA - SEKAP, the first cigarette
producer in the world to introduce
the'bio-fIlter' in its products .
The inventors of the filter say the
"bio-filter" resembles conventional
cigarette filters in appearance, but its
innovative design screens out what
they claim are "short-lived
carcinogens'thatthey say ordinary
filters do not. They also claim their
filter reduces allegedly harmful
substances by 70% . The basic
component of the "bio-filtet' is
haemoglobin (the body's
The professors claim the biological
filter is especially important in
protecting 'passive smokere . Tests
with volunteers suggest that smoke
exhaled from a cigarette with a
biological filter is 40 times "less toxic"
with respect to quantity of oxygen,
free radicals and noxious nitrogen
oxides . O
Afhens NeN5Ap6ncy
(22 Janaay t1t98) 2 pp.
Reference : 031693
French railway fined for failing to enforce tobacco
A civil court has ruled that the state legislation at Lyon station and that it
owned railway company, SNCF, has must pay Fr20,000 (USS3,3f10) to two
failed to enforce tobacco-control anti-tobacco groups . O
PoIb Snaldng
French txackdorm on amoldnp
in puWia'Bd&6 Abdicel,bumel
(1 Februery 1997) 816 p. 324
Referera :
February 1997 OTOC 1897. 7Ne puDMCBNp17f oompikd hom piaWo
aowces and slwuM not kaeflbe rehnnoee a dPSd
Non-EU Europe
Hungary du to permit tobacco,
alcahd, drug ads. Relders
(16,lanuary 1997) 1 p .
Reference :
Hungarian cabinet to consider leslation on
advertising in non-electronic me fa
The Hungarian cabinet will
reportedly considerpropo5ed
legislation that would allow dnig,
alcohol and tobacco ads in the
non-electronic media, government
spokesman Elemer Kiss said .
Prescription drugs could only be
promoted through literature directed
at doctors, while non-prescription
drugs could be adverhsed to the
general public, the statement added .
The bill would not apply to the
broadcast media, which is regulated
by the 1995 Media Law, Kiss added .
would be applied to outdoor and
printed press ads that allegedly
promote alcohol and tobacco use.
The media law bans tobacco, but not
alcohol advertising . The proposed
law would bar certain forms of
'hidden' advertising as well as ads
that violate public morals, Kiss said .
Health activist grou ps iast year told
Reuters they were lobbying against all
fonns of alFohol and tobacco
advertisu' tg but were facing an uphill
battle as aTCohol and tobacco taxes
A statement distributed at the news
conference also listed guns,
ammunition and explosives as goods
that could not be advertised .
The statement said that strict limits
generated 59billion forint state
revenues in 1995. Kiss said the
proposal would soon be submitted to
ParGament . 0
Swissair to ban smoking on transatlantic routes
Swissair will ban smokin g on its United States already bans smoking
transatlantic routes from 30 March on all domestic flights .
Swissair to ban smolting on
transatlantic 6ights . Reuters
(8 Fetruary 1997) 1 p.
of complaints
from a A recent airline indus surve
growing number
of non-smoker
clients, a company spokesman said . ropa~s ~~t two of b yiness
seng rs favoured a total smoking
Jean-Claude Donzel told the Swiss ab n on all intemational routes and
news agency ATS at the weekend that another 11% wanted it banned on
the decision was also in line with a most flights . The Europeans are the
smoking ban to be imposed on most " ro-smokin g" among the
Reference : 031745 transatlantic routes by Swissair's world s business travellers, with
three partners - Delta Air Lines, nearly 25% o~smg any further
Austrian Airlines and Sabena . The curbs, accordutg to the survey of .
1,000 business Fassen$ers conducted
by the International Atr Transport
Association. 0
Polish marketers establish country's first
self-regulat>ton council
Madden, Nomtandy. Polands
marketers attempt to be Sieir own
watd dog . Adwrtisk9 Age
(February 1997) p.18
Poland's marketing community has
established the country's first
self-regulation counc'J, the Polish
Advertising Committee Initiative
(PACI). The organizers of PACi say
their industry-wide effort calls for
members - including marketets,
agencies and the media - to adhere to
a code of ethics that guarantees
honestY, truth and morality in
advertising . But PACi also reportedly
admit that the move is partly an effort
to counter increasing government
interest in Polish advertising
The Initiative should relieve some of
the government pressure for
legislation on advertising because
there would be a self-regulating body
that has the legal status to lobby for
the rights of advertisers, according to
a press article . PACI maintains that it
is important to demonstrate to the
government that the industry Is going
to be responsible toward the
community it works in and to have a
single voice to advise the government
on things like standards in
advertising. 0
INFOTOPICS 24 07DC 1997 . This puaacatlon /g eonpibd bqn pubqo FlMNry 1&67
soufCBS ard ahOWd IIOf 60 Ge reM/alaed or dPad
Australian Federal Court rules that research council
may take no further action on ETS report
An Australian Federal Court has
handed down formal orders
restraining the National Health and
Medical Research Council (NHIvERC)
from taking further action on the
proposed regulatory recommendations and guidelines laid down in a
controversial draft report, The health
effects oJpassive smoking•.
