November 15, 2014

Vol. XIX No. 949 |1
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. IXI No. 949 | November 15, 2014 | ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
New bill
proposes probing
corruption in
private sector,
civil societies
Price 5.00 Birr
Lion hospital
Chinese consortium to Black
to undergo major
operate Addis LRT
By Birhanu Fikade
The state-owned Chinese corporation
vows to cement deals with officials
here to undertake a major expansion
and renovation of the largest and longserving referral hospital in the country.
By Yonas Abiye
A new draft bill to amend the existing
proposing a widened scope of probing,
investigating and prosecuting tasks
related to corruption as wide as nonstate institutions, was tabled before the
House of Peoples’ Representatives (HPR)
on Thursday.
The House deliberated on three draft bills
focusing on civil society organizations
and the private sector along with the
power of the commission that proposes
to give it the power of issuing recognition
to other federal government offices that
seek to carry on investigations against
corruption in their respective sectors.
The draft bill will establish a
legal framework whereby private
corporations, unions, share companies,
civil society organizations, education
and health institutions, banks, insurers,
money transfer agents and other
institutions will be held accountable in
the fight against corruption.
It has become, according to the
government explanation attached to the
draft bill, necessary to include similar
New bill proposes... page 38
Photo By: Reporter/ Nahom Tesfaye
With the proposed amendment of the
Proclamation to Provide for the Crimes
of Corruption, another two related
proclamations - the Revised Federal
Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission
Establishment Proclamation and The
Revised Special Procedure and Rules
of Evidence Proclamation - were also
presented to the House.
By Yohannes Anberbir
A consortium of China Railway
Engineering Corporation (CREC), a
Chinese contractor currently building
Zhang Jianguo
China Machineries and Engineering
Corporation (CMEC), which currently
seeks to undertake the expansion of
Black Lion (Tikur Anbessa) Hospital is
negotiating to avail finances for other
giant projects in the country. One of the
critical projects CMEC associated itself
with is the urea fertilizer-producing
factory of the government.
the Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit
(LRT) system, and Shenzen Metro
Group, operators of the railway system
Zhang Jianguo, Vice President of CMEC
told The Reporterr that CMEC has been
in contact with higher officials here.
According to Jinaguo, the negotiations
Chinese consortium... page 38
Black Lion hospital... page 38
2| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
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Addressing disruption in utilities
Ethiopia has devised and is implementing a strategy aimed at enabling it join the ranks of middle-income countries within
the next two decades. Presently, it is one of the fastest growing economies in the world with the needs of its people growing
This said, nowadays the delivery of basic services like electricity, water, telecom and mass transit in its rapidly growing capital is
being beset by frequent disruptions in services. Admittedly, such problems can be regarded as inevitable features of an economy
growing fast. Nonetheless, the fact that the problems are worsening from time to time is causing public disgruntlement.
The government has indicated on several occasions that it was determined to tackle these problems. In early October President
Mulatu Teshome (PhD) apologized to the public when opening the joint session of the House of Peoples’ Representatives and
the House of the Federation for the recurring power outage. Offering an apology is not enough, however; it requires urgent
corrective measures. It is only when his apology is supported by concrete steps which restore normal service delivery that it can
have any meaning.
The frequent power interruption is putting factory machineries out of commission, forcing their owners to incur unnecessary
expenses and, in some cases, even loss. Furthermore, it is also causing delays in the production and supply of factory-produced
goods and, as such, impacting negatively the manufacturing sector in particular.
Power outage does not affect industries alone, though. It cuts short the life span of electrical appliances that are intended to last
long and thereby not only occasions pecuniary loss for ordinary citizens but also subjects them to inconvenience.
Therefore, all stakeholders responsible for ensuring a reliable supply of power need to do their jobs properly. Otherwise, it is
bound to roll back the economic and social gains the country has made in the past decade.
The widespread disruption in water supply across the capital and other parts of the country is another source of discontent
for the public. That there seems to be no immediate end in sight for the problem is prompting many to wonder if it can ever be
resolved once and for all.
The poor state of water supply is already having grave social consequences for the public. In particular, the absence or
chronic shortage of water in hospitals and schools is rendering the care for the sick and children very difficult. This seemingly
interminable shortage of water must be dealt with decisively before it exacts a heavier social and economic toll on the public and
costs the government dear politically.
The track record of Ethiopia’s telecom sector is a further area which is the subject of public dissatisfaction. The government has
awarded a USD 1.6 billion project to two Chinese companies to undertake the expansion of telecom services across the nation.
Despite the huge sum allocated for the project, the quality of the various services provided by the telecom monopoly still leaves
much to be desired. Aside from the general public, the revenue authority, banks and other businesses are finding it increasingly
difficult to deliver the efficiency demanded by customers because of the unreliability of the mobile telephone and internet
services. All in all, Ethiopia is lagging behind in the use of information and communication technology.
Much has already been said about the chronic transportation problem that has been a feature of Addis Ababa and the measures
the government has taken to alleviate it. Nevertheless, the problem continues to persist and is a burning issue for the public.
Computer Secretaries
Birtukan Abate, Helen Yetayew,
The ordeal faced by commuters as a result of the shortage of the means of mass transit during rush hours is a grievance that
has been around for some time. And given that the unavailability of transportation compels workers to show up late for work, it
reduces productivity and hence economic output. The government’s repeated promise that the problem would be solved shortly
is yet to be realized.
Tesfaye Mengesha, Yeyesuswork
Mamo,Gezaghgn Mandefro
It is incumbent upon the government to seek definitive solutions for the disruption in basic services that is making life miserable
for citizens. Though it is making strides in this regard, the results so far have not addressed satisfactorily the public’s demands.
Therefore, it must ramp up its efforts in order to demonstrate that it indeed is responsive to the needs of citizens.
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Medrek, AEUP name new presidents
Alito (PhD) to lead party affairs, while
Tilahun Endeshaw, Aregash Adanae
and Gebru Gebremariam were elected
to head the public relations, finance
and serve as secretary of the party,
Election apart, the front also discussed
on various issues such as the suspension
of the Unity for Democracy and Justice
Party (UDJ) from Medrek, issues related
to the upcoming election and the political
space and the acute financial problem
that the party is currently facing.
Beyene Petros (Prof.)
As to the relationship between Medrek
and UDJ, the newly elected president
told The Reporter that the suspension
is still in place and nothing has changed
in that regard. However, the president
underscored the fact that UDJ still has
some time to correct its mistakes and
rejoin the front before the deadline – the
24th of November 2014.
The Ethiopian Federal Democratic
Unity Forum (Medrek) elected Beyene
Petros (Prof.), as president, and other
senior members of the party’s leadership
to serve for the next six months, last
“On the 24th of November political
parties will start taking their election
symbols from the National Electoral
Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) and after
that the issue of legality comes into the
picture. Hence, any discussion between
Medrek and UDJ has to happen before
that for it to bear fruit,” the president
By Neamin Ashenafi
The 10th general assembly meeting that
was held in its office located around
Sidist Kilo deliberated on various urgent
issues apart from voting to elect its new
Beyene replaced the outgoing president,
Merera Gudina (PhD), who was
appointed to become head the external
affairs department. On the other hand,
the general assembly also named Ayele
Court drops
Zone9 ‘crimes
In this regard, speaker of the national
council of UDJ Abebe Akalu confirmed
to The Reporter that the party has
received a letter from Medrek in relation
to the deadline, but said, “UDJ do not
intend to respond because its repeated
request to have the suspension lifted and
work together was ignored by Medrek.”
During the tenure of president Gizachew
Shiferaw (Eng), UDJ has appealed
Vol. XIX No. 949 |3
Ethiopia to
take the lead
in liberalizing
African skies
By Kaleyesus Bekele
Ethiopia is to take the lead in fully
Declaration (YD) and liberalizing the
African skies.
Mamushet Amare
continuously to Medrek to review its
decision; however, they refused, Abebe
told The Reporter. “So, it is better to
break up with love,” he remarked.
In a related development, the All
Ethiopian Unity Party (AEUP) also voted
Mamushet Amare, a controversial figure
in the party structure after he allegedly
commandeered the office of the party
following disagreement the leadership.
The internal strife that took place in
the All Ethiopian Union Party (AEUP)
for the last four years, included two
different groups of the party accusing
each other of not having the legitimacy
to claim to be the legal representative
Medrek, AEUP... page 39
In 1999 African Ministers responsible
for civil aviation gathered in the Ivorian
city of Yamoussoukro and adopted the
Yamoussoukro Declaration that calls
for the liberalization of African skies
for African airlines. The declaration
aims at establishing a single African air
transport market by avoiding market
restrictions imposed by bilateral air
service agreements. The decision was
adopted by African heads of state in
2000 with a two year grace period.
However, after 20 years African states
have not been able to fully implement
the declaration. African skies are not
open to African airlines. The African
air transport market is still restricted
by protectionist bilateral air services
At the African Airlines Association’s
(AFRAA) 46th annual general assembly
held from November 9-11 in Algiers,
Algeria the secretary general of the
association, Elijah Chingosho (PhD),
said that African states are expected to
announce the full implementation of
the Yamoussoukro Declaration at the
African Union Summit to be held in
Addis Ababa in January 2015. Chingosho
said that in the coming few weeks
champion countries will take the lead in
announcing the full implementation of
the YD.
Speaking of the Ebola epidemic,
Chingosho said that it is science not
fear that should guide African nations.
“We should tackle the problem together
scientifically. We should not isolate the
affected countries,” Chingosho said.
Ethiopian Airlines Group CEO, Tewolde
Gebremriam, who participated at the
forum told The Reporterr that Ethiopian
is willing and ready to take the lead in
liberalizing African skies for African
airlines. “The plan is to establish a
single African air transport market by
2015. By the end of 2015, bilateral air
service agreements should be null and
void,” Tewolde said.
Orders several amendments to
prosecutor’s terror charge
By Tamiru Tsige
Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa,
Togo, Nigeria are expected to be the
champion countries to announce the
full implementation of the YD before
The Federal High Court nineteenth
criminal bench exonerated Zone9
bloggers and journalists from one charge
of ‘outrage against the constitutional
A recent study commissioned by the
International Air Transport Association
(IATA) lists the benefits African
states could reap by liberating their
air transport market. The study was
conducted by an independent consulting
firm, InterVISTAS, on 12 countries. The
study indicates that the 12 countries
could generate additional 1.3 billion
dollars to their GDP and create extra
155,000 jobs by liberalizing their markets.
The study indicates that Ethiopia could
open additional 14,800 jobs and generate
extra 59.8 million dollars GDP.
The ten bloggers and journalists were
charged with ‘conspiracy to commit
acts of terror’ and ‘outrage against
the constitutional order’ by federal
prosecutors in July 2014, three months
after the arrest of the nine defendants.
