Atmospheric Basics 11.1 Name____________________

Name____________________
SECTION
Date
11.1 Atmospheric Basics
In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere.
Answer each question in the space provided.
Period
20 points
In your textbook, read about how the atmosphere is heated.
Examine the diagram below. Then answer the questions.
200 Points total
1. Which gases compose most of Earth’s atmosphere?
2. Describe the importance of water vapor in the atmosphere.
3. Which gas helps determine the amount of energy the atmosphere
absorbs?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. List two of the solid particles in the atmosphere.
5. Draw an ozone molecule.
11. What is the source of all energy that reaches Earth?
12. What percentage of the Sun’s energy does Earth’s surface absorb
directly or indirectly
Why is ozone important to Earth’s atmosphere?
In your textbook, read about the structure of the atmosphere.
Complete the table by writing the layer of the atmosphere that matches
each description.
Characteristic
Layer
Contains concentrated ozone
6.
Layer just above the stratosphere
7.
Most weather occurs here.
8.
7.
Outermost layer of the atmosphere
9.
8.
Between mesosphere and exosphere
10.
6.
13. What percentage of the Sun’s energy is scattered or reflected back into
space?
What causes this loss of solar energy?
14. Earth’s surface is heated by energy from the Sun. For the most part, the
rereleased energy from the surface heats the atmosphere. Describe the
method by which energy is transferred from Earth’s surface to the air
directly above the surface.
15. Describe and illustrate convection.
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 1
Name____________________
SECTION
Date
Period
11.2 State of the Atmosphere
In your textbook, read about heat, temperature, and moisture in the
atmosphere.
25 points
____________9. Air is denser near Earth’s surface than high in
Complete the passage.
Heat and temperature are not the same. (1) _____________
is a measure of how the measure of how rapidly or slowly molecules
move. In contrast, (2) __________________ is the transfer of
energy that takes place because of temperature differences.
Temperature can be measured in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or
kelvins. The most commonly used temperature scale in the United
States is (3) _______________.
The atmosphere’s temperature plays a role in the formation of rain.
Rain drops form when (4)_______________ in the
atmosphere cools and turns from a gas to a liquid. This change in
state is called (5) _______________
In your textbook, read about air pressure and wind.
For each statement below, write correct or incorrect.
If the statement is incorrect, use proofreading marks it to make it correct.
.
Air must be saturated before condensation can occur. Saturation is
the point at which the air holds as much water vapor as it possibly
can. The (6) _______________is the temperature to which air
must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation. Until this
temperature is reached, condensation cannot occur and rain cannot
fall.
the atmosphere.
____________10. Particles of air in the atmosphere exert pressure
on Earth’s surface.
____________11. Air pressure is greater at the top of a mountain
than at lower elevations.
____________12. In the troposphere, as air temperature increases,
generally air pressure increases, too.
____________13. Wind is the movement of air from an area of
low pressure to an area of high pressure.
____________14. As you move upward from Earth’s surface, wind
speeds increase because the air meets with less
friction from Earth’s surface.
In your textbook, read about temperature inversion and relative humidity.
Answer the following questions.
15. What is relative humidity?
Temperature in the lower atmosphere generally decreases with
increased (7) ___________________. As air rises, it cools
and eventually reaches the temperature at which condensation
occurs. The height above the surface at which condensation occurs is
the (8) _______________
16. What is the relative humidity of fully saturated air?
17. Illustrate and describe how temperature inversions form in the Salt
Lake Valley. Label appropriate mountains and valleys.
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 2
Name____________________
SECTION
Date
Period
11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
In your textbook, read about the formation of clouds.
Examine the diagram below. Then answer the questions.
20 points
In your textbook, read about moisture in the atmosphere and clouds.
Write the vocabulary word that best matches the statement.
6. All forms of water that fall from clouds
7. Low, layered clouds
8. Small cloud droplets join to form larger ones
9. Wispy, high clouds made of ice crystals
In your textbook, read about the movement of water between the atmosphere
and Earth’s surface.
1. What is happening to the air in both A and B that leads to the
formation of clouds?
10. What is the constant movement of water between the atmosphere and
Earth’s surface?
11. What change of state is the process of water changing from a liquid to a
gas?
2. What is causing the air to rise in A?
12. As water vapor rises in the atmosphere, it cools and changes into liquid
cloud droplets. What is this process called?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hil Companies, Inc.
3. What is causing the air to rise in B?
13. When cloud droplets combine to form larger drops, they fall to Earth as
14. Where is the source of the energy that drives the water cycle?
4. What type of cloud formation is shown in B?
Use the hidden words
for #6 – 14 above.