The NHMRC was also ordered to pay
the legal costs of the two companies
that brought the lawsuit against the
council, Rothmans of Pall Mall
(Australia) Ltd . and Philip Morris
(Australia) Limited, as well as of the
Tobacco Institute of Australia (ITA) .
The tobacco companies called for the
NHMRC to disband the working
party that prepared the report, and
investigate how it went so far beyond
the legal requirements governing the
drafting of the report .
In December, Federal Court Justice
Paul Finn upheld tobacco industry
complaints, ruling the NHMRC failed
to give genuine consideration to
industry submissions, to provide
procedural fairness to industry
members or to consider relevant
scientific evidence and submissions•' .
He said the council ignored studies
suggesting that workplace exposure
to 'passive' smoking was associated
with no overall increased risk of lung
Adrian Lucchese, general manager of
the Tobacco Institute of Australia,
said that the 'passive' smoking
taskforce in New South Wales and
Western Australia should carefully
consider the implications of the
judgment and orders .
.NHIvIRC chairman Professor Richard
Smallwood said that Justice Finn had
rejected claims by the tobacco lobby
for the report to be discarded and its
science and reasoning still stood . But
he conceded that the NHMRC was
reviewing its consultation
The Australian Medical Association
(AMA) national president, Keith
Woollard, claimed the court's
decision reinforced the original view
there was no problem with the
scientific merit of the NHMRC's
findings . He claimed the ruling was a
legal decision not a medical decision,
and had been critical of NHMRC
procedures based on the interpretation of the legislation under which
it operated.
Smokescreen . 'Passive Srnoking' and
Public Policy
Smokescreen. 'Passive Smoking' and
Public Policy ts a revised version of a
paper submitted to the NHMRC by
Canadian academic John Luik and
written at the request of the Tobacco
Institute of Australia . Luik's pa is
a response to The health ef fects o
passive smoking and is divided into
two sections. In the first, Lulk
explains his claim that the NHIvERC
report is an instance of either bad
science or corrupt science. In the
second section he examines the
consequences of the use of such
instances of bad or corrupt science on
the public policy process.
Etrvironmental Tobaoco Smoke
Tobaao companies dawn
v"over NHMRC. MP
(24 Janoary 1897) 2 pp .
Reference :
Luk John. Smotraeaeen.
Y'asshe Smokiy' and Pubtic
Poficy. kretilute oi Public Altairs.
(Juy 1aes) X pp.
Reference :
He concludes the following. "in the
final analysis it is diff3cult indeed to
find anything substantial in the
[NEMRRCJ Report which would tend to
mitigate the conclusion that It is an
instance of flawed science and flawed
public policy produced by authors who
fail to appreciate the difference
between the objectivity of scientific
analysis and advice, and the xhetoric
and partisanship of advocacy.
Consequently its only usefulness in the
public policy process is as an example
of how not to produce legitimate,
democratic public policy ." 0
• Infotopics December 1995 p . 19
'• Injotopics January 1997 p . 21
1997. nuspubNafoniscornpNeatrmnpu6lc avFOroPtCB ss
sowoes and ahouW not tfaepde mlerenced or pbd
Cigarette sales licensing to be'tal'-based under new
South Australian bill
Tar Levels
Cigarette sales icensing to be
ter-based under new bit. AAP
(4 February 1g97)1 p .
Reference :
The 'tar' content of cigarettes will be
the basis of a new three-tiered system
of tobacco licensing in South
Australia under draft legislation to be
introduced into Parliament. The
Tobacco Products Regulation B:Tl would
mean tighter controls on the
advertising and promotion of tobacco
with the aim of clamping down on
the sale of cigarettes to minors.
Under the existing Tobacco Products
Licensing Act, the licence fee for
tobacco merchants was based on
100% of the value of the product sold
irrespective of its'tar' content . Under
the proposed new ttvee-tiered
licensing structure, the fee rate would
be 100% for'tar' content of less than 5
mg, increasing to 102% for'taf
content of 5 mg to under 10 mg and
to 105% for that of 10 mg and above .
According to South Australia's
treasurer, with no fee increase
proposed for low'tar' content
products, the proposed licensing
structure should ertcourage
consumers to switch to Iower'tar'
brands. Moreover, a person selling
tobacco wouid have to hotd a tobacco
merchant's licence which, under
current arrangements, is voluntary .
The bill also specifies certain bases
upon which a licence could be
suspended or cancelled . O
Queensland to raise age for selling tobacco products to
young people
Sales to Minors Legislation
Doctors say tough anfrsmoking
bill is long overdue. AAP
(11 Febnrary 1997) 1 p .
Reference :
Queensland's health minister, Mike
Horan, has announced plans to
introduce legislation by July 1997 that
would make it illegal to sell or supply
tobacco products to children aged
under 18 . The Tobacco Products
(Prevention of Supply to Children)
Bill will also introduce penalties of
between AUSS1,000 and AUS$5,000
(US$775 and US$3,876) for retailers
who sell tobacco to children.
