Comment

Comment
Research priorities to address violence against women and girls
Men and Gender Equality) Study,8 but we need to
better understand the drivers of violence perpet­
ration. Furthermore, we require a more comprehensive
knowledge of resilience and why some children who
are exposed to violence go on to perpetrate it whereas
others do not.
In relation to the health impacts, data exist on a range
of health effects of partner violence, including physical
injuries, mental health, and sexual and reproductive
health.6 Much of the data, however, are based on
cross-sectional studies that do not establish causal links
between violence and these health outcomes. There is a
need for more longitudinal studies and improved study
designs to advance our understanding of the health
effects of violence.
Efforts to address violence against women and girls
have largely emphasised legal, justice sector, and
legislative responses, awareness raising, and, to a
limited extent, health-sector response. More recently,
prevention has become a higher priority. However,
evidence on effective programmes to prevent violence
against women from happening in the first place is
incomplete; as Mary Ellsberg and colleagues1 point out
in this Series, that evidence comes predominantly from
high-income countries and is focused on response,
with more research needed on primary prevention,
including in low-income and middle-income countries.
Moreover, most interventions have been tested in only
one site and many studies have small sample sizes
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61840-7
Published Online
November 21, 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61840-7
See Online/Series
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61703-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61683-4,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61797-9, and
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61830-4
Paul Davey/Demotix/Corbis
Violence against women and girls is increasingly
visible on the global health and development
agenda—both as a matter of social justice and
equality for women and as a public health priority.
After many years of dedicated efforts, more is known
about the epidemiology of some forms of violence
against women, and knowledge is increasing about
what works to prevent and respond to such violence.
However, as this Lancet Series on violence against
women and girls1–5 highlights, in terms of research
and evidence this is still an emerging field. The gaps
in research and evidence include: lack of data on some
forms of violence from certain regions; an incomplete
understanding of the full scope of health and other
consequences; a limited knowledge on what works to
prevent and respond to violence against women and
girls; and a general bias of published literature towards
high-income countries.
In 2013, WHO, the London School of Hygiene &
Tropical Medicine, and the South African Medical
Research Council produced the first global and regional
estimates of the prevalence and health effects of
two common forms of violence against women:
partner violence and non-partner sexual violence.6
Population-based survey data on intimate partner
violence is now available from 85 countries.6 However,
data quality varies across the available surveys and
many countries have no population-based data on
partner violence or have surveys that date from more
than 10 years ago. Gaps in availability of data on
prevalence are most pronounced in some regions,
in particular central sub-Saharan African, east Asian,
Caribbean, and central Asian regions. Even fewer
countries have data on sexual violence by non-partners,6
and knowledge is scarce about trafficking, honour
killings, child marriage, violence in conflict, and other
humanitarian settings. Little is also known about how
violence affects particular groups that are not captured
in population-based surveys, including women from
indigenous communities, those who live in prisons,
other institutions, and humanitarian settings, and
women with disabilities.
Some data are available for violence perpetration
with the studies of men in Asia, the Pacific,7 and in
other countries through the IMAGE (International
1
Comment
and short follow-up periods. Overall, there is a need to
expand the evidence base on what interventions are
effective for primary and secondary prevention and
to improve the health and wellbeing of women and
girls already experiencing violence. More and better
programme evaluation is needed to assess promising
practices, and to identify and develop new approaches
that can be tested through randomised controlled trials
or other rigorous approaches.
As highlighted by Rachel Jewkes and colleagues,3
programmes need to be based on robust theories of
change that act across multiple risk factors at many
different levels. Research on what works to change social
and cultural norms that sanction violence against women
and girls, and men’s control over women, is needed, since
these factors underlie many forms of violence against
women.3,9 We need to build on successful examples of
community-based approaches used to prevent female
genital mutilation10 or intimate partner violence.11 More
complex multidisciplinary research and evaluation
of interventions is needed; this requires partnerships
between programme planners, implementers, policy
makers, politicians, and researchers, as noted by
Claudia García-Moreno and colleagues5 in the Series call to
action. Research on what works in humanitarian settings
is also urgently needed.12 There is also a need to evaluate
the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Implementation
research, particularly within health systems, is necessary
to investigate the introduction, adaptation, and scaling
up of interventions that seem to be effective or promising.