5. Explain how condensation nuclei help clouds form.
Some words may be
used more than once.
6. Illustrate how the Great Salt Lake and the Wasatch Mountains
together create “The Greatest Snow on Earth.”
Extra Credit: Write
definition of other
atmospheric words
hidden in the puzzle
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Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 3
Name____________________
Date
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the correct term on the line. (6 points)
____________ 1. The temperature to which air must be
cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation
Period
Understanding Main Ideas
In the space at the left, write correct if the statement is correct; if the statement is
not correct, change the italicized word or phrase to make it correct. (10 points)
__________________ 1. The atmosphere is composed mostly of
helium and oxygen, with traces of other gases
such as carbon dioxide and water vapor.
____________2. The gas formed by adding a third oxygen
atom to an oxygen molecule
__________________ 2. The stratosphere is important because it
____________3. Heat that is stored in a substance
____________4. An air mass’s ability to resist rising
____________5. All forms of water that fall from clouds
contains nitrogen, which blocks harmful
ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
__________________ 3. Both temperature and pressure generally
decrease with height in the troposphere.
__________________ 4. The amount of water vapor in a given
____________6. The transfer of energy through space by
electromagnetic waves
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms. Write a sentence using
each word in the pair describing how the words are connected.
(4 points each sentence; 12 points total)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7.
volume of air is its relative humidity.
__________________ 5. The height in the atmosphere at which
condensation occurs is the lifted condensation
level.
__________________ 6. A temperature inversion is a decrease in
temperature with height in the atmosphere.
heat, temperature
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
30 points
Complete the statement or answers the question. (13 points)
7. Illustrate and describe when particles of dust become condensation
nuclei.
___________________________________________________________
8.
humidity, relative
___________________________________________________________
8. Illustrate and describe what happens to the moist winds in orographic
lifting.
____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
9. What is the process in which cloud droplets collide to form larger
9.
condensation, evaporation
droplets?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
10. What is the constant movement of water between the atmosphere
and Earth’s surface?
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 4
Name____________________
Date
SECTION 22.3
Thinking Critically
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
Period
30 points
Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
In your textbook, read Section 22.3 about the early atmosphere.
1. What two gases probably dominated Precambrian Earth’s atmosphere?
2. Why is Earth’s atmosphere no longer rich in hydrogen and helium today?
3. What occurs during the process of outgassing, and what role did this
process play in the formation of the atmosphere?
4. What is the likely source of oxygen in the early atmosphere?
5. Did oxygen exist in the atmosphere during the Proterozoic?
Explain your answer.
6. What is a banded iron formation?
In your textbook, read about the formation of the oceans.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Archean
liquid water
minerals
oceans
outgassing
water vapor
Seawater probably originated largely from the same process of
1. Do air pressure and temperature change in the same way with
altitude? Explain your answer.
(7) _________________________ that formed the atmosphere.
A major component of the gas that was vented from early Earth was (8)
______________________. As the early atmosphere and surface
of Earth cooled, the water vapor in the atmosphere condensed to form (9)
2. Describe the temperature changes that take place in each layer of the
atmosphere.
_____________________. During the (10)
_________________, rain slowly filled the low-lying areas on
Earth. The low-lying areas were underlain by basalt, and as these basalt-
3. Why does temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
floored basins filled, they formed the (11) ______________.
Rainwater reacted with the (12) _________________ exposed at
Earth’s surface and dissolved them, making the oceans of the Precambrian
salty.
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 5
Name____________________
How Earth's Atmosphere Got Its Oxygen
Date
Period
25 points
When Earth’s atmosphere first formed, it contained little if any oxygen. How
then did our oxygen-rich atmosphere come about? The answer is life, which first
appeared on Earth in the form of bacteria about 3.5 billion years ago.
By about 2.5 billion years ago, oxygen-producing organisms, called
cyanobacteria, had evolved. Evolution is the process by which organisms change
to give rise to new organisms over time. The cyanobacteria took in carbon dioxide
and water and produced oxygen as a waste product. Over time, the oxygen they
produced accumulated in the atmosphere. Some of the oxygen was converted to
ozone by the sun’s energy. This was important later for the development of life on
land, because as ozone increased, it protected Earth’s surface from too much
ultraviolet radiation.
By 700 million years ago, the oxygen concentration had reached about ten
percent of the current level, and organisms made up of many cells had evolved. By
450 million years ago, the ozone level was getting close to its present value, and
soon after that land plants evolved. They were followed by land animals at about
380 million years ago. Both oxygen and ozone levels reached their current levels
about 300 million years ago. By then there were many different kinds of complex
land plants and animals living on Earth.