In a statement, Mr. Horan ciaimed
that so-called "smoking-related
illness" and treabnents cost Queensland's public health system about
AUS$80 million (USS62 million) a
'Social Costs'
Doran, Christopher M . etaL A
oost-benefrt analysis of Ihe
aV1;n1gB5f110kRr.8govem flle(It
perepectne.Aus6aC andNew
lealarid Journat ol Pu6fc HeaUn
(1996) 20 (6) pp. 607-611
Reference :
Sweet, Melissa. Tax collectors
hooked on smdkhg. Sydley
Afan'ng Herald (17 January
1997) 1 p.
year. Medical Associations welcomed
the decision to raise the legal smoking
age from 16 to 18 and claimed the
legislation was long overdue .
The Australian Medical Association
Queensland (AMAQ) said that a
recent report by the Australian
Council on Smoking and Health
(ACOSH) rated the Queensland
Government as having the worst
record of any state or territory
government on smoking and health .
The new legislation will replace the
1905 Act covering the sale of cigarettes
to chlldren U
"Benefits" and "costs" of smoking from the Australian
government's perspective
Christopher Doran et a1 ., from the to smoking and comparing it with
New South Wales (NSW) Cancer tobacco taxes paid by smokers .
Council Education Research Program
The study estimated that 28.4% of the
and the University of Newcastle,
Australian population over 18
compared the "benefits" and "costs" of
smokes . The costs allegedly
cigarette smoking from the
associated with smoking were
government's perspective during a
categorized into private and external
one-year period . This was undertaken
costs. Private costs are those incurred
by estimating, among other things,
directly by the smoker, or incurred by
the publicly-financed health care
others but reflected in the price paid
expenditure supposedly attributable
by the smoker. r
1997. Th18 puoacatloo b cwnprad 6pm pu6AC FetraUery 1997
sowoes ardsloutl nor rtreBbe rsNreived oraVso
The external costs of smoking are
those borne by people other than the
smoker and include claimed costs of
EfS and of public health care .
The following so-called "costs" were
included in the study :
a the costs of medical treatment in
temu of hospital care, medical care,
pharmaceutical care, allied
professional care and nursing home
care ;
. eamings loss in terms of
absenteeism because of illness ;
f ovemment of just under AUS$417
or every smoker aged 18 and over in
1989-90, according to Doran tt af .
The researchers claim that if the
government were serious about
addressing tte smoking as a
primary healobjective, its efforts
would portray this . They also claim
that the results of their analys1s
suggest that the objective of raising
revenue from smoking is more of a
priority than reducing smoking rates .
NSW Minister for Health attacked
on tobacco-control record
∎ the cost of premature death is
included only in part as the
government is claimed to lose only
what the smoker would have
contributed (taxable income) ;
* the value of foregone resources is
included in terms of revenue spent
by the government in the form of
tobacco assistance and tobaccocontrol campaigns.
The authors estimated that in 1989-90
an average smoker "cost" the
government AUS$203 .57 (US$157.81),
while "benefits" received totalled an
average of AUS$620 .56 (US$481 .05) in
the same year. Taking benefits from
costs resulted in a net benefit to the
The publication of the Doran report
coincided with an attack by
anti-smoking campaigners on the
tobacco-control record of the NSW
Minister for Health, Dr . Refshauge,
and his department. The
Nout-Smokers' Movement claimed
that Dr . Refshauge and the NSW
Department of Health were not
committed to tobacco control, with
documents obtained under Freedom
of Information legislation suggestmtitge
that the mirtister had o eredrd
Quit cam aign budget for last year be
halved to AUS5500,OOO USS387 .600) .
Dr . Refshauge's spokesman claimed
that funding had been "redire .cted"
from tobacco-control advertising to
"direct action programmes". O
75% of top Australian firms reported to have
introduced workplace smoking restrictions
A survey published in the Drug and
Alcohol Review reports that, of rhe top
600 firms in Australia, more than
three-quarters have introduced
workp ce restrictions on smoking and
alcohol consumption in a bid to
"protect" their employees' health, as
well as to protect their companies from
expensive lawsuits .
Professor Robyn Richmond et al .
conclude that it is likely that the
number of companies adopting such
policies will increase having "accepted
the harmful effects of smoking in the
workplace". They reported that 77% of
the companies surveyed had some sort
of smoking policy-46"/" totally banned
smoking at work and 31% had
designated areas where employees
were allowed to smoke . The remaining
23% of companies had no policy on
Most companies said they had
introduced restrictions on smo1 d'rig
out of concerns for the "health and
comforN of workers, but some of the
firms surveyed cited1ega1 reasons for
havm' gmtroduced smoking restrictions. The study also suggested that
government organizations and large
businesses were more likely to ban
smoking at work than non-govemment and small organizations with
fewer tkwt 100 employees.
The findings of the study, which began
in 1991, also suggest an increase in the
number of businesses that ban
smoking . Earlier research conducted by
the National Heart Foundation
reported that 56% of NSW and 71% of
South Australian compa[ues had
smoking restrictions. A 1993 stud
suggested that about one-third ofy
Victorian businesses with partial bans
on tobacco use were moving towards
smoke-free workplaees . r
1997 . TNepobYaBon ls cyapied horn puWc
souroea and sraWU not 1treMbe iderenced or died
Wo#leae SmokinD
Hidanen, Be6nda. Smolanp in
the workplace acoepted as
dying habit . WesbndAtraEaBan
(18Januery 1987)1 p.
