SOLID WASTE AND ITS MANAGEMENT Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental Science)

SOLID WASTE
AND ITS
MANAGEMENT
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental Science)
International Islamic University, Islamabad
WASTE

It is defined as:
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse,
garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless materials.
OR
“Any materials unused and rejected as worthless
or unwanted” and “A useless or profitless activity;
using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or
carelessly”
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental Science) International
Islamic University, Islamabad
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Science) International Islamic University,
INTRODUCTION

Since the beginning, Human kind has been
generating waste.
 It could be in the form of:
 Bones
 Other parts of animals they slaughter
 Wood
 With the progress of civilization the waste
generated became of a more complex nature.
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the end of 19th century (Industrial
revolution) there was rise in the world of
consumers.
 The increase in population and
urbanization was also largely responsible
for the increase in solid waste
 At
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TYPES OF WASTE

Solid Waste
 Liquid Waste
 Gaseous Wastes
 Animal by-products
 Biodegradable waste
 Biomedical waste
 Bulky waste
 Business waste
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
Chemical waste
 Clinical waste
 Coffee wastewater
 Commercial waste
 Construction and demolition waste (C&D
waste)
 Controlled waste
 Consumable waste
 Composite
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SOLID WASTE

It is defined as:
“Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging
from municipal garbage to industrial wastes
that contain complex and sometimes
hazardous substances”
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 Solid
wastes also include:
• Sewage sludge
• Agricultural refuse
• Demolition wastes
• Mining residues
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TYPES OF SOLID WASTE

Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as
follows:
1. Household waste is generally classified as
Municipal waste
2. Industrial waste as Hazardous waste
3. Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as
Infectious waste
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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
 Municipal
solid waste consists of:
Household waste
Construction and demolition debris
Sanitation residue
Waste from streets.
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

With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and
food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has
been increasing rapidly and its composition changing.
The existing landfills are neither well equipped or
well managed and are not lined properly to protect
against contamination of soil and groundwater.
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The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it
takes to degenerate
Type of litter
Approximate time it takes to
degenerate the litter
Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit
peels, leftover foodstuff, etc
A week or two.
Paper
10–30 days
Cotton cloth
2–5 months
Wood
10–15 years
Woolen items
1 year
Tin, aluminum, and other metal items such as
cans
100–500 years
Plastic bags
one million years
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HAZARDOUS WASTE

Industrial and hospital waste is considered
hazardous as they may contain toxic
substances.
 Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to
humans, animals, and plants. They are
 Corrosive
 Highly inflammable, or explosive
 React when exposed to certain things e.g. gases
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
Household wastes that can be categorized as
hazardous waste include:
old batteries
shoe polish
paint tins
old medicines
medicine bottles.
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
Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals
used in hospitals is considered hazardous.
 These chemicals include formaldehyde and
phenols, which are used as disinfectants.
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
In the industrial sector, the major generators of
hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods
industries.
 Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous
waste such as mercury and cyanide can be
fatal.
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HOSPITAL WASTE


Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis,
treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals
It may include wastes like
 Sharps
 Soiled waste
 Disposables
 Anatomical waste
 Cultures
 Discarded medicines
 Chemical wastes
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


These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs,
bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.
This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious
threat to human health if not managed in a scientific
and discriminate manner
It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste
generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected
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SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTE
Source
1:Residential
Typical Waste
Generators
Single
and
dwellings


multifamily










Types of solid wastes
Food wastes
Paper
Cardboard
Plastics
Textiles
Leather
Yard wastes
Wood
Glass
Metals
Ashes
Special wastes
(e.g bulky items, consumer
electronics,
white
goods,
batteries, oil, tires), and
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household hazardous wastes.)
2: Industrial
3:Commercial
4: Institutional




