GOVERNMENT SCAVENGER HUNT ANSWER KEY

THE COMPANIES ACT 2006
__________
A PRIVATE COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES
__________
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
OF
(the "Company") (Company Number:
)
(Adopted by special resolution passed on …………………… 2012)
1.
Interpretation
1.1.
In these Articles, unless the context otherwise requires:
A Ordinary Shares
means the A Ordinary Shares of £……..each in the
capital of the Company and A Ordinary Shareholder
means a holder of any of those shares;
Accepting shareholder
has the meaning given in Article 7.5;
Acting in Concert
has the meaning given to it in the City Code on
Takeovers and Mergers published by the Panel on
Takeovers and Mergers (as amended from time to
time);
Articles
means the Company's Articles of Association;
B Investment Shares
means the B Investment Shares of £…….. each in the
capital of the Company and B Investment
Shareholder means a holder of any of these shares;
Board
means the board of Directors;
Business Day
means any day (other than a Saturday, Sunday or
public holiday in the United Kingdom) on which
clearing banks in the City of London are generally
open for business;
Buyer
has the meaning given in Article 7.1;
Called Shares
has the meaning given in Article 8.2.1;
Called Shareholder
has the meaning given in Article 8.1;
Companies Act
the Companies Act 2006;
Completion Date
has the meaning given in Article 8.5;
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Controlling Interest
means an interest in Shares giving to the holder or
holders control of the Company within the meaning of
section 1124 of the Corporation Tax Act 2010;
Directors
means the directors of the Company from time to time,
and Director means any one of them;
Drag Along Notice
has the meaning given in Article 8.2;
Drag Along Option
has the meaning given in Article 8.1;
First Offer Period
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.3;
Model Articles
means the model articles for private companies limited
by shares contained in Schedule 1 of the Companies
(Model Articles) Regulations 2008 (SI 2008/3229) as
amended prior to the date of adoption of these Articles
and for ease of reference annexed as Appendix 1 to
these Articles;
Offer
has the meaning given in Article 7.2;
Offer Notice
has the meaning given in Article 7.3;
Offer Period
has the meaning given in Article 7.3;
Offer Shares
has the meaning given in Article 7.3.4;
Price
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.2.2;
Proposed Buyer
has the meaning given in Article 8.1;
Proposed Transfer
has the meaning given in Article 7.1;
Purchase Notice
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.4;
Purchasing
Shareholder
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.4;
Qualifying Shareholder
means a Shareholder holding …..% or more of the
issued A Ordinary Shares for the time being;
Sale Date
has the meaning given in Article 7.3;
Sellers' Shares
has the meaning given in Article 8.1;
Selling Shareholder
has the meaning given in Article 8.1;
Shareholders
means all or any of those persons whose names are
entered in the register of members of the Company,
and Shareholder shall mean any one of them;
Shares
all or any Shares in the Company;
Specified Price
has the meaning given in Article 7.2;
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Transfer Notice
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.1;
Transferring Shares
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.1;
Transferring
Shareholder
has the meaning given in Article 6.2.1;
1.2.
Save as otherwise specifically provided in these Articles, words and expressions
which have particular meanings in the Model Articles shall have the same meanings
in these Articles, subject to which and unless the context otherwise requires, words
and expressions which have particular meanings in the Companies Act shall have
the same meanings in these Articles.
1.3.
Headings in these Articles are used for convenience only and shall not affect the
construction or interpretation of these Articles.
1.4.
A reference in these Articles to an "Article" is a reference to the relevant article of
these Articles unless expressly provided otherwise.
1.5.
Unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to a statute, statutory provision or
subordinate legislation is a reference to it as it is in force from time to time, taking
account of:
1.5.1.
any subordinate legislation from time to time made under it; and
1.5.2.
any amendment or re-enactment and includes any statute, statutory
provision or subordinate legislation which it amends or re-enacts.
1.6.
Any phrase introduced by the terms "including", "include", "in particular" or any
similar expression shall be construed as illustrative and shall not limit the sense of
the words following those terms.
1.7.
The singular includes the plural, the masculine includes the feminine and, in each
case, vice versa.
1.8.
The Model Articles shall apply to the Company, except in so far as they are modified
or excluded by these Articles.
1.9.
Articles 13 and 14 of the Model Articles shall not apply to the Company.
2.
Quorum for general meetings
The quorum for a general meeting shall be at least 2 Shareholders holding a
majority of the A Ordinary Shares.
3.
Directors' conflicts of interest
If a proposed decision of the Directors is concerned with an actual or proposed
transaction or arrangement with the Company in which a Director is interested, that
Director shall be counted as participating in the decision-making process for quorum
or voting purposes, provided that he has declared the nature and extent of such
interest as required by the Companies Act.
4.
Casting vote
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If the numbers of votes for and against a proposal at a meeting of the Directors are
equal, the chairman or other Director chairing the meeting shall have a casting vote.
5.
Directors' authority to allot
5.1.
The Directors are generally and unconditionally authorised, in accordance with
section 551 of the Companies Act, to exercise all the powers of the Company to allot
Shares or to grant rights or to subscribe for or convert any security into Shares up to
a maximum nominal amount of £………………………...
5.2.
The authority contained in Article 5.1 shall expire on the day five years after the date
of the adoption of these Articles.
6.
Pre-emption rights of shareholders
6.1.
Sections 561 and 562 of the Companies Act are excluded as regards B Investment
Shares and Shareholders holding B Investment Shares provided that such sections
shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of A Ordinary Shares and Shareholders
holding such A Ordinary Shares. The foregoing provisions of this Article 6.1 shall not
apply in relation to further issues of A Ordinary Shares where each A Ordinary
Shareholder is notified by the Board 5 Business Days in advance and is entitled to
participate so as to preserve or increase their then proportionate shareholdings.
6.2.
A Ordinary Shareholders shall not transfer any A Ordinary Shares, except in the
circumstances set out in Articles 6.2.1 to 6.2.9 and, for the avoidance of doubt and
without prejudice to the generality of Article 26 of the Model Articles, the Board may
refuse to register the transfer of any A Ordinary Share, if it has not been transferred
in accordance with Articles 6.2.1 to 6.2.9.
6.2.1.
Any A Ordinary Shareholder who wishes to transfer any A Ordinary
Shares (the "Transferring Shareholder") shall before transferring or
agreeing to transfer such shares (the "Transferring Shares") or any
interest in them, first offer those Transferring Shares to the existing A
Ordinary Shareholders, by giving irrevocable written notice to the
Company (a "Transfer Notice").
6.2.2.
The Transfer Notice shall specify:
6.2.3.