Reference : 031623
WakefieW, Melanie et al Trends
in prevalence and eorsptenos
of woAcplece analdnp bans
among kidoa wwkeie in South
Austrafia. Tobacav (kn6of
(Autumn 1988) 5 (3) pp. 204-208
Acceptance of workplace smoking
bans in South Australia
The rate of acceptance of workplace
smoking bans was the subject of
another survey undertaken by
researchers from the South Australian
Health Commission, South Australian
Smoking and Health Project and the
Department of Human Movement
Sdence, at Ikakin University .'Ihe
survey sought to compare the reported
prevalence and acceptance of bans on
smoking in a sample of South
Australian workplaces.
The sample consisted of adults who
indicated they were employed mairJy
indoors for the years 1989 (875
respondents),1991(1/472),1992 (1,288)
and 1994 (1,273) . The sample measured
percentage reporting total bans on
smoking at work, compliance with
bans all or nearly all the time; and
preference for total bans at work .
The results of the study suggest that
the ~ercentage of indoor workers
sublecbed to a total ban on smoking at
work inaeased from 32% in 1989 to
62%in 1994 and preference for a total
ban increased during the same period
from 26% to 52%. Reported compliance with restrictions and bans was
said to be very bigh . In 199q,16% of
workers had no nstrictions on
~~t w but only~ preferred this
7he researchers conclude that there
have been ' t gains in
"proEecting" ~~workers from
exposure to environmental tobacco
smoke at work . They claim ttwt furthei
efforts to encourage and support the
continued introduction of total bans
will need to facus eslly upon '
smaller workplacesm workplaces
that have not yet Introduced
restrictions on smo)dng'heed to be
aware that they areln a diminishing
Thereseardurs claim that inthe event
tlutsuchemp1oyecs weretoface
litiga8on on ETS tssues, this could be
part of a case to demonstrate
o~t~ aw~are thaL in the vast
malodty of cases, a totalban ts claimed
to be the most effective way to protect
the health of their staff. 0
Claimed health benefits of quitting smoking for older
Australia Researchers from the South
Australian Health Commission,
Adelaide, the South Australian
Smoking and Health Project,
Adelaide and the Department of
Wakefield, Melanie etaL Smoking
Human Movement Science, at Deakin
t ehaviours and beliefs of older
University, Melbourne, compared
Australians . Ausfralan and New
smoking behaviour and beliefs about
Zealand Jaurnal of Pu6fo Heekh
smo ' cessation among older
(1996) 20 (6) pp. 6031i06
people (aged 60 years and over) with
their younger counterparts using data
from a South Australian representative population sample .
Almost a third of smokers aged 60
The sample yielded 3,019
respondents of which 653 were aged
60 years or over. The reported
prevalence of smoking amongpeople
Reference: 031620 aged 60 and over was 13S%. Within
the subgroup of older people,
smoking prevalence was said to be
10% among those aged 70 years and
over. Among those aged 60 years and
over, smoking prevalence was
significantly lower am females
than among males (18 .1% , according
to the authors .
Fifty-two per cent believed there was
a "safe" kwel of consumption of
tobacco, com pared with 30% of
younger smokers .llu survey
involved more than 3,000 South
Australians of all ages, with 133% of
N6con, Sherriil . Okier smokere
ignorant ataut sirdarg dsks.
A4P(17January 199 1 p.
and older reportedly believed they
were immune to the health damage
alleged to be caused by smoking,
compared with 8% of smokers aged
younger than 60 . Sixty per cent of
older smokers were said to have a
low awareness of the alleged health
hazards to themselves, w hile 57% did
not know the health risks aUegedly
associated with EfS exposure and
53% believed they had not suffered
any ill-healtb caused by tobacco.
the ap ra'c'tpants aged over 60 being
smo7cers .
The research team called on govern- w
ments to tailor tobacco-control i,
campaigns to olderpeople, saying N
their findings revealed a market not A
yet fully tapped by education
programmes . 0
1997 . TWspuD/ictlbnls oomp8etl aornptblk FaWuey 1997
swrces and ahouM not aseMbe reMsnced ordYd
Hong Kong's Legislative Council urges total tobacco
advertising ban
The Legislative Council of Hong
Kong has reportedly passed a motion,
tabled by independent legislator and
medical profession representative
Leong Chehung, urging the
government to impose a total ban on
tobacco advertising .
An amendment encouraging the
government to designate more
non-smoking areas and to increase
resources for tobacco-control
education instead of banning all
tobacco adverts was defeated .
of six people every minute" . He
claimed that in Hong Kong, smoking
was responsible for 19% of deaths .
Particularly concerned with teenage
smokers, Leong suggested that the
government ban direct and 'indirect'
tobacco advertising, as lifestyle
adverti" is claimed to have a
particular impact on youngsters .