One member of the group, Soliyana
Shimeles, a blogger, is charged in
At a preliminary hearing on Wednesday,
the court dropped charges of ‘outrage
against the constitutional order’ stating
that the alleged acts are covered under
the terror charges contained in the same
charge sheet.
An aviation expert that The Reporter
spoke to at the AFRAA conference
said that African states have been very
slow in implementing the YD. “African
states often speak of African economies
Court drops Zone9.. page 37
Ethiopia to take... page 39
4| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
PM appoints new Minister of
State for Ministry of Mines
Asfaw Dingamo to lead Ethiopian Petroleum
Development Enterprise
Debub Global, Lucy
join forces
By Dawit Taye
The National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE),
the country’s regulatory body of the
financial sector, has turned down the
formal application lodged by Debub
Global and Addis International banks
to establish a sister insurance company
while the former managed to strike
a deal with an existing insurer, Lucy
Insurance SC.
Alemu Sime
By Kaleyesus Bekele
Prime minister Hailemariam Desalegn
recently appointed a second minister of
state for the Ministry of Mines, Alemu
Alemu was appointed to lead the
petroleum and solid minerals operations
in the Ministry of Mines as of September
11, 2014. Alemu will be responsible for
the licensing of petroleum companies in
Ethiopia. He is also responsible for the
supervision of petroleum exploration
activities in the country. He will be
assisted by Ketsela Tadesse (PhD),
petroleum licensing and administration
director at the ministry.
Previously, Alemu was Oromia Regional
State Investment Commissioner. Later,
he traveled to China to study Business
Management for three years. He got
his PhD from Chongqing University
and returned home in January, 2014.
“Together with my colleagues we will
PM appoints.. page 37
The banks applied to form two new
insurance companies, themselves as
main promoters of the share company.
According to sources at NBE, the
application lapsed because it was not
processed within the allowed time frame
to process the applications. Sources
further explained that what made the
difference was the new directive that
was issued by the central bank two years
ago raising the initial paid-up capital
to establish an insurance company in
Ethiopia. According to the new directive,
the minimum capital requirement
increased to 60 million birr from its
previous level which was 7 million birr.
However, the application of the two
banks was submitted prior to this
revision and by the time the new
directive surfaced the banks had to
reconsider their application all over
again. It seemed that the scaled up
capital requirement resulted in freezing
the plans of the two banks to establish an
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insurance company.
As to Debub Global, the bank has chosen
to sign an agreement with the already
existing insurance company – Lucy
Insurance – to work as a sister company.
According to the same source, the deal
with Lucy would offer Debub Global
the same benefit as it would if it has a
sister insurer company. The agreement
is expected to raise the shares of Debub
Global bank in Lucy Insurance making
it one of the major shareholders after
signing the deal three weeks ago.
It is customary to see banks and
insurance companies in Ethiopia to
invest heavily in one another if not one
taking the lead to establish the another.
According to an experienced insurer,
Eyesuswork Zafu, such practice is
observed frequently because it makes a
lot of business sense to do since the two
are tied to each business wise. Since
banks do a range of money transactions
which require extensive insurance
coverage it would be beneficial to keep
the business in-house, he explained. For
instance, the collateral that banks take
when giving loan to customers would
all need to be covered by an insurance
and as such a sister insurance company
would benefit from a lot of business from
bank that is tied to it.
So far Addis International did not
announce any alternative plans to have
an insurer of its own.
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |5
Kuma Demeksa et all appointed
for diplomatic missions
Kuma Demeksa
Samiya Zekaria
Grum Abay
Dina Mufti
later with the founding of the Federal
Republic, at which time Kuma Demeska
became President of Oromia. However,
on July 24, 2001 he was replaced as
President of Oromia by Junedin Sado,
as well as expelled from the Central
By Yonas Abiye
President Mulatu Teshome appointed
veteran politician Kuma Demeksa and
long-familiar figure Samiya Zekaria
along with four other prominent figures
to be envoys in various countries.
According to sources from the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, Kuma is appointed
as Ambassador to Berlin, Germany
while Samiya, Director General of
Central Statistical Agency, is designated
to be Ambassador to Lagos, Nigeria.
Samiya Zekaria was once the center
Along with Bereket Simon and Abay
Tsehaye, Kuma Demeksa was appointed
as the premier’s senior advisor for policy
research under a ministerial portfolio.
Following the fall of the Derg in 1991,
Kuma was appointed Minister of
Internal Affairs, the security agency
of the Transitional Government of
Ethiopia, which was dissolved four years
Wahide Belay
Negash Kebret
Kuma Demeksa... page 40
warned of price
Poly-GCL signs
accord with
By Birhanu Fikade
The price of sesame dropped to USD
500 from 1,200 per ton in one month.
Following the turn of events, exporters
have been hesitant to supply, preferring
to wait for the price to improve.
By Kaleyesus Bekele
Poly-GCL Petroleum Group Holdings
Limited, the Chinese company that
acquired the Calub and Hilala gas fields
in the Ogaden basin, last month signed
cooperation framework agreement with
the Djiboutian government.
However, for industry players like
Philippos Philippas, president of the UKbased Huyton Inc. Group, exporters are
trending unhealthy. If they persist to do
so, he told The Reporterr that they will
face loss in waiting and speculating for
the price to rise up.
Barton Yu, president of Poly–GCL, told
The Reporterr that his company signed
with the Djibouti Energy Ministry that
enables the company to construct gas
pipeline from the gas fields to the port of
Djibouti. “We will work on the details.
The governments of Ethiopia, Djibouti
and Poly-GCL will discuss the details,”
Barton said.
Philippas, who attended the 4th
international conference organized
by the Ethiopian Pulses, Oilseeds
and Spices Producers and Exporters
Association (EPOSPEA), said that
Ethiopian exporters should be cautious
not to replicate the same mistakes of the
Sudanese – the third largest producers
in the world. It is to be recalled that last
year the Sudanese ended up exporting
about 285,000 tons of sesame, which was
way lower than what they originally
Poly-GCL plans to construct a 830 km
gas pipeline all the way from the Calub
and Hilala gas fields in the Ogaden
basin to the Port of Djibouti and to build
a gas treatment plant at the port. The
company plans to produce three million
tons of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and
mainly export it to China through the
port of Djibouti. The total investment
cost is estimated at four billion dollars.
“The global consumption is about 1.4
million metric tons and the availability
is going to be about 1.7 million tons.
Hence, there will be a surplus and that
Sesame exporters... page 40
Poly-GCL signs... page 39
6| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Crisis in South Sudan: from
bad to worse
The number of South Sudanese refugees migrating to neighboring countries has been exponentially increasing
By Neamin Ashenafi
instead called for his boss to address
alleged administrative malpractices.
the financial and structural capability of
the regional block.
Exactly 20 years since the Horn of Africa
welcomed its newest member, the State
of Eritrea, the region opened up its
heart again for another new nation in
the first month of 2011. Yes, yet again,
another small nation filled with hopes
and dreams emerged
from the ruins of
a 30-year civil war in Sudan. The newest
state of South Sudan started the decade
in the best shape it could ever be. It was
all fireworks and cheers for the close to
three million South Sudanese. And, why
should it not be? It was going to be one
of the most naturally endowed nations in
Africa walking away with 70 percent of
the oilfields of the greater Sudan region.
Prosperity could easily be imagined for
the people of South Sudan not to mention
the potentiality of the spill-over for the
other nations in the region. Little did
they (South Sudanese) know that soon
after they would witness their hopes
and dreams dashed and their nation
immersed in another seemingly endless
In the build-up to the fallout, in June
of that year, reports of President Kiir
dismissing and lifting of their immunity
from prosecution of Finance Minister,
Kosti Manibe, and Cabinet Affairs
Minister, Deng Alor, over a multimillion dollar financial scandal widely
circulated in the media. Right after that,
the president came out with a bold move
of dismissing the entire cabinet and
Vice-President Riek Machar in a power
struggle within the governing Sudan
People’s Liberation Movement.
On the 23rd of January 2014, IGAD
managed to broker a peace deal and
the signing of Cessation of Hostilities
(CoH) agreement in Addis Ababa, which
was decided to come into effect in 24
hours. The pact called for both parties
to ‘redeploy and/or progressively
withdraw forces, armed groups and
allied forces invited by either side from
the theater of operations in South Sudan.
Furthermore, other peace accords were
also signed by the warring parties
brokered by the regional block itself; but
the implementation of those deals still
remain elusive.
At first it was the remnants of the old
conflict with Sudan that started plaguing
the newest nation. A conflict over the
oil-ich Abiye region was the highlight of
that skirmish which come to a halt after
a pact was signed between the president
of South Sudan, Slava Kiir, and of Sudan,
Omar Hussein Al Bashir. To the South
Sudanese, although the conflict with
Sudan was getting a bit repetitive and
tiring, at least it was a fight whose cause
they can understand and can get behind it.
However, what came after that seemed to
be an absolute mind-boggling incident.
Close to the end of last year, former
comrades of the SPLM/A fighters who
fought side by side against Sudan for
the independence and liberation of their
country turned arch-enemies and started
lashing at each other. The real crisis
erupted when President Kiir accused his
ex-vice-president, Riek Machar (PhD),
of plotting to overthrow him. Of course,
the latter rejected all accusations and
Many writers and pundits stated that
though the actual fighting started in
December, the tensions could already
be felt starting from the event of the
dismissal of the finance minister. Soon
after, a supposedly minor incident
between presidential guards belonging
to the one in power and the defunct vicepresident took things to a whole new
Right from the start of the conflict, the
African Union (AU) and the regional
block, the Intergovernmental Authority
on Development (IGAD), tried to mediate
between the warring parties. IGAD
assigned former Ethiopian Foreign
Minister and current ambassador
to China, Seyuom Mesfin, as chief
negotiator. But, the efforts were not all
fruitless. Under the auspices of IGAD,
the two warring parties signed many
peace agreements. However, it was the
implementation of the signed peace deals
that is still proving to be challenging. The
two sides succumbed to IGAD’s pressure
and agreed to unconditional ceasefire
multiple times. But, none of ceasefire
deals lasted more than a few hours. Both
sides went back to right where they were
after reaching agreements by blaming
each other for violating the peace deal.
In this regard, there are many who
criticize IGAD’s role and capacity to
bring peace in the war-torn South Sudan
nd even go as far as questioning both
The whole situation led pundits to ponder
about the machinery of the regional block
itself these days. On the one hand, there
are groups that argued that the warring
parties showing willingness to come and
sit to discuss under the auspices of IGAD
should be regarded as a success story
for the regional block. However, this
group also admitted that the regional
block was established by the consent of
the countries in the region and that it is
hard to coerce members to comply with
the agreements that the warring parties
agreed to implement.