In 2013, WHO launched clinical and policy
guidelines for responding to intimate partner
violence and sexual violence against women,13 which
highlighted the limitations of the evidence base on
health-care interventions for survivors of violence
and on developing effective service delivery models.
A health-system research agenda for strengthening
the response to violence against women and girls is
urgently needed.13 This agenda is particularly important
in light of the 2014 World Health Assembly Resolution
that calls on countries to strengthen the role of
health systems in addressing violence, particularly
against women and girls.14 For this resolution to be
implemented, countries will need to know what the
most effective clinical care interventions are, and
what works for strengthening capacity of health-care
providers and to scale up services.
2
For this field to retain its momentum and progress,
investment is necessary to allow measurement of the
magnitude and nature of the problem within individual
countries as well as across countries, together with
assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for
prevention and response and methods to scale up
effective interventions. More research is needed on
forms of violence about which we have insufficient
knowledge. Capacity needs to be strengthened in
middle-income and low-income countries to enable
local researchers to undertake research. Funding
for epidemiological, behavioural, operational, and
implementation research is also important if we are to
advance the field. Additionally, we need to develop a
larger menu of well evaluated interventions that can
be implemented and scaled up, which would stimulate
innovation and engagement of all actors as we move
forward. Initiatives to strengthen research and build
evidence on different forms of violence are welcome.
More such initiatives are urgently needed to accelerate
evidence-based programming efforts to prevent and
respond to violence against women and girls.
Marleen Temmerman
Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health
Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
[email protected]
I am Director of WHO’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR)
and have no competing interests. I thank Claudia García-Moreno, Avni Amin, and
Christina Pallitto of RHR, WHO.
© 2014. World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights
reserved.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Ellsberg M, Arango DJ, Morton M, et al. Prevention of violence against
women and girls: what does the evidence say? Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61703-7.
García-Moreno C, Hegarty K, Lucas d’Oliveira AF, Koziol-Maclain J,
Colombini M, Feder G. The health-systems response to violence against
women. Lancet 2014; published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7.
Jewkes R, Flood M, Lang J. From work with men and boys to changes of
social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual
shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. Lancet 2014;
published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(14)61683-4.
Michau L, Horn J, Bank A, Dutt M, Zimmerman C. Prevention of violence
against women and girls: lessons from practice. Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61797-9.
García-Moreno C, Zimmerman C, Morris-Gehring A, et al. Addressing
violence against women: a call to action. Lancet 2014; published online
Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61830-4.
WHO, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the South African
Medical Research Council. Global and regional estimates of violence against
women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and
non-partner sexual violence. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.
Jewkes R, Fulu E, Roselli T, García-Moreno C. Prevalence and risk factors for
non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country
Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.
Lancet Glob Health 2013; 1: e187–207.
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61840-7
Comment
8
Barker G, Contreras JM, Heilman B, Singh AK, Verma RK, Nascimento M.
Evolving men: initial results from the International Men and Gender
Equality Survey (IMAGES). Washington, DC: International Center for
Research on Women, 2011.
9 Heise L, Kotsadam A. Exploring cross-national and multi-level correlates of
partner violence: a test of the gender hypothesis Lancet Glob Health
(in press).
10 Diop NJ, Faye MM, Moreau A, et al. The TOSTAN Program: evaluation of a
community based education program in Senegal. New York: Population
Council, 2004.
11 Abramsky T, Devries K, Kiss L, et al. Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster
randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community
mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce
HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Med 2014; 12: 122.
12 Spangaro J, Adogu C, Ranmuthugala G, Davies GP, Steinacker L, Zwi A.
What evidence exsists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual
violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic
review. PLoS One 2013; 8: e62600.
13 WHO. Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against
women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines. Geneva: World Health
Organization, 2013.
14 67th World Health Assembly. Strengthening the role of the health systems in
addressing violence, in particular against women and girls and against
children. World Health Assembly, 2014. Resolution 67.15. http://apps.who.int/
gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA67/A67_R15-en.pdf?ua=1 (accessed Oct 22, 2014).
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61840-7
3
Comment
THELANCET-D-14-08273
S0140-6736(14)62217-0
Embargo: November 21, 2014—00:01 (BST)
Patriarchy and violence against women and girls
ongoing threat to public health and social progress.