Those opposing the motion allege
that enhancing tobacco-control
H Bangs
lepco cads for hA ben on
srtqke ada 'pre fbng6ag
Stendeaf (16 Janusry 1997)
education would be more effective
than banning ads. The Newspaper
Leong quoted a 1995 warning by the
World Health Organization that
"smoking is emerging as the world's
largest single preventable cause of
illness and death, killing an average
Society of Hong Kong said a total ban
on tobacco advertising would be
unnecessary, ineffective and a serious
threat to freedom of speech . 0
Minors in Malaysia banned from smoking or
possessing tobacco products
In Malaysia, teenagers under 18 years
will be prohibited from smoking,
chewing and possessing tobacco
products in public and private places
nationwide, under an amendment to
the Tobacco Product Control Regulations
1993 .
Minors, including foreigners found
violating the regulations will have to
pay a fine of between Riv150 (US$20)
to RM1,000 (US$400) . The existing
regulation only prohibits teenagers
purchasing tobacco
Me the amendment will
enagers from
acco products.
No-smoking rule relaxed
In the area of public smoking
restrictions, the Malaysian Cabinet
has relaxed the non-smoking rule in
some zones as a result of public
protest . Open stadiums under the
sports complexes categories,
air-conditioned restaurants, non
air-conditioned private meeting halls
and public transport terminals are
allowed a maximum of 30% of the
total area as smoking zones . Pubs,
discos, nightclubs, karaoke lounges
and casinos will be exempted from
the non-smoking zone ruling .
The enforcement of the regulation
will be carried out by about 1,500
Health Ministry and local authorities
officials and it is hoped that this
number will be doubled. The
Education Ministry will determine
the f urisdiction of teachers in
enforcing the regulation for schools
and institutions of higher learning .
In a study conducted by the ministry
on smoking among 4,347 ouths aged
between 13 and 25,885 ofywhom
were from Dadah Rehabilitation
Centres, dose to 99% of the centre's
inmates were smokers compared
with 34% of youths not In such
centres. The study also suggested that
for youths not in rehabilitaton centres
who tried smo about 16% were
between 13 and 1 years, 23%
between 17 and 21 years and 26%
between 22 and 25 years . Heavy
smoking was reported in 20% of
teenagers between 22 and 25 years,
22% for those between 26 and 30
years and 5% for those between 13
and 16 years.
Juverib Smokiip
Lim Wendy. 6lnors banned
from smWditg, po6sessiup
tobaooo products. Bushsss
rmas (6 Februery 1897) 2 pp .
Reference: 031704
In a similar study conducted among
Form Five students in Penang, the
smoking rate was said to be f24%.
The prevalence rates among current
smokers are reportedly 25 .1% and
0.6% in boys and girls, respectively . A
study in Kelantan claimedto show
that among 224 students, the smoking
prevalence rate was 44.2%. Of this,
31 .8% had reportedly started
smoking in primary school . U
1997. mThis paDBason b cwrtoAed aan pubYc
sowces and aMufOnot aeNf De raterenced or dEW
INFOrot7cs 29
East Asia
University of Hong Kong turns down donation from
tobacco company
The University of Hong Kong has
apparendy decided to turn down the
Hong Kong
o eff r of a substantial donation from a
tobacco company which was alle&edly
made on the condition that it be given
Mayw, Susan Hong Kong publicrecoq~ution . The move comes in
lM' h ms down tobaao the wake of the decision by other
maney~h Medlcal Joumal universities, inclu ' Cambridge [UKJ
(18 January 1997) 314 p .169 and Shanghai [China~to accept tobacco
sponsorship .
Reference : 031615
Professor Judith 1Nackay, director of
the Asian Consultaluy on Tobacco
Control, praised the move, while
Nicholas Day, a Cambridge Urdvelsiiy
professor who opposed acceptance of
the sponsorstup, c7auned that Hong
Kong Univelsity's deasion may have
been related to a recent scandal tn the,
city involving a tobacco company
loyee who has been accnssed of .
and corruption for allegedly
to influence government
tion on tobacco and advertising
S'1r R~
rchazd Doll, profeasor of
epidemiology at the University of
dxtord, claimed thatby sponsoring
academic posts and researdy tobacco
companies are tryag to reach students
and that thev wouldrotbother~doing
this If they E,d not believe f asedt
sales. O
Harsh penalties for violating tobacco legislation in
South Korea
South Korea Advertising cigarettes outside cigarette
AdvertisingNending Machines outlets in South Korea now carries a
maximum prison term of one year and
ayena1ty of up to five million won
(t)S$6,000). The rule took effect on 1
Cigarette ads on exteria of stores
January 1997 .
banned . Korea Tmes (5 January
1997) 1 p.
As from I July 1997, people who install
agarette vending machines in locales
other than ihose allowed by law will
face a maximum tine of 50QoDD wear
(US$600). Locations for vending
machines will be restricted to
enterfainment spots and other places to
which people aged 19 years or older
may heve legal access, for example,
Inside retail stores or in the smoking
areas of public places .
Cigarette ads on si8nboards, posbers
and stickers on the exterior of stores
have been strictly controlled since the
beginning of 1997 as thegrace period
for the erwchnent of the PubHc ieAtis
Promotion Lsw expired on 31
December 1996 .