Abel Abate, a senior researcher at the
Ethiopian International Institute for
Peace and Development (EIIPD), is one
such political analyst. He argues that
since IGAD is established by the consent
of the member countries and does
not have both the carrot and the stick
instrument at its disposal, it is a major
challenge to through the implementation
process. He further argues that upon
the outbreak of the conflict, the issue
was able to grab the full attention of
the international community. However,
other major incidents seemed to have
shifted the eyes of the international
community to other areas, mainly the
crisis in Ukraine and the expansion of
Islamic State (IS) in the Middle East,
he elaborates. In turn, he says, the
position of IGAD weakened mainly due
to financial issues for which it depended
upon the support of the international
community: the troika (the US, UK and
In this regard, Abel lost any hopes in
the process that led by IGAD since the
warring parties have repeatedly violated
the agreements and failed to comply
with the decisions of the block and other
groups of the international community.
He somehow thinks that IGAD had lost
the process of peace-making. However,
he recognizes at least two success
stories of the negotiation process that
is bringing the warring parties to the
discussion table and the release of
former officials of the government who
were detained by Kirr. But, still, Abel is
inclined to believe that IGAD is failing to
achieve its expected goals.
Sanction as an option
After the conclusion of the 28th
Extraordinary Summit of IGAD Heads
of State and Government, the regional
block issued a resolution which includes
the enactment of asset freezes, travel
bans within the region and blockage of
supply of arms and ammunitions to
warring nations in South Sudan. And,
even a direct intervention to stop the
conflict in the country. The Parties in
response committed themselves to an
unconditional, complete and immediate
end to all hostilities, and to bring the war
to an end, as of the date of this Resolution.
The Parties are further committed to the
immediate cessation of the recruitment
and mobilization of civilians for war.
However, for the likes of Abel, sanction
will not bring peace in the country
because, first of all, IGAD did not have
the financial and political capacity to
implement any sanction. He argued
that this is quite clear since all signed
agreements are breached within a few
hours so far.
Apart from that, Abel argues that, let
Crisis in South... page 40
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Total Ethiopia,
AAU launch
Young Graduate
Vol. XIX No. 949 |7
World’s long traveling car finalizes trip
Driven by a German racer Rainer Zietlow, a Volkswagen (VW) Touareg has finished its 17,000 km trip in ten days crossing
the borders of 19 countries, in which Ethiopia was included. Dubbed “Cape2Cape,” the rally car started its journey from the
northern tip of Norway, passed through Ethiopia and reached its final destination, the southern tip of South Africa, Cape
Agulhas. According to the information The Reporter obtained from local agents of Liqi Molly, the German-based lubricants and
motor care company sponsored the trip and the driver and the car were having stopovers only after driving 3,000 km. The car is
said to have modifications of rolling safety and fuel tanks. (Compiled by Birhanu Fikade)
DSGE says it
received a wide
variety of proposals
to deliver funds
By Henok Reta
Total Ethiopia and Addis Ababa
University (AAU) launched the first
Young Graduate Program as part of
the Total Africa/Middle East Young
Graduate Program Innovative on
Monday at the President’s office at
Addis Ababa University. While signing
a Memorandum of Understanding with
Admasu Tsegaye (PhD), President of the
university, Marc de Lataillade, general
manager of Total Ethiopia expressed his
company’s will and interest to engage
with the university in launching several
programs in areas of lubricants and fuel.
This year diplomatic bazaar
lands on November 22nd
By Henok Reta
Formerly called The Ambassador’s
Heads of Missions Spouses and
Diplomatic Spouses Group Ethiopia
(DSGE) said it has received a number
of project proposals to deliver funds.
Announcing that the annual bazaar is
to take place at the Millennium Hall on
November 22. Announcing the date at the
residence of the Brazilian Ambassador
on Wednesday, Leelie Selassie, president
of DSGE said that last year the group
raised 200,500,000 birr for the project
proposals submitted.
The president, on his part, acknowledged
Total Ethiopia for the initiation that will
benefit the University in sending out
prospective graduates for internships
and trainings in the fuel sector. Recently,
Total Ethiopia recruited two students
to be enrolled in its Young Graduate
Program. The 18-month program the
company offers for high-profile students
in Africa and the Middle East costs the
company around 30 million Euros every
year, the general manager states. “We
would like to create a permanent link
with the University focusing on research
and development activities,” he said.
Despite the number of proposals
presented to the group, some are
selected on the basis of having a direct
relationship with the mission of the
group. “Our primary target groups are
women, children and most vulnerable
citizens in Ethiopia,” Selassie, wife of
the US Ambassador to the African Union
(AU), said. According to the group,
the diplomatic bazaar has extended
its way of funding projects while the
number of proposals being presented to
the group grows year after year. Every
year, the DSGE holds a fundraising
event showcasing handicrafts, national
dishes and products from participating
diplomatic missions. “We keep our
efforts to the end as much as the
number of requests from the charities
keeps growing,” Erica Usher, chair,
project matrix and wife of the Canadian
Ambassador, said.
With regard to used oil treatment, the two
parties reached an agreement to work
on environmentally friendly activities.
According to the president, Total
Ethiopia and Addis Ababa University’s
agreement will benefit the university
in getting hands-on experience in the
energy sector for students. Moreover, the
automotive engineering departments in
the universities and colleges will make
the program valuable since the program
is designed to produce highly skilled
professionals expected to impact the
Best regarded as one of Total’s
commitments and visibilities within
Africa and the Middle East, the Young
opportunities for 500 fresh graduates
Total Ethiopia ... page 40
Releasing 100 percent of the funds to
the charity organizations registered
in the country, the group has financed
more than 25 charities found in parts
of the country. Moreover, more than
“Free grant... page 36
DSGE says it ... page 40
8| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |9
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The World Health Organization (WHO) Ethiopia wishes to dispose by closed auction 358
used tyres and 240 inner tubes.
Interested bidders are therefore invited to submit their bids according to the following
Interested bidders can inspect the tyres and inner tubes on Tuesdays 18 November
2014, and Thursdays 20 November 2014, from 3 pm to 4 pm in the afternoon.
Visits can be arranged with Mr. Meseker Begashaw, Tel. no. 911 68 96 11. The
used tyres and inner tubes are stored in one of WHO warehouses located inside
Addis Ababa Health Bureau, near Urael Church.
shall be submitted in a sealed envelope on or before Friday, 21 November, 2014 at
UNECA Compound, NOF
! 011 553 4777
The tyres and inner tubes will be sold in their present condition “AS-IS-WHERE-IS”
basis and no guarantee or warranty is given as to their condition of usability.
Successful bidders are required to pay the full amount of the winning price and
Bid winners will be responsible for the cost of transportation to move the tyres
! ! %! ! destination. They will also be responsible to pay any taxes and charges levied by
the Government of Ethiopia in connection with the sale of the tyres and inner tubes.
WHO Ethiopia reserves the right to reject any or all bids and will not be under any
obligation to accept any of the bids received.
(ECC-SDCOH) is a local nongovernmental organization and the developmental wing
of the Apostolic Vicariate of Harar. ECC-SDCOH is operating and implementing its
Various social and development programs in Several Woredas and Kebeles of east
and West Hararghe and Fentale woreda of East Shoa zone of Oromia Region, Shinlle,
Gode and Jijijga zones of Somali National Regional state, dire Dawa administration and
Zone 3 of Afar regional state.
December 31,2014.
1. Renewed professional license,
2. [email protected][\@"'@>
3. &?
4. Renewed business license.
5. Experience in Auditing of EU, USAID, Caritas, and other similar projects,
& $= ! ! ?!<
date of stating the audit, the time required to complete the audit and fees required for
the audit service. Bids must accompanied by a Birr3,000.00 /Three thousand/.
All bids document /one original & two copies/ shall be produced in a separate wax
Interested bidders can collect the terms of reference /TOR/ from Human Resource
and Logistic Division 1st`{|<_!}<$%$
hours with 10/ten/ days from the issuance of this bid advertisement.
ECC-SDCOH reserves the right to accept or reject any all bids.
10| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
here is little or no foreign sympathy
toward the embattled Juba government
which is blamed for mismanaging the
economy and for failing to unify the
country and end a bloody 10-month old civil war
triggered by political rivalry between President
Kiir and his former Vice President Riek Machar.
South Sudan: how to end economic
domination by foreigners?
By Michael Abraha
The October 15 deadline to recall
expats from foreign companies and
NGOs and replace them with qualified
South Sudanese nationals passed
inconsequentially. The plan was to
implement a foreign-worker ministerial
decree within one month beginning
September 16. It would, by and large, have
been enforceable in most instances if
enough local and diaspora professionals
were prepared to take over under such a
short notice.
As the country remained immersed
in a bloody civil war, President Salva
Kiir’s government hoped the move
would appeal to a disenchanted youth
and frustrated diasporans. The decree,
apparently, a third of its kind since
independence in 2011, was “prematurely
released”, according to the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs. Surprisingly, it
provoked a very welcome outcry from
foreign businesses and aid agencies that
have reacted like frightened horses.
Sudanese are ungrateful for all that
their neighbors have done to build up
the country.” Nairobi based Institute for
Security Studies warns against South
Sudanese “threats and discrimination
against foreign workers”. Aid agencies
opposed the idea of removing foreign
workers fearing that it would hamper
humanitarian work.
Selective critique
There is little or no foreign sympathy
toward the embattled Juba government
which is blamed for mismanaging the
economy and for failing to unify the
country and end a bloody 10-month old
civil war triggered by political rivalry
between President Kiir and his former
Vice President Riek Machar. The civil
Reflecting foreign business interests,
Kenya’s Daily Nation describes the
labor decree as “myopic”, inspired by
“populist politics.” The BBC quotes
an expert with NKC Independent
Economists as saying that “the South
strife has brought half of the nation’s 11
million people face to face with hunger
and starvation.
The current conflict is preceded by the
squandering of 4 billion US dollars in a
corruption scandal over an unspecified
period of time enriching greedy officials
instead of spending it on education,
healthcare and job creation. Since
independence, no investment of any
significance has been made for human
to work in infrastructure projects,
manufacturing and service industries
South Sudan... page 31
By Mohamed A. El-Erian
The return of the dollar
The US dollar is on the move. In the last
four months alone, it has soared by more
than 7 percent compared with a basket
of more than a dozen global currencies,
and by even more against the euro and
the Japanese yen. This dollar rally, the
result of genuine economic progress and
divergent policy developments, could
contribute to the “rebalancing” that
has long eluded the world economy. But
that outcome is far from guaranteed,
especially given the related risks of
financial instability.
Two major factors are currently working
in the dollar’s favor, particularly
compared to the euro and the yen.
First, the United States is consistently
outperforming Europe and Japan in
terms of economic growth and dynamism
– and will likely continue to do so –
owing not only to its economic flexibility
and entrepreneurial energy, but also to
its more decisive policy action since the
start of the global financial crisis.