Housekeeping wastes
Packaging
Light and heavy
Food wastes
manufacturing, fabrication,
Construction and
construction sites, power and
demolition materials
chemical plants.
 Hazardous wastes
 Ashes
 Special wastes.
 Paper
 cardboard
Stores, hotels, restaurants,
 plastics
markets, office buildings, etc.
 wood
 food wastes
 glass
 metals
 special wastes
 hazardous wastes
Schools, hospitals, prisons, Same as commercial.
government centers.
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5:Construction and demolition
6:Municipal services
7:Process (manufacturing etc.)
8:Agriculture
 Wood
New construction sites, road
 steel
repair,
renovation
sites,
 concrete
demolition of buildings
 dirt etc.
 Street sweepings
Street cleaning, landscaping,
 landscape
and
tree
parks,
beaches,
other
trimmings
recreational areas, water and
 General wastes from parks
wastewater treatment plants.
 Beaches
 Recreational areas; sludge.
 Industrial process wastes
Heavy and light manufacturing,
 Scrap materials
refineries, chemical plants,
 Off-specification products.
power
plants,
mineral
extraction and processing.
 Spoiled food wastes
 Agricultural wastes
Crops, orchards, vineyards,
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental
 Hazardous wastes
dairies,
feedlots,
farms.
Science) International Islamic University,
(e.g.,
CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE


The main sources for solid wastes are domestic,
commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural
wastes.
The composition of a city waste is as follows:
 Paper, wood, cardboard 53 %
 Garbage 22 %
 Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 %
 Metals 8 %
 Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 %
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Percentages
Composition of City Waste
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Series1
Paper,
w ood,
cardboard
Garbage
Ceramic,
glass
crokery
metals
Type of Wastes
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Rubber,
plastics,
discarded
textiles

The increase in the quantity of solid waste is
due to
 Overpopulation,
Affluence (material comfort)
Technological advancement
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EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
a) Health Hazard




If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to
accumulate, they may create unsanitary conditions.
This may lead to epidemic outbreaks.
Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery,
plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may
spread and cause loss of human lives.
In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes is a
health hazard for the workers who come in direct
contact with the waste
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b) Environmental Impact


If the solid wastes are not treated properly,
decomposition and putrefaction (decay) may take
place.
The organic solid waste during decomposition may
generate obnoxious (intolerable) odors.
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WASTE MANAGEMENT
4 R’s CONCEPT
 Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce)
to be followed for waste management.
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REFUSE
 Instead
of buying new containers from the
market, use the ones that are in the house.
Refuse to buy new items though you may
think they are prettier than the ones you
already have.
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REUSE

Do not throw away the
soft drink cans or the
bottles; cover them
with homemade paper
or paint on them and
use them as pencil
stands or small vases.
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RECYCLE
 Use
shopping
bags made of
cloth or jute,
which can be
used over and
over again.
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REDUCE

Reduce the
generation of
unnecessary waste,
e.g. carry your own
shopping bag when
you go to the
market and put all
your purchases
directly into it.
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CONTROL MEASURES

The main purpose of solid waste management
is to minimize the adverse effects on the
environment. The steps involved are:
 Collection of solid wastes
 Disposal of solid wastes
 Utilization of wastes
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COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES
 Collection
of waste includes gathering
the waste, transporting it to a
centralized location, and then moving it
to the site of disposal.
 The collected waste is then separated into
 Hazardous
 Non-hazardous materials.
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DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it
is processed to recover the usable resources
and to improve the efficiency of the solid waste
disposal system.
 The main processing technologies are
 compaction
 Incineration
 Manual separation.
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
The appropriate solid waste disposal method
has to be selected, keeping in view the
following objectives:
1. Should be economically viable
2. Should not create a health hazard
3. Should not cause adverse environmental
effects
4. Should not result in unpleasant sight, odor,
and noise
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UTILIZATION OF WASTES

The solid wastes can be properly utilized to
gather the benefits such as:
 Conservation of natural resources
 Economic development
 Generate many useful products
 Employment opportunities
 Control of air pollution
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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT



Waste management is the collection, transport,
processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of
waste materials.
The term usually relates to materials produced by
human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce
their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.
Management is also carried out to recover resources
from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid,
gaseous or radioactive substances
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


Waste management practices differ for developed and
developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for
residential and industrial producers.
Management for non-hazardous waste residential and
institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local government authorities.
Management for non-hazardous commercial and
industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the
generator.
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METHODS OF DISPOSAL


Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the
waste, and this remains a common practice in most
countries.
Landfills were often established in
 Abandoned or unused quarries,
 Mining voids
 Borrow pits
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A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively
inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials
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INCENERATION



Incineration is a disposal method in which solid
organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to
convert them into residue and gaseous products.
This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20
to 30 percent of the original volume.
Incineration and other high temperature waste
treatment systems are sometimes described as
"thermal treatment".
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RECYCLING



Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste
materials such as empty beverage containers.
The materials from which the items are made can be
reprocessed into new products.
Material for recycling may be collected separately
from general waste using dedicated bins and
collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed
waste streams.
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
The most common consumer products recycled
include:
 Aluminum such as beverage cans
 Copper such as wire
 Steel food and aerosol cans
 Old steel furnishings or equipment
 Polyethylene and PET bottles
 Glass bottles and jars
 Paperboard cartons
 Newspapers, magazines and light paper
 Corrugated fiberboard boxes.
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SUSTANIBILTY



The management of waste is a key component in a
business ability to maintaining ISO 14001 official
approval.
Companies are encouraged to improve their
environmental efficiencies each year.
One way to do this is by improving a company’s
waste management with a new recycling service.
(such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and
cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)
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BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING


Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as
 plant material
 food scraps
 paper products
Can be recycled using biological composting and
digestion processes to decompose the organic matter
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
The resulting organic material is then recycled
as mulch or compost for agricultural or
landscaping purposes.
 In addition, waste gas from the process (such
as methane) can be captured and used for
generating electricity and heat
(CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies
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ENERGY RECOVERY



The energy content of waste products can be
harnessed directly by using them as a
 Direct combustion fuel
Indirectly by processing them into another
 Type of fuel
There are 2 types of Thermal Treatment
 Pyrolysis
 Gasification
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AVOIDANCE AND REDUCTION METHOD

An important method of waste management is the
prevention of waste material being created, also
known as waste reduction.

Methods of avoidance includes:
 Reuse of second-hand products
 Repairing broken items instead of buying new
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 Designing
products to be refillable or reusable (such
as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags)
 Encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable
products (such as disposable cutlery)
 Removing any food/liquid remains from cans
 Packaging
 Designing products that use less material to achieve
the same purpose (for example, light weighting of
beverage cans).
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WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT


Waste collection methods vary widely among
different countries and regions.
Domestic waste collection services are often provided
by local government authorities, or by private
companies in the industry.
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TECHNOLOGIES

The waste management industry has been slow
to adopt new technologies such as:
 RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags,
 GPS
 Integrated software packages
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WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

There are a number of concepts about waste
management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions.
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
Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the
"3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify
waste management strategies according to their
desirability in terms of waste minimization.
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
Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is
a principle where the polluting party pays for the
impact caused to the environment. With respect to
waste management, this generally refers to the
requirement for a waste generator to pay for
appropriate disposal of the waste.
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EDUCATION AND AWARENESS

Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste
management is increasingly important from a global
perspective of resource management. The Talloires
Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about
the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution
and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local,
regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and
distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of
forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and
emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of
humans and thousands of other living species.
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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN


Solid waste collection by government owned and operated
services in Pakistan's cities currently averages only 50
percent of waste quantities generated; however, for cities
to be relatively clean, at least 75 percent of these
quantities should be collected.
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper
solid waste management system right from collection of
solid waste up to its proper disposal.
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URBANIZATION PATTERN




