Document 4287

Chapter 25
Chapter Organizer
6 class sessions
Contents
25.1 Creating Electric Current
from Changing Magnetic
Fields, pp. 582–589
(3 class sessions)
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields
Induce EMF, pp. 590–597
(2 class sessions)
Chapter Review, pp. 598–601
(1 class session)
Text Features
Teaching Aids
History Connection: p. 583
Pocket Lab: Making Currents,
p. 585
Physics & Society:
Electromagnetic Fields
(EMFs), p. 587
Pocket Lab: Motor and
Generator, p. 588
Help Wanted: Power Plant
Operations Trainee, p. 589
Transparency 44: AC Generator
L1
Student Masters
Study Guide: pp. 145–148
L1
ELL
Lesson Plans: p. 54
Transparency 44 Master and
Worksheet: pp. 97–98 L1
ELL
Physics Lab and Pocket Lab
Worksheets: pp. 137–138
L1
Critical Thinking: p. 32
Pocket Lab: Slow Motor,
p. 591
Pocket Lab: Slow Magnet,
p. 593
Design Your Own Physics Lab:
Swinging Coils, p. 595
Transparency 45: Lenz’s Law
Summary
Key Terms
Reviewing Concepts
Applying Concepts
Problems
Critical Thinking Problems
Going Further
Chapter Assessment:
pp. 115–118 L1
Supplemental Problems:
Chapter 25 L2
Spanish Resources: Chapter 25
L1
L1
Study Guide: pp. 149–150
L1
ELL
Lesson Plans: p. 55
Problems and Solutions
Manual: Chapter 25
Transparency 45 Master and
Worksheet: pp. 99–100 L1
ELL
L1
Physics Lab and Pocket Lab
Worksheets: pp. 135–136,
139 –140 L1
Reteaching: pp. 31–32 L1
Enrichment: pp. 49–50 L1
Laboratory Manual:
pp. 188–196 L1
ELL
TestCheck Software
MindJogger Videoquizzes
L1
ELL
Reviewing Physics:
Mastering the TEKS
Texas Lesson Plans
KEY TO TEACHING STRATEGIES
The following designations will help you decide which
activities are appropriate for your students.
L1
T ECH P REP
The following Glencoe resources provide opportunities for
integrating science and technology.
Student Edition: Physics & Society, p. 587; Help Wanted,
p. 589
Teacher Wraparound Edition: Cultural Diversity, p. 585;
Applying Physics, p. 592; Tech Prep, p. 594
Level 1 activities should be within the ability range
of all students including those with learning difficulties.
L2
Level 2 activities should be within the ability range
of the average to above-average student.
L3
Level 3 activities are designed for the ability range
of above-average students.
ELL
ELL activities should be within the ability range of
English Language Learners.
COOP LEARN
Cooperative Learning activities are designed
for small group work.
P
These strategies represent student products that can
be placed into a best-work portfolio.
These strategies are useful in a block scheduling format.
580A
Electromagnetic Induction
National Science
Content Standards
Objectives
State/Local Standards
25.1 Creating Electric Current from Changing Magnetic
Fields
1. Explain how a changing magnetic field produces an
electric current.
2. Define electromotive force, and solve problems
involving wires moving in a magnetic field.
3. Describe how an electric generator works and how it
differs from a motor.
4. Recognize the difference between peak and effective
voltage and current.
UCP.1, UCP.2, UCP.3, UCP.5, A.1,
A.2, B.4, E.1, E.2, F.1, F.5, F.6, G.3
1(A), 2(A), 2(C), 2(D), 3(A), 3(B),
3(C), 3(D), 6(B), 6(D), 6(E), 6(F)
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields Induce EMF
5. State Lenz’s law, and explain back-EMF and how it
affects the operation of motors and generators.
6. Explain self-inductance and how it affects circuits.
7. Describe a transformer and solve problems involving voltage, current, and turns ratios.
UCP.1, UCP.2, UCP.3, UCP.5, A.1,
A.2, B.4, E.1, E.2, G.3
1(A), 1(B), 2(A), 2(C), 2(D), 3(B),
6(B), 6(D), 6(E)
Activity and Demonstration Materials
Physics Lab
Pocket Lab
Page 595
Page 585
magnet (2)
ringstand
ringstand crossbar
tape, masking (20 cm)
wire coil (2)
galvanometer
magnet, neodymium
solenoid
wire, #26 or #28
(1 m)
Page 588
ammeter
generator, DC
lamp and socket,
miniature
Page 591
ammeter
Demonstrations
motor, DC, miniature
power supply, DC,
variable, 0–15 V
voltmeter
wire leads with
alligator clips (6)
Page 593
ball, steel, 9-mm
magnet, neodymium
(2)
stopwatch
tubing, copper
25–1, Page 586
generator, hand cranked
oscilloscope
transformer, low voltage
25–2, Page 592
bulb, low voltage
with socket
iron bar, 15–30 cm
power supply, AC,
low voltage
solenoid, air core (2)
wire leads with
alligator clips (4)
The following multimedia resources are available from Glencoe.
Science and Technology Videodisc Series (STVS)
Chemistry
Wind Power, Hydroelectric Power
Physics for the Computer Age CD-ROM
MAGNETIC FIELDS: Space Shuttle Tether
The Mechanical Universe Videotape
Quad 6: Magnetism and Beyond
Electromagnetic Induction
Alternating Current
MindJogger Videoquizzes Chapter 25
580B
CHAPTER
25
Electromagnetic
Induction
Chapter Overview
In the previous chapter, students
learned that electric currents create
magnetic fields. The phenomenon
of electric currents being induced by
magnetic fields is now examined.
The concept of conservation of
energy is reintroduced in the application of Lenz’s law. Induced electromotive force in generators and
energy transfer in transformers
is explored.
Go with
the Flow
Two aluminum rings,
one with a slit and one
a continuous ring, are
placed over a magnetic
field generator that is
Key Terms
producing a constantly
eddy current
electric generator
electromagnetic induction
electromotive force
Lenz’s law
mutual inductance
primary coil
secondary coil
self-inductance
step-down transformer
step-up transformer
transformer
changing magnetic
field. Why does one ring
float while the other
does not?
➥ Look at the text
on page 592 for
the answer.
Learning
Styles
Texas TEKS
Pages 580–581: 6(F)
580
LS
Look for the following logo for strategies that emphasize different learning modalities.
LS
Kinesthetic
Pocket Lab, pp. 585, 588, 591, 593; Assessment, p. 588;
Meeting Individual Needs, p. 594; Design Your Own Physics
Lab, p. 595
Visual-Spatial
Physics Journal, p. 584; Meeting Individual Needs, p. 588;
Activity, p. 597
Interpersonal
Applying Physics, p. 592
Intrapersonal
Enrichment, p. 588; Tech Prep, p. 594
Linguistic
Critical Thinking, p. 588
LogicalMathematical
Close, p. 589; Assessment, p. 593; Physics Journal, p. 594
Introducing the Chapter
CHAPTER
25
USING THE PHOTO
If possible, set up this magnetic
induction apparatus. The jumping
ring demonstration will amaze
students. You may also want to
experiment with rings of different
materials such as copper, zinc, or
brass. Their behavior will vary due
to different resistance and masses.
Electromagnetic
Induction
hat unseen force levitates the top ring in the photo at the
left? What upward force could be pushing the ring up,
balancing the downward force of gravity? Why isn’t the
lower ring also floating? Why is there no upward force acting on
the cut ring?
You’ve learned that superconductors and permanent magnets
can cause objects to float. There is, however, no superconductor
or permanent magnet in this photograph. You also know that if a
current passes through the coil of wire around the central rod, it
produces a continually changing magnetic field that can affect
magnetic substances. However, the rings are made of aluminum,
a nonmagnetic substance. A magnet will not attract a piece of aluminum much less push it up.
Yet the photo clearly shows an upward force being exerted on
the top, uncut ring. The physical principle that explains why the
ring floats associates a magnetic field with a changing electric
field as well as with electric current. This same principle forms
the foundation for producing continuous currents. It’s at the
heart of electric generators, and it’s at the core of alternating
current transformers.
As you study this chapter, you’ll learn about this amazing
principle that explains why the ring floats, how electricity is
generated, and how electric energy is delivered to your home
and school.
W
WHAT YOU’LL LEARN
•
•
You will describe how
changing magnetic fields
can generate electric current
and potential difference.
You will apply this phenomenon to the construction of
generators and transformers.
WHY IT’S IMPORTANT
•
The relationship between
magnetic fields and currents
makes possible the three
cornerstones of electrical
technology: motors, generators, and transformers.
QUICK DEMO
CAUTION: Wear goggles.
Using a bar magnet and a few
common materials, review that
magnets attract ferromagnetic
materials such as nails, iron,
paper clips, and staples, but not
aluminum. So, under what
circumstances could a non-ferromagnetic material become influenced by a magnet? A changing
magnetic field will induce an EMF
in materials.
PHYSICS
To find out more about electromagnetic induction, visit the
Glencoe Science Web site at
science.glencoe.com
STUDENT EDITION
Physics Lab: p. 595
Pocket Labs: pp. 585, 588,
591, 593
TEACHER EDITION
Demonstrations: pp. 586, 592
Quick Demos: pp. 581, 583,
585, 586, 594
Activities: pp. 582, 597
581
Assessment Options
PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Applying Physics, TWE, p. 592
Activity, TWE, p. 597
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Physics Lab, SE, p. 595
Pocket Labs, SE, pp. 585, 588, 591, 593
Performance Assessment, TWE,
pp. 588, 593
KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT
Section Review, SE, pp. 589, 597
LABORATORY MANUAL
Lab 25.1, 25.2
PHYSICS
Chapter Review, SE, pp. 598–601
Practice Problems, SE, pp. 585, 589, 596,
597
Demonstration, TWE, pp. 586, 592
SKILL ASSESSMENT
Physics Lab, TWE, p. 595
Be sure to check the Glencoe
Science Web site for links to
chapter material:
science.glencoe.com
581
SECTION
25.1
Creating Electric
Current from Changing
Magnetic Fields
25.1
PREPARE
Content Refresher
The basic idea introduced is current
production by moving wires in a
magnetic field. An understanding of
alternating current generators involves
the concepts of effective and maximum currents and voltages.
Bridging
This chapter connects the magnetism concepts developed in the last
chapter to earlier material on electrical circuits. Students will begin to
see the relationship between electricity and magnetism expanded to
magnetic fields acting on charges.
Fundamental concepts of electricity
and magnetism, currents, potential
difference, circuits, and the third
right-hand rule are related in
this section.
OBJ ECTIVES
• Explain how a changing
I
n 1822, Michael Faraday wrote a goal in his notebook:
“Convert Magnetism into Electricity.” After nearly ten years of
unsuccessful experiments, he was able to show that a changing magnetic
field could produce electric current. In the same year, Joseph Henry, an
American high school teacher, made the same discovery.
magnetic field produces an
electric current.
•
Define electromotive force,
and solve problems involving wires moving in a
magnetic field.