Second, after a period of alignment, the
monetary policies of these three large
and systemically important economies
are diverging, taking the world economy
from a multi-speed trajectory to a multitrack one. Indeed, whereas the US
Federal Reserve terminated its largescale securities purchases, known as
“quantitative easing” (QE), last month,
the Bank of Japan and the European
Central Bank recently announced the
expansion of their monetary-stimulus
programs. In fact, ECB President
Mario Draghi signaled a willingness to
expand his institution’s balance sheet
by a massive EUR 1 trillion (USD 1.25
stronger growth and mitigates deflation
risk in Europe and Japan. Specifically,
an appreciating dollar improves the
price competitiveness of European and
Japanese companies in the US and other
markets, while moderating some of the
structural deflationary pressure in the
lagging economies by causing import
prices to rise.
With higher US market interest rates
attracting additional capital inflows
and pushing the dollar even higher, the
currency’s revaluation would appear to
be just what the doctor ordered when
it comes to catalyzing a long-awaited
global rebalancing – one that promotes
Yet the benefits of the dollar’s rally are
far from guaranteed, for both economic
and financial reasons. While the US
economy is more resilient and agile
The return... page 31
Vol. XIX No. 949 |11
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
REQUEST FOR [email protected]:..)(+G9++**GJ
%$V& % ; K
& ?
[email protected]=
In 2012, UNICEF launched the Peacebuilding, Education and
Advocacy Programme (PBEA), which currently operates in 14
countries globally including Ethiopia. The overarching goal of this
programme is to strengthen resilience, social cohesion and human
The PBEA in Ethiopia envisions to strengthen resilience, social
cohesion and enhance equity in the four Developing Regional
States, i.e. Afar, Benishangul Gumuz, Gambella and Somali.
)! $X
#&! The purpose of the consultancy is to develop
manuals for schools which promote peacebuilding, social cohesion,
resilience and positive discipline, followed by provision of training
of trainers to regional education experts, core teachers, school club
leaders and supervisors in the four regions. In other words, the
purpose is to develop do-it-yourself manuals based on the desk
review of the existing curriculum and subsequently train school
teachers, club leader/members, curriculum development experts,
similar assignments!6;+<
!$< ` !+< < development, humanitarian action, and with a focus on curricular
material development team members including a team leader
with a mix of expertise.
(a)(Masters or PhD) in behavioural/social sciences, psychology,
education, international development, or related disciplines in
` !+< < +!
humanitarian action, ©Experience in developing interactive and
innovative curricular materials and providing training (d)Dedicated
to delivering results for children in Ethiopia.(e)Excellent oral and
written skills in English and in Amharic
Interested and eligible bidders from local organizations are invited
to collect the complete tender documents by sending an email to
Mr. Sebastian Muzuma ([email protected]) or Mr. Ayele Wolde
([email protected]) Starting on Friday (2.'#$.)(+G!
! ‚{;"} ! before 9.00 am (East African Time) )+.'#$. )(+G (Friday).
Please quote the RFP nr. 9115548 in all your correspondences.
Due to the nature of the bid, there will be no bid public opening
for this offer. UNICEF reserves the right to accept or reject part
or all of any or all bids. ADDRESS: UNICEF Ethiopia, UNECA
!< {} $< ` '!! '< @ _
Sebastian Muzuma / Mr. Ayele Wolde, P.O.BOX 1169, TEL: +25111 518 4233 / 4167, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
?[&[email protected]%
The Ministry of Agriculture of the Federal Government of Ethiopia
implements a Sustainable Land Management Programme in 6 Regions.
Within this programme 3 Regions: Amhara, Oromia and Tigray, are funded
by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development
(DFATD). GITEC-Consult and AMBERO-Consulting of Germany provide
consultancy services to the project and require the services of a Senior
Financial Management Specialist/Backstopper to be based for two years
at the Ministry of Agriculture in Gurde Sholla, Addis Ababa. Frequent
travel to the regions is required in view of the expected support. The
position is for 6 months per year, where timing of the inputs is to be
decided in consultation with the International Team Leader.
The specialist will provide strong professional oversight and guidance to
the three Regional Financial Management Specialists. S/he will provide
approved procedures and processes are followed, assisting in monitoring,
reporting and supporting internal and external audit measures.
; $< ! % $ ' }
Management Specialist/Backstopper read as follows:
1. Carry out a training needs assessment for technical staff in the
! $ $
specialists, design a training programme as per requirements
and participate in the subsequent implementation of such training
2. +!!$
$ ! $
3. Design of adequate, tailor-made tools for ensuring proper
4. Contribute to reporting on technical matters.
_' $ $ ~*† $Y $
The minimum professional experience required is 15 years (if MSc level)
~ * +†< !+  !=
development partners (particularly the World Bank and preferably also
German Development Cooperation/KfW) and their policies, procedures
communication skills and practical experience in designing and
$ $ !$
apply by post or e-mail with:
- Covering letter, 1 page, summarising relevant experience and
current availability
- Curriculum Vitae, Maximum 4 pages
+st>$)(+G Only short-listed candidates
will be contacted
\"[email protected];]KX
Addis Ababa
12| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
K">[email protected] @^" : G_M;">]][email protected]"' ' @@>"^W [email protected]']W
The mission of WHO is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
The World Health Organization in Ethiopia invites duly registered
related to reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
Documentation of best practices related to reproductive,
maternal, newborn and child health, in a Competitive basis
Work with the UNH4+ technical team and MCH directorate
at MOH to select practices for documentation
- Conduct detailed documentation of selected practices as
agreed with the technical team
- _%+>
- Facilitate stakeholders workshops for selection and analysis
- Identify the lesson learned, strengths, challenges,
weaknesses, and opportunities, of these practices in a
systematic way
- To provide practical guidance on how to replicate and scale
up such practices within the Ethiopian context (and other
African countries if applicable)
- Prepare and submit a compiled report and a presentation
x An inception report, including a detailed work plan with
responsibilities and deliverables
x @[!
x Workshop reports
x Final compiled report of Best Practice Documentation
% V?%=W 8
% & &?V
x Demonstrated experience of working on health related
documentation of best practices of comparable scope
x Presence of staff members with advanced university
degree (Masters or PhD) or equivalent in Public Health
or Epidemiology (or related disciplines). In addition, a
background in obstetrics/gynecology or pediatrics will be the
most desirable.
x Demonstrated experience in the production of similar
x Experience in stakeholder engagement including
coordinating and liaising with UN agencies and government
on best practice documentation.
The body of the activity is expected to be undertaken from 01
December 2014 to 30 January 2015, with a draft report by end of
of comments from relevant stakeholders) to be submitted by the
end of January 2015.
should be prepared in a separate sealed envelope and submit on
or before 21 November 2014, 12.00 hrs, local time, to the below
address. Bidders are also requested to submit:
x Professional competency license
x Renewed trade license
x &?
x ]@&$
The H4+/SIDA Collaboration on Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn
and Child Health aims to contribute to the reduction of maternal,
neonatal and child mortality and morbidity and improve quality of
life for women, children newborns in Ethiopia.
The collaborators of the H4+ initiative, WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF,
UNAIDS, UNWOMEN and the World Bank share different
complementary responsibilities in supporting the implementation
of this joint project. The major expected outcomes for of the
collaboration include improved access and utilization of quality
maternal and newborn health services through supporting evidencebased interventions along the continuum of care, and accelerate
progress in achieving MDGs 4 and 5.
As part of the project work plan, WHO is tasked to undertake
documentation of best practices in the area of RMNCH.
“Best Practices” affords one the opportunity to acquire knowledge
about lessons learned and to continue learning about how to improve
! $ +< $ %< `
and analysis in order to implement larger-scale, sustained, and
more effective interventions.
soundness, sustainability, possibility of duplication, partnership,
community involvement, and political commitment will be considered
while documenting.
A “Best Practice” needs not meet all the above criteria, but should
addition to one or more of the other criteria. Sometimes it could also
be good enough to document “Good Practices” or even “Promising
Practices” in order to include anything that works to produce results
without using inordinate resources, in full or in part and that can be
useful for providing lessons learned.
The general objective of the consultancy is to undertake systematic
documentation of key best/good/promising practices and lessons
learnt that have led/will lead to the improvement of maternal and
newborn health in Ethiopia.
- Conduct
desk reviews of previously undertaken
documentations and inform self on the experiences and
challenges of undertaking such exercises
- *+! $ < documentation of practices to ensure the quality of the
Y< for selection and scope/contents of documentation
- Explore for and list potentially documentable practices ++$ $+
working in the area of RMNCH, as per an agreed upon
UNECA Compound
Addis Ababa, Ethioipia
WHO Ethiopia reserves the right to accept or reject any or all bids.
Vol. XIX No. 949 |13
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
K">[email protected] @^" : G_M;">]][email protected]"' ' @@>"^[email protected]']W
The mission of WHO is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
The World Health Organization in Ethiopia invites duly registered
+‘Y';*@ Œ
collaboration on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
To undertake Mid-term review of the H4+/SIDA collaboration on
reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, in a Competitive basis
The H4+/SIDA Collaboration on Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn
and Child Health aims to contribute to the reduction of maternal,
neonatal and child mortality and morbidity and improve quality of
life for women, children newborns in Ethiopia. This project was
initiated in 2013 and is planned to be completed at the end of 2015.
The collaborators of the H4+ initiative, WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF,
UNAIDS, UNWOMEN and the World Bank share different
complementary responsibilities in supporting the implementation of
this joint project. The major expected outcomes of the collaboration
include improved access and utilization of quality maternal and
newborn health services through supporting evidence-based
interventions along the continuum of care, and accelerate progress
in achieving MDGs 4 and 5.
As part of the work plan, WHO is tasked to lead the midterm
evaluation of project implementation.
An inception report, including a detailed work plan and budget
with responsibilities and deliverables
Outline of the report to be submitted to the H4+/SIDA technical
working group for review
and recommendations, including priority actions for improving
implementations and work plan corrections.
The mid-term review (MTR) will be undertaken at the midpoint of
project implementation to ensure monitoring of overall programme
activities for programme-wide coherence and impact and to pave
the way for improved delivery for the remaining duration of the
collaboration and propose amendments (if any) required in project
design, implementation arrangements and/or institutional linkages
in order to effectively and sustainably contribute to the improvement
of maternal and newborn health.
i.e. actual progress compared to planned
Assess activities carried out as per the time and resources
challenges including work plan corrections or optimize initial
gains based on the assessment
& !
< ! !ˆ
Analyze the performance of the monitoring and evaluation
mechanism of the H4+/SIDA Collaboration.
Demonstrated experience of working on health related reviews
of comparable scope
Presence of staff members with advanced university degree
(Masters or PhD) or equivalent in Public Health or Epidemiology
(or related disciplines). In addition, a background in obstetrics/
gynecology or pediatrics will be the most desirable.