According to the 1981 census, of the 5.92 million persons
who had migrated within the country, 87.6% moved from
rural to urban areas, while only 12.4% moved in the
opposite direction. Over 50% of them permanently settled
in cities.
During the last several decades, migration has occurred
from rural to urban areas. The chief factors responsible for
this migration are:
Slow progress in the agriculture sector,
Low crop yields,
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


Lack of alternate employment opportunities
Environmental degradation due to water logging/salinity,
deforestation and desertification
According to a study, the selected cities are growing at a
growth rate from 3.67% to 7.42% which is much higher
than the overall growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8%. Major
cities in Pakistan are estimated to double their population
in next ten years. These cities are generating high amounts
of solid waste which is increasing annually with the
respective population growth.
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GROWTH IN SOLID WASTE GENERATION
Presently it is estimated that, 54,888 tons per day of solid
waste is generated in Pakistan. The Ministry of
Environment undertook a study during 1996 on "Data
Collection for Preparation of National Study on
Privatization of Solid Waste Management in Eight
Selected Cities of Pakistan". The study revealed that the
rate of waste generation on average from all type of
municipal controlled areas varies from 0.283
kg/capita/day to 0.613 kg/capita/day or from 1.896
kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in all the selected
cities.
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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIO STRATEGIC CHALLENGES
Solid waste in Pakistan is generally composed of
 Plastic and rubber
 Metal
 Paper and cardboard
 Textile waste
 Glass
 Food waste
 Animal waste
 Leaves
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
Grass
 Straws and fodder
 Bones
 Wood
 Stones and fines to various extents.
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INSTITUTIONAL, LEGAL AND MANAGEMENT
ASPECTS
Under the recently devolved local government system,
the Town/ Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMAs)
are responsible for the solid waste collection,
transportation and disposal. However, TMAs are
unable to cope with continuously increasing volumes
of municipal waste due to inadequate funds, lack of
rules, regulations and standards, lack of knowhow on
the subject, lack of expertise and lack of collection
vehicles and equipment
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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY

The Government of Pakistan enacted the
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA)
in 1997 which is the most recent and updated
legislation on environment.
 It provides a framework for establishing federal
and provincial Environmental Protection
Agencies (EPAs).
 Presently the legal rules and regulations
dealing with solid waste management in
Pakistan are as follows:
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Current
1: Section 11 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act
prohibits discharge of waste in an amount or concentration
that violates the National Environmental Quality
Standards.
2: Draft Hazardous Substances Rules of 1999.
3: Islamabad Capital Territory Bye Laws, 1968 by Capital
Development Authority Islamabad
4: Section 132 of the Cantonment Act 1924 deals with
Deposits and disposal of rubbish etc
5: Provisions contained in the Local Government Ordinance,
2001

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Required
The rules and guidelines that are yet to be introduced
include:








Basic Recycling rules
Waste Management rules
E-Waste Management rules
Development of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI)
Eco-Labeling guidelines and its promotion
Adoption of Life Cycle Assessment Approaches
Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Collection and Disposal
Guidelines for model landfill sites
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CURRENT STATUS OF SWM PRACTICES
 Currently
solid waste in Pakistan has not been
carried out in a sufficient and proper manner in
 Collection
 Transportation

Disposal or dumping regardless of the size of
the city.
 These aspect may include:
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








Rate of urbanization
Pattern and density of urban areas
Physical planning and control of development
Physical composition of waste
Density of waste
Temperature and precipitation
Scavenger’s activity for recyclable separation
The capacity
Adequacy and limitations of respective municipalities to
manage the solid waste.
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




According to the 1998 census, of the 130.579 million persons
living in Pakistan, 67% live in rural areas, while 33 % live in
urban areas. Furthermore, out of 33 % of persons living urban
areas, 54 % of them live in ten major cities of Pakistan. During
the last several decades, migration has occurred from rural to
urban areas. The major factors responsible for this migration
are:
Slow progress in the agriculture sector
Low crop yields
Lack of alternate employment opportunities
Environmental degradation due to water logging/salinity
Deforestation and desertification.
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POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD ESTIMATES