•
Describe how an electric
generator works and how it
differs from a motor.
•
Recognize the difference
between peak and effective
voltage and current.
Faraday’s Discovery
In Chapter 24 you read about how Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field. Michael Faraday
thought that the reverse must also be true, that a magnetic field produces an electric current. Faraday tried many combinations of magnetic
fields and wires without success, until he found that he could induce
current by moving a wire through a magnetic field. Figure 25–1 shows
one of Faraday’s experiments. A wire loop that is part of a closed circuit
is placed in a magnetic field. When the wire moves up through the field,
the current is in one direction. When the wire moves down through the
field, the current is in the opposite direction. When the wire is held stationary or is moved parallel to the magnetic field, there is no current. An
electric current is generated in a wire only when the wire cuts magnetic
field lines.
Creating current Faraday found that to generate current, either the conductor can move through a magnetic field or the magnetic field
can move past a conductor. It is the relative motion between the wire and
the magnetic field that produces the current. The process of generating a
current through a circuit in this way is called electromagnetic induction.
1 FOCUS
Activity
Make sure students have a clear
understanding of the concepts in
Chapters 22 and 24 of electrical
circuit paths and fundamentals of
magnetism. It may be helpful to
assemble a series circuit having an
energy source (a battery) and a load
(resistance) with potential difference and current being measured.
Students having a hands-on grasp
of potential difference, electric circuits, current, resistance, the righthand rules, and electric motors will
find it easier to master the principles of electromagnetic induction
discussed in this chapter.
N
FIGURE 25–1 When a wire is
moved in a magnetic field, there
is an electric current in the wire,
but only while the wire is moving.
The direction of the current
depends on the direction the wire
is moving through the field. The
arrows indicate the direction of
conventional current.
582
Pages 582–583: 3(B), 6(B), 6(D)
582
Current
Electromagnetic Induction
Program Resources
Study Guide, pp. 145–148 L1
Transparency 44 and Master
Texas TEKS
Wire
moving
down
Wire
moving up
L1
ELL
Critical Thinking, p. 32 L1
Physics Lab and Pocket Lab Worksheets,
pp. 137–138 L1
S
N
Current
S
F
F
S
B
FIGURE 25–2 The right-hand
rule can be used to find the
direction of the forces on the
charges in a conductor that is
moving in a magnetic field.
B
2 TEACH
QUICK DEMO
v
Motion of
the wire
v
N
I
In what direction is the current? To find the force on the charges in
the wire, use the third right-hand rule described in Chapter 24. Hold
your right hand so that your thumb points in the direction in which the
wire is moving and your fingers point in the direction of the magnetic
field. The palm of your hand will point in the direction of the conventional (positive) current, as illustrated in Figure 25–2.
Electromotive Force
When you studied electric circuits, you learned that a source of electrical energy, such as a battery, is needed to produce a continuous current. The potential difference, or voltage, given to the charges by a battery
is called the electromotive force, or EMF. Electromotive force, however,
is not a force; it is a potential difference and is measured in volts. Thus,
the term EMF is misleading. Like many other historical terms still in use,
it originated before electricity was well understood.
What created the potential difference that caused an induced current
in Faraday’s experiment? When you move a wire through a magnetic
field, you exert a force on the charges and they move in the direction of
the force. Work is done on the charges. Their electrical potential energy,
and thus their potential, is increased. The difference in potential is
called the induced EMF. The EMF, measured in volts, depends on the
magnetic field, B, the length of the wire in the magnetic field, L, and the
velocity of the wire in the field, v. If B, v, and the direction of the length
of the wire are mutually perpendicular, then EMF is the product of
the three.
Electromotive Force
EMF BLv
HISTORY
CONNECTION
Transmitting Power
In the late 1800s,
there was much
debate in the United
States over the best
way to transmit power
from power plants to
consumers. The existing plants transmitted
direct current (DC),
but DC had serious
limitations. A key
decision was made
to use alternating
current (AC) in the
new hydroelectric
power plant at Niagara
Falls. With the first
successful transmission
of AC to Buffalo, New
York in 1896, the
Niagara Falls plant
paved the way for the
development of AC
power plants across
the country.
THE ¤
MECHANICAL ¤
UNIVERSE
¤
HIGH SCHOOL ADAPTATION
If a wire moves through a magnetic field at an angle to the field, only
the component of the wire’s velocity that is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field generates EMF.
25.1 Creating Electric Current from Changing Magnetic Fields
CAUTION: Wear goggles.
A simple demonstration can
create interest and set the stage
for this section.
Take any piece of wire about
1 to 2 m in length. Connect it to
the terminals of a sensitive galvanometer (or microammeter).
Quickly move the wire across the
poles of a strong magnet. The
galvanometer should register a
small current. Moving the wire
faster should produce a larger
current. Make a portion of the
wire into a coil that can be moved
easily through the magnetic field
(or so the magnet can be moved
through the coil). You should
observe an increased current. As
part of the demonstration, hold
the wire and magnet motionless,
showing that no current is
produced. As time allows, pass
the apparatus around and allow
students to demonstrate this for
themselves.
583
Videotape
Quad 6: Magnetism and
Beyond
Electromagnetic Induction
Content Background
Joseph Henry, the codiscoverer of electromagnetic induction, was an American high school
teacher in Albany, New York in the early
1800s. Insulated wire was not available at the
time, so he spent hours winding cloth insulation onto miles of wire for his experiments.
Surviving remnants of this wire show that
he even used some of his wife’s petticoats
as insulation!
The unit for inductance is the henry in
honor of Joseph Henry. In a coil with an
inductance of one henry, a charge of current
of one ampere per second produces a backEMF of one volt.
583
Concept Development
• Emphasize the importance of
relative motion of the wire and
magnetic field. Moving either the
magnetic field or the wire (or both)
will produce the effect of inducing
an electrical current. No induced
electrical current will appear
without relative motion.
• Often, there is confusion between
an induced EMF and an induced
current. If one produces an
induced EMF, an induced current
will flow only when the circuit
is complete. They are different
evidences of the same thing.
• Compare the loudspeaker and the
microphone. The loudspeaker
changes electrical energy into
sound energy, while the microphone changes sound energy into
electrical energy. Some home and
school intercom systems use a
loudspeaker for both functions.
This is a good example of the
symmetry of many electromagnetic effects. Wires moving in a
magnetic field produce currents,
and currents passing through
wires in magnetic fields produce
motion of those wires.
Aluminum
diaphragm
Coil
Checking the units of the EMF equation will help you work algebra
correctly in problems. The units for EMF are volts, V. In Chapter 24, B
was defined as F/IL; therefore, the units for B are N/Am. Following is
the unit equation for EMF.
Connecting
wires
S
variables: EMF BLv
N
Nm
N
J
units: V (m)(m/s) V
As
Am
C
冢
S
Magnet
(also serves as
the supporting
frame)
冣
From previous chapters, recall that J Nm, A C/s, and that V J/C.
Application of induced EMF A microphone is a simple application
that depends on an induced EMF. A dynamic microphone is similar in
construction to a loud-speaker. The microphone in Figure 25–3 has a
diaphragm attached to a coil of wire that is free to move in a magnetic
field. Sound waves vibrate the diaphragm, which moves the coil in the
magnetic field. The motion of the coil, in turn, induces an EMF across
the ends of the coil. The induced EMF varies as the frequency of the
sound varies. In this way, the sound wave is converted to an electrical
signal. The voltage generated is small, typically 103 V, but it can be
increased, or amplified, by electronic devices.
FIGURE 25–3 In this schematic
of a moving coil microphone, the
aluminum diaphragm is connected
to a coil in a magnetic field.
When sound waves vibrate the
diaphragm, the coil moves in the
magnetic field, generating a current
proportional to the sound wave.
Example Problem
Induced EMF
A straight wire, 0.20 m long, moves at a constant speed of 7.0 m/s
perpendicular to magnetic field of strength 8.0 102 T.
a. What EMF is induced in the wire?
Sketch the Problem
+z
Physics Journal
LS Visual-Spatial Have students observe a simple speaker
obtained from an old radio.
A source for an inexpensive
speaker is Radio Shack stores.
Put a few large staples or paper
clips on the speaker magnet so
students are aware of it. Have
students draw a diagram of the
speaker in their journal and
compare and contrast it with a
microphone. L1 ELL
Texas TEKS
Pages 584–585: 1(A), 2(A), 2(C),
2(D), 3(B), 6(D)
Pages 586–587: 3(A), 3(C), 6(D),
6(F)
584
Bout of page
b. The wire is part of a circuit that has a resistance of 0.50 .
What is the current through the wire?
+y
+x
• Establish a coordinate system.
• Draw a straight wire of length L. Connect an
ammeter to the wire to represent a current measurement.
• Choose a direction for the magnetic field that is
perpendicular to the length of the wire.
• Choose a direction for the velocity that is perpendicular
to both the length and the magnetic field.
L
v
Calculate Your Answer
Known:
Unknown:
v 7.0 m/s
B 8.0 102 T
EMF ?
L 0.20 m
R 0.50 Ω
I?
584
Electromagnetic Induction
Content Background
Faraday demonstrated that electric forces
produce motion. His work led him to
describe magnetism in terms of a field that
expanded from a point of origin and weakened with distance. Imaginary lines could
thus be drawn, connecting points of equal
intensity. This method of describing forces
in terms of fields became fundamental to
describing the physical universe and helpful
as a model to describe the forces.
CD-ROM
Physics for the Computer Age
MAGNETIC FIELDS: Space Shuttle Tether
A
Strategy:
Calculations:
a. For motion at a right angle through a field, start with the
EMF equation. Keep track of units. It is helpful to remember that B F/IL, energy Fd, I q/t, and V energy/q.
EMF BLv
b. Use the current equation. Recall that voltage and EMF
are equivalent. Use the right-hand rule to determine
current direction. The thumb is v(x), fingers are
B(z), and palm is current, which points down (y).
Downward current corresponds to a counterclockwise
current in the loop.
QUICK DEMO
EMF (8.0 102 T)(0.20 m)(7.0 m/s)
EMF 0.11 Tm2/s 0.11 J/C 0.11 V
V
EMF
I R
R
0. 11 V
I 0.22 A, counterclockwise
0.50 Check Your Answer
• Are the units correct? a. The answer is in volts, which is the
correct unit for electromotive force. b. Ohms are defined as V/A.
Perform the algebra with the units to confirm that I is measured
in A.
• Does the direction make sense? The direction obeys the righthand rule: v is the thumb, B is the fingers, F is the palm. Current
is in the direction of the force.
• Is the magnitude realistic? The answers are near 101. This agrees
with the quantities given and the algebra performed.
CAUTION: Wear goggles.
Make a coil of copper wire
about 4 to 6 cm in diameter
with about 60 to 100 loops of
wire. Enameled magnet wire
works well. Attach the ends of
the wire to a flashbulb (AG1B,
for example). Slowly pull the
wire loop through the pole of a
strong magnet. Nothing should
happen. Now pull it out quickly.