Demonstrated experience in the production of similar publications
Experience in stakeholder engagement including coordinating
and liaising with UN agencies and government to obtain data
and ensure participation in the MTR.
The body of the activity is expected to be undertaken from 01
December 2014 to 30 January 2015, with a draft report by end of
The objective of this mid-term review is to review and evaluate the
of comments from relevant stakeholders) to be submitted by the
implementation of planned activities and outputs against actual end of January 2015.
results to date, and as far as possible establish the initial outcome.
The MTR will assess the performance and progress of the joint K%6
programme activities against stated outputs, mechanisms of $
coordination as well as identify opportunities and signs of potential be prepared in a separate sealed envelope and submit on or before
problems or successes. It will also highlight issues and challenges 21 November 2014, 12.00 hrs, local time, to the below address.
! Bidders are also requested to submit:
contribution to the outcome of the collaboration.
ΠProfessional competency license
ΠRenewed trade license
%‘Y';*@%$ Œ &?
group (TWG) and share deliverables including drafts of the MTR Π]@&$
report for technical review by the TWG.
ΠConduct desk reviews of project documents and relevant
UNECA Compound
national/global documents, including the UNDAF
ΠPrepare tools and/or checklists to guide the evaluation process 68!/(e9W_)*+.++**/G222
Œ "+!ˆ_< Addis Ababa, Ethioipia
relevant government agencies/ partners at federal, regional and
ΠAnalyze situation and progress towards outcomes based on
comparison with baseline data and evaluate qualitative and WHO Ethiopia reserves the right to accept or reject any or all bids.
quantitative progress of physical implementation of the program,
14| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
olitical and tribal sectarianism in the
Sunni Middle East and North Africa is
both a reflection and a driver of the region’s
weakening political institutions, with a
series of failed or failing states becoming hubs of
transnational terrorism. A lawless Libya, for example,
is now exporting jihad and guns across the Sahel and
undermining the security of fellow Maghreb countries
and Egypt.
The Sunni arc of instability
By Brahma Chellaney
While international observers fixate
on the Sunni-Shia rivalry’s role in
shaping geopolitics in the Islamic world,
deep fissures within the Sunni arc that
stretches from the Maghreb-Sahel region
of North Africa to the AfghanistanPakistan belt are increasingly apparent.
Moreover, it is Sunni communities that
produce the transnational jihadists
who have become a potent threat to
secular, democratic states near and far.
What is driving this fragmentation and
radicalization within the ranks of Sunni
Islam, and how can it be managed?
The importance of addressing that
question cannot be overstated. The
largest acts of international terror,
including the September 11, 2001, attacks
on New York and Washington, DC, and
the 2008 Mumbai attack, were carried
out by brutal transnational Sunni
organizations (Al Qaeda and Lashkar-eTaiba, respectively).
The influence of these organizations
is far-reaching. Just last month,
individuals inspired by these groups’
activities carried out two separate
attacks, one in the Canadian parliament
and another on police officers in New
largely Sunni countries – including
Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Somalia,
and Afghanistan – have become de
facto partitioned, with little prospect of
reunification in the near future. Jordan
and Lebanon could be the next states to
succumb to Sunni extremist violence.
The Sunni militant group Boko Haram,
known internationally for abducting 276
schoolgirls in April and forcing them to
marry its members, has been wreaking
havoc in Nigeria for years. And the
Sunni extremists of the Islamic State,
whose dramatic rise has entailed untold
horrors to Iraq and Syria, are seeking
to establish a caliphate, by whatever
means necessary.
Political and tribal sectarianism in
the Sunni Middle East and North
Africa is both a reflection and a driver
of the region’s weakening political
institutions, with a series of failed
or failing states becoming hubs of
transnational terrorism. A lawless
Libya, for example, is now exporting
jihad and guns across the Sahel and
undermining the security of fellow
Maghreb countries and Egypt. Several
The Sunni tumult has underscored the
fragility of almost all Arab countries,
while diluting the centrality of the
Israel-Palestine conflict. The postOttoman order – created by the British,
with some help from the French, after
World War I – is disintegrating, with no
viable alternative in sight.
The Sunni... page 32
By Shashi Tharoor
The politics of UN leadership
Election cycles are growing longer
worldwide. In the United States, for
example, ambitious politicians are
already campaigning hard in bellwether
states for the 2016 presidential election.
Yet some races – such as that for the next
United Nations secretary-general, which
will also be held in 2016 – still occur
largely under the radar. This should
A race for UN Secretary-General, which
is usually fought so discreetly that it
seems almost clandestine, bears little
resemblance to the razzmatazz of an
American presidential campaign. This
can be explained largely by the fact
that the decision comes down to the
15 members of the Security Council,
who select the candidate to be rubberstamped by the UN General Assembly
(as has occurred in every case so far).
Crucially, the Security Council’s five
permanent members – China, France,
Russia, the United Kingdom, and the US
– have veto power, so a majority means
nothing if a single member of the P-5
extremely popular and well-regarded
Kofi Annan, who, despite having
succeeded another African after one
term, was selected for two consecutive
terms.) With the position having cycled,
since 1971, through Western Europe,
Latin America, Africa, and Asia – Ban
Ki-moon, the current second-term
secretary-general, hails from South
Korea – only one UN region has yet to be
represented: Eastern Europe.
served as Assistant Secretary-General
for Political Affairs under Annan, is an
early front-runner. There is also talk
of current UNESCO Director-General
Irina Bokova, who is Bulgarian, and of
two Slovaks, Foreign Minister Miroslav
a ák and his predecessor, Jan Kubiš,
entering the race. Finally, there is
Romania’s former foreign minister,
Mircea Geoana, who is highly respected
among P-5 governments.
The selection process is constrained
further by an informal – but, after 43
years, essentially requisite – agreement
to rotate through regions every two
terms. (The only exception was the
In fact, a number of potential East
European candidates have already
emerged, with some said to have begun
actively soliciting support. Former
Slovenian President Danilo Türk, who
The fact that all five of these candidates
are well known in diplomatic circles, and
four have direct UN experience, refutes
The politics... page 32
Vol. XIX No. 949 |15
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Glass i T Fiber
ዓመ Glass Fiber Glass Fiber Glass Fiber Glass
Different sizes of water tanker from 350-25,000 liters
የተለያዩ መጠን ያላቸው የውኃ ማጠራቀሚያዎች (ከ350-25,000 ሊትር)፣
Different Design & color of bath tubs, shower trays,
kitchen sink
የተለያዩ ዲዛይንና ቀለም ያላቸው የገላ መታጠቢያ ገንዳዎች፣ሻወር ትሬዮች፣
የማዕድ ቤት ዕቃ ማጠቢያዎች፣
Different kinds of Design ,Size & color flower Pots
የተለያዩ መጠን, ዲዛይንና ቀለም ያላቸው የአበባ መትከያዎች፣
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16| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The making of a film
without a score
Teza by Haile Gerima tells the story of the trials and tribulations of one individual during
military rule. This film, which has won many international awards, narrates the story of the
revolution and re-visioning of a better Ethiopia by using elements of mythology. SEE THE
Vol. XIX No. 949 |17
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
By Tibebeselassie Tigabu
Teza by Haile Gerima tells the story of the
trials and tribulations of one individual
during military rule. This film, which
has won many international awards,
narrates the story of the revolution and
re-visioning of a better Ethiopia by using
elements of mythology.
It is not only the story that won awards
but also the film score, which was done
by Jorga Mesfin and Vijay Iyer. Taking
the spectators on a unique journey, the
music attentively captures and takes
you into the story of what Haile Gerima
called the hope of the new generation;
the children of the dragon, the start of
the new world order.
Blending the sounds of the washint,
kirar, and begena gives the film a unique
element of what Ethiopian music entails.
At the premier of the film a couple of
years ago, Haile Gerima mentioned his
appreciation of the film score and said
“Jorga has an ancient soul”.
Haile Gerima, who is part of the
concept known as “third cinema”, is
one Ethiopian filmmaker who has his
own way of telling a story. Many of the
Ethiopian films are criticized for storytelling technique, picture quality and
The Ethiopian film industry, started
fifty years ago with a 35 mm film, Hirut
Abatwa Manew?? Later on films such as
Guma, Asterr and Behiwot Zuria have
been appreciated for having good cinema
technique, storytelling and beautiful
shots. Coming to the contemporary,
video films many are highly criticized
for lacking basic film components.
One of the film components which
filmmakers mention is film’s score (film
music). Many of the films in Ethiopia
do not have an original music score,
they are filled with western popular
songs without considering copyright
Studying film in America, Yonas
Berhane Mewa only included original
scores for the three films he has made,
namely Hermela, Yemoriam Medirr and
Eton. For his other films, existing songs
have been included, which he thinks are
synchronized in the film.
According to Yonas, even though,
compared to the number of released
films, which is more than 100 a year, the
film scores that are done are not a lot
in number he believes there is a good
In many cases the way the film score
is done is that the arrangers are told
the genre of the film and they proceed
to do the score without seeing the film
or understanding the story, which,
according to Yonas, leads to the music
usually not going with the film.
Because the music is not done in
synchronization with the film, Yonas
says that the music should flow with
that without any disruption.
“The music should not be inseparable
from the film, rather it should give the
sense, emotion, and value of the film,”
Yonas says.
With his film Eton, a musician name
Enqu Girma did the film score in a way
that was unique and, apart from western
influences, he also added sistrum, drum
which, according to Yonas, expresses
the film’s essence.
With his other films he did not do
original film scores but existing jazz
and blues music. He did not hide the fact
that many films are giving focus to film
scoring, which he thinks is only done for
one scene, something that confuses the
whole film.
Many filmmakers say film scoring is the
decisive part of the film and, according
to Sertse Feresebhat, a music critic and
music instructor, in the film the score
sets the mood, paints the feelings and
also gives interpretations for audiences.
Sertse says that with the film score
different sounds interpret the director’s
storytelling. Apart from setting the
mood, Sertse says that film scores also
helps to identify the characters better.
It is not only characters but also the
orchestration that tells the different
classes of the society and this has been
depicted in different films. Sertse says
that the score of the film determines
the setting and taking people through
different times.
Within that he says the popular tunes
also decide the timing of the film, like,
jazz music tells the story of the 1920s and
1930s, rock music the 1960s and 1970s.
And even though there are different
usages of film scoring, Serte puts it into
two categories, one is underscoring,
which is film score composition that
represents (expresses) the film, history,
characters, setting and also the feeling.
The other type is source music, which
is using the music from the scene and is
someting heard by the characters. For
example, if the character plays a radio
or if someone goes in a club and music is
played on those occasions.
