An Exploration of English Orthography (and its connections…) Louisa Moats, Ed.D. 

An Exploration of English
Orthography
(and its connections…)
Louisa Moats, Ed.D. 2008
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 1
Warm-Up: Do These Words Go to
“Outlaw” Jail?
about
again beautiful because black caught car don’t every found gym have how it’s junk knew little more nice one our phone quit right use when Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 2
Warm-Up:
What About Alphabetic Word Walls?
O E eye eat end every even
one once only out open on off Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 3
English Gets a Bad Rap!
I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough; Some may stumble but not you On hiccough, thorough, slough, and through. Beware of heard a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird . . .
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 4
How Do We Learn Words?
Context Processor Fluency Meaning Processor Workshop Focus Phonological Processor Orthographic Processor Phonics
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 5
Five Principles for
Understanding English Orthography
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Language of origin. Phoneme­grapheme correspondences. The position of a phoneme or grapheme in a word. Letter order and sequence patterns. Meaning (morphology) and part of speech.
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 6
Principle #1
LANGUAGE OF ORIGIN (The language from which a word came and its history in the English language.)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 7
Match It Game: Answers
Word in English
Language of Origin algebra curriculum blitz incommunicado cello chutzpah ballet athlete Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised Latin Greek Spanish Yiddish Italian French Arabic German 8
Hundreds of Years Before the Norman Invasion (1066) – Angles, Saxons & Jutes
GERMANY GREAT BRITAIN Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 9 After 1066: French/Romance
p Gain spellings such as ou (coupon), ­ge for /zh/ (garage), ­ette (baguette), and ­ que (boutique). p Are words for food; concepts of social justice and enlightenment (courageous; magnificent). p Have identifiable Latin roots (peace/pacem).
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 10
Characteristics of English Words
according to Language of Origin
Language of Origin
Features of Words Examples Anglo­Saxon (Old English) Short, one syllable; common words; irregular spellings Norman French Soft c and g; special amuse, cousin, endings; words for cuisine, country, food, fashion peace, triage, rouge, baguette Latin / Romance Multi­syllable words with prefixes, roots, suffixes; content words Greek sky, earth, moon, sun, water, sheep, dog, horse, cow, hen, head firmament, terrestrial, solar, stellar, equine, aquarium, mammal Combinations of hypnosis, agnostic, Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised forms; science and neuropsychology, 11
math terminology decathlon The Advantage of This Linguistic Heritage?
Allows for a variety of ways to express thoughts! p No brains (English) p Stupid (Norman French) p Ignorant, ignoramus (Latin) p Atrophy in the frontal­temporal gyri of the cerebral hemispheres (Greek)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 12
The Richness of English
n He walked slowly around the floor. (AS) n The antique vase held a magnificent bouquet. (Fr) n The hippopotamus’s nocturnal perambulations concerned the zoological society’s supervisors. (L) n His mild hemiparesis, hyperreflexivity, and dyspraxia suggested a left cerebral lesion. (Gr)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 13
What Language Are We Speaking?
He loves me. I can tell from watching the way he looks into my eyes. Anglo­Saxon Alluding to improvements of tempo, the conductor complimented the quartet’s adaptability. Latin The choreography required gymnasts of prodigious athletic gifts. Greek These are the times that try men’s souls. Anglo­Saxon His hemispherectomy resulted in aphasia, hemiparesis, and dyseidetic dyslexia. Greek
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 14
Dimensions of English Orthography
Sound­Symbol Syllable Patterns Morpheme Structure closed open vce trigraphs, blends vowel­r Vowels vowel team short, long consonant –le ­v­c­e, vowel team, (oddities) compounds inflections base words suffixes high frequency words Anglo Consonants Saxon single, digraphs, vowel­r patterns Latin prefixes roots suffixes Greek ph for /f/ (graph) Combining forms plurals ch for /k/ (chorus) Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised y for /i/ (gym) 15
Quick Review
Make an educated guess about the base language each word came from – Anglo Saxon (AS), French (FR), Latin (L), or Greek (GR). Justify your choice to a partner digraph (GR) read(AS) auditory(L) unique (FR) instruction (L) spell(AS) diphthong(GR) linguistic(L) logographic (GR) structural(L) talk(AS) dyslexia(GR) progression(L) teach(AS) write (AS) phonology(GR)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 16
Principle #2
Phoneme­Grapheme Correspondences
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 17
Graphemes
p A letter or letter pattern that spells a phoneme (speech sound). p Graphemes can be one, two, three, or four letters in English! Examples: 1 letter: ‘a’ as in strap 2 letters: ‘ng’ as in ring 3 letters: ‘tch’ as in ditch 4 letters: ‘ough’ as in through
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 18
Graphemes: Letters and Letter
Combinations
Phoneme­Grapheme Correspondence: /ch/ /ē/ /z/ ch ee se /d/ /ū/ /d/ /l/ /z/ d oo d Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised le s
19
Facts About Predictability
From Hanna, Hanna, Hodges, and Rudorf (1966): p 50% of words are predictable by rule. p 36% of words are predictable by rule with one error, usually a vowel. p 10% of words will be predictable with morphology and word origin taken into account. p Fewer than 4% are true oddities.