1. How did life on Earth influence the development of Earth’s
atmosphere?
2. Write in the photosynthesis equation.
3. Name the “waste product” of photosynthesis that is abundant on
earth today, but did not exist in the early earth.
4. Name the organism that first produced oxygen in the atmosphere.
(hint: not plants)
5. What role did ozone play in the evolution of life on Earth?
6. Earth’s atmosphere has remained somewhat constant for the last
300 million years. Explain what may have caused this.
7. Explain the y-axis intervals on the graph.
8. What do you think Earth’s atmosphere would be like today if life
had not evolved on Earth? Support your opinion with evidence.
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 6
Name____________________
Date
Period
Video Guide Core Meteorology Atmosphere (50 points)
Chapter 1 Atmospheres in the Solar System
1. Describe how an atmosphere is the most important thing for life on a planet.
2. Name two places in the solar system that have no atmospheres at all.
3. Which planet has an atmosphere composed almost entirely of carbon dioxide?
4. List the four planets that are known as gas giants.
Chapter 2 Composition of the Earth’s Atmosphere
1. What is spectroscopic analysis?
2. What percent of the Earth’s atmosphere is oxygen and nitrogen?
3. Argon, carbon dioxide and water vapor and other gases compose what percent of the Earth’s
atmosphere?
Chapter 3 Structure of Earth's Atmosphere
1. People live in the lower densest part of the atmosphere called the _____________________.
2. The ______________________ extends above the Earth’s surface five miles at the poles and nine
miles at the equator
3. All weather takes place in the ________________________.
4. The _________________________ is home to a band of powerful winds known as the jet stream
5. The stratosphere is home to the _________________ layer, which protects life on the planet from
lethal, ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
6. The _____________________ starts where the stratosphere ends, extending from 31 to 55 miles
7. Above the mesosphere is the largest section of the atmosphere: the ___________________, where the
Northern lights, or the aurora borealis, occur.
Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Solar Radiation
1. Radiation from the sun arrives in the atmosphere as _____________________ waves
2. This radiant energy from the sun is virtually the only source of energy available to heat and maintain
temperatures in the lower troposphere so that _____________________ on Earth is possible
3. How is the atmosphere like a giant protective filter making it possible for life on Earth?
4. Heat is the result of what happens when solar radiation is _____________________ by gases, liquids
or solids.
5. Light, that part of solar radiation that we see, passes through the atmosphere – no absorption but it
does get _____________________, causing blue skies and red sunsets
6. Another thing that might happen to solar radiation is that it gets _____________________, pretty
much back where it came from, that is, out of the earth's atmosphere.
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric
currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 7
Name____________________
Date
Chapter 5 Atmospheric Conduction and Convection
Draw and describe both conduction and convection. Label.
Period
Chapter 6 Atmospheric Balancing
1. The atmosphere regulates our atmospheric temperature by _____________________
2. Describe how the troposphere is heated.
Chapter 7 Hydrological Cycle
1. Water leaves the earth as a __________ through evaporation and returns as a ____________ in the
form of rain or a solid in the form of snow or hail
2. The water on our planet forms a closed system. What does this mean?
3. What percent of all water is in oceans, lakes and streams; locked up in glaciers; or held in
underground aquifers?
4. What percent of water is in the atmosphere?
5. Where does the energy come from to move water through the hydrological cycle?
6. Other Bio/Geo/Chemical cycles that the atmosphere supports are the ___________________ cycle,
the _______________ cycle, methane cycle and the aerosol, or particulate matter such as dust, cycle.
Chapter 8 The Carbon Cycle
1. The Bio/Geo/Chemical cycle that has become of most importance to us today is the ______________
cycle
2. All the carbon atoms that exist now are the same carbon atoms that have always been. They show up
in pure forms as ________________, ___________________ and _____________________ .
3. The smallest reservoir of carbon is in the atmosphere in the form of _____________________.
4. Without CO2, the earth would be _____________________
Chapter 9 The Atmosphere and Climate Change
CO2 is an odorless, tasteless, invisible gas
1. At the end of the last ice age, CO2 in the atmosphere was at a level close to_________________ ppm
2. Currently the concentration of CO2 is slightly over ___________________, so human emissions have
increased it by slightly over 100 ppm
3. The Earth’s atmosphere has a distinct chemical composition that regulates _________________ from
the sun so that life is possible
4. The smallest reservoir of _________________ is in the atmosphere in the form of CO2
Standard III Objective 1: Relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric
currents transport matter and transfer energy.
Page 8
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