The number and growth of population and
households is the foremost factor affecting the
solid waste and its management at various
stages.
 The selected cities are growing at a rate
ranging between 3.67% to 7.42%, which is
much higher than the overall growth rate of
Pakistan, i.e. 2.8% (EPMC, 1996).
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
Major cities of them are estimated to double
their population in next ten years.
 The numbers of households also play an
important role in generation and collection of
the solid waste.
 The average household size in the selected
cities varies from 6.7 to 7.3 persons.
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WASTE GENERATION AND COLLECTION ESTIMATES

The average rate of waste generation from all
type of municipal controlled areas varies from
1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in a
few major cities.
 It shows a trend of waste generation wherein
increase has been recorded in accordance with
city's population besides its social and
economic development.
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Science) International Islamic University,

In Pakistan, solid waste is mainly collected by
municipalities and waste collection efficiencies
range from 0 percent in low-income rural areas
to 90 percent in high- income areas of large
cities.
 Collection rate of solid waste by respective
municipalities ranges from 51% to 69% of the
total waste generated within their jurisdiction.
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Science) International Islamic University,
PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE

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The move from landfill-based to resource-based waste
management systems requires a greater knowledge of the
composition of municipal solid waste. Solid waste in
Pakistan is generally composed of three categories i.e.
Biodegradable such as food waste, animal waste, leaves,
grass, straws, and wood.
Non-biodegradable are plastic, rubber, textile waste,
metals, fines, stones and
Recyclable material includes paper, card board, rags and
bones.
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WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
The waste is disposed off within or outside municipal
limits into low lying areas like ponds etc, without any
treatment except recyclable separation by scavengers. The
land is also hired/leased on long term basis for disposal.
Moreover, the least mitigating measures have also never
been reported from any municipality. Treatment and
disposal technologies such as sanitary land filling,
composting and incineration are comparatively new in
Pakistan
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Crude open dumping is the most common practice
throughout Pakistan and dump sites are commonly set
to fire to reduce the volume of accumulating waste. At
present, there are no landfill regulations or standards
that provide a basis for compliance and monitoring,
but national guidelines for these standards are being
prepared by the Consultant under National
Environmental Action Plan Support Program (NEAP
SP).
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Science) International Islamic University,
CONCLUSION

The overall conclusion of the study on present status
of solid waste management in Pakistan as follows:
1.There is a limited focus on control mechanisms which
is adversely effecting on safety, health and the
environment.
2.Regulations are inadequately enforced and SWM does
not seem to be a priority.
3.None of the cities has an integrated solid waste
management system
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
Collection rate 5 1-69 % of total waste
generated.
 Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as
ordinary waste
 A lot of potential for recycling and
involvement of private sector which is
overlooked
 No disposal facilities
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental
Science) International Islamic University,


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Open burning of waste or open disposal is most
common practice.
No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal
sites
Open burning of non-degradable components like
plastic bags are adding to air pollution
Much of the uncollected waste poses serious health
hazards
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Science) International Islamic University,
RECOMMENDATIONS

Following recommendations are proposed for
sustainable SWM:
1.The involvement of people and private sector through
NGOs could improve the efficiency of SWM.
2.Public awareness should be created especially at
primary school.
3.Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities, towns
and urban areas.
4.Moreover, house-to-house collection of SW should be
organized
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Science) International Islamic University,


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The collection bins must have a large enough capacity
to accommodate 20% more than the expected waste
generation in the area.
Municipal authorities should maintain the storage
facilities to avoid unhygienic and unsanitary
conditions.
Proper segregation would lead to better options and
opportunities for scientific disposal of waste.
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Science) International Islamic University,


An open dump or an uncontrolled waste disposal area
should be rehabilitated. It is advisable to move from
open dumping to sanitary land filling in a phased
manner.
Land filling should be restricted to non-biodegradable,
inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either
for recycling or for biological processing
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental
Science) International Islamic University,
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental
Science) International Islamic University,
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