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 20
Consonant Grapheme Types
Single letters (including blends): trap, spend Doublets: puff, hill, lass, fizz Digraphs: chain, shrink, either, phone Trigraphs: wedge, botch Silent­letter combinations: comb, autumn, folk
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 21
Inventory of Consonant Graphemes
1. Which phonemes are represented by a single grapheme? 2. Which phonemes are represented by multiple graphemes? 3. What does this suggest for the order in which you might teach these phoneme­ grapheme correspondences?
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 22
Map the Graphemes: How Did You
Do?
sh
r i m p b l o n d ch u n k f r e sh s t i ng Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 23
How Did You Do?
c
r oa k kn ow sh e ll s t r th r ough ea Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised m 24
Vowel Grapheme Types
Single Letter Spellings, Long and Short: ro­bot, ca­pon, mo­ped Vowel Teams: east, south, night, blue Vowel­r Combinations: her, bird, fur, car Vowel­consonant­e: cape, kite, cube, rode
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 25
The Vowel Chart Revisited yū cute few universe feud
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 26
Principle #3:
We Spell by Position of a Phoneme (or Grapheme) in a Word
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 27
Word Sort: Floss Rule
p Put words on sticky notes. p Group the words by the spelling of the final sound. p Put aside the words that don’t fit the pattern. p Explain the pattern. p Can you guess reasons for the exceptions? p Add new words to each group.
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 28
Word Sort: Floss Rule
shall chess shell grass spill class shrill dress spell glass thrill smell stuff jazz gas cuff fizz his staff gel sniff stiff Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised base mile 29
Spellings May Be Determined
by the Position of a Sound
Spellings for /f/: fun, half, puff, cough, graph, phone Spellings for /ng/: ring, bang, hung = ng rink, ankle, anguish = n
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 30
Exercise #9:
Word Sort, Spellings for /k/
p Read the words in the exercise on p. ___. p Cut out each word from your handout or write each word on a sticky note. p Sort the words into categories. p Be ready to answer: n When do we use a ‘c’ for /k/? n When do we use a ‘k’ for /k/? n When do we use ‘ck’ for /k/?
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 31
Word Sort – one option
Spellings for /k/
c­ coat cover clear cuddle catch k­ ­k ­ck ? kayak hook pick nice knack sneak deck circus kind squawk flock cyclone kettle stuck cycle kitchen Kyle koala • When do we use a ‘c’ for /k/? • When do we use a ‘k’ for /k/? • When do we use ‘ck’ for /k/?
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 32
The Spelling Patterns for
/k/
pBeginning /k/ is spelled with c before a, o, and u or a consonant, and with k before e, i, or y. pEnding /k/ is spelled with ­ck immediately after an accented, short vowel. What about words like kayak, kangaroo, flak, and koala?
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 33
Once Accurate, Add Fluency!
p Add fluency drills at these levels: sub­word word phrase sentence connected text p Let’s take a look at an example on the following slide…
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 34
Fluency Practice
At the word level: cite cent cost city cart cups camp cyst cans cell calf cede At the phrase level: in the city when I camp under the cart in the camp site within the cuparound the cyst after the calf when I cede At the sentence level: When the boy from the city went to summer camp, he crafted a creative project. The cyst on his wrist was gone once he saw the doctor. Since she was a guest, she was able to go with the gang to the game without cost.
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 35
Principle #4
We Spell by Letter Patterns
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 36
Could It Be English?