The bulb should flash. This
shows the generation of an EMF
by movement of a wire in a
magnetic field.
Practice Problems
1. A straight wire, 0.5 m long, is moved straight up at a speed of
20 m/s through a 0.4-T magnetic field pointed in the horizontal
direction.
a. What EMF is induced in the wire?
b. The wire is part of a circuit of total resistance of 6.0 . What is
the current in the circuit?
2. A straight wire, 25 m long, is mounted on an airplane flying at
125 m/s. The wire moves in a perpendicular direction through
Earth’s magnetic field (B 5.0 105 T). What EMF is induced
in the wire?
3. A straight wire, 30.0 m long, moves at 2.0 m/s in a perpendicular
direction through a 1.0-T magnetic field.
a. What EMF is induced in the wire?
b. The total resistance of the circuit of which the wire is a part is
15.0 . What is the current?
4. A permanent horseshoe magnet is mounted so that the magnetic
field lines are vertical. If a student passes a straight wire between
the poles and pulls it toward herself, the current flow through the
wire is from right to left. Which is the N-pole of the magnet?
Pocket Lab
Making Currents
Making Currents
Hook the ends of a 1-m length
of wire to the binding posts of a
galvanometer (or microammeter).
Make several overlapping loops
in the wire. Watch the readings
on the wire as you move a pair
of neodymium magnets (or a
strong horseshoe magnet)
near the loops. Record your
observations.
Analyze and Conclude What
can you do to increase the
current? Replace the 1-m length
of wire with a preformed coil and
see how much current you can
produce. Describe your results.
25.1 Creating Electric Current from Changing Magnetic Fields
585
Purpose To investigate the effects of
moving magnets near wires and coils
Materials Galvanometer (or microammeter), 1-m length of wire #26 or
#28, neodymium or strong horseshoe
magnet, coil of wire or solenoid
Outcome Current is produced when
there is relative motion between the
magnet and the wire. The current
direction depends on the direction
of motion.
Analyze and Conclude The current is
increased when the relative speed is
greater, when the number of loops is
increased, and when the distance is
smaller. The current is much greater
when the coil is used.
LS
Cultural Diversity
James West, an African American
experimental physicist, is the
coinventor of the foil electret. This
TECH device uses a paper-thin piece of
PREP plastic, which is coated with metal
on one side to convert sound into electrical
signals. It is used in hearing aids, small microphones, and portable tape recorders. As a
result of this development, all the devices
mentioned above can be made much smaller
and still be effective. West continues to work
at Bell Labs investigating directional sound
perception using foil electret microphones.
Practice Problems
Have students refer to Appendix C
for complete solutions to Practice
Problems.
1. a. 4 V; b. 0.7 A
2. 0.16 V
3. a. 6.0 101 V; b. 4.0 A
4. Using the right-hand rule, the
north pole is at the bottom.
585
Content Background
Student experiments with generators
have been made much less expensive
and simpler by the availability of a
small, hand-cranked generator that
looks like a water pistol with a crank
in the back. One version is called
the Genecon. A manual provided
with the generator provides several
application and demonstration ideas.
QUICK DEMO
S
2
N
3
–I max
I=0
N
Down
FIGURE 25–4 An electric current is generated in a wire loop
as the loop rotates (a). The
cross-sectional view shows the
position of the loop when maximum current is generated (b).
The numbered positions correspond to the numbered points
on the graph in Figure 25–5.
Uncovering
Misconceptions
Current
1
Imax
Imax
2 l=0 4 l=0
Time
3 –I
max
FIGURE 25–5 This graph shows
the variation of current with time
as the loop in Figure 25–4
rotates. The variation of EMF
with time can be shown with a
similar graph.
586
4
S
I=0
b
a
CAUTION: Wear goggles.
Two Genecon generators can be
connected so the output of one is
wired to the output of the other.
When one is cranked by the
application of mechanical energy
and operated as a generator, the
generated electricity turns the
other Genecon as a motor.
Students are often confused about
the concept of generators and motors.
You can demonstrate the motorgenerator with two galvanometers.
Connect two identical galvanometers. Pick up one and wiggle it. You
are providing mechanical energy
and making the coil rotate in the
magnetic field. An EMF is induced
in the coil. Thus, this galvanometer
acts as a generator. The second galvanometer converts electric energy
from the first galvanometer into
mechanical energy, and the needle
moves. The second galvanometer
acts like a motor.
N
Up
I max
1
S
c
Electric Generators
The electric generator, invented by Michael Faraday, converts
mechanical energy to electrical energy. An electric generator consists of
a number of wire loops placed in a strong magnetic field. The wire is
wound around an iron form to increase the strength of the magnetic
field. The iron and wires are called the armature, which is similar to that
of an electric motor.
The armature is mounted so that it can rotate freely in the magnetic
field. As the armature turns, the wire loops cut through the magnetic
field lines, inducing an EMF. Commonly called the voltage, the EMF
developed by the generator depends on the length of wire rotating in
the field. Increasing the number of loops in the armature increases the
wire length, thereby increasing the induced EMF.
Current from a generator When a generator is connected in a closed
circuit, the induced EMF produces an electric current. Figure 25–4
shows a single-loop generator. The direction of the induced current can
be found from the third right-hand rule described in Chapter 24. As the
loop rotates, the strength and direction of the current change. The current is greatest when the motion of the loop is perpendicular to the
magnetic field—when the loop is in the horizontal position. In this
position, the component of the loop’s velocity perpendicular to the
magnetic field is greatest. As the loop rotates from the horizontal to the
vertical position, it moves through the magnetic field lines at an everincreasing angle. Thus, it cuts through fewer magnetic field lines per
unit time, and the current decreases. When the loop is in the vertical
position, the wire segments move parallel to the field and the current is
zero. As the loop continues to turn, the segment that was moving up
begins to move down, reversing the direction of the current in the loop.
This change in direction takes place each time the loop turns through
180°. The current changes smoothly from zero to some maximum value
and back to zero during each half-turn of the loop. Then it reverses
direction. The graph of current versus time is shown in Figure 25–5.
Generators and motors are almost identical in construction, but they
convert energy in opposite directions. A generator converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy, while a motor converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy.
Electromagnetic Induction
D E M O N STR ATI O N 25-1
PURPOSE
To observe a generator-induced and
power-line EMF
MATERIALS
Oscilloscope, Genecon generator or
similar, low-voltage generator
PROCEDURE
1. Connect the oscilloscope to the
generator.
2. Crank the generator.
586
3. Observe the pattern on the oscilloscope.
4. Replace the generator with the lowvoltage transformer.
5. Have students observe the pattern.
RESULTS
The waveforms should both be sinusoidal;
however, the generator may only look like
the positive or negative portion of the sine
wave if its output has been rectified to
produce a pulsed direct current.
Assessment
KNOWLEDGE
1. Describe the shape of the generator
output. The waveform is sine wave-like.
2. How does the generator waveform compare with the low-voltage power supply?
The two have similar shapes but probably
different amplitudes, and the power supply
maintains a uniform frequency.
Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)
Alternating currents produce both electric and
magnetic fields, EMFs. These low-frequency
fields, 60 Hz, are generated by nearly all electrical appliances as well as by outdoor power
lines and indoor electrical wiring. About two
decades ago, some doctors suggested that
there was a direct link between EMFs and
childhood leukemia, a rare form of cancer. This
possibility spurred many studies on the topic
both in physics and biology. In addition to the
cost of the studies, concern about EMF health
risks are costing the U.S. society an estimated
$1 billion a year in lawsuits, rerouting of power
lines, and redesigning of products such as
computer monitors and household appliances.
In 1995, the American Physical Society issued a
statement that its review of scientific literature
found “no consistent, significant link between
cancer and power line fields.” But there are still
questions to be resolved because of the subtle
effects of EMFs on cell membranes.
Cells, Tissues, and EMFs
To date, studies on human cells and tissues
and on laboratory animals have shown that
exposure to EMFs at the low frequencies common in most households does not alter cell
functions. Research also has shown that EMFs
tens or hundreds of times stronger than those
in residential structures do cause changes in
the chemical signals that cells send to each
other. This correlation, however, doesn’t seem
to have adverse effects on health.
Furthermore, current research indicates that
exposure to even very high EMFs does not
affect a cell’s DNA. Damaged DNA is currently
thought to be the cause of most cancers. In
1997, the National Cancer Institute finished
an exhaustive, seven-year study with the
conclusion “that if there is any link at all, it’s
far too weak to be concerned about.”
Toss the toaster and
bag the blanket?
Although current research indicates that the
EMF issue is no cause for alarm, some people
(including some scientists and physicians) are
not convinced that their toasters, electric
blankets, alarm clocks, computer terminals,
televisions, and other commonly used household items are truly safe.
Investigating the Issue
1. Acquiring Information Read current articles about EMFs. Review the major points
made in each article. While reading, look for
bias and evidence of factual documentation.
2. Analyzing and Critiquing What do you
think should be done? Do you think there is
sufficient and conclusive evidence that links
health hazards and EMFs? Should people
limit their exposure to EMFs? Should companies, including government, continue to
spend millions of dollars to research the bioeffects of EMFs, redesign products to emit
less, and move or bury power lines? Explain
your reasoning.
3. Recognizing Cause and Effect While
there appears to be no correlation between
exposure to EMFs and certain cancers, some
studies have suggested a possible link
between the two. What might be the reasons for this inconsistency?
PHYSICS
To find out more about EMFs,
visit the Glencoe Science Web
site at science.glencoe.com
25.1 Creating Electric Current from Changing Magnetic Fields
3. Reasons may include: A small sample size
might yield a correlation when it is only
coincidence; results could be influenced by a
bias of the scientists involved; etc.
Background
587
Taubes, Gary. “Magnetic field-cancer link: will
it rest in peace?” Science, July 4, 1997, page 29.
Teacher Resources
Marwick, Charles. “EMF exposure study rules
out ‘causing’ cancer, [but] finds ‘association’
with leukemia puzzling but real.” The Journal of
the American Medical Association, Dec. 4, 1996,
pages 1705.
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential
Electric and Magnetic Fields.  1997, National
Academy Press, Washington, DC.
PHYSICS
Be sure to check the Glencoe Science
Web site for links to chapter material:
science.glencoe.com
One of the most extensive studies
on the potential magnetic field/
cancer link was completed in 1997.
The five-year study, which involved
more than1000 subjects, found no
correlation between EMFs and the
development of cancer.
A statistically significant but
weak correlation between powerline concentration and childhood
leukemia may be due to contributing factors such as the age of the
home in which the children reside,
air pollution levels in the community, the number of houses in the
immediate vicinity, and neighborhood traffic density.
Teaching Strategies
• Have students interview some
authorities from your local power
company or your state’s public
utilities commission to determine
if any regulations exist or are
being considered that will limit
the strength of the EMFs from
power lines. L1
• Have students brainstorm to compile a list of occupations in which
people might be exposed to relatively higher levels of EMFs than
the general public. Occupations
might include electricians, people
who repair telephone or electrical
power lines or electrical appliances,
welders, and people in the broadcasting communications field. L1
Investigating the Issue
1. Students’ articles should include
those written after 1995. Make
sure students evaluate the source
of the information they read.