6.2.2.1.
the number of Transferring Shares
Shareholder wishes to transfer; and
the
Transferring
6.2.2.2.
the price (in cash) and any other consideration, at which the
Transferring Shareholder wishes to transfer the Transferring
Shares (which shall be the price offered to the Transferring
Shareholder by a bona fide third party for the Transferring
Shares, or in the absence of such an offer, the price
calculated pursuant to Articles 6.2.7 and 6.2.8, in which case
the Transfer Notice shall not specify a price) (the "Price").
Upon receipt of the Transfer Notice, the Board shall as soon as
reasonably practicable, offer the Transferring Shares to the other A
Ordinary Shareholders, inviting those A Ordinary Shareholders to state by
notice in writing to the Company within 10 Business Days of the offer by
the Board (the "First Offer Period"), whether they are willing to purchase
at the Price, such number of Transferring Shares as corresponds to the
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proportion of other A Ordinary Shares held by them respectively.
6.2.4.
Each A Ordinary Shareholder who wishes to purchase the shares offered
to him in accordance with Article 6.2.3 above, (a "Purchasing
Shareholder") may within the First Offer Period, serve notice (the
"Purchase Notice") on the Board specifying how many Transferring
Shares he wishes to purchase.
6.2.5.
If following the expiry of the First Offer Period there remain Transferring
Shares not accepted by A Ordinary Shareholders, the Board shall reoffer
the unaccepted Transferring Shares to the Purchasing Shareholders
within a further 10 Business Days, in the appropriate proportions until
such time as the Transferring Shares are exhausted or no further
acceptances are forthcoming from Purchasing Shareholders and the
Board shall conduct such process as it sees fit.
6.2.6.
Any Transferring Shares not accepted pursuant to Articles 6.2.4 and 6.2.5
may be transferred by the Transferring Shareholder to any person,
provided the transfer is at the Price and takes place within 60 Business
Days of the end of the First Offer Period.
6.2.7.
If there is no bona fide third party offer for any of the Transferring Shares,
the Price shall be such price per Transferring Share as may be
determined by the accountants for the time being of the Company as the
fair value thereof. The Board shall instruct such accountants to specify
such fair value as soon as practicable upon receipt of the Transfer Notice
not having the Price specified therein and such accountants shall, acting
as experts and not arbitrators, calculate the fair value on such bases as
they consider most applicable, but without discount for minority or uplift for
majority shareholdings and their costs and expenses shall be borne
equally by the Company and the Transferring Shareholder.
6.2.8.
In determining the fair value of the Transferring Shares, the accountants
will rely on the following assumptions: the sale is between a willing seller
and a willing buyer of the Transferring Shares, the Company is carrying
on its business as a going concern and shall continue to do so, the
Transferring Shares are sold free of all restrictions, liens, charges and
other encumbrances and the sale is taking place on the date the
accountants were instructed to calculate the fair value.
6.2.9.
Following completion of the procedure in respect of the Transferring
Shares set out in Articles 6.2.1 to 6.2.8, the Transferring Shareholder shall
sell the Transferring Shares as required and shall execute and deliver to
the Board stock transfer forms relating to the Transferring Shares as
required by the Board against receipt of the Price which the Board may
receive from and transfer on behalf of purchasers.
6.3.
The provisions of Article 6.2 above shall not apply with regard to B Investment
Shares. Any B Investment Shareholder shall be entitled to transfer B Investment
Shares to such persons and at such prices as they see fit, provided that such
transfer is in respect of the B Investment Shareholder's entire holding of B
Investment Shares to a single transferee (except with the prior sanction of a
resolution of the Board).
6.4.
Any transmission of B Ordinary Shares to more than one transmittee shall only be
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effected with the sanction of a resolution of the Board.
7.
Tag along rights on a change of control
7.1.
The provisions of Articles 7.2 to 7.6 shall apply if, in one or a series of related
transactions, one or more Shareholders propose to transfer any Shares (Proposed
Transfer) which would, if carried out, result in any person (Buyer), and any person
Acting in Concert with the Buyer, acquiring a Controlling Interest in the Company.
7.2.
Before making a Proposed Transfer, each Shareholder proposing to transfer Shares
shall procure that the Buyer makes an offer (Offer) to all of the other Shareholders
to purchase all of the Shares held by them for a consideration in cash per Share that
is equal to the highest price per Share offered or paid by the Buyer, or any person
Acting in Concert with the Buyer, in the Proposed Transfer or in any related previous
transaction in the 12 months preceding the date of the Proposed Transfer
(Specified Price).
7.3.
The Offer shall be given by written notice (Offer Notice), at least 30 Business Days
(Offer Period) before the proposed sale date (Sale Date). To the extent not
described in any accompanying documents, the Offer Notice shall set out:
7.3.1.
the identity of the Buyer;
7.3.2.
the purchase price and other terms and conditions of payment;
7.3.3.
the Sale Date; and
7.3.4.
the number of Shares proposed to be purchased by the Buyer (Offer
Shares).
7.4.
If the Buyer fails to make the Offer to all of the holders of Shares in the Company in
accordance with Articles 7.2 and 7.3, the Shareholders proposing to transfer Shares
shall not be entitled to complete the Proposed Transfer and the Directors shall not
register any transfer of Shares effected in accordance with the Proposed Transfer.
7.5.
If the Offer is accepted in writing by any Shareholder (Accepting Shareholder)
within the Offer Period, the completion of the Proposed Transfer shall be conditional
on completion of the purchase of all the Offer Shares held by Accepting
Shareholders.
7.6.
If any Accepting Shareholder does not, at the time appointed for completion of the
Proposed Transfer, deliver a duly executed stock transfer form in respect of the
Offer Shares then the defaulting Accepting Shareholder shall be deemed to have
irrevocably appointed any Director to be his agent or attorney to execute all
necessary transfer(s) on his behalf against receipt by the Company (on trust for
such Accepting Shareholder) of the consideration payable for the Offer Shares.
After the Buyer has been registered as the holder of such Offer Shares the validity
of such proceedings shall not be questioned by any such person. Failure to produce
a Share certificate shall not impede the registration of Shares under this Article 7.
8.
Drag along Option
8.1.
If the holders of a majority percentage of the A Ordinary Shares in issue for the time
being (Selling Shareholders) wish to transfer all of their interest in the Shares
(Sellers' Shares) to a bona fide arm's length purchaser (Proposed Buyer), the
Selling Shareholders may require all other Shareholders (Called Shareholders) to
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sell and transfer all their Shares to the Proposed Buyer (or as the Proposed Buyer
directs) in accordance with the provisions of this Article (Drag Along Option).