The international community is undertaking a review
of commitments articulated in the Millennium
Development Goals, notably MDG 3, so that a sustained
process will enrol nations into the urgent task of
reversing these patterns of behaviour.
Our society has become increasingly desensitised to
violence. The recent GamerGate controversy revealed
the severe harassment of women who seek to expose
and mitigate extreme violence depicted in popular
video games.13 Media critic Anita Sarkeesian has
highlighted how vicious treatment of women is used
as decoration in these games, giving the impression
that women have no reason to exist except to be
brutalised.14 Sarkeesian faced death threats as a result
of her work.13 A 2008 Pew survey found that where the
internet is available 97% of youths aged 12–17 years
play video games on a regular basis.15 It defies credulity
that attitudes and tolerance for violence among our
young men and women are not influenced by these
engrossing experiences.
Violence is accepted in these and many other spheres
of life. As long as this is true, abuse of women and girls
will continue. Efforts to promote non-violence within
our families, culture, communities, and between
nations must be increased. Our churches, mosques,
and synagogues can be a source of peace, justice, and
spiritual nourishment, but entrenched patriarchy often
condones violation of women’s rights.
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62217-0
Published Online
November 21, 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)62217-0
See Online/Series
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61703-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61683-4,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61797-9, and
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61830-4
Jenny Matthews/Panos
In the nearly 20 years since the Beijing World Conference
on Women,1 there have been both advances and setbacks
for women and girls. Many of the 30 000 activists who
gathered there have continued the struggle for equal
human rights, making important progress. More women
are rising up and making their voices heard in every
sphere of life. Yet age-old patriarchal structures and
attitudes make sustained progress difficult.
Most societies were shaped by religious doctrine
mandated by male authorities, so attitudes and systems
that promote male dominance have become the norm.
Such doctrine came from religious leaders who distorted
religious scriptures by selecting texts that depict
women as inherently inferior or subservient to men.2
Alongside such patriarchal systems, violence in society
has also become normalised.2 My nation, the USA,
and other countries accept violence as a way to solve
problems—from the use of the death penalty and mass
incarceration in addressing crime, to pre-emptive and
unjust warfare abroad.
Many societal structures are built around the
expectation of violence, and this is illustrated by the
existence of brutality in the family. Violence against
women and girls happens far too often, from intimate
partner violence to honour killings. The numbers are
horrifying: globally, one in three women will be assaulted
in her lifetime; homicide of a woman as a result of
domestic abuse is six times more likely when a firearm
is in the home, illustrating the deadly consequences of
permissive gun laws; and one in five women in the USA is
sexually assaulted during her time in higher education.3,4
Poverty is also a factor in these societal structures.
Women employed full-time in the USA earn around 22%
less than men on average, making it much harder for
poor women to lift themselves out of poverty.5 Young
girls also suffer under such societal structures. More than
1·5 million girls worldwide are married each year who are
younger than 15 years.6 Unbelievably, about 160 million
girls are missing around the world, as a result of selective
abortion of female fetuses or female infanticide, because
families believe a son will be a better provider than a girl
in societies where girls are deprived of education and
gainful employment.7
As the Lancet Series on violence against women
and girls8–12 shows, the abuses I describe here pose an
1
Comment
Patriarchy is not new. It is a system created and
maintained by men of faith and politics who hold the
levers of economic, cultural, and political power and
who confuse strength and masculinity with domination
and brutality. Patriarchy must be replaced by a system
in which equal human rights and non-violence are
promoted and accepted. This will happen if we embrace
the kind of love and mutual respect exemplified and
preached by the founders of the world’s great religions,
and through the persistent efforts of those who speak
out and work for a more equal and less violent world.2
Equal human dignity is a human right, as codified in
many global treaties. It is my hope that political and
religious leaders will step forward and use their influence
to communicate clearly that violence against women
and girls must stop, that we are failing our societies, and
that the time for leadership is now.
Jimmy Carter
The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA
[email protected]
I was the 39th President of the USA and am the founder of The Carter Center and
a member of The Elders. I declare no competing interests.
1
2
3
2
UN. United Nations Report on the Fourth World Conference on Women.