For example, scientific articles,
while possibly being a little
more difficult to read, are more
reliable than articles found in
general-interest publications.
2. Students’ opinions will vary.
However, insist that they
support their views with
accurate information.
587
Critical Thinking
LS Linguistic Ask students to
explain how the basic construction
of motors and generators is similar.
How do the two differ? L1
FIGURE 25–6 Alternatingcurrent generators transmit current to an external circuit by way
of a brush-slip-ring arrangement
(a). The alternating current produced varies with time (b). The
resulting power is always positive
and also is sinusoidal (c).
Slip rings
Brushes
a
Outcome Turning the handle of the
Genecon (or shaft of the motor) will
light the lamp. Turning faster makes
the lamp brighter.
Analyze and Conclude When the
Genecons are connected, one acts as
a generator and the other acts as a
motor.
LS
Power Pave
c
Time
Alternating-Current Generator
An energy source turns the armature of a generator in a magnetic field
at a fixed number of revolutions per second. In the United States, electric utilities use a 60-Hz frequency. The current goes from one direction
to the other and back to the first, 60 times a second. Figure 25–6a
shows how an alternating current, AC, in an armature is transmitted to
the rest of the circuit. The brush-slip-ring arrangement permits the
armature to turn freely while still allowing the current to pass into the
external circuit. As the armature turns, the alternating current varies
between some maximum value and zero, as shown in the graph in
Figure 25–6b.
Motor and Generator
Materials Genecon (or efficient DC
motor), miniature lamp and socket,
ammeter
Time
– Imax
Pmax
was a clear writer who tended to
describe most of his experiments
with vivid images and clear diagrams.
Have interested students look up
some of his original research papers
and report on them. L2
generators work
S
b
Enrichment
LS Intrapersonal Michael Faraday
Purpose To observe how motors and
Imax
Ieff
Current 0
N
Average power The power produced by a generator is the product of
Pocket Lab
Motor and Generator
Make a series circuit with a
Genecon (or efficient DC
motor), a miniature lamp, and
an ammeter. Rotate the handle
(or motor shaft) to try to light
the lamp.
Analyze and Conclude
Describe your results. Predict
what might happen if you
connect your Genecon to the
Genecon from another lab
group and crank yours. Try it.
Describe what happens. Can
more than two be connected?
the current and the voltage. Because both I and V vary, the power associated with an alternating current varies. Figure 25–6c shows a graph of
the power produced by an AC generator. Note that power is always positive because I and V are either both positive or both negative. Average
power, PAC , is defined as half the maximum power, PAC 1/2 PAC max.
Effective voltage and currents It is common to describe alternating
current and voltage in terms of effective current and voltage, rather than
referring to their maximum values. Recall from Chapter 22 that P I2R.
Thus, you can relate effective current, Ieff , in terms of the average
AC power.
PAC Ieff 2R
To determine Ieff in terms of maximum current, Imax, start with the
power relationship and substitute in I2R, then solve for Ieff.
PAC 1/2 PAC max
Ieff 2R 1/2 Imax2R
588
Electromagnetic Induction
Meeting
Individual Needs
Gifted Have gifted students research an
Isolation Transformer—what it is, how it
works, and its use. They should prepare a
poster and present it to the class. L3 LS
Texas TEKS
Pages 588–589: 1(A), 2(A), 2(C),
2(D), 3(B), 3(D), 6(D), 6(E)
588
THE ¤
MECHANICAL ¤
¤
UNIVERSE
HIGH SCHOOL ADAPTATION
Videotape
Quad 6: Magnetism and Beyond
Alternating Current
2
Ieff 冑1/2
Im苶
苶
ax
Effective Current
HELP WANTED
Ieff 0.707 Imax
POWER PLANT
OPERATIONS
TRAINEE
Similarly, it can be shown that
Effective Voltage
Veff 0.707 Vmax.
In the United States, the voltage generally available at wall outlets is
described as 120 V, where 120 V is the magnitude of the effective voltage, not the maximum voltage.
Practice Problems
5. A generator develops a maximum voltage of 170 V.
a. What is the effective voltage?
b. A 60-W lightbulb is placed across the generator with an Imax
of 0.70 A. What is the effective current through the bulb?
c. What is the resistance of the lightbulb when it is working?
6. The effective voltage of an AC household outlet is 117 V.
a. What is the maximum voltage across a lamp connected to the
outlet?
b. The effective current through the lamp is 5.5 A. What is the
maximum current in the lamp?
7. An AC generator delivers a peak voltage of 425 V.
a. What is the Veff in a circuit placed across the generator?
b. The resistance of the circuit is 5.0 102 . What is the
effective current?
8. If the average power dissipated by an electric light is 100 W,
what is the peak power?
A utility company needs high
school graduates who have
the interest and ability to
learn detailed information
about the production and distribution of electrical power.
Your high school record of
reliability, effort, and cooperation are most important.
This entry-level position
includes extensive training.
Success in this field is dependent on quality work, continued training, and the ability
to contribute positively to the
work environment. For information contact:
Utility Workers Union of
America
815 16th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
Practice Problems
Have students refer to Appendix C
for complete solutions to Practice
Problems.
5. a. 120 V; b. 0.49 A; c. 240 6. a. 165 V; b. 7.8 A
7. a. 3.00 102 V; b. 0.60 A
8. 200 W
3 ASSESS
Checking for
Understanding
Ask students how an alternating
current generator works. In particular,
have them determine why output
of the generator is zero three times
during a complete cycle. As the
induced EMF changes direction, it has
a zero crossing—one at the beginning
and one at the end of each half cycle.
In what relative position are the coil
and magnetic field when the maximum EMF is induced? They are
perpendicular to each other. L1
Reteaching
25.1
Like many of the early experimenters,
many students think that it is only
the strength of the magnetic field
that determines the amount of
electromagnetic induction. However,
motion is actually the key factor.
Present this concept as an application of conservation of energy; the
more kinetic energy put into the
generator, the more electrical energy
will be produced.
Section Review
1. Could you make a generator by mounting
permanent magnets on a rotating shaft
and keeping the coil stationary? Explain.
2. A bike generator lights the headlamp. What
is the source of the energy for the bulb
when the rider travels along a flat road?
3. Consider the microphone shown in
Figure 25–3. When the diaphragm is
pushed in, what is the direction of the
current in the coil?
4.
Critical Thinking A student asks: “Why
does AC dissipate any power? The energy
going into the lamp when the current is
positive is removed when the current is
negative. The net is zero.” Explain why
this reasoning is wrong.
Extension
25.1 Creating Electric Current from Changing Magnetic Fields
25.1 Section Review
1. Yes, only relative motion between coil
and magnetic field is important.
2. the stored chemical energy of the
bike rider
3. clockwise looking from left
4. Power is the rate at which energy is
transferred. Power is the product of I
and V. When I is positive, so is V and
therefore P is positive. When I is negative,
589
so is V; thus, P is again positive. Energy is
always transferred into the lamp.
For students who have mastered
the lesson, assign problems
from the Supplemental Problems
booklet. L2
4 CLOSE
Assemble a variety of generators,
such as a bicycle, hand crank,
automotive generator, crank-operated radio, etc. Have students select
one, identify the main components,
and explain how it operates. L1
ELL
LS
589
SECTION
25.2
Changing Magnetic
Fields Induce EMF
25.2
PREPARE
Content Refresher
Recall the third right-hand rule:
where the magnetic field direction,
direction of motion of charges, and
the direction of the applied force
all act at right angles to each other.
Magnetic fields store energy that
can be released as the fields change.
explain back-EMF and how
it affects the operation of
motors and generators.
•
Explain self-inductance
and how it affects circuits.
•
Describe a transformer
and solve problems involving voltage, current, and
turn ratios.
The concept of energy conservation
relates to Lenz’s law, as well as to
transformers. The electrical energy
input in the primary circuit of a
transformer is equal to the electrical
energy output in the secondary circuit plus any heat radiated.
1 FOCUS
Lenz’s Law
In what direction is the force on the wires of the armature? To determine the direction, consider a section of one loop that moves through
a magnetic field, as shown in Figure 25–7. In the last section, you
learned that an EMF will be induced in the wire governed by the equation EMF BLv. If the magnetic field is out of the page and velocity is
to the right, then the right-hand rule shows a downward EMF, and consequently a downward current is produced. In Chapter 24, you learned
that a wire carrying a current through a magnetic field will experience a
force acting on it. This force results from the interaction between the
existing magnetic field and the magnetic field generated around all currents. To determine the direction of the force, use the third right-hand
rule: if current I is down and magnetic field B is out, then the resulting
force is to the left. This means that the direction of the force on the wire
opposes the original motion of the wire, v. That is, the force acts to slow
down the rotation of the armature. The method of determining the
direction of a force was first demonstrated in 1834 by H.F.E. Lenz and
is therefore called Lenz’s law.
Lenz’s law states that the direction of the induced current is such that
the magnetic field resulting from the induced current opposes the
change in the field that caused the induced current. Note that it is the
change in the field and not the field itself that is opposed by the induced
magnetic effects.
+
I
Discrepant Event
590
n a generator, current begins when the armature turns
through a magnetic field. You learned in Chapter 24 that
when there is a current through a wire in a magnetic field,
a force is exerted on the wire. Thus, the act of generating current produces
a force on the wires in the armature.
OBJ ECTIVES
• State Lenz’s law, and
Bridging
Several apparatuses are available for
demonstrating Lenz’s law. One consists of two aluminum rings and
a strong cylindrical magnet. The
two aluminum rings are identical,
except that one ring is solid and
the other has a slot cut through it.
Hang the two rings side by side
from a ring stand, using two strings
for each. Use heavy string that will
cover up the slot in the one ring.
Thrust the magnet into the solid
ring and then pull the magnet back
out. The ring will start swinging.
When you do the same with the
ring with the slot, it will not swing.
This is an example of Lenz’s law.
The motion of the magnet induces
a current in the solid ring, whose
magnetic field opposes the motion.
Thus, the moving magnet and ring
repel each other. Because the slotted
ring is not a complete circuit, its
induced current is zero. Be sure to
show students that the magnet does
not attract the rings magnetically.
Lenz’s law can also be demonstrated by swinging each ring through
the poles of a strong magnet. The
solid ring will be damped drastically.
I
EMF = BLv
–
v
Bout of page
L
F = BIL
I
wire
Opposing change Figure 25–8 is an example of how Lenz’s law
works. The N-pole of a magnet is moved toward the left end of a coil. To
oppose the approach of the N-pole, the left end of the coil also must
become an N-pole. In other words, the magnetic field lines must emerge
from the left end of the coil. Using the second right-hand rule you
learned in Chapter 24, you will see that if Lenz’s law is correct, the
induced current must be in a counterclockwise direction. Experiments
have shown that this is so. If the magnet is turned so that an S-pole
approaches the coil, the induced current will flow in a clockwise direction.