Coming into the Ethiopian experience,
Sertse says that with regard to the first
film, Hirut Abatwa Manew?, even though
there is no original score there was
music from azmaris, the scenes of the
night club were featured by music, and
also a collection of music that can give
a picture of that time were collectively
used as source music.
On the other hand, though films such
as Asterr and Guma, did not use original
scoring fully for the film Getachew Gesi
composed music.
With the coming of video films and
digitalization, Sertse says that they
music used in radio narration. For
Sertse a film based on the legendary
Haile Gebreselassie’s life entitled
‘Endurance’ has a successful film score.
The film scorer is Jean Paul, and Tizita
was orchestrated into this score.
There are individual contributions and
The making of... page 26
18| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Photo By: Reporter/ Nahom Tesfaye
Shiferaw Teklemariam
(PhD) is currently the
Minister of Federal
Affairs. Prior to his latest
appointment, he served as
Head of the Health Bureau
of Southern Nations,
Nationalities and Peoples’
Regional State. In addition,
Shiferaw also held the
position of state minister
at the Ministry of Health
for some time. In light of
the recent conflict in the
Gambella Regional State,
where residents are reported
to have lost lives and
sustained heavy damages in
property, his ministry has
front row responsibility in
investigating and bringing
perpetrators to justice.
Shiferaw Teklemariam
talked to Solomon Goshu
of the Reporter on the causes
and impacts of the conflict in
Gambella and the responses
and policies of the federal
government. Excerpts:
Vol. XIX No. 949 |19
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The Reporter: To begin with, what
was the cause of the recent conflict
in the Gambella Regional State?
Shiferaw Teklemariam (PhD): The
recent unrest in the Gambella Regional
State, especially in the area neighboring
the Southern Nations, Nationalities
and Peoples’ Regional State is not that
different from similar incidents that
had happened in the regions in the past.
And the main cause of the conflict is
also not that different from the previous
ones. First and foremost, the main drive
behind the conflict in that region is the
severe deficiency in good governance
and development. This, in general,
can be taken to be the most important
cause of the conflict in the region. On
the other hand, the impact of unhealthy
and destructive political philosophies
espoused by groups of people who want
to benefit from such conflict and unrest
also had their place in the whole process.
These were basically chauvinistic and
narrow-minded ideas that are highly
backward and destructive at best. Most
of these people are outlaws and criminals
who have run away from the law and
taken shelter in the region using the
difficult terrain as a cover. The deficit
in good governance and development
in the region also provided a fertile
ground for exploitation and these
people took full advantage of it. This
being the case, the conflict was fueled
by intense propaganda work, which
took an ordinary private (personal)
disagreement between individuals and
turned it into a conflict between people
and ethnic groups. However, the scale
of the so-called conflict was also highly
exaggerated by anti-peace elements.
The damages caused were multiplied
by a factor of a thousand to portray a
horrifying scene for those living in the
region and the country in general.
So why is the conflict referred to as
something that happened between
the indigenous people and people
who come from different parts of
the country and are working in the
region currently?
First, we need to consider the mix
of people living in the Gambella,
Benishangul or SNNP regional states.
They have a very long and rich history
of coexistence; perhaps generations
of rich tradition of living together in
peace and harmony. So, one needs to
ask what possible reason there could
be for these people to go into conflict
at this particular time. It is quite clear
that some elements have a hand in this
conflict. In fact, one can see that such a
conflict is orchestrated largely by antipeace elements that were waiting for
the right moment to do so. Mostly these
people appear as if they are advocating
the well-being of one particular ethnic
group while in fact they are inciting
destructive attitudes and promoting
hatred. However, deep down, what these
groups are after is their own self-serving
agenda, and not the people’s. They need
the cover of speaking for the people to
accomplish their agenda. These people
can be at times in the government
structure itself while forging a
formidable link (network) with people
who are outside the system. So, it is not
strange that these incidents happened
in Gambella or Benishangul or other
regions. This is the type of thing that
could happen in any place where there
is a mix of people coexisting with one
another and where there is room for antipeace elements to infiltrate. So, there is
no inherent conflict between any two
or more ethnic groups in the Gambella
region or any other. The conflicts are
portrayed to look like they are by the
same groups who seek to benefit from
such conditions.
What did you do to resolve the
unfortunate situation that happened
in Gambella? And, what measures
have you taken or are considering
to take to guarantee that such things
would not happen in the future?
Our approach to the problem is a threephased process whereby we outlined
what we need to do in short - medium and long-term time periods, both from
the side of the federal government and
the regional counterparts. As a shortrun course of action we tried first to
solve the unfolding conflict in the area
and help the people who flee due to the
conflict come back to their villages.
Basically, we tried to normalize the dayto-day activities in the conflict areas.
This was quite important since a lot
of people had to flee from their homes
thanks to the propaganda work that antipeace elements had been doing in the
area. So, the first step was rehabilitation
work. And the second was to establish
accountability in the conflict area.
According to our law, people who
have violated the law have to pay their
dues for the crimes that they have
committed. So, we have identified those
in the government system and outside
playing a role in this conflict. And after
identifying them, they were brought to
justice to accept the punishment that fit
their crime. As I mentioned earlier, most
of these anti-peace elements are in fact
involved in various other crimes and
were hiding from the law in these areas.
So, a lot of work was accomplished in
identifying these groups and bringing
them to justice. So, we are working to
make sure the rule of law does exist in
Ethiopia. The third and most important
work is also one that requires thinking
ahead and doing what is best for the
future. Basically, the third solution
proposes working on development and
good governance issues to eliminate the
fertile breeding ground for such kinds of
In this, we are together with the local
government and people are trying
to address the major development
shortcomings and ensure equitable
economic growth in the region. In my
view, this is the most important thing
that can be done as it lays the foundation
to a developmental mindset that would
be able to fight future destructive
tendencies and individuals promoting it.
We understand that some people
have lost their life and their property
in this conflict. In the meantime, can
you tell me what remedial actions
the government is taking? What have
you done to redress the damages that
were incurred in this process?
As I have mentioned in the previous
reinstatement of the people who were
displaced in the conflict is the one
and most important measure that
was taken afterwards. Furthermore,
government would also work to help
these people improve their lives
permanently. Although for the time
being rehabilitation would be the main
focus of government’s effort in these
areas, formal development work such as
infrastructure would also be on the to-do
list. Apart from physical rehabilitation
work, the government would also work
Accommodating ethnic... page 26
20| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The NGO has been providing assistance and relief for women
By Henok Reta
A small compound in Shola-Megenagna,
located on the east end of the city, serves
outpatients and others – specifically
women – who come in search of help.
The well-organized center has 10 rooms
and is one of its kind in the city. These
women may not be new to such help, but
the center has become a refuge for them.
Although they know that they are in need
of aid, they should never think they are
poor or hopeless. Everyone they meet in
the compound pays them attention and
provides them love. In absolute freedom
they tell them their secrets and needs.
In particular, they have someone to
talk to — Sister Ejigayehu Tadesse, site
coordinator and head of the compound
Ejigayehu has been like family to the
women she treats. Their affection to
her is very visible on their faces; their
greetings, hugs and conversations are
filled with warmth. She tirelessly works
to make these destitute women selfreliant, self-confident and hopeful. Half
of them are said to have been in extreme
poverty while others had faced harsh
realities like working as sex workers.
The clinic is administered by Africa
Services Committee (ASC), a nongovernmental organization founded ten
years ago in New York by an Ethiopian
immigrant, Asfeha Hadera. The NGO
was initially established to help African
migrants in the US. Asfeha, humbly
thought that the organization would
benefit those facing harsh realities,
particularly African migrants. Then he
expanded to focus on destitute women.
“He is a loving individual and has done so
much by establishing this institution,”
Hanna Weldegebial, country director of
ASC, said.
In the past decade the center has
supported hundreds of thousands of
vulnerable women in Addis Ababa,
Kombolcha (Amhara Regional State),
Batu (Oromia Regional State), Hawassa
(Southern Nations, Nationalities and
Peoples’ Regional State) and Mekele
(Tigray Regional State). Wholly focusing
on women who do not have sustainable
income, the committee has assisted them
with healthcare and social development
schemes. “We prioritize women because
the institutions believe that women
are the pillars of family,” Hanna says.
Asfeha, founder of the Africa Service
Committee, never thought he would serve
only women. Eventually, he moved to his
native land and understood the burden
of women. Moreover, he apparently
realized the HIV/AIDS prevalence at the
time severely affected women both in
towns and the countryside, the country
director stated.
According to Hanna, the man who
was born and raised in Tigray has
consistently shown his profound care for
poor women across the country. Apart
from his executive position, he tirelessly
engages to support the center through
dynamic public relations and fundraising
activities in New York and elsewhere. “I
feel I’m indebted to his magnanimous
deeds,” Bezaye Tadele (not his named)
says. She has been an active recipient of
the center since she was diagnosed with
HIV/AIDS some six years ago. Her aid
package includes healthcare, ART (Anti
Retroviral Treatment) and clothing for
her children. Above all, she became one
of those selected women to access full
equipment for baking injera (local bread
f “I can do anything. I’m
made from teff).
happy to generate my own income,” she
says. Askale Worku, one of the thirty
women selected to get the materials,
looked very cheerful as she went onto
the podium addressing the crowd and
guests telling them that she and her
friends had never been poor but in need
of something to generate income. “Now,
you can visit us sometime afterwards.
We will change everything,” she said.
The women were granted 500 birr each
in addition to the materials that are fully
packed to bake injera and serve it for
sale. “We want to see them self-reliant
regardless of what we offer them,” Hanna
said. The organization has successfully
linked up with some internal and external
partners to speed up the support. The
USAID, French Embassy, and Save the
Children have become instrumental to
expanding the aid internally while Toms
Shoes and Vitamin Angel are helpful
from the outside. These two American
companies assist the center with
materials. While the vitamin company
offers multivitamins to babies and
pregnant women, Toms Shoes delivers
60,000 shoes every year to children
in need. “We are very much proud of
their support,” Hanna thanks them on
behalf of all Africa Service Committee
members. Recently, the USAID donated
USD 30,000 to purchase the materials the
women were granted. From the smaller
traditional plate, enkib (made of dry
grass) to electric baking machines, the
women have been handed everything to
start baking injera.
advertisement pioneer and guest of
honor, attributed the success to the
founder of the committee. “I’m proud of
the founder, and these vibrant women
who have never given up during the ups
and downs,” he said. The women still
want to stare at sister Ejigayehu, who
has devoted herself to the betterment
of all the women who have become
healthy and able to receive the baking
equipment. “I’m very much happy and
proud of this,” she replied. While some of
the women sang a thank-you song for the
founder and the partners having blessed
their God for his almighty deeds, others
were touched and crying but smiles
took over all their cries and misfortunes
because they know they will have a
better tomorrow. “This is not welfare
but a way of self-help,” Ejigayehu said
adding that the deeds will ease their
trauma and the problems they faced.