Beijing, Sept 4–15, 1995. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/
pdf/Beijing%20full%20report%20E.pdf (accessed Nov 13, 2014).
Carter J. A call to action: religion, women, violence and power. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 2014.
Black MC, Basile KC, Breiding MJ, et al. The National Intimate Partner and
Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 summary report. Atlanta, GA:
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2011.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Krebs CB, Lindquist CH, Warner TD, Fisher BS, Martin SL. The Campus
Sexual Assault (CSA) study final report. Washington, DC: National Institute
of Justice, 2007.
Hegewisch A, Williams C, Hartmann H, Hudiburg SK. The gender wage gap
2013: differences by race and ethnicity, no growth in real wages for
women. Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, 2014.
Brown G. Out of wedlock, into school: combatting child marriage through
education. The Office of the UN Special Envoy for Global Education.
London: The Office of Gordon and Sarah Brown, 2013.
Hvistendahl M. Unnatural selection: choosing boys over girls, and the
consequences of a world full of men. New York: Public Affairs, 2012.
Ellsberg M, Arango DJ, Morton M, et al. Prevention of violence against
women and girls: what does the evidence say? Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61703-7.
García-Moreno C, Hegarty K, Lucas d’Oliveira AF, Koziol-Maclain J,
Colombini M, Feder G. The health-systems response to violence against
women. Lancet 2014; published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7.
Jewkes R, Flood M, Lang J. From work with men and boys to changes of
social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual
shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. Lancet 2014;
published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(14)61683-4.
Michau L, Horn J, Bank A, Dutt M, Zimmerman C. Prevention of violence
against women and girls: lessons from practice. Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61797-9.
García-Moreno C, Zimmerman C, Morris-Gehring A, et al. Addressing
violence against women: a call to action. Lancet 2014; published online
Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61830-4.
Wingfield N. Feminist critics of video games facing threats in “GamerGate”
campaign. The New York Times Oct 15, 2014.
Sarkeesian A. Tropes vs women in video games. YouTube Feministfrequency
March 7, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLn4ob_5_ttEaA_
vc8F3fjzE62esf9yP61 (accessed Nov 13, 2014).
Lenhart A. Teens, video games and civics: what the research is telling us.
Pew Research Internet Project, Pew Research Center. Nov 2, 2008. http://
www.pewinternet.org/2008/11/02/teens-video-games-and-civics-whatthe-research-is-telling-us/ (accessed Nov 13, 2014).
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62217-0
Comment
Prevention of violence against women and girls: a new chapter
Series, and steered the expert teams of authors to cover
crucial aspects of this issue. The five papers assess the
evidence base for prevention interventions,5 discuss the
vital role of the health sector in care and prevention,6
show the need for men and women to be involved in
effective programmes,4 provide practical lessons from
experience in countries,7 and present a call for action
with five key recommendations and indicators to track
progress during the next 5 years.8
What do the papers tell us? The most successful
strategies are complex, using multiple approaches,
across many different sectors, with an essential role for
the health sector.5,6 Success requires the involvement
of men and women, in single-sex and mixed group
discussions, over a substantial period of time.4
Interventions that not only discuss the implications
of violence, but also explicitly address the underlying
issue of inequality and seek to transform gender norms
by promoting more equitable relationships between
men and women, are essential to achieve lasting
change.4 Programming requires action at the individual,
community, and societal levels and sufficient investment
with specifically allocated budgets.7,8 The Series also
highlights the substantial limitations in data quality and
quantity in this field, and an accompanying Comment
by Marleen Temmerman9 discusses these concerns. The
gaps in knowledge should act as a rallying call for funders
and researchers to strengthen the evidence base.
Published Online
November 21, 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61775-X
See Online/Comment
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61840-7
See Online/Series
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61703-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61683-4,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61797-9, and
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61830-4
Heidi Brady/Raising Voices/Kivulini
In Margaret Atwood’s novel, The Handmaid’s Tale, set
in the near future, a totalitarian state has come to
power in the USA having cracked down on women’s
rights, forbidding them to own property or hold
jobs.1 In this futuristic dystopia, women have strict
roles in society. Those of healthy reproductive age,
Handmaids, are enslaved to elite couples unable to
conceive to bear them children. Although Atwood’s
book is a fictional work, the underlying themes will be
familiar to many women and girls around the world,
and certainly to those working to eliminate violence
against this population.