FIGURE 25–7 A wire, length L,
moving through a magnetic field,
B, induces an electromotive
force. If the wire is part of a circuit, then there will be a current,
I. This current will now interact
with the magnetic field producing
force, F. Notice that the resulting
force opposes the motion, v, of
the wire.
590
Electromagnetic Induction
Program Resources
Study Guide, pp. 149–150 L1
Transparency 45 and Master
L1
ELL
Laboratory Manual, pp. 189–196 L1
Reteaching, pp. 31–32 L1
Enrichment, pp. 49–50 L1
Physics Lab and Pocket Lab Worksheets,
pp. 135–136, 139–140 L1
Videodisc
STVS: Chemistry
Disc 2, Side 2
Wind Power (Ch. 14)
!8TÉ"
S
FIGURE 25–8 The magnet
approaching the coil causes an
induced current to flow. Lenz’s
law predicts the direction of flow
shown.
I
N
Induced current
If a generator produces only a small current, then the opposing force
on the armature will be small, and the armature will be easy to turn.
If the generator produces a larger current, the force on the larger current
will be greater, and the armature will be more difficult to turn. A generator supplying a large current is producing a large amount of electrical
energy. The opposing force on the armature means that mechanical
energy must be supplied to the generator to produce the electrical
energy, consistent with the law of conservation of energy.
2 TEACH
Concept Development
• Students are familiar with transformers, whether they know the
word or not. Electric trains, slotcar sets, portable tape and CD
players, and other toys often use a
step-down transformer to power
them instead of using batteries.
• In this section, it is assumed that
no power is lost, which is not
actually true. Transformers are
fairly efficient but not 100%.
Hold your hand on one and it
will feel warm, demonstrating
that energy is lost to heat.
Motors and Lenz’s law Lenz’s law also applies to motors. When a
current-carrying wire moves in a magnetic field, an EMF is generated.
This EMF, called the back-EMF, is in a direction that opposes the current. When a motor is first turned on, there is a large current because of
the low resistance of the motor. As the motor begins to turn, the motion
of the wires across the magnetic field induces a back-EMF that opposes
the current. Therefore, the net current through the motor is reduced. If
a mechanical load is placed on the motor, as in a situation in which
work is being done to lift a weight, the rotation of the motor will slow.
This slowing down will decrease the back-EMF, which will allow more
current through the motor. Note that this is consistent with the law of
conservation of energy: if current increases, so does the rate at which
electric power is being sent to the motor. This power is delivered in
mechanical form to the load. If the mechanical load stops the motor,
current can be so high that wires overheat.
The heavy current required when a motor is started can cause voltage
drops across the resistance of the wires that carry current to the motor.
The voltage drop across the wires reduces the voltage across the motor.
If a second device, such as a lightbulb, is in a parallel circuit with the
motor, the voltage at the bulb also will drop when the motor is started.
The bulb will dim. As the motor picks up speed, the voltage will rise
again and the bulb will brighten.
When the current to the motor is interrupted by a switch in the circuit being turned off or by the motor’s plug being pulled from a wall
outlet, the sudden change in the magnetic field generates a back-EMF.
This reverse voltage can be large enough to cause a spark across the
switch or between the plug and the wall outlet.
Pocket Lab
Slow Motor
Slow Motor
Make a series circuit with a
miniature DC motor, an ammeter,
and a DC power supply. Hook
up a voltmeter in parallel across
the motor. Adjust the setting
on the power supply so that
the motor is running at medium
speed. Make a data table to
show the readings on the
ammeter and voltmeter.
Analyze and Conclude Predict
what will happen to the readings
on the circuit when you hold the
shaft and keep it from turning.
Try it. Explain the results.
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields Induce EMF
Purpose To observe the results of
back-EMF in a motor
Materials Variable DC power supply,
miniature DC motor, ammeter, voltmeter, wires
Outcome The running motor creates
a back-EMF.
Analyze and Conclude When the
shaft of the motor is held, the backEMF is reduced and the current
increases.
LS
591
Content Background
The formula EMF BLv is used only when B
and v are at right angles to each other. In
Chapter 24, this was discussed for the equations F BIL and F Bqv. The general form
of the equation for EMF is EMF BLv sin ,
where is the angle between v and B. EMF is
a maximum when is 90° and a minimum
when 0, or when the wire is moving parallel to the field. This can help students
understand the fluctuation in the magnitude
of the current as the coil of wire is turned in
the magnetic field.
Texas TEKS
Pages 590–591: 1(A), 2(A), 2(C),
2(D), 6(B), 6(D), 6(E)
591
v
Applying Physics
Eddy current
INDUCTION
RANGE TOPS
S
Induction range tops or
TECH stoves are safer to use
PREP
than conventional
ranges because the surface does
not physically heat up. Instead,
currents are induced into the
metal pans placed over the
induction coils serving as the
burners. In addition, the surface
is smooth, which provides for
easy cleaning. Students may
wish to research which brands
of induction heating ranges are
available in stores near them.
Reports can be placed in student
portfolios. L1 P LS
Visual Learning
Have students study Figure 25–10
and use the right-hand rule with
current entering at the top (moving
toward the bottom) to determine
the magnetic field direction. L1
N
a
b
FIGURE 25–9 Sensitive balances
use eddy-current damping to
control oscillations of the balance
beam (a). As the metal plate on
the end of the beam moves
through the magnetic field, a
current is generated in the
metal. This current, in turn,
produces a magnetic field that
opposes the motion that caused
it, and the motion of the beam is
dampened (b).
Go with
the Flow
➥ Answers question from
page 580.
Concept Development
• Note the analogy here between
coils and capacitors. One involves
energy storage in a magnetic field
and the other involves energy
storage in an electric field.
• If you have an expendable
transformer, then dissect it to
demonstrate the various parts
of the transformer.
Application of Lenz’s law A sensitive balance, such as the kind used
in chemistry laboratories, shown in Figure 25–9, uses Lenz’s law to
stop its oscillation when an object is placed on the pan. A piece of metal
attached to the balance arm is located between the poles of a horseshoe
magnet. When the balance arm swings, the metal moves through the
magnetic field. Currents called eddy currents are generated in the
metal. These currents produce a magnetic field that acts to oppose the
motion that caused the currents. Thus, the metal piece is slowed down.
The force opposes the motion of the metal in either direction but does
not act if the metal is still. Thus, it does not change the mass read by the
balance. This effect is called eddy current damping.
Eddy currents are generated when a piece of metal moves through a
magnetic field. The reverse is also true: a current is generated when a
metal loop is placed in a changing magnetic field. According to Lenz’s
law, the current generated will oppose the changing magnetic field. How
does the current do the opposing? It generates a magnetic field of its
own in the opposite direction. This induced magnetic field is what
causes the uncut, aluminum ring in the chapter-opening photo to float.
An AC current is in the coil, so a constantly changing magnetic field is
generated. This changing magnetic field induces an EMF in the rings.
For the uncut ring, the EMF causes a current that produces a magnetic
field. This magnetic field will oppose the change in the generating magnetic field. The interaction of these two magnetic fields causes the ring
to push away from the coil similar to how the north poles of two magnets push away from each other. For the lower ring, which has been
sawed through, an EMF is generated, but no current can result. Hence,
no opposing magnetic field is produced by the ring.
Self-Inductance
Back-EMF can be explained another way. As Faraday showed, EMF is
induced whenever a wire cuts lines of magnetic field. Consider the coil
of wire shown in Figure 25–10. The current through the wire increases
592
Electromagnetic Induction
D E M O N STR ATI O N 25-2
PURPOSE
To increase understanding of the operation
of a transformer
MATERIALS
15–30 cm iron bar, two identical wire
coils (air core) or air-core solenoids,
hookup wire, low-voltage bulb and socket,
low-voltage AC power supply
592
PROCEDURE
1. Attach hookup wire to the lightbulb
socket.
2. Attach the lightbulb socket wires to
one of the wire coils.
3. Attach the low-voltage AC power to the
second wire coil.
4. Place the two coils end to end and turn
up the voltage in the first coil.
5. Have students make observations of
the light.
6. Slowly insert the iron rod into the
two coils.
7. Have students make observations again.
8. Have a student feel the iron rod after
it has been in the wire coil for a
few minutes.
–
FIGURE 25–10 As the current
in the coil increases from left to
right, the magnetic field generated by the current also increases.
This increase in magnetic field
produces an EMF that opposes
the current direction.
EMF
induced
I
I
I
+
from left to right. The current generates a magnetic field, shown by
magnetic field lines. As the current and magnetic field increase, you can
imagine that new lines are created. As the lines expand, they cut through
the coil wires, generating an EMF to oppose the current changes. The
EMF will make the potential of the top of the coil more negative than the
bottom. This induction of EMF in a wire carrying changing current is
called self-inductance. The size of the induced EMF is proportional to
the rate at which field lines cut through the wires. The faster the current
is changed, the larger the opposing EMF. If the current reaches a steady
value, the magnetic field is constant, and the EMF is zero. When the current is decreased, an EMF is generated that tends to prevent the reduction
in magnetic field and current.
Because of self-inductance, work has to be done to increase the current flowing through the coil. Energy is stored in the magnetic field. This
is similar to the way a charged capacitor stores energy in the electric field
between its plates.
Transformers
Inductance between coils is the basis for the operation of a transformer. A transformer is a device used to increase or decrease AC voltages. Transformers are widely used because they change voltages with
relatively little loss of energy.
How transformers work Self-inductance produces an EMF when current changes in a single coil. A transformer has two coils, electrically insulated from each other, but wound around the same iron core. One coil is
called the primary coil. The other coil is called the secondary coil. When
the primary coil is connected to a source of AC voltage, the changing current
creates a varying magnetic field. The varying magnetic field is carried
through the core to the secondary coil. In the secondary coil, the varying
field induces a varying EMF. This effect is called mutual inductance.
Pocket Lab
Slow Magnet
Lay a 1-m length of copper tube
on the lab table. Try to pull the
copper with a pair of neodymium
magnets. Can you feel any force
on the copper? Hold the tube by
one end so that it hangs straight
down. Drop a small steel marble
through the tube. Use a stopwatch to measure the time
needed for first the marble and
then for the pair of magnets to
fall through the tube. Catch the
magnets in your hand. If they hit
the table or floor, they will break.
Analyze and Conclude
Devise a hypothesis that would
explain the strange behavior of
the falling magnets and suggest a method of testing your
hypothesis.
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields Induce EMF
RESULTS
The light will not light with the empty
wire coils. As the iron rod is inserted, the
light should become illuminated. The iron
rod becomes warm due to energy being
dissipated in it.
Assessment
KNOWLEDGE
1. Why did the light fail to light at first?
593
There was very little or no energy transferred from the magnetic field between
the first coil and the second coil. The iron
core linked the magnetic flux between the
two coils.