Word nixxen foige sludiing diggery lav shchar yazm Yes or No? no yes no yes no no no Why? Cannot double ‘x’ Words do not end with ‘j’ Cannot double ‘i’ – except for skiing! Doubling rule Words do not end with ‘v’ No double digraphs ‘zm’ not a typical blend
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 37
What Pattern Is at Work?
1. give, love, serve, halve (No word can end in plain v.) 2. picnic, picnicking; traffic, trafficking (The added k keeps the c from saying /s/.) 3. cheese, choose, cruise, raise (The final e marks the sound of /z/ for s and keeps the s from being a plural marker.)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 38
Why Teach Syllables?
To “chunk” unfamiliar words accurately and quickly: reincarnation; accomplishment To distinguish similar words: scarred – scary ripping – ripening slimmer – slimy To remember spelling: written, writing grapple, maple misspelled, accommodate
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 39
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS (Sentences) (Words) * Syllables * Onset­Rime * Phonemes Teach letter names Instructional Progression for Decoding Spoken Language 1:1 Digraphs Trigraphs Vowel Teams Blends Word Families Inflections Syllable Types Morphemes Written Language
Roots / Affixes Word Origin Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised Orthography 40 Six Syllable Types
1. Closed pet, cats 4. Vowel Team teeth p 2. Vowel­Consonant­e 5. Vowel ­ r car, bird, her n slide, scare, cute 3. Open ri­pen 6. Consonant ­le ap­ple
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 41
Syllable Segmentation
2. Divide the following words into syllables by scooping under each one. shepherd brightness teacher phoneme expensive accent bridle dimple comet capsule unnerve ordain
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 42
Exercise: Sort the Syllables by Type
Closed
Open C­le Vowel­r VCe shep ness ex pen ac cent dim com et cap un pho bri dle ple herd er nerve or Vowel Team Other neme bright sive sule teach dain Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 43
Principles of Syllable Division
1. VC­CV, two consonants between two vowels sub­let nap­kin pen­ny win­some 2. V­CV and VC­V, one consonant between two vowels e­ven ra­bies de­cent ri­val ev­er rab­id dec­ade riv­er 3. Consonant blends stick together; do not separate digraphs. e­ther spec­trum se­quin
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 44
Using Syllable Division Principles
wuzzle urtication yeepsen twychild yesterfang tulipomania zythepsary sithcundonan —The Word Museum (Kacirk, 2000)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 45
Divide These Words
wuz­zle ur­ti­ca­tion yeep­sen twy­child yes­ter­fang tu­lip­o­ma­ni­a zy­thep­sa­ry sith­cun­do­nan —The Word Museum (Kacirk)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 46
Principle #5
We Spell by Meaning (Morphemes)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 47
Exercise: Pare Essentials
Pare down these words by removing prefixes and suffixes. What base word is left? What does each prefix mean? incredible prefix: in (not) cred (believe) suffix: ible
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 48
Pare Essentials
immovable im (not) move (change of location) ­able reexamination re (again) examine (to look at) ­tion unnatural un (not) nat (birth) ­ur(e) ­al premeditated pre (before) meditate (to think) ­ed antidisestablishmentarianism anti (against) dis (against) establish (to make stable) –ment, ­ar(i), ­an, ­ism contraindicative contra (against) in (not) dic (to speak, talk) ­tive
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 49
Historical Layers of English
Morpheme Structure
Anglo­Saxon Compounds Inflections Base words Suffixes Odd, high frequency words Latin Greek prefixes roots Suffixes Latin plurals Combining forms plurals Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 50
Classes of Morphemes Free content Bound roots function prefixes base words and compounds grammatical glue words
suffixes inflections derivations Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 51 Two Types of Suffixes
inflections: n learned early n do not change a word’s part of speech n a fixed set or class of words n change tense, number, and degree (­ed, ­s, ­ er) derivations: n added to a root (usually from Latin) n mark part of speech or grammatical role (compare, comparison, comparative, comparatively)
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 52
Past Tense Inflections
/d/ /t/ /әd/ moved New Syllable ? wowed stalked hissed shifted mended We will check answers on the following slide.
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 53
Past Tense Inflections
/d/
/әd/ /t/ moved X wowed X stalked X hissed X New Syllable ? shifted X X mended X X Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 54
Revisit the Warm-Up:
Do These Words Go to Jail?
about again beautiful because black caught car don’t every found gym have how it’s junk knew little more nice one our phone quit right use when Free these circled words!
Excerpted from LETRS Module 3, Revised 55
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