Every day, millions of women and girls experience
violence. This abuse takes many forms, including intimate
physical and sexual partner violence, female genital
mutilation, child and forced marriage, sex trafficking, and
rape. The burden is substantial. One in three women will
experience physical and/or sexual violence by a partner
or sexual violence from someone other than a partner in
their lifetime, constituting a “global public health problem
of epidemic proportions”, according to WHO.2 Women’s
health and wellbeing can be affected by this violence
in many ways, including physical and mental trauma,
increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and sexual and
reproductive health problems. Childhood experience of
violence, directly or witnessing violence in the home, is a
risk factor for a range of high-risk health behaviours, such
as smoking and unsafe sexual practices, and, for boys, for
violence perpetration in adolescence and adulthood.3
Men are victims of unacceptable violence too.
However, different strategies are likely to be needed to
address this health problem, since the largest burden
among men is likely to be from street or gang violence
perpetrated by other men.4 Such violence is common in
many inner-cities around the world, with a particularly
high burden in regions such as Latin America.4 Violence
against women and girls, meanwhile, is widespread but
often hidden, and has a common root cause—gender
inequality—perpetuated by entrenched social norms
and structures that exist in every economic setting.
Although a developing field, primary and secondary
prevention is possible, and this is the central theme of
the Lancet Series on violence against women and girls.4–8
We thank Charlotte Watts, Claudia García-Moreno, and
Cathy Zimmerman, who conceived the idea for this
Community members and leaders in Mwanza, Tanzania, talk about their role in preventing violence against women
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61775-X
1
Comment
There is one sector that lags behind in its vital role
in addressing violence against women and girls:
the health sector. Health workers have a crucial part
to play not only in treating the consequences of
violence, but also helping women to disclose that
they are victims of violence and to understand that
what they are experiencing is abuse. This type of
supportive—potentially life-saving—response requires
non-judgmental, respectful, and compassionate care. As
noted by García-Moreno and colleagues,6 systems-wide
changes are needed to enable health workers to address
violence against women and girls, such as regular
training, protocols, and referral networks. Health
professionals also have a role in championing primary
prevention and being agents of change not only in
clinical settings but also in the wider community, for
example by promoting the health benefits of delayed
marriage for girls.
The women’s movement has been, and will continue
to be, instrumental in advocacy and government action
on violence against women and girls, but it is time for
the campaign to be broadened. We hope this Series
will initiate a new health and sustainable development
movement for 2015 and beyond, one that involves
women and girls, men and boys, health-care workers,
2
researchers, teachers, religious leaders, the judiciary,
police, and politicians, and one that can eventually
eliminate violence against women and girls.
Udani Samarasekera, Richard Horton
The Lancet, London NW1 7BY, UK
We thank Alison Morris-Gehring for her help coordinating this Series.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Atwood, M. The handmaid’s tale. London: Jonathan Cape, 1985.
WHO. Global and regional estimates of violence against women:
prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner
sexual violence. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013. http://www.
who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241564625/en/
(accessed Oct 28, 2014).
Krug RG, Mercy JA, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB. World report on violence and
health. Lancet 2002; 360: 1083–88.
Jewkes R, Flood M, Lang J. From work with men and boys to changes of social
norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in
prevention of violence against women and girls. Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61683-4.
Ellsberg M, Arango DJ, Morton M, et al. Prevention of violence against
women and girls: what does the evidence say? Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61703-7.
García-Moreno C, Hegarty K, Lucas d’Oliveira AF, Koziol-Maclain J,
Colombini M, Feder G. The health-systems response to violence against
women. Lancet 2014; published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61837-7.
Michau L, Horn J, Bank A, Dutt M, Zimmerman C. Prevention of violence
against women and girls: lessons from practice. Lancet 2014; published
online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61797-9.
García-Moreno C, Zimmerman C, Morris-Gehring A, et al. Addressing
violence against women: a call to action. Lancet 2014; published online
Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61830-4.
Temmerman M. Research priorities to address violence against women and
girls. Lancet 2014; published online Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
S0140-6736(14)61840-7.
www.thelancet.com Published online November 21, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61775-X
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