2. Why did the iron rod become warm?
Heating occurs as a result of loss due to
eddy currents in the iron core.
Assessment
PERFORMANCE To further assess your students’
understanding of motors,
have them do the Pocket Lab
on page 591. Remind them that
the power dissipated by the
motor is the product of the current through it and the voltage
across it. If the power increases,
then the motor is doing more
work per unit of time. Thus,
more electrical energy is being
converted into another form
of energy. Have them use data
from their tables to calculate the
power for each of the measurements. Ask where the electrical
energy goes. It goes into thermal
energy. They may feel the
increase in temperature as the
shaft rubs against their fingers.
L1
LS
Slow Magnet
Purpose To observe Lenz’s law
Materials Pair of neodymium magnets, 1 m of copper tubing (1/2 inch),
stopwatch, 9-mm steel marble
Outcome The magnets will take more
than 10 seconds to fall, while the
marble takes about 0.5 second.
Analyze and Conclude The moving
magnets induce a current in the copper. The current in the copper creates a magnetic field that acts opposite to the field of the magnets.
Students can test this hypothesis by
dropping magnets through a coil
hooked to an ammeter.
LS
Texas TEKS
Pages 592–593: 1(A), 2(A), 2(C),
6(D)
593
Physics Journal
Primary
Secondary
2.5 A
Primary
2A
Secondary
10 A
10 A
50 turns
LS Logical-Mathematical
Challenge student groups to
figure out an expression for
the efficiency of a transformer
involving the power input and
the power output. They should
summarize their work in their
journals. Efficiency (Power
Out Power In) 100, or an
equivalent expression using IV for
power. L2 COOP LEARN
5 turns
100 V
400 V
10 turns
Core
Core
1000 W
Step-up transformer
FIGURE 25–11 In a transformer,
the ratio of input voltage to output voltage depends upon the
ratio of the number of turns on
the primary coil to the number of
turns on the secondary coil.
594
2000 W
If the secondary voltage is larger than the primary voltage, the transformer is called a step-up transformer. If the voltage coming out of the
transformer is smaller than the voltage put in, then it is called a
step-down transformer.
In an ideal transformer, the electric power delivered to the secondary
circuit equals the power supplied to the primary circuit. An ideal transformer dissipates no power itself.
Pp Ps
VpIp VsIs
Ask students to imagine a real
transformer connected to a source
of alternating current. What is the
one factor that is always common
to both the primary and secondary
coils? the frequency of the alternating
current L1
Pages 594–595: 1(A), 1(B), 2(A),
2(C), 2(D), 3(B), 6(D)
Step-down transformer
The EMF induced in the secondary coil, called the secondary voltage,
is proportional to the primary voltage. The secondary voltage also
depends on the ratio of turns on the secondary coil to turns on the
primary coil.
number of turns on secondary coil
secondary voltage
primary voltage
number of turns on primary coil
Convergent Question
Texas TEKS
2000 W
Vs
Ns
Vp
Np
In this chapter, we have assumed
that transformers are 100% efficient.
Ask students if they can cite some
firsthand evidence that this is not
the case. Transformers get hot during
use because electrical energy is being
changed to thermal energy. L1
CAUTION: Wear goggles.
Use a low-voltage power supply,
two voltmeters, two ammeters,
and a transformer to demonstrate
how a transformer can either
step up or step down the voltage.
Power equivalence between primary and secondary circuits can
also be shown.
200 V
20 turns
1000 W
Uncovering
Misconceptions
QUICK DEMO
1000 V
Rearrange the equation and you find the current in the primary circuit
depends on how much current is required by the secondary circuit.
Transformer Equation
FIGURE 25–12 If the input voltage is connected to the coils on
the left, where there is a larger
number of turns, the transformer
functions as a step-down transformer. If the input voltage is
connected at the right, the transformer functions as a step-up
transformer.
594
Vp
Np
Is
Vs
Ns
Ip
A step-up transformer increases voltage. Because transformers cannot
increase the power output, there must be a corresponding decrease in
current through the secondary circuit. Similarly, in a step-down transformer, the current is greater in the secondary circuit than it is in the
primary circuit. A voltage decrease corresponds to a current increase.
Figure 25–11 illustrates the principles of step-up and step-down
transformers.
Some transformers can function either as step-up transformers or
step-down transformers depending on how they are hooked up.
Figure 25–12 shows an example of such a transformer.
Electromagnetic Induction
Meeting
Individual Needs
Learning Disabled To help develop their
understanding of transformers, have students
make a small model transformer using a
nail and two different colors of wire, such
as blue for the primary and red for the
secondary. Count the number of turns of
wire on the primary and the secondary.
Ask them to explain the operation of the
transformer to another classmate. L1 ELL
LS
TECHPREP
GENERATOR VERSUS ALTERNATOR
Have students research the difference
between automotive generators and
alternators. Which one is in use in today’s
automobiles? Alternators charge at a lower rpm.
L2 LS
Swinging Coils
Process Skills
LS
Observing and inferring, formulating models
Problem
Electricity that you use in your everyday life
comes from the wall socket or from chemical
batteries. Modern theory suggests that current
can be caused by the interactions of wires
and magnets. Exactly how do coils and
magnets interact?
Uncovering
Misconceptions
From Chapter 24, it was learned
that current generates magnetic
field. It is often assumed that the
reverse is true—that a magnetic
field generates a current in a closed
loop. Students should recognize
this paradox and then realize that
the magnetic field must be moving
or changing for a current to exist.
Hypothesis
Form a testable hypothesis that relates to the
interaction of magnets and coils. Be sure to
include some symmetry tests in your hypothesis.
Try to design a system of coils and magnets
so that you can use one pair as a generator
and one pair as a motor.
Possible Materials
coils of enameled wire
identical sets of magnets
masking tape
supports and bars
Plan the Experiment
1. Devise a means to test stationary effects:
those that occur when the magnet and
coils are not moving.
2. Consider how to test moving effects: those
that occur when the magnet moves in
various directions in relation to the coil.
3. Include different combinations of connecting, or not connecting, the ends of the wires.
4. Consider polarity, magnetic strength, and
any other variables that might influence
the interaction of the coils and magnet.
5. Check the Plan Make sure that your
teacher has approved your final plan
before you proceed with your experiment.
6. When you have completed the lab, dispose
of or recycle appropriate materials. Put away
materials that can be reused.
Safety Precautions
Have students exercise caution
when stripping the ends of the
enameled wire.
Analyze and Conclude
1. Organizing Results Construct a list of
tests that you performed and their results.
2. Analyzing Data Summarize the effects
of the stationary magnet and the moving
magnet. Explain how connecting the wires
influenced your results.
3. Relating Concepts Describe and
explain the effects of changing polarity,
direction, number of coils, and any other
variables you used.
4. Checking Your Hypothesis Did the
experiment yield expected results? Did
you determine any new interactions?
Possible Hypotheses
Hypotheses should include the
details of how the coils and magnets are to be arranged and moved.
Hypotheses should also include
some symmetry tests (e.g., pushing
vs. pulling, North vs. South, etc.).
Possible Procedures
Students should hang the coils
similar to the student in the photo.
Most groups should be able to
devise a reasonable plan for each
experimental setup.
Apply
1. The current that you generated in this
activity was quite small. List several factors
that you could change to generate more
current. (Hint: Think of a commercial
generator.)
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields Induce EMF
3. Reversing the direction of magnet motion
reverses the direction of coil swing. When a
second magnet is inside the second coil, then
both coils swing. When the pole of the second magnet is reversed, the coil will swing in
the opposite direction.
4. Answers will vary.
Apply
1. Commercial generators have stronger
magnets, the relative motion is much faster,
and the number of coils is much greater.
Each factor is important in determining
the electrical energy.
Teaching Suggestions
595
Assessment
SKILL
1. Describe the direction of EMF as the magnet
is inserted and removed from the coil.
Direction of EMF will vary depending on set-up;
however, students should indicate that the EMF
reverses direction as the magnet reverses direction.
2. Using your lab, formulate a method to
determine the field strength of your magnet.
Carry out your method and compare with
other lab groups. Students should use the
relation EMF BLv and attempt to measure
voltage, length, and velocity.
• Remind students to be thorough
and to take copious notes of their
experimental arrangements and
results.
Analyze and Conclude
1. Tests will vary.
2. Stationary magnet has no effect
(copper is nonmagnetic) and
a moving magnet still has no
effect as long as the wires are
disconnected. When a closed
loop is formed, effects are seen:
the coil swings in the opposite
direction from the motion of
the magnet.
595
Practice Problems
Have students refer to Appendix C
for complete solutions to Practice
Problems.
9. a. 120 V; b. 0.60 A
10. a. 3.6 103 V; b. 9.0 101 A;
c. 1.1 104 W; 1.1 104 W
11. a. 1.80 104 V; b. 1.5 102 A
3 ASSESS
Checking for
Understanding
Ask students if a transformer would
work connected to a DC source. No,
the DC would not produce the changing magnetic field necessary to produce
electromagnetic induction in the coils
of the transformer.
Reteaching
Use the idea of concept mapping
to correlate and connect concepts
with their applications in the
second section. L1 ELL
Extension
For students who have mastered
the lesson, assign problems from
the Supplemental Problems
booklet. L2
Example Problem
Step-Up Transformer
A step-up transformer has a primary coil consisting of 200 turns
and a secondary coil that has 3000 turns. The primary coil is supplied
with an effective AC voltage of 90.0 V.
Is
Ip
a. What is the voltage in the secondary circuit?
b. The current in the secondary circuit is 2.00 A.
What is the current in the primary circuit?
Vp
Np
Ns
Vs
c. What is the power in the primary circuit?
Sketch the Problem
• Draw an iron core with turns of wire.
• Label the variables I, V, and N.
Calculate Your Answer
Known:
Strategy:
Np 200
a. Voltage and turn ratios
are equal.
Ns 3000
Vp 90.0 V
3000
Ns
Vs V (90.0 V) 1.35 kV
200
Np p
Solve for Vs.
Is 2.00 A
b. Assuming that the transformer is perfectly efficient, the power in the
primary and secondary
circuits is equal.
Unknown:
Vs ?
Ip ?
Pp ?
Calculations:
Vs
Ns
Vp
Np
c. Use the power relation
to solve for Pp.
Pp Ps
VpIp VsIs
1350 V
Vs
Ip I
(2.00 A) 30.0 A
90.0 V
Vp s
Pp VpIp (90.0 V)(30.0 A) 2.70 kW
Check Your Answer
• Are the units correct? Check the units with algebra. Voltage: V;
Current: A; and Power: W.
• Do the signs make sense? All numbers are positive.
• Is the magnitude realistic? A large step-up ratio of turns results in
a large secondary voltage yet a smaller secondary current.
Answers agree.
Practice Problems
For all problems, effective currents and voltages are indicated.
9. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary coil and
125 turns on its secondary coil. The voltage across the primary
circuit is 7.2 kV.
596
Electromagnetic Induction
Connections To Criminology
EAVESDROPPER
The EMFs generated by changing magnetic
fields have been used for illegal purposes.