8.2.
The Selling Shareholders may exercise the Drag Along Option by giving written
notice to that effect (Drag Along Notice) at any time before the transfer of the
Sellers' Shares to the Proposed Buyer. The Drag Along Notice shall specify:
8.2.1.
that the Called Shareholders are required to transfer all their Shares
(Called Shares) pursuant to this Article 8;
8.2.2.
the person to whom the Called Shares are to be transferred;
8.2.3.
the consideration payable for the Called Shares which shall, for each
Called Share, be an amount equal to the price per Share offered by the
Proposed Buyer for the Sellers' Shares; and
8.2.4.
the proposed date of the transfer.
8.3.
Once issued, a Drag Along Notice shall be irrevocable. However, a Drag Along
Notice shall lapse if, for any reason, the Selling Shareholders have not sold the
Sellers' Shares to the Proposed Buyer within 30 Business Days of serving the Drag
Along Notice. The Selling Shareholders may serve further Drag Along Notices
following the lapse of any particular Drag Along Notice.
8.4.
No Drag Along Notice shall require a Called Shareholder to agree to any terms
except those specifically set out in this Article 8.
8.5.
Completion of the sale of the Called Shares shall take place on such date as the
Proposed Buyer may specify pursuant to Article 8.2.4 (Completion Date). The
Completion Date shall be such specified date unless the Proposed Buyer, all of the
Called Shareholders and the Selling Shareholders agree otherwise in which case
the Completion Date shall be the date agreed in writing by all of them.
8.6.
On the Completion Date the Called Shareholders shall deliver stock transfer forms
for the Called Shares, together with the relevant share certificates (or a suitable
indemnity for any lost share certificates) to the Proposed Buyer against payment of
the amounts they are due for their Shares pursuant to Article 8.2.3.
8.7.
If any Called Shareholder does not, on completion of the sale of the Called Shares,
execute transfer(s) in respect of all of the Called Shares held by it, the defaulting
Called Shareholder shall be deemed to have irrevocably appointed any Director to
be his agent and attorney to execute all necessary transfer(s) on his behalf, against
receipt by the Company (on trust for such Shareholder) of the consideration payable
for the Called Shares, to deliver such transfer(s) to the Proposed Buyer (or as they
may direct) as the holder thereof. After the Proposed Buyer (or its nominee) has
been registered as the holder, the validity of such proceedings shall not be
questioned by any such person. Failure to produce a Share certificate shall not
impede the registration of Shares under this Article 8.
9.
Rights attaching to Shares
9.1.
The share capital of the Company shall comprise A Ordinary Shares and B
Investment Shares. The A Ordinary Shares and B Investment Shares shall rank pari
passu in all respects, save as provided in these Articles.
9.2.
The B Investment Shares shall have no voting rights attached to them, and holders
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of B investment Shares shall not have the right to receive notices of any general
meetings, or the right to attend at such general meetings.
9.3.
No dividend shall be payable in respect of any Shares unless and until the amount
of such dividend when aggregated with all dividends then payable to the holder of
such Shares exceeds the sum of £50 and all the dividends declared but not paid
pursuant to this Article 9.3 shall be held by the Company as dedicated retained
dividends on trust for such holder of Shares and shall be payable to such persons
either upon the winding up of the Company or when the cumulative value of such
withheld dividends exceeds £50.
10.
Electronic Communication
10.1.
Without prejudice to Article 48 of the Model Articles, notices and any other
communications sent or supplied, by or to Shareholders or Directors under these
Articles may be sent or supplied by electronic means as defined in section 1168 of
the Companies Act (including via a website, chatroom, extranet, intranet, blog,
online social network or forum or other similar mechanism duly notified to such
Shareholder or Director or by electronic mail to any email address supplied to the
Company, its officers or agents in writing by such Shareholders or Directors).
10.2.
For the purposes of Article 10.1 above, the Company can assume that any email
addresses supplied to the Company, its officers or agents by Shareholders or
Directors are up to date and current, and it is the sole responsibility of each
Shareholder and Director to update the Company as to any changes in their email
addresses, and to ensure that the Company has and uses the correct email
address. In this regard, all Shareholders and Directors agree that the Company has
no responsibility to any Shareholder or Director who fails to receive any notice or
other communication as a result of the Shareholder or Director failing to comply with
this Article 10.2.
10.3.
When any notice or communication is sent by means of a website, chatroom,
internet, intranet, extranet, blog, online social network or forum, or other similar
mechanism, an email shall be sent to Shareholders to inform them of the existence
of the notice or communication made on such website, chatroom, internet, intranet,
extranet, blog, online social network or forum, or other similar mechanism in
accordance with Schedule 5 of the Companies Act.
10.4.
Any notice or communication sent by means of a website, chatroom, internet,
intranet, extranet, blog, online social network or forum, or other similar mechanism,
shall be deemed to have been served on the intended recipient when the material is
first made available on the website or (if later) when the recipient receives (or is
deemed to have received) notice of the fact that the material is available on the
website, and any notice or communication sent by electronic mail or fax shall be
deemed to be delivered at the time it was sent and shall be deemed to have been
received 24 hours after its transmission.
10.5.
The Company's obligation to send or supply any notice or communication to
Shareholders or Directors is satisfied when the Company transmits an electronic
message and the Company is not responsible for a failure in transmission beyond its
control.
10.6.
Each Shareholder and Director shall for the purposes of paragraph 6 and paragraph
9 of Schedule 5 of the Companies Act, be deemed to have agreed to accept notices
or communications from the Company in electronic form, and to them being made
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available on a website, by providing a copy of his email address and expressly
consenting to that email address being used for the purpose of receiving notices or
communications from the Company in electronic form, and to the Company making
information available on a website.
11.
Board Representation
11.1.
Any Qualifying Shareholder shall be entitled to be a Director of the Board, or to
appoint one nominee Director to the Board, and to remove and replace such
nominee Director upon written notice to the Board, provided that such nominee
Director shall have been previously approved by the Board such approval not to be
unreasonably withheld or delayed.
11.2.
Any Director appointed to the Board in accordance with Article 11.1 above shall
immediately resign as a Director should his appointing Qualifying Shareholder,
cease to be a Qualifying Shareholder.