Also outlawed are indoor ads claimed
tobe dispiayed for purposesof befng
seen frqmoutside ; cigarette ads that do
not include lWth waminga ; ads that
use women or mino¢s as model .s; and
ads that are presented "in illustrated or
written form" . 0
Pressure for details of'tar' and nicotine levels in
cigarettes in Malaysia
Cons6luents Disclosure
PunlshoUnen, G . Cigarettes may
be required to have bwer'tar and
nicotine . The Sun (16 December
1996) 1 p.
Reference :
Malaysia's health minister, Datuk Chua Malaysuut Tobacco Manufacturers
Jul Meng . has proposed that cigarette and local tobacco companies that
manufacturers 'u~form smokers of abide by the law in temu of the
levels of'tae and nicotine In their pemrisslble levels of 'taf and
cigarettes. He pointed out that the nicotine .
ceiling for constituent levels is much
Earlier, Chua had said that his ministry
lower in Britain and other European
was looMn~ into the Control
countries than in Malaysia, where it is
of Tobaccoltegulm to allow
20mg for'tar' and 1 .5mg for nicotine.
private seetor empIoyees to enforce
He also said that the smuggling of rursmoking zones Up to,October 1996,
foreign cigarettes such aslfie some 3,b18 fuus were issued, 212
Indonesian kretek, which is claimed to offenders charged in court and
have a high chemical content, is of RM1o8,320 (USy13,328) in fines
concern to the Confederation of collected . O
INFOTOPICS 30 OTDC 1997. Thia pubpicafk+n Is aonpAed hom pudfe FebroNy 1887
sommes and ahuuM nor asd/be i .Arrenc+eaordled
South African Parliament unlikely to consider draft
tobacco legislation this year
Draft legislation that prohibits a a prohibition on the sale of
tobacco advertising and the use of cigarettes to people younger than
trade names in sponsorship will 18 ;
probably not be considered by the
• a total ban on cigarettes with a'tar'
South African Parliament this year.
content of more than 15 mg
Although the Department of Health
initially, later dropping to 12 mg;
has already compiled a draft bill,
discussions are still going onwith
• smokefree public transport and
stakeholders, according to Sello
smoking rooms at workplaces ;
Ramasala of the health authority. "A
final bill has not yet been drawn up. I
∎ a prohtbition on the use of trade
doubt whether it will be submitted in
names to promote educational,
Parliament this year . If so, it would
sporting or cultural organizations,
only be at the last session in October",
activities or events.
Ramasala stated .
South Africa
AdvertisFg Leyieletion
Kantoor, Eb. Nuwe wet oor
tabak etaan oor . Die Burper
(29Janudry 1897) 1 p.
[Afrikaans/Enplish transla6on]
Reference : 031679
Tobacco companies would, however,
The proposals include : still be able to sponsor such events . O
South African Airways bans smoking on flights to US
and Australia
South African Airway (SAA) has
announced a smoking ban on all its
flights to the US and Australia . The
airline recently banned smoking on
some flights to Britain and on Boeing
737 flights to all destinations in
SAA says that the demand for
non-smoldng seats on the US and
Australian routes has increased
dramatically and is in line with
international trends . However, for
those travelling to the Far Eact,
Europe and other destinations,
smoking seats will still be available,
although in fewer numbers . O
South Africa
gAA exExbs smdap ban.
Sunday 7tmes(28 January
1997) p. 2
Relerenoe : 031695
Smoking among pupils in Burkina Faso said to be
determined by fnends and advertising
In a study on smoking among
secondary school pupils based on
data from 12 of Burkina Faso's 30
Provinces, Sondo et al., of the
Department of Public Health, report
that the prevalence of smoking was
13.6%, average consumption was five
Burklna Faso
Youth Snwldnp
cigarettes per day and that the
average age for stating smoking was
13 .4 years.
The authors claim that the determinants of smoking were either the
influence of friends and/or advertising. U
RespYabW (OAOber 1096)
13(5) pp. 4g}497 [Frenchj
Reference :
1997. 71Ys pubrcaaai Is oorrtppaW bom puA6c AJAOTOP4CS 31
sou.ces and saoulerat aseif be retereneed ordfed
The tobacco industry and advertising in the European Union
European Union
7he robaaco ndusdyand
adoerts'ng 'rr the European
Union. KPMG (November 1996)
54 pp,
7he tobacco industry and advertising in
the European Union is a paper
commissioned from consultants
KPMG to assist the tobacco industry
in replying to the European
Commission's Green Paper on
Commercial Communications in the
Internal Market.
The KPMG paper concludes that
advertising bans on tobaccoproducts
do not reduce the consumption of
tobacco products and that advertising
bans have significant negative
impacts on economies where they
exist in terms of lost employment,
income and tax revenue .
The first part of the paper provides
quantitative and qualitetive
arguments about the claimed
relationship between advertising
bans and consumption. The second
part considers the impact of tobacco
advertising bans through a series of
case studies .