Small induction coils can be used to amplify
telephone conversations or eavesdrop on
someone’s conversation without his or her
knowledge. Similarly, antennas can allow others to listen to conversations on portable or
cellular phones.
596
How could you use the principles of this
chapter to reduce the ability of an induction
coil to listen in on conversations? You could
reduce the changing magnetic fields leaving a device
by enclosing them in containers of ferromagnetic
materials such as steel. Fiber-optic cables can
eliminate eavesdropping because there is no
surrounding magnetic field.
4 CLOSE
a. What voltage is across the secondary circuit?
b. The current in the secondary circuit is 36 A. What is the current in the primary circuit?
10. A step-up transformer’s primary coil has 500 turns. Its secondary
coil has 15 000 turns. The primary circuit is connected to an AC
generator having an EMF of 120 V.
a. Calculate the EMF of the secondary circuit.
b. Find the current in the primary circuit if the current in the
secondary circuit is 3.0 A.
c. What power is drawn by the primary circuit? What power is
supplied by the secondary circuit?
11. A step-up transformer has 300 turns on its primary coil and
90 000 turns on its secondary coil. The EMF of the generator to
which the primary circuit is attached is 60.0 V.
a. What is the EMF in the secondary circuit?
b. The current in the secondary circuit is 0.50 A. What current is
in the primary circuit?
Everyday uses of transformers As you learned in Chapter 22, longdistance transmission of electrical energy is economical only if low
currents and very high voltages are used. Step-up transformers are used
at power sources to develop voltages as high as 480 000 V. The high
voltage reduces the current required in the transmission lines, keeping
the energy lost to resistance low. When the energy reaches the consumer,
step-down transformers, such as the one shown in Figure 25–13,
provide appropriately low voltages for consumer use. Transformers in
your appliances further adjust voltages to useable levels.
25.2
Activity
LS Visual-Spatial Have students
investigate a beam balance and make
a sketch of the eddy current damping
device found on the balance. Refer
to page 592 if review is needed. L1
ELL
FIGURE 25–13 Step-down
transformers are used to reduce
the high voltage in transmission
lines to levels appropriate for
consumers at the points of use.
P
Videotape
MindJogger Videoquizzes
Chapter 25: Electromagnetic
Induction
Have students work in groups as
they play the videoquiz game to
review key chapter concepts.
Section Review
1. You hang a coil of wire with its ends
joined so it can swing easily. If you
now plunge a magnet into the coil,
the coil will swing. Which way will
it swing with respect to the magnet
and why?
2. If you unplugged a running vacuum
cleaner from the wall outlet, you
would be much more likely to see
a spark than you would be if you
unplugged a lighted lamp from the
wall. Why?
3. Frequently, transformer windings that
have only a few turns are made of
very thick (low-resistance) wire, while
those with many turns are made of
thin wire. Why?
4.
Critical Thinking Would permanent
magnets make good transformer
cores? Explain.
25.2 Changing Magnetic Fields Induce EMF
25.2 Section Review
1. Away from the magnet. The changing
magnetic field induces a current in the
coil, producing a magnetic field. This
field opposes the field of the magnet, and
thus the force between coil and magnet is
repulsive.
2. The inductance of the motor creates a
back-EMF that causes the spark. The bulb
has very low self-inductance, so there is no
back-EMF.
597
3. More current flows through the winding
with fewer turns, so the resistance must be
kept low to prevent voltage drops and I2R
power loss and heating.
4. No, the induced voltage depends on a
changing magnetic field through the core.
Permanent magnets are “permanent”
because they are made of materials that
resist such changes in magnetic field.
Texas TEKS
Pages 596–597: 3(B), 6(D)
597
25
CHAPTER
REVIEW
CHAPTER
25 REVIEW
Summary
Review Summary statements and
Key Terms with your students.
Key Terms
Reviewing Concepts
25.1
Section 25.1
1. They are similar in that they
each show a relationship
between electricity and magnetism. They are different in that a
steady electric current produces
a magnetic field, but a change
in magnetic field is needed to
produce an electric current.
2. either move the magnet in or
out through the coil, or move
the coil up and down over the
end of the magnet
3. Electromotive Force; it is not a
force but an electric potential
(energy per unit charge).
4. The armature of an electric
generator consists of a number
of wire loops wound around
an iron core and placed in a
strong magnetic field. As it
rotates in the magnetic field,
the loops cut through magnetic
field lines and an electric current
is induced.
5. Iron is used in an armature to
increase the strength of the
magnetic field.
6. In a generator, mechanical
energy turns an armature in a
magnetic field. The induced
voltage causes current to flow,
thus producing electrical
energy. In a motor, a voltage is
placed across an armature coil
in a magnetic field. The voltage
causes current to flow in the
coil and the armature turns,
producing mechanical energy.
7. An AC generator consists of a
permanent magnet, an armature,
a set of brushes, and a slip ring.
8. In an alternating-current generator, as the armature turns,
the alternating current varies
between some maximum value
and zero. Because the current
varies, the effective value of
the current delivered by an
alternating-current generator is
less than its maximum value.
598
25.1 Creating Electric Current from
Changing Magnetic Fields
• Michael Faraday discovered that if a
• electromagnetic
induction
• electromotive
force
• electric
generator
•
•
25.2
• Lenz’s law
• eddy current
• self-inductance
• transformer
• primary coil
• secondary coil
• mutual
inductance
• step-up
transformer
• step-down
transformer
•
•
wire moves through a magnetic field,
an electric current can flow.
The current produced depends upon
the angle between the velocity of the
wire and the magnetic field. Maximum
current occurs when the wire is moving
at right angles to the field.
Electromotive force, EMF, is the potential difference created across the moving
wire. EMF is measured in volts.
The EMF in a straight length of wire
moving through a uniform magnetic
field is the product of the magnetic field,
B, the length of the wire, L, and the
component of the velocity of the moving
wire, v, perpendicular to the field.
A generator and a motor are similar
devices. A generator converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy;
a motor converts electrical
energy to mechanical energy.
25.2 Changing Magnetic
Fields Induce EMF
• Lenz’s law states that an induced current is always produced in a direction
such that the magnetic field resulting
from the induced current opposes the
change in the magnetic field that is
causing the induced current.
• Self-inductance is a property of a wire
carrying a changing current. The faster
the current is changing, the greater the
induced EMF that opposes that change.
• A transformer has two coils wound about
the same core. An AC current through the
primary coil induces an alternating EMF
in the secondary coil. The voltages in
alternating-current circuits may be
increased or decreased by transformers.
Key Equations
25.2
25.1
EMF BLv
Ieff 0.707 Imax
Veff 0.707 Vmax
Vp
Np
Is
Vs
Ns
Ip
Reviewing Concepts
Section 25.1
1. How are Oersted’s and Faraday’s
results similar? How are they different?
2. You have a coil of wire and a bar
magnet. Describe how you could use
them to generate an electric current.
3. What does EMF stand for? Why is the
name inaccurate?
4. What is the armature of an electric
generator?
5. Why is iron used in an armature?
6. What is the difference between a
generator and a motor?
598
Electromagnetic Induction
9. There is potential energy in the stored
water, kinetic energy in the falling water
and turning turbine, and electric energy
in the generator.
Section 25.2
10. An induced current always acts in such
a direction that its magnetic properties
oppose the change by which the current
is induced.
11. This is Lenz’s law. Once the motor starts
turning, it behaves as a generator and will
generate current in opposition to the current
being put into the motor.
7. List the major parts of an AC generator.
8. Why is the effective value of an AC
current less than its maximum value?
9. Water trapped behind a dam turns
turbines that rotate generators. List all
the forms of energy that take part in
the cycle that includes the stored
water and the electricity produced.
Section 25.2
10. State Lenz’s law.
11. What produces the back-EMF of an
electric motor?
CHAPTER 25 REVIEW
12. Why is there no spark when you close a switch,
putting current through an inductor, but there
is a spark when you open the switch?
13. Why is the self-inductance of a coil a major factor when the coil is in an AC circuit but a
minor factor when the coil is in a DC circuit?
14. Explain why the word change appears so often
in this chapter.
15. Upon what does the ratio of the EMF in the
primary circuit of a transformer to the EMF in
the secondary circuit of the transformer depend?
Applying Concepts
16. Substitute units to show that the units of BLv
are volts.
17. When a wire is moved through a magnetic
field, resistance of the closed circuit affects
a. current only.
c. both.
b. EMF only.
d. neither.
18. As Logan slows his bike, what happens to the
EMF produced by his bike’s generator? Use the
term armature in your explanation.
19. The direction of AC voltage changes 120 times
each second. Does that mean that a device connected to an AC voltage alternately delivers and
accepts energy?
20. A wire is moved horizontally between the poles
of a magnet, as shown in Figure 25–14. What
is the direction of the induced current?
S
N
25
N
S
Down
FIGURE 25–15
23. A transformer is connected to a battery through
a switch. The secondary circuit contains a lightbulb. Which of the following statements best
describes when the lamp will be lighted? Explain.
a. as long as the switch is closed
b. only the moment the switch is closed
c. only the moment the switch is opened
24. The direction of Earth’s magnetic field in the
northern hemisphere is downward and to the
north. If an east-west wire moves from north to
south, in which direction is the current?
25. You move a length of copper wire down through
a magnetic field B, as shown in Figure 25–15.
a. Will the induced current move to the right or
left in the wire segment in the diagram?
b. As soon as the wire is moved in the field, a
current appears in it. Thus, the wire segment is
a current-carrying wire located in a magnetic
field. A force must act on the wire. What will
be the direction of the force acting on the wire
as a result of the induced current?
26. A physics instructor drops a magnet through a
copper pipe, as illustrated in Figure 25–16. The
magnet falls very slowly, and the class concludes
that there must be some force opposing gravity.
12. The spark is from the back-EMF
that tries to keep the current
flowing. The EMF is large
because the current has dropped
quickly to zero. When closing
the switch, the current increase
isn’t so fast because of resistance
in the wires.
13. An alternating current is always
changing in magnitude and
direction. Therefore, selfinduction is a constant factor.
A direct current becomes steady
quite rapidly, and thus, after a
short time, there is no changing
magnetic field.
14. As Faraday discovered, only
a changing magnetic field
induces EMF.
15. The ratio of number of turns of
wire in the primary coil to the
number of turns of wire in the
secondary coil determines the
EMF ratio.
Applying Concepts
16.
FIGURE 25–14
21. You make an electromagnet by winding wire
around a large nail. If you connect the magnet
to a battery, is the current larger just after you
make the connection or several tenths of a second after the connection is made? Or is it
always the same? Explain.
22. A segment of a wire loop is moving downward
through the poles of a magnet, as shown in
Figure 25–15. What is the direction of the
induced current?
N
The current direction is out-of page to the
left as shown below.
N
S
I
Down
17.
18.
S
FIGURE 25–16
Chapter 25 Review
22.