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Appendix 1
MODEL ARTICLES FOR PRIVATE COMPANIES LIMITED BY
SHARES
INDEX TO THE ARTICLES
PART 1
INTERPRETATION AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
1. Defined terms
2. Liability of members
PART 2
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS’ POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
3. Directors’ general authority
4. Shareholders’ reserve power
5. Directors may delegate
6. Committees
DECISION-MAKING BY DIRECTORS
7. Directors to take decisions collectively
8. Unanimous decisions
9. Calling a directors’ meeting
10. Participation in directors’ meetings
11. Quorum for directors’ meetings
12. Chairing of directors’ meetings
13. Casting vote
14. Conflicts of interest
15. Records of decisions to be kept
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16. Directors’ discretion to make further rules
APPOINTMENT OF DIRECTORS
17. Methods of appointing directors
18. Termination of director’s appointment
19. Directors’ remuneration
20. Directors’ expenses
PART 3
SHARES AND DISTRIBUTIONS
SHARES
21. All shares to be fully paid up
22. Powers to issue different classes of share
23. Company not bound by less than absolute interests
24. Share certificates
25. Replacement share certificates
26. Share transfers
27. Transmission of shares
28. Exercise of transmittees’ rights
29. Transmittees bound by prior notices
DIVIDENDS AND OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS
30. Procedure for declaring dividends
31. Payment of dividends and other distributions
32. No interest on distributions
33. Unclaimed distributions
34. Non-cash distributions
35. Waiver of distributions
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CAPITALISATION OF PROFITS
36. Authority to capitalise and appropriation of capitalised sums
PART 4
DECISION-MAKING BY SHAREHOLDERS
ORGANISATION OF GENERAL MEETINGS
37. Attendance and speaking at general meetings
38. Quorum for general meetings
39. Chairing general meetings
40. Attendance and speaking by directors and non-shareholders
41. Adjournment
VOTING AT GENERAL MEETINGS
42. Voting: general
43. Errors and disputes
44. Poll votes
45. Content of proxy notices
46. Delivery of proxy notices
47. Amendments to resolutions
PART 5
ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS
48. Means of communication to be used
49. Company seals
50. No right to inspect accounts and other records
51. Provision for employees on cessation of business
DIRECTORS’ INDEMNITY AND INSURANCE
52. Indemnity
53. Insurance
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PART 1
INTERPRETATION AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Defined terms
1. In the articles, unless the context requires otherwise—
“articles” means the company’s articles of association;
“bankruptcy” includes individual insolvency proceedings in a jurisdiction other than
England and Wales or Northern Ireland which have an effect similar to that of
bankruptcy;
“chairman” has the meaning given in article 12;
“chairman of the meeting” has the meaning given in article 39;
“Companies Acts” means the Companies Acts (as defined in section 2 of the Companies
Act 2006), in so far as they apply to the company;
“director” means a director of the company, and includes any person occupying the
position of director, by whatever name called;
“distribution recipient” has the meaning given in article 31;
“document” includes, unless otherwise specified, any document sent or supplied in
electronic form;
“electronic form” has the meaning given in section 1168 of the Companies Act 2006;
“fully paid” in relation to a share, means that the nominal value and any premium to be
paid to the company in respect of that share have been paid to the company;
“hard copy form” has the meaning given in section 1168 of the Companies Act 2006;
“holder” in relation to shares means the person whose name is entered in the register of
members as the holder of the shares;
“instrument” means a document in hard copy form;
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“ordinary resolution” has the meaning given in section 282 of the Companies Act 2006;
“paid” means paid or credited as paid;
“participate”, in relation to a directors’ meeting, has the meaning given in article 10;
“proxy notice” has the meaning given in article 45;
“shareholder” means a person who is the holder of a share;
“shares” means shares in the company;
“special resolution” has the meaning given in section 283 of the Companies Act 2006;
“subsidiary” has the meaning given in section 1159 of the Companies Act 2006;
“transmittee” means a person entitled to a share by reason of the death or bankruptcy of a
shareholder or otherwise by operation of law; and
“writing” means the representation or reproduction of words, symbols or other
information in a visible form by any method or combination of methods, whether sent or
supplied in electronic form or otherwise.
Unless the context otherwise requires, other words or expressions contained in these articles
bear the same meaning as in the Companies Act 2006 as in force on the date when these
articles become binding on the company.
Liability of members
2. The liability of the members is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares held
by them.
PART 2
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS’ POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Directors’ general authority
3. Subject to the articles, the directors are responsible for the management of the company’s
business, for which purpose they may exercise all the powers of the company.
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Shareholders’ reserve power
4.—(1) The shareholders may, by special resolution, direct the directors to take, or refrain
from taking, specified action.
(2) No such special resolution invalidates anything which the directors have done before
the passing of the resolution.
Directors may delegate
5.—(1) Subject to the articles, the directors may delegate any of the powers which are
conferred on them under the articles—
(a) to such person or committee;
(b) by such means (including by power of attorney);
(c) to such an extent;
(d) in relation to such matters or territories; and
(e) on such terms and conditions;
as they think fit.
(2) If the directors so specify, any such delegation may authorise further delegation of the
directors’ powers by any person to whom they are delegated.
(3) The directors may revoke any delegation in whole or part, or alter its terms and conditions.
Committees
6.—(1) Committees to which the directors delegate any of their powers must follow
procedures which are based as far as they are applicable on those provisions of the articles
which govern the taking of decisions by directors.
(2) The directors may make rules of procedure for all or any committees, which prevail
over rules derived from the articles if they are not consistent with them.
DECISION-MAKING BY DIRECTORS
Directors to take decisions collectively
7.—(1) The general rule about decision-making by directors is that any decision of the
directors must be either a majority decision at a meeting or a decision taken in accordance
with article 8.
(2) If—
(a) the company only has one director, and
(b) no provision of the articles requires it to have more than one director,
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the general rule does not apply, and the director may take decisions without regard to any of
the provisions of the articles relating to directors’ decision-making.
Unanimous decisions
8.—(1) A decision of the directors is taken in accordance with this article when all eligible
directors indicate to each other by any means that they share a common view on a matter.
(2) Such a decision may take the form of a resolution in writing, copies of which have been
signed by each eligible director or to which each eligible director has otherwise indicated
agreement in writing.
(3) References in this article to eligible directors are to directors who would have been
entitled to vote on the matter had it been proposed as a resolution at a directors’ meeting.
(4) A decision may not be taken in accordance with this article if the eligible directors would
not have formed a quorum at such a meeting.
Calling a directors’ meeting
9.—(1) Any director may call a directors’ meeting by giving notice of the meeting to the
directors or by authorising the company secretary (if any) to give such notice.
(2) Notice of any directors’ meeting must indicate—
(a) its proposed date and time;
(b) where it is to take place; and
(c) if it is anticipated that directors participating in the meeting will not be in the same
place, how it is proposed that they should communicate with each other during the
meeting.
(3) Notice of a directors’ meeting must be given to each director, but need not be in writing.