The first four case studies present
evidence from Greece, the
Netherlands Spain, and the UK,
where studies have been conducted
on the economic importance of the
tobacco industry and related
adv The next case study
considers the impact of the Evin Law
in France, which banned tobacco
advertising in 1991 . The final casee .
study shows the importance of
tobacco advertising for cultural
events, and draws evidence from the
EU in general and from theUK in
particular. l]
The budget doesn't add up: tax campaign in the UK
United Kingdom The UK government's commitment to
Taxation re ar increases in duty on ciganattes
Adveitisement : The Budget
doesnY add up. 7otaaoo Afiance
SpeoFatorMagazine (25 January
1997)1 p.
le3 the Tobacco AlBance to produce
an advertisement showing that the
tobacco and alcohol trades are both
big earners for the UK government .
But because of high tax differentials
between the UK and Europe, both are
growth markets for smugglers.
The advertisement consists of two
Reference: IA4032 blackboazds illustrating the amount
of duty per year on tobacco and
alcohol, the losses to smuggling and
the resulting balance . The
mathematics illustrate that alcohol
TaxaGodEconomic Impact
While the problem for tobacco and
alcohol is the same, the solutions are
different - a 15p per pack tax Increase
on tobacco and a 26p per bottle tax
cut on alcohol.
The Tobacco Alliance claims that
tobacco smuyutlers don't~' ut cheat tax
payas,~~ueaten the tivel~ood of
honest retailers, and suggests a tax cut
Advertising campaign aims to raise smokers'
awareness of their contribution to society
1Cempa~ ; CDIT(January
Reference : IA7049
La tdlera def ta6aooo in fbmb :
impa/to sodo-econamioo e aspefti
di pofts fiscak. Nomisma
(November 1998) 54 pp .
(ItafiaNEngtsh translation)
Reference: Ip2p69
smuggling loses the Exchequer Q10
million ([JSS342 million) ayear and .
tobacco smuggln; f560 mfllion a
year (M13 nilhon).
The Centre for Documentation and
Information on Tobacco (CDIT) in
Italy has just launched a press
advertising campaign that aims to
raise smokers' awareness of their
contribution to society. The first two
advertisements concern taxation and
note, among other things, that the
Italian smoker paid some 13,600
billion lira (US$fl.16 billion) in tax in
1996 .
The two advertisements ran from 29
January until mid-February in major
daily newspapers and as a 4-p ag e
insert in the monthly magazine7i
The campaign is supported by an
informatwn pack containing copies of
the ads, a booklet on taxation, a study
called in English The foEwa.» chain in
Italy, and four issues leaflets .
The tobacco chain In italy looks at the
different elements of the tobacco
sector In Italy, including growing,
distrlbu h'c~ and retailing and
discucses tFie sedor's impact on the
emramy. It also uses an econometric
analysis model to formulate
hypothetical case histories of the
possible effects on the economy and
employment of various trends In the
toLbacco sector. U
OTOC1997.TN8putMleaaonlSCOnpaedavmpu6lk FeMnary1897
sources and etioWd rat fYetlbe reterenoed adlsd
Spanish NGO launches campaign to teach young
people discrimination about advertising messages
The Spanish non-govemmental
organization Acci6n Familiar [Family
Action], in collaboration with the
European Union, has launched the
campaign El reto de ta libertad [The
network of freedom] to teach young
people between the ages of 11 and 13
to discern between reality and
advertising messages, which a
newspaper claims are "very often
According to the organization, the
adoption of certain practices such as
smoking drinking alcohol and taking
drugs is influenced by advertising .
The eampaign will constst of a
38 minute video and a guide for
parents and teachers which will be
distributed in public and private
schools, through communications
media, to families and to centres that
fight against drug use. The fnitiative
will also aim to prevent drug use by
minors. O
Juuenie Snaldng
llna campaba juvertil entidroga
ensefie a ser orAicos con fs
publicidad . EI Pafs (14 January
1997) p. 20 [Spanish]
Update on Consumers International
Consumers International opened its
Regional Office for Africa (CI-ROAF)
in Zimbabwe in 1994 to work more
closely with the embryonic but
fast-expanding African consumer
It is represented by about 100
consumer organizations, spread over
42 of the 56 African countries. The
movement focuses on poverty
eradication and sustainable
development through the
empowerment of consumers . At
present, more than half of the African
consumers' organizations are less
than four years old, small, weak,
severely financially under-resourced
and run by volunteers working part
In the last few years, ROAF has
concentrated on establishing
communication links between NGOs
for information exchange and
education as a key to improving the
effectiveness of the movement .
ROAF's team of legal experts has also
drafted a Model Law on Consumer
Protection in Africa .
Last December, Consumers International announced that CI-ROAF had
been awarded a grant from the Dutch
Ministry of Foreign Affairs for a
three-year project to build an effective
consumer movement in Africa . The
grant will be used to "tum the African
consumer movement into a force to
be reckoned with" .
Recently ROAF appointed a new
director, Tadesse Gessesse from
Ethiopia, to replace Josh Gwitera,
who passed away earlier in 1996 .
Gessesse was previously general
secretary of the African Network for
Development and has worked as
programme manager for the United
Cansmners Intematlonel
Who's who at G . Cortsuinera
(Deoember 1996) p.11-12
Reference: NG081683
Web site for Consumers
Consumers International's web site -
the first worldwide web site
dedicated to linking consumer
organizations around the world - was
launched on 6 November.