CHAPTER
REVIEW
599
The bulb will light because there is a
current in the secondary circuit. This will
happen whenever the primary current
changes, so the bulb will glow when either
the switch is closed or when it is opened.
24. The current is from west to east.
25 a. The right-hand rule will show the current
moving left.
b. The force will act in an upward direction.
19.
23.
20.
21.
The unit of Blv is
(T)(m)(m/s). T N/A m
and A C/s. So Blv is
(N s/C m)(m)(m/s).
Algebra gives N m/C.
Because J N m and V J/C, the unit of Blv is V (volts).
current only
As Logan slows his bike, the
rotation of the armature in
the magnetic field of the
generator slows, and the EMF
is reduced.
No; the signs or the current
and voltage reverse at the
same time, and, therefore, the
product of the current and
the voltage is always positive.
No current is induced because
the velocity is parallel to the
magnetic field.
It is larger a moment after the
connection is made. The
back-EMF opposes current
just after the current starts.
599
25
CHAPTER 25 REVIEW
CHAPTER
REVIEW
a. What is the direction of the current induced
in the pipe by the falling magnet if the
S-pole is toward the bottom?
b. The induced current produces a magnetic
field. What is the direction of the field?
c. How does this field reduce the acceleration
of the falling magnet?
27. Why is a generator more difficult to rotate
when it is connected to a circuit and supplying
current than it is when it is standing alone?
26 a. Induced EMF is perpendicular
to both the field and velocity,
so the field must be circumferential. Field lines move in
toward the S-pole and out
from the N-pole. By the righthand rule, current is clockwise
near the S-pole and counterclockwise near the N-pole.
b. Near the S-pole, the field
inside the pipe is down;
near the N-pole, it is up.
c. Induced field exerts an
upward force on both poles.
27. When the armature of a generator is rotated, a force that
opposes the direction of rotation
is produced as a result of
induced current (Lenz’s law).
When standing alone, however,
no current is generated and
consequently no opposing
force is produced.
Problems
Section 25.1
28. A wire, 20.0 m long, moves at 4.0 m/s perpendicularly through a magnetic field. An EMF of
40 V is induced in the wire. What is the
strength of the magnetic field?
29. An airplane traveling at 9.50 102 km/h
passes over a region where Earth’s magnetic
field is 4.5 105 T and is nearly vertical.
What voltage is induced between the plane’s
wing tips, which are 75 m apart?
30. A straight wire, 0.75 m long, moves upward
through a horizontal 0.30-T magnetic field at a
speed of 16 m/s.
a. What EMF is induced in the wire?
b. The wire is part of a circuit with a total resistance of 11 . What is the current?
31. At what speed would a 0.20-m length of wire
have to move across a 2.5-T magnetic field to
induce an EMF of 10 V?
32. An AC generator develops a maximum EMF of
565 V. What effective EMF does the generator
deliver to an external circuit?
33. An AC generator develops a maximum voltage
of 150 V. It delivers a maximum current of
30.0 A to an external circuit.
a. What is the effective voltage of the generator?
b. What effective current does it deliver to the
external circuit?
c. What is the effective power dissipated in
the circuit?
34. An electric stove is connected to an AC source
with an effective voltage of 240 V.
a. Find the maximum voltage across one of the
stove’s elements when it is operating.
b. The resistance of the operating element is
Problems
Complete solutions for all Chapter
Review Problems can be found in the
Problems and Solutions Manual
accompanying this text.
Section 25.1
LEVEL 1
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
0.5 T
0.89 V
a. 3.6 V; b. 0.33 A
20 m/s
399 V
a. 110 V; b. 21.2 A; c. 2.25 kW
a. 340 V; b. 22 A
23m, perpendicular
600
Texas TEKS
Pages 598–599: 3(B), 6(D)
Pages 600–601: 3(B), 6(D)
600
Section 25.2
40. The primary coil of a transformer has
150 turns. It is connected to a 120-V source.
Calculate the number of turns on the secondary coil needed to supply these voltages.
a. 625 V
b. 35 V
c. 6.0 V
41. A step-up transformer has 80 turns on its primary coil. It has 1200 turns on its secondary
coil. The primary circuit is supplied with an
alternating current at 120 V.
a. What voltage is across the secondary circuit?
b. The current in the secondary circuit is 2.0 A.
What current is in the primary circuit?
Electromagnetic Induction
LEVEL 2
36.
37.
38.
39
11 . What is the effective current?
35. You wish to generate an EMF of 4.5 V by moving a wire at 4.0 m/s through a 0.050 T magnetic
field. How long must the wire be, and what
should be the angle between the field and
direction of motion to use the shortest wire?
36. A 40.0-cm wire is moved perpendicularly
through a magnetic field of 0.32 T with a velocity of 1.3 m/s. If this wire is connected into a
circuit of 10- resistance, what is the current?
37. You connect both ends of a copper wire, total
resistance 0.10 , to the terminals of a galvanometer. The galvanometer has a resistance
of 875 . You then move a 10.0-cm segment
of the wire upward at 1.0 m/s through a
2.0 102-T magnetic field. What current will
the galvanometer indicate?
38. The direction of a 0.045-T magnetic field is 60°
above the horizontal. A wire, 2.5 m long,
moves horizontally at 2.4 m/s.
a. What is the vertical component of the
magnetic field?
b. What EMF is induced in the wire?
39. A generator at a dam can supply 375 MW
(375 106 W) of electrical power. Assume that
the turbine and generator are 85% efficient.
a. Find the rate at which falling water must
supply energy to the turbine.
b. The energy of the water comes from a change
in potential energy, U mgh. What is the
change in U needed each second?
c. If the water falls 22 m, what is the mass of
the water that must pass through the turbine
each second to supply this power?
17 mA
2.3 A
a. 0.039 T; b. 0.23 V
a. 440 MW input
b. 4.4 108 J each second
c. 2.0 106 kg each second
Section 25.2
LEVEL 1
40. a. 780 turns; b. 44 turns; c. 7.5 turns
41. a. 1.8 kV; b. 3.0 101 A; c. 3.6 kW; 3.6 kW
42. a. 36 turns; b. 9.4 mA
43. a. 2 to 1; b. 5 A
LEVEL 2
44. a. A step-up transformer
b. 10 to 3
45. 72 V
CHAPTER 25 REVIEW
Extra Practice For more
practice solving problems, go
to Extra Practice Problems,
Appendix B.
Critical Thinking Problems
46. Suppose an “anti-Lenz’s law” existed that meant
a force was exerted to increase the change in
magnetic field. Thus, when more energy was
demanded, the force needed to turn the generator would be reduced. What conservation law
would be violated by this new “law”? Explain.
47. Real transformers are not 100% efficient. That
is, the efficiency, in percent, is represented by
e (100)Ps/Pp. A step-down transformer that
has an efficiency of 92.5% is used to obtain
28.0 V from the 125-V household voltage. The
current in the secondary circuit is 25.0 A. What
is the current in the primary circuit?
48. A transformer that supplies eight homes has an
efficiency of 95%. All eight homes have electric
ovens running that draw 35 A from 240 V
lines. How much power is supplied to the
ovens in the eight homes? How much power is
dissipated as heat in the transformer?
Going Further
Graphing Calculator Show that the average
power in an AC circuit is half the peak power.
Figure 25–5 shows how the current produced
by a generator varies in time. The equation that
describes this variation is I Imaxsin(2ft). In
the U.S., f 60 Hz. If a resistor is connected
across a generator, then the voltage drop across
the resistor will be given by V ImaxR sin(2ft).
The power dissipated by the resistor is
P Imax2R sin2(2ft). Suppose that R 10 Ω,
Imax 1 A.
a. Plot the power as a function of time from
t = 0 to t = 1/60 s (one complete cycle).
b. Determine the energy transfer to the resistor. When the power is constant, the energy
is the product of the power and the time
interval. When the power varies, the energy
can be calculated as the area under the curve
of the graph of power versus time. There are
different ways you can find this, depending
on the tools you have. You could transfer
the plot to a large piece of graph paper and
count squares under the curve. Or, you could
calculate the power every 1/1200 s and multiply by the time interval (1/1200 s) to find
the incremental energy transfer, then add
up all the small increments of energy. Or,
you might use a computer.
c. The average power is given by the total energy
transferred divided by the time interval. Find
the average power from your result above and
compare with the peak power, 10 W.
PHYSICS
To review content, do the
interactive quizzes on the
Glencoe Science Web site at
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Chapter 25 Review
PHYSICS
Be sure to check the Glencoe Science
Web site for links to chapter material:
science.glencoe.com
601
Program Resources
Chapter Assessment, pp. 115–118 L1
TestCheck Software, Chapter 25 L1
MindJogger Videoquizzes, Chapter 25
L1
ELL
Alternate Assessment in the Science
Classroom
Performance Assessment in the Science
Classroom L1
Supplemental Problems, Chapter 25 L2
25
Critical Thinking
Problems
Complete solutions for all Chapter
Review Critical Thinking Problems can
be found in the Problems and Solutions
Manual accompanying this text.
46. It would violate the law of
conservation of energy. More
energy would come out than
went in. A generator would
create energy, not just change
it from one form to another.
47. 6.05 A
48. 67 kW; 4 kW
Going Further
Power versus Time
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.0000
Power (w)
c. What is the power input and output of
the transformer?
42. A laptop computer requires an effective voltage
of 9.0 volts from the 120-V line.
a. If the primary coil has 475 turns, how many
does the secondary coil have?
b. A 125–mA current is in the computer. What
current is in the primary circuit?
43. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V. It is used with a
transformer in England, where the line
voltage is 240 V.
a. What should be the ratio of the turns of
the transformer?
b. What current will the hair dryer now draw?
44. A 150-W transformer has an input voltage of
9.0 V and an output current of 5.0 A.
a. Is this a step-up or step-down transformer?
b. What is the ratio of Voutput to Vinput?
45. Scott connects a transformer to a 24-V source
and measures 8.0 V at the secondary circuit. If
the primary and secondary circuits were reversed,
what would the new output voltage be?
CHAPTER
REVIEW
0.0033
0.0067
0.0100
0.0133 0.0167
Time (s)
t
0.000000
0.000833
0.001667
0.002500
0.003333
0.004167
0.005000
0.005833
0.006667
0.007500
0.008333
0.009167
0.010000
0.010833
0.011667
0.012500
0.013333
0.014167
0.015000
0.015833
0.016667
P
0.000000
0.954919
3.454929
6.545106
9.045102
10.000000
9.045059
6.545036
3.454859
0.954876
0.000000
0.954963
3.454999
6.545176
9.045145
10.00000
9.045016
6.544966
3.454789
0.954833
0.000000
E
0.000000
0.000796
0.002879
0.005454
0.007538
0.008333
0.007538
0.005454
0.002879
0.000796
0.000000
0.000796
0.002879
0.005454
0.007538
0.008333
0.007538
0.005454
0.002879
0.000796
0.000000
Total Energy 0.083333
Average Power 4.999989
Note that average power is almost
exactly half of peak power.
601
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