(4) Notice of a directors’ meeting need not be given to directors who waive their entitlement
to notice of that meeting, by giving notice to that effect to the company not more than 7 days
after the date on which the meeting is held. Where such notice is given after the meeting has
been held, that does not affect the validity of the meeting, or of any business conducted at it.
Participation in directors’ meetings
10.—(1) Subject to the articles, directors participate in a directors’ meeting, or part of a
directors’ meeting, when—
(a) the meeting has been called and takes place in accordance with the articles, and
(b) they can each communicate to the others any information or opinions they have on
any particular item of the business of the meeting.
(2) In determining whether directors are participating in a directors’ meeting, it is irrelevant
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where any director is or how they communicate with each other.
(3) If all the directors participating in a meeting are not in the same place, they may decide
that the meeting is to be treated as taking place wherever any of them is.
Quorum for directors’ meetings
11.—(1) At a directors’ meeting, unless a quorum is participating, no proposal is to be voted
on, except a proposal to call another meeting.
(2) The quorum for directors’ meetings may be fixed from time to time by a decision of the
directors, but it must never be less than two, and unless otherwise fixed it is two.
(3) If the total number of directors for the time being is less than the quorum required, the
directors must not take any decision other than a decision—
(a) to appoint further directors, or
(b) to call a general meeting so as to enable the shareholders to appoint further directors.
Chairing of directors’ meetings
12.—(1) The directors may appoint a director to chair their meetings.
(2) The person so appointed for the time being is known as the chairman.
(3) The directors may terminate the chairman’s appointment at any time.
(4) If the chairman is not participating in a directors’ meeting within ten minutes of the time at
which it was to start, the participating directors must appoint one of themselves to chair it.
Casting vote
13.—(1) If the numbers of votes for and against a proposal are equal, the chairman or other
director chairing the meeting has a casting vote.
(2) But this does not apply if, in accordance with the articles, the chairman or other director is
not to be counted as participating in the decision-making process for quorum or voting
purposes.
Conflicts of interest
14.—(1) If a proposed decision of the directors is concerned with an actual or proposed
transaction or arrangement with the company in which a director is interested, that director is
not to be counted as participating in the decision-making process for quorum or voting
purposes.
(2) But if paragraph (3) applies, a director who is interested in an actual or proposed
transaction or arrangement with the company is to be counted as participating in the decisionmaking process for quorum and voting purposes.
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(3) This paragraph applies when—
(a) the company by ordinary resolution disapplies the provision of the articles which
would otherwise prevent a director from being counted as participating in the decisionmaking process;
(b) the director’s interest cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a
conflict of interest; or
(c) the director’s conflict of interest arises from a permitted cause.
(4) For the purposes of this article, the following are permitted causes—
(a) a guarantee given, or to be given, by or to a director in respect of an obligation
incurred by or on behalf of the company or any of its subsidiaries;
(b) subscription, or an agreement to subscribe, for shares or other securities of the
company or any of its subsidiaries, or to underwrite, sub-underwrite, or guarantee
subscription for any such shares or securities; and
(c) arrangements pursuant to which benefits are made available to employees and
directors or former employees and directors of the company or any of its subsidiaries
which do not provide special benefits for directors or former directors.
(5) For the purposes of this article, references to proposed decisions and decision-making
processes include any directors’ meeting or part of a directors’ meeting.
(6) Subject to paragraph (7), if a question arises at a meeting of directors or of a committee of
directors as to the right of a director to participate in the meeting (or part of the meeting) for
voting or quorum purposes, the question may, before the conclusion of the meeting, be
referred to the chairman whose ruling in relation to any director other than the chairman is to
be final and conclusive.
(7) If any question as to the right to participate in the meeting (or part of the meeting) should
arise in respect of the chairman, the question is to be decided by a decision of the directors at
that meeting, for which purpose the chairman is not to be counted as participating in the
meeting (or that part of the meeting) for voting or quorum purposes.
Records of decisions to be kept
15. The directors must ensure that the company keeps a record, in writing, for at least 10 years
from the date of the decision recorded, of every unanimous or majority decision taken by the
directors.
Directors’ discretion to make further rules
16. Subject to the articles, the directors may make any rule which they think fit about how
they take decisions, and about how such rules are to be recorded or communicated to
directors.
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APPOINTMENT OF DIRECTORS
Methods of appointing directors
17.—(1) Any person who is willing to act as a director, and is permitted by law to do so, may
be appointed to be a director—
(a) by ordinary resolution, or
(b) by a decision of the directors.
(2) In any case where, as a result of death, the company has no shareholders and no directors,
the personal representatives of the last shareholder to have died have the right, by notice in
writing, to appoint a person to be a director.
(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2), where 2 or more shareholders die in circumstances
rendering it uncertain who was the last to die, a younger shareholder is deemed to have
survived an older shareholder.
Termination of director’s appointment
18. A person ceases to be a director as soon as—
(a) that person ceases to be a director by virtue of any provision of the Companies Act
2006 or is prohibited from being a director by law;
(b) a bankruptcy order is made against that person;
(c) a composition is made with that person’s creditors generally in satisfaction of that
person’s debts;
(d) a registered medical practitioner who is treating that person gives a written opinion to
the company stating that that person has become physically or mentally incapable of
acting as a director and may remain so for more than three months;
(e) by reason of that person’s mental health, a court makes an order which wholly or
partly prevents that person from personally exercising any powers or rights which that
person would otherwise have;
(f) notification is received by the company from the director that the director is resigning
from office, and such resignation has taken effect in accordance with its terms.
Directors’ remuneration
19.—(1) Directors may undertake any services for the company that the directors decide.
(2) Directors are entitled to such remuneration as the directors determine—
(a) for their services to the company as directors, and
(b) for any other service which they undertake for the company.
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(3) Subject to the articles, a director’s remuneration may—
(a) take any form, and
(b) include any arrangements in connection with the payment of a pension, allowance or
gratuity, or any death, sickness or disability benefits, to or in respect of that director.
(4) Unless the directors decide otherwise, directors’ remuneration accrues from day to day.
(5) Unless the directors decide otherwise, directors are not accountable to the company for
any remuneration which they receive as directors or other officers or employees of the
company’s subsidiaries or of any other body corporate in which the company is interested.
Directors’ expenses
20. The company may pay any reasonable expenses which the directors properly incur in
connection with their attendance at—
(a) meetings of directors or committees of directors,
(b) general meetings, or
(c) separate meetings of the holders of any class of shares or of debentures of the
company, or otherwise in connection with the exercise of their powers and the discharge
of their responsibilities in relation to the company.