Vol. XIX No. 949 |21
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
22| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |23
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
24| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
politics, science,
mythology with
‘Art makes things happen’ is the concept
behind American artist Maye Torres.
There is no limitation to her ideas and she
transcends concepts into art forms using
concepts such as politics, science, religion,
mythology and spirituality, taking the
viewers on a unique journey. Born in Taos,
New Mexico in 1960 and growing up in Latin
America, she says she has a deep connection
to the land where her 13-generation ancestral
lineage lived. She calls herself the 13th
generation “rebel.” Following the path
of breaking boundaries and labels, she
did controversial political art pieces that
challenge the existing systems and foreign
policies of her country. One of the bold artists
takes inspiration from anything including
her ancestral native-American civilizations
of the Mayan and Incan people. Renowned
with big sculptures and drawings, her pieces
are a juxtaposition of ideas through which
she dares to convey a message. Being in
Ethiopia, a film that portrays her life and
other women artists entitled “Who does she
think she is?” was screened at the American
Embassy in Addis Ababa. She was also part
of a heated discussion with Ethiopian artists
on how much of a struggle it is to work as
an artist in a male dominated art scene.
Tibebeselassie Tigabu of The Reporter
caught up with Maye Torres to talk about her
35 years of art experience and her philosophy
behind art. Excerpts:
Vol. XIX No. 949 |25
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
artist you never know when your next
check is going to come. So basically you
are gambling with life. I thought that
was fun back then. Some years it gets
difficult. Whenever I doubt myself I go
into the studio and work. Every time I
do that things start happening. Having
that belief in you and in the work and
the global message I am trying to put
together, which was breaking out of
the boundaries of Hispanic, nativeAmerican artists.
The Reporter: We can start from the
film screening. You showed your
vulnerable side on the screen and for
many people it takes extra courage
to discuss their private life. How was
the process of making the film?
Torres: The process was
interesting. The director of the film
Pamela T. Boll came out with some very
professional people. She chose people in
the field who would photograph the most
famous people. We met when she came to
my studio and really connected and she
bought major pieces of artwork.
I wanted to break the boundaries because
everybody was doing a similar style
of art. And I think art is really about
breaking boundaries. So that is why I
decided to do the large-scale drawings
because not many people were doing
large-scale drawings. In the sculptures
I took the body away and just kept the
hands, feet, representational and I put
spirals and other things in between
that represented their energy rather
than just the solid form like the perfect
muscle or vein.
It took four years of filming to do the
whole film. She would come out for a
week or so and we would film certain
areas and then she would go and do the
editing. She found other women artists
also to be part of the film and she would
come back the next year and we do a
little bit more. I really did not know
what the film was going to be about. I did
not know it was going to be titled ‘who
does she think she is’. I did not know
the other women artists were involved.
There were some parts in the film that I
was not happy she included because they
were too emotional for me. To tell you
the truth I really did not want everyone
to know that. She put it in there anyway.
In the end it was powerful. So I had to
swallow my ego and well, say if its helping
other people that was what the film was
about, to encourage other women artists
to be able to find or just anybody to find
what their real heartfelt desire is to do
in life. Even that emotional scene, it is
really intense I cried. I haven’t watched
the movie in four years because I cry
whenever I see the film. She expanded
into other social issues which I do think
made the movie powerful.
So that was the fun challenge. It kept me
excited in the studio. My galleries did
not like it. They said my work is always
changing because the next show I would
do was new work and sometimes it did
not sell. One of the series I did after 9/11
happened was Objects of Dissent, objects
that we fight over as human beings. We
send our boys to war over these concepts,
fighting over God, gender. So I did a
series of twelve things that people fight
over the most. It is not a popular selling
series but people responded to it, so that
was important to me.
What were the twelve pieces?
There is a film called ‘The Gods Must
Be Crazy’ and they were fighting over
a Coca Cola bottle. So that was the idea
that instigated this whole series. It was
that piece that started it, and I thought,
people are always fighting over God
and I kind of did a replica of Michael
Angelo’s work and he was surrounded
by all the names of Gods I could find
throughout the world and I researched
all the words for God and then stemmed
into goddesses as well.
In the film you talk about how your
partner did not support you and how
the community did not recognize
your art as a woman. Can we talk
about that more?
That was an interesting story because I
had very strong women role models in
my family and they always said “you
can do whatever you want” especially
my dad’s mother and his sisters. They
always encouraged me to break the
boundaries and not stay within the role
or stereotype of being a woman, although
they were upset when I became an artist.
The other piece was a drug piece of Christ
in a circle with a Marijuana leaf because
of the battle over drugs and all that.
There is also a piece called ‘Weapons of
Mass Destruction’ New Mexico which
talks about the birthplace of the atomic
That was quite interesting. They had
limitations in what they considered
acceptable. I never thought that there
would be those kind of barriers as an
artist. When you just go blindly and
ignorantly through life like I do (laughs)
and not dwelling on the issue, can I be a
woman artist. I was just doing it.
Another piece I did is entitled ‘Moses
and the burning Bush’. It is President
Bush inside a dollar bill with two images
of Moses and one of the Moses’ was
dropping the Bible. The very first thing
in almost every religion is ‘thou shall
not kill. So how can you parade yourself
as a political leader and go to church and
throw bombs on someone else? I don’t
understand those concepts. I feel it’s
my job to bring this up to people. Partly
because I grew up in Latin America as a
child and I saw the power of the image
and how it affects people and I think it
is the job of the artist to speak politically
on certain issues. It is not safe to do that.
It does not make me popular among
people who are Bush supporters. I didn’t
feel what I was doing in a studio was
appropriate anymore to what was going
on in the world.
I had really such great male teachers
whom you saw in the film and my late
husband. These were all male figures
that encouraged me to keep doing the art
because they saw a talent, maybe I did
not even see that. I am really thankful
for them. Strangely enough it was the
women who would hold you back, which
I found interesting. I thought the women
would be very encouraging and it often
did not happen that way. So I just forged
ahead, I was taught to be disciplined in
the studio and had that selfdiscipline
The most important job of the artist is
just to be in the studio working with
the materials and the ideas. I was
encouraged not to go in the commercial
One of the pieces you did was the
Zapata renaissance. Is it connected
to the Zapatistas movement (a
revolutionary leftist political and
militant group based in Chiapas,
Southern Mexico)?
There is a place for commercialism in art
so that you can have a check coming in.
Luckily I had enough people responding
to the work and making a living. As an
Blending politics... page 28
26| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The making of...
Sertse mentions Enku Girma’s Yemoriam
Medir, Paulos Regassa’s Ashenge, Elias
Melka’s Comoros, Tadelle Feleke’s
Amran, Abirham Tesfaye’s Lomi Sheta,
Beruk Assefa’s Rebuni. Within this he
gives a special place for Jorga Mesfin’s
work in Teza and Daniel’s score Albo for
following the discipline and setting such
a standard.
He says that film scoring like film
making is in its infancy where there are
no such musicians who have studied it
as a discipline.
Within that he says the absence of an
orchestra, lack of sophisticated studio
and no sound engineer, the ones who
are trying to make the score should be
There are different ways of doing scores
for films, sometimes the composer
comes at the end of the session when it is
edited; sometimes they are given scripts
and storyboards and make the film score
without seeing the film itself. Usually,
film directors talk to the composers and
discuss the message it is going to convey.
There are also times where the director
follows the music to direct their films.
One of the few film score arrangers
in Ethiopia is Sultan Nuri, a.k.a Soffi.
A musician who did film scores for
more than 20 films such as Pendulum,
Yemecherashawa Kemis, Belidete Ken,
Abiro Abed, Semina Work, Yebirhan
Firma, Bilatena, City Boy and Fekren
misconception many have where they
use soundtracks interchangeably with
the music. A film score is part of the
soundtrack as well as the dialogue and
encompasses other elements.
Starting his film score making with the
film entitled Abay vs Vegas, he says that
there are promising initiatives where
filmmakers come to music arrangers.
He says that with the music style it is
easy to grasp what kind of film it is. In
the past he used to arrange the music
after reading the script but nowadays he
started to sit with the editor and go step
by step.
He says that the most important thing is
to understand the concept of the film and
after that the music follows. The way he
does the music score is first he sits with
the director to get to know what kind
of concept the director wants to convey
and after understanding it he begins
He understands the power of the music;
how it can make the film into something
extraordinary or how to destroy it. “The
music should be able to stand by itself
and has to express ideas on its own,”
Sultan says.
Filled with dialogue, Sultan says there is
always overcrowding and he talks about
the necessity of space between scenes. He
says that usually he takes projects when
he agrees with the ideas. There are so
many blurred lines in the film or music
industry and with a lot of mistakes he is
hopeful things will be clear.
Since directors decide the music, for
some filmmakers like Berhanu Sheberu,
one of the filmmakers who was part of
the former Ethiopian Film Corporation,
knowing the theory, history and concept
of music for a director is a necessity.
According to Berhanu, the composition
should be able to tell the story of the
film deeply, so the composer and the
director should sit down and talk
about the concept of the film. During
post-production, the sounds are not
deliberately done, rather the sound
and the speech are measured and has a
mathematical calculation in it.
Berhanu says the film score in the film
tells the inner story of the film. The big
part and parcel of the film for him is the
inner story of the film, which is depicted
through music.
With his film, Behiwot Zuria, there were
sounds of masinko and kirarr playing but
he also used Beethoven’s symphony.
In some instances, he says if there are
silences the music score makes it easy
to tell. Within the two hours and 15
minutes of his film around 20 minutes
of music was included. The film was
not suffocated with the music; there
were also natural sounds where there is
neither speech nor music.
As the Ethiopian film industry started
five decades ago, the film Asterr had its
own film score with composers such as
Getachew Gesi who went to Bulgaria
and studied music. Berhanu, who doubts
filmmakers’ knowledge with regard to
the theory and history of music, says
there are filmmakers who get the whole
concept and make the score but still he
sees the absence of the school as a hurdle.
For filmmakers such as Yared Shumete,
since most of the films are owned by
producers, sound is not something most
of the producers are concerned with. He
says that since they do not think it is
necessary there is usually no budget for
the films.
Apart from that, with a few professionals
doing film scoring, he says film scoring
has monotonous and similar sounds
films. He does not deny the fact that
there is always a rush at the 11th hour
where the post-production is rushed and
the music is not given any attention.
With the shortage of film venues, many
wait a long time to screen their films and
Yared says that the post-production is
not carefully looked at.
Yared, who also assisted Teza in the
post-production supervision, reminisces
that Haile’s deep knowledge of music
with his use of recordings of kirar.
The way it is done in this country,
according to Yared, musicians usually
finish up their composition and
sometimes when it is edited some parts
are cut, which might destroy the flow of
the film.