The web site - www.consumersinternational .org - will provide
information on Consumers
International's publications,
campaigns and members. Users will
also be able to link to the web sltes of
member consumer organizations
around the world, including those in
Australia, Canada, Japan, Sweden
and the United Kingdom.
New dintolor for ROAF.
Consunera M(eawfions/ INodd
Conswner(Deoetnber 19%)
223 p.16
The fulure is here • CI kunches
twm website. Canawners
BtMmatansf Katfskt
(December 1986) p. 2
Reference : NG031701
Initially, the web site has been set up
as a resource for consumer
organizations, joumalists and anyone
interested in consumer issues such as
food, trade, the environment and
health. Users will be able to look up
Consumers International's briefing
papers and reports on such topics as
environmental labelling, toxic
chemicals, the World Trade Organization and genetic engineering . 0'
February 1997 OTOC 1987. T1Y8pubNaatlonb pompYetlhoolpu6la aYFOTOPICB 33
souross and ahould rat ateAbs re/erencsd or dred
It also will offer an international
directory of member consumer
organizations, Consumers
International's 1995 annual report
and, most recent CI newsletters from
around the world.
Although English will be the main
language, some items will appear in
Spanish, French and Russian as well .
Eventually, Consumers International
hopes to develop an on-site news
service that will report on activities of
consumer organizations around the
world and enable them to exchange
ideas, information and useful advice
an various consumer concerns . O
12 March 1997 : UK No Smoking Day
United Kingdom
No Smoking Day
Send it Packing will be the theme of
the 14th UK National No Smoking
Day, which is to be held on 12 March .
No Smddng Day. t#aaNirm
P/us(September 1996)1 p.
The event, which was first started by
the National Society of Non-Smokers
in March 1976, has taken place with a
different theme every year since . Past
years' themes have been Put a Not in
it in 1996, Kick it in 1994, Breathtaking
in 1993 and Kiss it Goodbye in 1992 .
The aim of the event is to encourage
and assist smokers who want to quit,
to make people aware of the
campaign, and to involve as many
individuals and organizations as
possible in smoking cessation and
education in order to help achieve
local and national health targets . No
Smoking Day is now a registered
charity, funded and run by an
alliance of health promotion,
charitable and professional bodies
including the Health Education
Authori and Action on Smoking
and Health.
Every year the campaign office sends
out campaign packs consisting of
ideas for activities, publicity, images
and games, as well as facts and
figures about smoking to local
organizers in order to assist the
setting up of local events and
It has been reported that 82% of
smokers were awareaf kat year's No
Smoking Day, and that almost two
million smokers took part . In
addition, reports have suggested that
more than 40,000 people stop
smoking for good on No Smoking
Day. O
OTOO1997.TNapuWkaBpntsCOrrpaWtrompu6tlc Ftpnury1y97
sourses and BAouM not asell be reASronoed ordbd
Awe&yea Rt.k: Science ,
23 - 27 6th B ienn i nl S ympos ium on
Aaxasment and Manaaenteet
Conference on the Arbitration of
New York
Intellectuel Propeny Disputes
Inuxnatimnel Conference : The Role
New Yo'k
nffnw, Fmrign Inw•stmen; and
Pteveulim'97:14fh Annud
National US PrevcnB.e
Medicine Meeting
8t h InlernNioo.l Conference on
23-27 12'th National CsncerCongnmoi Belek,Anlsilye,
ntthe 7hslddt AeocLtlon rnr 7Lrke,y
Can cer Reie.nrh .nd Control
D1-25 Bre . thingin Paradise :
Conference on Ae1lmu .nd
Cbsodc Alnnys Disease
SlidainaMr Deve(qwnent in
Drug Rd.ted
Oovemment of Estonia pesents
Cm4eence on Safety & Health at
BkooW IatereYlmd MeeWy
Ak:andsis . Vlelihd.
8th Itiexneriwd Cue p nnte
Conference of the Asia Soeiety :
Moving to the MankC Steiaining
Refinn.r in India andAeia
2nd International f-~aum of
An AACR Spedd Con&'atce in
14th Naliarol UK No Smoking
Parli amenlsy
Anniversary of
27-29 71h Se1m110e Meetlee dtlx St- Lou6
Society fer HeYthote
Epldemldop dAmeska
Head and
Indurcelan fucal yeaends
Genttd Election
Semisr a C.era Fte.mllne
Aksaedsiy F.ppe
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(ngmstmer smkmwn)
S9o Paolo
Clinical and Basic Rcsctach un
Head and Neck Cancer Sm`esy &
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SnWegr Towa.d Cancer Conbof
Ko6e, Japan
Meeting of the Amesian Lmg
San Francisco
41st ICAA International 6ntitWe
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5th UNESCO Wodd Confaencc
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British Heart Week
United Kingdan
Annual Confetence of ttte
Ha1 Vax , Canada
3rd European Confeence on
Rehabilitation and Drug Policy
Europe Against Drug Abuse
AmeAon Sndel7 of anleal
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Ednanntan, Canada
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