PART 3
SHARES AND DISTRIBUTIONS
SHARES
All shares to be fully paid up
21.—(1) No share is to be issued for less than the aggregate of its nominal value and any
premium to be paid to the company in consideration for its issue.
(2) This does not apply to shares taken on the formation of the company by the subscribers to
the company’s memorandum.
Powers to issue different classes of share
22.—(1) Subject to the articles, but without prejudice to the rights attached to any existing
share, the company may issue shares with such rights or restrictions as may be determined by
ordinary resolution.
(2) The company may issue shares which are to be redeemed, or are liable to be redeemed at
the option of the company or the holder, and the directors may determine the terms,
conditions and manner of redemption of any such shares.
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Company not bound by less than absolute interests
23. Except as required by law, no person is to be recognised by the company as holding any
share upon any trust, and except as otherwise required by law or the articles, the company is
not in any way to be bound by or recognise any interest in a share other than the holder’s
absolute ownership of it and all the rights attaching to it.
Share certificates
24.—(1) The company must issue each shareholder, free of charge, with one or more
certificates in respect of the shares which that shareholder holds.
(2) Every certificate must specify—
(a) in respect of how many shares, of what class, it is issued;
(b) the nominal value of those shares;
(c) that the shares are fully paid; and
(d) any distinguishing numbers assigned to them.
(3) No certificate may be issued in respect of shares of more than one class.
(4) If more than one person holds a share, only one certificate may be issued in respect of it.
(5) Certificates must—
(a) have affixed to them the company’s common seal, or
(b) be otherwise executed in accordance with the Companies Acts.
Replacement share certificates
25.—(1) If a certificate issued in respect of a shareholder’s shares is—
(a) damaged or defaced, or
(b) said to be lost, stolen or destroyed, that shareholder is entitled to be issued with a
replacement certificate in respect of the same shares.
(2) A shareholder exercising the right to be issued with such a replacement certificate—
(a) may at the same time exercise the right to be issued with a single certificate or
separate certificates;
(b) must return the certificate which is to be replaced to the company if it is damaged or
defaced; and
(c) must comply with such conditions as to evidence, indemnity and the payment of a
reasonable fee as the directors decide.
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Share transfers
26.—(1) Shares may be transferred by means of an instrument of transfer in any usual form or
any other form approved by the directors, which is executed by or on behalf of the transferor.
(2) No fee may be charged for registering any instrument of transfer or other document
relating to or affecting the title to any share.
(3) The company may retain any instrument of transfer which is registered.
(4) The transferor remains the holder of a share until the transferee’s name is entered in the
register of members as holder of it.
(5) The directors may refuse to register the transfer of a share, and if they do so, the
instrument of transfer must be returned to the transferee with the notice of refusal unless they
suspect that the proposed transfer may be fraudulent.
Transmission of shares
27.—(1) If title to a share passes to a transmittee, the company may only recognise the
transmittee as having any title to that share.
(2) A transmittee who produces such evidence of entitlement to shares as the directors may
properly require—
(a) may, subject to the articles, choose either to become the holder of those shares or to
have them transferred to another person, and
(b) subject to the articles, and pending any transfer of the shares to another person, has
the same rights as the holder had.
(3) But transmittees do not have the right to attend or vote at a general meeting, or agree to a
proposed written resolution, in respect of shares to which they are entitled, by reason of the
holder’s death or bankruptcy or otherwise, unless they become the holders of those shares.
Exercise of transmittees’ rights
28.—(1) Transmittees who wish to become the holders of shares to which they have become
entitled must notify the company in writing of that wish.
(2) If the transmittee wishes to have a share transferred to another person, the transmittee
must execute an instrument of transfer in respect of it.
(3) Any transfer made or executed under this article is to be treated as if it were made or
executed by the person from whom the transmittee has derived rights in respect of the share,
and as if the event which gave rise to the transmission had not occurred.
Transmittees bound by prior notices
29. If a notice is given to a shareholder in respect of shares and a transmittee is entitled to
those shares, the transmittee is bound by the notice if it was given to the shareholder before
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the transmittee’s name has been entered in the register of members.
DIVIDENDS AND OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS
Procedure for declaring dividends
30.—(1) The company may by ordinary resolution declare dividends, and the directors may
decide to pay interim dividends.
(2) A dividend must not be declared unless the directors have made a recommendation as to
its amount. Such a dividend must not exceed the amount recommended by the directors.
(3) No dividend may be declared or paid unless it is in accordance with shareholders’
respective rights.
(4) Unless the shareholders’ resolution to declare or directors’ decision to pay a dividend, or
the terms on which shares are issued, specify otherwise, it must be paid by reference to each
shareholder’s holding of shares on the date of the resolution or decision to declare or pay it.
(5) If the company’s share capital is divided into different classes, no interim dividend may be
paid on shares carrying deferred or non-preferred rights if, at the time of payment, any
preferential dividend is in arrear.
(6) The directors may pay at intervals any dividend payable at a fixed rate if it appears to
them that the profits available for distribution justify the payment.
(7) If the directors act in good faith, they do not incur any liability to the holders of shares
conferring preferred rights for any loss they may suffer by the lawful payment of an interim
dividend on shares with deferred or non-preferred rights.
Payment of dividends and other distributions
31.—(1) Where a dividend or other sum which is a distribution is payable in respect of a
share, it must be paid by one or more of the following means—
(a) transfer to a bank or building society account specified by the distribution recipient
either in writing or as the directors may otherwise decide;
(b) sending a cheque made payable to the distribution recipient by post to the distribution
recipient at the distribution recipient’s registered address (if the distribution recipient is a
holder of the share), or (in any other case) to an address specified by the distribution
recipient either in writing or as the directors may otherwise decide;
(c) sending a cheque made payable to such person by post to such person at such address
as the distribution recipient has specified either in writing or as the directors may
otherwise decide; or
(d) any other means of payment as the directors agree with the distribution recipient
either in writing or by such other means as the directors decide.
(2) In the articles, “the distribution recipient” means, in respect of a share in respect of which
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a dividend or other sum is payable—
(a) the holder of the share; or
(b) if the share has two or more joint holders, whichever of them is named first in the
register of members; or
(c) if the holder is no longer entitled to the share by reason of death or bankruptcy, or
otherwise by operation of law, the transmittee.
No interest on distributions
32. The company may not pay interest on any dividend or other sum payable in respect of a
share unless otherwise provided by—
(a) the terms on which the share was issued, or
(b) the provisions of another agreement between the holder of that share and the
company.
Unclaimed distributions
33.—(1) All dividends or other sums which are—
(a) payable in respect of shares, and
(b) unclaimed after having been declared or become payable,
may be invested or otherwise made use of by the directors for the benefit of the company
until claimed.
(2) The payment of any such dividend or other sum into a separate account does not make the
company a trustee in respect of it.
(3) If—
(a) twelve years have passed from the date on which a dividend or other sum became due
for payment, and
(b) the distribution recipient has not claimed it,
the distribution recipient is no longer entitled to that dividend or other sum and it ceases to
remain owing by the company.
Non-cash distributions
34.—(1) Subject to the terms of issue of the share in question, the company may, by ordinary
resolution on the recommendation of the directors, decide to pay all or part of a dividend or
other distribution payable in respect of a share by transferring non-cash assets of equivalent
value (including, without limitation, shares or other securities in any company).
(2) For the purposes of paying a non-cash distribution, the directors may make whatever
24
arrangements they think fit, including, where any difficulty arises regarding the distribution—
(a) fixing the value of any assets;
(b) paying cash to any distribution recipient on the basis of that value in order to adjust
the rights of recipients; and
(c) vesting any assets in trustees.
Waiver of distributions
35. Distribution recipients may waive their entitlement to a dividend or other distribution
payable in respect of a share by giving the company notice in writing to that effect, but if—
(a) the share has more than one holder, or
(b) more than one person is entitled to the share, whether by reason of the death or
bankruptcy of one or more joint holders, or otherwise,
the notice is not effective unless it is expressed to be given, and signed, by all the holders or
persons otherwise entitled to the share.
CAPITALISATION OF PROFITS
Authority to capitalise and appropriation of capitalised sums
36.—(1) Subject to the articles, the directors may, if they are so authorised by an ordinary
resolution—
(a) decide to capitalise any profits of the company (whether or not they are available for
distribution) which are not required for paying a preferential dividend, or any sum
standing to the credit of the company’s share premium account or capital redemption
reserve; and
(b) appropriate any sum which they so decide to capitalise (a “capitalised sum”) to the
persons who would have been entitled to it if it were distributed by way of dividend (the
“persons entitled”) and in the same proportions.
(2) Capitalised sums must be applied—
(a) on behalf of the persons entitled, and
(b) in the same proportions as a dividend would have been distributed to them.
(3) Any capitalised sum may be applied in paying up new shares of a nominal amount equal
to the capitalised sum which are then allotted credited as fully paid to the persons entitled or
as they may direct.
(4) A capitalised sum which was appropriated from profits available for distribution may be
applied in paying up new debentures of the company which are then allotted credited as fully
25
paid to the persons entitled or as they may direct.
(5) Subject to the articles the directors may—
(a) apply capitalised sums in accordance with paragraphs (3) and (4) partly in one way
and partly in another;
(b) make such arrangements as they think fit to deal with shares or debentures becoming
distributable in fractions under this article (including the issuing of fractional certificates
or the making of cash payments); and
(c) authorise any person to enter into an agreement with the company on behalf of all the
persons entitled which is binding on them in respect of the allotment of shares and
debentures to them under this article.
PART 4
DECISION-MAKING BY SHAREHOLDERS
ORGANISATION OF GENERAL MEETINGS
Attendance and speaking at general meetings
37.—(1) A person is able to exercise the right to speak at a general meeting when that person
is in a position to communicate to all those attending the meeting, during the meeting, any
information or opinions which that person has on the business of the meeting.
(2) A person is able to exercise the right to vote at a general meeting when—
(a) that person is able to vote, during the meeting, on resolutions put to the vote at the
meeting, and
(b) that person’s vote can be taken into account in determining whether or not such
resolutions are passed at the same time as the votes of all the other persons attending the
meeting.
(3) The directors may make whatever arrangements they consider appropriate to enable those
attending a general meeting to exercise their rights to speak or vote at it.
(4) In determining attendance at a general meeting, it is immaterial whether any two or more
members attending it are in the same place as each other.
(5) Two or more persons who are not in the same place as each other attend a general meeting
if their circumstances are such that if they have (or were to have) rights to speak and vote at
that meeting, they are (or would be) able to exercise them.
Quorum for general meetings
38. No business other than the appointment of the chairman of the meeting is to be transacted
at a general meeting if the persons attending it do not constitute a quorum.
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Chairing general meetings
39.—(1) If the directors have appointed a chairman, the chairman shall chair general meetings
if present and willing to do so.
(2) If the directors have not appointed a chairman, or if the chairman is unwilling to chair the
meeting or is not present within ten minutes of the time at which a meeting was due to start—
(a) the directors present, or
(b) (if no directors are present), the meeting,
must appoint a director or shareholder to chair the meeting, and the appointment of the
chairman of the meeting must be the first business of the meeting.
(3) The person chairing a meeting in accordance with this article is referred to as “the
chairman of the meeting”.
Attendance and speaking by directors and non-shareholders
40.—(1) Directors may attend and speak at general meetings, whether or not they are
shareholders.
(2) The chairman of the meeting may permit other persons who are not—
(a) shareholders of the company, or
(b) otherwise entitled to exercise the rights of shareholders in relation to general
meetings,
to attend and speak at a general meeting.
Adjournment
41.—(1) If the persons attending a general meeting within half an hour of the time at which
the meeting was due to start do not constitute a quorum, or if during a meeting a quorum
ceases to be present, the chairman of the meeting must adjourn it.
(2) The chairman of the meeting may adjourn a general meeting at which a quorum is present
if—
(a) the meeting consents to an adjournment, or
(b) it appears to the chairman of the meeting that an adjournment is necessary to protect
the safety of any person attending the meeting or ensure that the business of the meeting
is conducted in an orderly manner.
(3) The chairman of the meeting must adjourn a general meeting if directed to do so by the
meeting.
(4) When adjourning a general meeting, the chairman of the meeting must—
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(a) either specify the time and place to which it is adjourned or state that it is to continue
at a time and place to be fixed by the directors, and
(b) have regard to any directions as to the time and place of any adjournment which have
been given by the meeting.
(5) If the continuation of an adjourned meeting is to take place more than 14 days after it was
adjourned, the company must give at least 7 clear days’ notice of it (that is, excluding the day
of the adjourned meeting and the day on which the notice is given)—
(a) to the same persons to whom notice of the company’s general meetings is required to
be given, and
(b) containing the same information which such notice is required to contain.
(6) No business may be transacted at an adjourned general meeting which could not properly
have been transacted at the meeting if the adjournment had not taken place.
VOTING AT GENERAL MEETINGS
Voting: general
42. A resolution put to the vote of a general meeting must be decided on a show of hands
unless a poll is duly demanded in accordance with the articles.
Errors and disputes
43.—(1) No objection may be raised to the qualification of any person voting at a general
meeting except at the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the vote objected to is tendered,
and every vote not disallowed at the meeting is valid.
(2) Any such objection must be referred to the chairman of the meeting, whose decision is
final.
Poll votes
44.—(1) A poll on a resolution may be demanded—
(a) in advance of the general meeting where it is to be put to the vote, or
(b) at a general meeting, either before a show of hands on that resolution or immediately
after the result of a show of hands on that resolution is declared.
(2) A poll may be demanded by—
(a) the chairman of the meeting;
(b) the directors;
(c) two or more persons having the right to vote on the resolution; or
(d) a person or persons representing not less than one tenth of the total voting rights of all
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the shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution.
(3) A demand for a poll may be withdrawn if—
(a) the poll has not yet been taken, and
(b) the chairman of the meeting consents to the withdrawal.
(4) Polls must be taken immediately and in such manner as the chairman of the meeting
directs.
Content of proxy notices
45.—(1) Proxies may only validly be appointed by a notice in writing (a “proxy notice”)
which—
(a) states the name and address of the shareholder appointing the proxy;
(b) identifies the person appointed to be that shareholder’s proxy and the general meeting
in relation to which that person is appointed;
(c) is signed by or on behalf of the shareholder appointing the proxy, or is authenticated
in such manner as the directors may determine; and
(d) is delivered to the company in accordance with the articles and any instructions
contained in the notice of the general meeting to which they relate.
(2) The company may require proxy notices to be delivered in a particular form, and may
specify different forms for different purposes.
(3) Proxy notices may specify how the proxy appointed under them is to vote (or that the
proxy is to abstain from voting) on one or more resolutions.
(4) Unless a proxy notice indicates otherwise, it must be treated as—
(a) allowing the person appointed under it as a proxy discretion as to how to vote on any
ancillary or procedural resolutions put to the meeting, and
(b) appointing that person as a proxy in relation to any adjournment of the general
meeting to which it relates as well as the meeting itself.
Delivery of proxy notices
46.—(1) A person who is entitled to attend, speak or vote (either on a show of hands or on a
poll) at a general meeting remains so entitled in respect of that meeting or any adjournment of
it, even though a valid proxy notice has been delivered to the company by or on behalf of that
person.
(2) An appointment under a proxy notice may be revoked by delivering to the company a
notice in writing given by or on behalf of the person by whom or on whose behalf the proxy
notice was given.
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(3) A notice revoking a proxy appointment only takes effect if it is delivered before the start
of the meeting or adjourned meeting to which it relates.
(4) If a proxy notice is not executed by the person appointing the proxy, it must be
accompanied by written evidence of the authority of the person who executed it to execute it
on the appointor’s behalf.
Amendments to resolutions
47.—(1) An ordinary resolution to be proposed at a general meeting may be amended by
ordinary resolution if—
(a) notice of the proposed amendment is given to the company in writing by a person
entitled to vote at the general meeting at which it is to be proposed not less than 48 hours
before the meeting is to take place (or such later time as the chairman of the meeting may
determine), and
(b) the proposed amendment does not, in the reasonable opinion of the chairman of the
meeting, materially alter the scope of the resolution.
(2) A special resolution to be proposed at a general meeting may be amended by ordinary
resolution, if—
(a) the chairman of the meeting proposes the amendment at the general meeting at which
the resolution is to be proposed, and
(b) the amendment does not go beyond what is necessary to correct a grammatical or
other non-substantive error in the resolution.
(3) If the chairman of the meeting, acting in good faith, wrongly decides that an amendment
to a resolution is out of order, the chairman’s error does not invalidate the vote on that
resolution.
PART 5
ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS
Means of communication to be used
48.—(1) Subject to the articles, anything sent or supplied by or to the company under the
articles may be sent or supplied in any way in which the Companies Act 2006 provides for
documents or information which are authorised or required by any provision of that Act to be
sent or supplied by or to the company.
(2) Subject to the articles, any notice or document to be sent or supplied to a director in
connection with the taking of decisions by directors may also be sent or supplied by the
means by which that director has asked to be sent or supplied with such notices or documents
for the time being.
(3) A director may agree with the company that notices or documents sent to that director in a
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particular way are to be deemed to have been received within a specified time of their being
sent, and for the specified time to be less than 48 hours.
Company seals
49.—(1) Any common seal may only be used by the authority of the directors.
(2) The directors may decide by what means and in what form any common seal is to be used.
(3) Unless otherwise decided by the directors, if the company has a common seal and it is
affixed to a document, the document must also be signed by at least one authorised person in
the presence of a witness who attests the signature.
(4) For the purposes of this article, an authorised person is—
(a) any director of the company;
(b) the company secretary (if any); or
(c) any person authorised by the directors for the purpose of signing documents to which
the common seal is applied.
No right to inspect accounts and other records
50. Except as provided by law or authorised by the directors or an ordinary resolution of the
company, no person is entitled to inspect any of the company’s accounting or other records or
documents merely by virtue of being a shareholder.
Provision for employees on cessation of business
51. The directors may decide to make provision for the benefit of persons employed or
formerly employed by the company or any of its subsidiaries (other than a director or former
director or shadow director) in connection with the cessation or transfer to any person of the
whole or part of the undertaking of the company or that subsidiary.
DIRECTORS’ INDEMNITY AND INSURANCE
Indemnity
52.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), a relevant director of the company or an associated
company may be indemnified out of the company’s assets against—
(a) any liability incurred by that director in connection with any negligence, default,
breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company or an associated company,
(b) any liability incurred by that director in connection with the activities of the company
or an associated company in its capacity as a trustee of an occupational pension scheme
(as defined in section 235(6) of the Companies Act 2006),
(c) any other liability incurred by that director as an officer of the company or an
associated company.
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(2) This article does not authorise any indemnity which would be prohibited or rendered void
by any provision of the Companies Acts or by any other provision of law.
(3) In this article—
(a) companies are associated if one is a subsidiary of the other or both are subsidiaries of
the same body corporate, and
(b) a “relevant director” means any director or former director of the company or an
associated company.
Insurance
53.—(1) The directors may decide to purchase and maintain insurance, at the expense of the
company, for the benefit of any relevant director in respect of any relevant loss.
(2) In this article—
(a) a “relevant director” means any director or former director of the company or an
associated company,
(b) a “relevant loss” means any loss or liability which has been or may be incurred by a
relevant director in connection with that director’s duties or powers in relation to the
company, any associated company or any pension fund or employees’ share scheme of
the company or associated company, and
(c) companies are associated if one is a subsidiary of the other or both are subsidiaries of
the same body corporate.
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