Since most of the arrangers also focus on
chikchika (pop), he says film scores that
incorporate classical and jazz music are
rare to find. Eliminating the other costs
for promotion, the films also does the
advertising with a song of the film such
as Abinet Agonafir’s Kezkaza Wolafen
for the film Kezkaza Wolafen.
Still Yared thinks there is a big potential
for professional film scorers to meddle
in the film industry. Apart from that,
since most of the films use existing songs
there are also controversies when films
use songs without the consent of the
musicians. He mentions how Tsedenia
Gebremarkos did not want him to use
her music. He says the musicians should
be paid. Most of the films also use songs
from abroad. So they cannot screen them
at international film festivals.
hard to change the mindset of people and
ensure them that disturbance will not
happen in the future if they cooperate.
There are some groups who argued
that the cause of the conflict
in Gambella should have been
investigated by an independent body.
Do you accept that? And if so, is there
any move to consider establishing an
independent body in the future?
No. So far there are no plans to establish
an independent body to investigate this or
any other conflict in Ethiopia. As a rule,
we do not expect an independent body to
be more concerned about Ethiopia than
ourselves. We are positive that our own
administrative structure is closer to the
problems in Gambella and other regions
than any supposedly independent body
that would swoop in to investigate
and tell us about our own problems.
But, generally, we do not denounce
independent bodies who are concerned
about issues in Ethiopia. If so we would
advise them to come and participate
in the development work since many
of our conflicts are inherently linked
to deficit in development and extreme
poverty. But, if we say we need to have
an independent body to investigate this
problem, what possible conclusion could
there be at the end of the day? Most
probably, it is for the perpetrators to
face justice. But we are doing it now; so
do we need another body? Furthermore,
we do not think the people would benefit
from such an investigation of the socalled independent body. Sometimes,
these so-called independent bodies are
the ones who are knocking on doors of
various international organizations and
countries to block us from getting vital
technical and financial help. We need
to tackle poverty, which, by the way, is
the basic factor behind such conflicts in
Ethiopia. Plus, these are also the ones
who are trying to divide the society
and stop it from organizing behind the
common development agenda that is
vital to it.
Gambella in general is a unique
region in Ethiopia not only because
of its rich endowment in natural
resources, but for the fact that it is one
of the most controversial investment
destinations in the country. For one,
international institutions accuse the
government of displacing the locals
in favor of investment while on the
other, some investors argue that
government does not provide enough
protection for them to work in the
region. This appears to be a paradox,
how do you see that?
In my view, I think it is all about levels
but the problem in all of our regions is
the same. I know, some people think
that, when we say the basic problem
we are facing is poverty, it is just to
make a statement and that the problem
is not that severe. But, the significance
of this problem can clearly be seen,
especially in our regional states, which
deserve special support: Afar, Somali,
Benishangul and Gambella, including
pastoral areas in Oromia and SNNP.
These regions had no infrastructure and
human development in the past. Apart
from that, these were regions that were
forgotten during the previous rules. So,
these were areas where criminals and
outlaws would be thrown into and not
return back to hinterlands. The density
of the population in these regions is also
relatively small, where, for instance, in
regions like Gambella it is as low as 9
persons/square kilometer. If you go to
South Omo, for instance, the density is 5
persons/square kilometer and one has to
use a helicopter to locate people living in
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the area. So, when we talk of using this
idle land for investment, there is no way
that the local people would be displaced
as there is ample arable land that can be
given to investors. One should ask why
one would displace dwellers in a region
where the density of the population is
extremely low. Rather, what one should
consider is what the arrival of these
investors has brought to these regions.
Most of the time, they come with better
infrastructure and promote social and
economic institutions where there was
none previously. Furthermore, they
strengthen market linkage, technology
transfer and execute their social
responsibility to the benefit of the local
dwellers. These investors also mean
extra revenue for local governments.
Hence, the view that investors coming to
the region are the core of the conflict is
also a notion orchestrated by those who
benefit from creating chaos in the region.
The way I see it, groups that suggest the
arrival of investors as being a cause of
the conflict are those who do not benefit
from the arrival of the investors because
such benefits are enjoyed legally and in
a peaceful setting. Those who benefit
from creating the chaos would not be
interested in formal benefits that accrue
because of the arrival of the investors.
On the other hand, there are also
those who attribute the problem in
Gambella to the political instability
that is seen in South Sudan. How far
does the condition in South Sudan
affect Gambella?
In principle, we understand peace
and development conditions in our
neighboring nations would affect the
reality in our country. That is why we,
even in our foreign policy document,
have openly stated that the neighboring
nations are a very critical part of our
peace and development. And that, in
dialogue with them we are prepared
to work together in areas of peace and
development. For instance, the conflict
in South Sudan has opened the gates for
a huge refugee influx into Ethiopia. Such
an influx would have its own positive and
negative sides, of course. Above all, such
conflicts in neighboring country can be a
suitable condition for insurgents, illegal
transfer of armament and personnel and
even for human trafficking. However,
there is no evidence that suggests that
the conflict in Gambella and what is
happening in South Sudan are in any
way related.
Considering the conflicts discussed
above, some say these are a result of
a failure of the political system put in
place. They say the government has
failed to strike the balance between
creating common values and that the
obsession with local governance and
the question of identity are eroding
the aspiration to build one political
economy. How do you respond to
There are groups who associate the
conflicts to the constitutional order and
the federal system we established over
two decades ago. They are of the view that
the solution lies in establishing a unitary
system like the previous regimes. That
is an erroneous assessment. The source
of the conflicts does not emanate from
the constitutional order or the federal
system. The system in place allows for
citizens’ freedom of movement. The
problem lies in the challenges we have
not overcome yet. We will not overcome
these challenges by bringing back the
imperial and dictatorial regimes of the
past. How we overcome it is by changing
attitudes. For instance, what is eroding
the values of peaceful coexistence that
exists among people are the anti-peace
elements. So, the solution is to fight
these elements through political, legal
and administrative ways. That is what
we have been doing. Peace has become
our country’s identity over the past two
decades. This is a government that works
for the interest of the people. We work at
individual level to make sure that the
right of everyone is respected. It is wrong
to forward a blanket assessment on the
basis of an incident that occurred at a
given time at a given place. In various
social interactions conflicts may arise.
We have seen why these conflicts occur
and what matters is how they are being
resolved. These conflicts are not a result
of our policies. They do not show failures
in our constitutional order or federal
system. In fact, the system provides for
mechanisms to resolve such conflicts
when they occur. With the participation
of the people, we are working so that
these conflicts occur less frequently.
With regard to building common values,
the government is carrying out various
activities. One instance is the civic and
ethic education provided to students. We
also have common platforms to develop
people-to-people interactions. Here we
can mention the Nations, Nationalities
and Peoples Day, which we celebrate
annually. We have also had various
forums with various stakeholders that
were aimed at identifying the obstacles
to our common values and goals. This
is what we do in terms of building one
political community. In terms of building
one economic community, we are
carrying out various projects to create
infrastructure and market linkages in
all parts of the country. Our success is
in this regard is demonstrated by the
double-digit growth registered over the
past decade. We have achieved peace and
we are also building strong democratic
values. These successes are a result of
the policies and strategies we have put
in place. This is not only acknowledged
by our people but also by international
Some experts recommend that all
nations, nationalities and peoples
of Ethiopia should have the right to
establish legislative and executive
councils that are not linked to a
particular territory to complement
you see the need for such ethnic
institutions whose authority extends
to all members of a particular ethnic
group regardless of where they live?
We have the House of Federation where
all nations, nationalities and peoples are
represented and whose power extends
to interpretation of the constitution.
Any issue that one ethnic group might
have can be brought up here. This is
one already existing arrangement.
Secondly, within the House of Peoples
Representatives, some 20 seats out of
the 547, are reserved for minorities to
be represented. Currently we have 22
seats serving the same purpose. Thirdly,
our constitutional order also allows
direct participation of people within
their own constituency through the
decentralized system down to kebele
level. The constitution not only protects
individual rights but also group rights.
I believe those recommending for the
establishment of another structure
are doing so on the assumption that
the structures already in place are
not adequate enough. But we do have
adequate frameworks for the voices of
all nations, nationalities and peoples to
be heard. So with all these alternative
ways to seek remedy I don’t think we
need another structure. And I doubt if it
is going to work better than what we are
already practicing.
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The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Blending politics...
lost. So I like throwing these different
concepts together. Sometimes they don’t
even notice the detail. The concepts in
science like the super-string idea and
the subatomic quantum level I like to
use it in my artwork. Scientists I like
to have dialogues with see the tempted
visualization of scientific concepts.
So the theory of relativity or the
mathematical equation makes people
think and makes them visually easy to
grasp. The biggest power of art is to open
different perspectives in a visual form so
people can get this concept. I don’t know
if I can do a unified theory but I can try.
Does your narration focus on nativeAmericans?
Emiliano Zapata (a leading figure in the
Mexican Revolution during 1910) in my
own view was one of our heroes in the
southwest because he was able to stand
up against the government claiming
this is “our land”. Zapata renaissance
was the revolutionary in the concept
of renaissance. So many people when
they think of change think of revolution
but revolution entails death and
destruction and a lot of people die. But in
a renaissance that does not happen, you
are taking the highest quality of people
and doing it through art, which inspires
the culture to become something a little
better than what it was. We can be
revolutionaries but that would lead to
more bloodshed. Even though he was a
revolutionary, it was in the concept of
renaissance that he brought it up.
Is it connected to the Zapatistas
Not necessarily! Their movement is
twisted in a different direction. I might
do some other pieces within them.
You are trying to break boundaries,
doing infamous political art, being a
woman, an independent artist, how
is the struggle and how do you make
Often when I go into the studio I wasn’t
thinking of being a rebel, revolutionary,
renaissance leader. I am just doing art
hoping people will respond to it. People
have their own response with the Moses
and the burning Bush piece made a lot
of republicans angry with me. It is true,
whether they are ignoring the truth and
just looking in their own vision.
My grandmother was adamant about
just being a person, not being above
or below, just equal. Just to try your
hardest and do the best. When I go into
the studio that’s what I think.
The work also develops itself, once I
start it takes on a life of its own. It’s like
this internal dance with thoughts and
materials that you have. This film brings
a lot of issues, being a woman artist in
a male dominated art world. I did not
realize it was that unbalanced until this
movie came out. After I saw this movie,
had I been a young student I would not
have chosen art as my field. I just went
in blindly and naively trying to make
the best work I do and the best voice I
felt appropriate. Whether anybody liked
it or not, I did not care, whether it was
sold or not, I did not care. Many of the
pieces of Objects of Dissent are still in
my closet. People liked to look at them
but did not like to own them, what if
they offend a guest? I think that its good
that the image is making a very powerful
statement. I see as all human beings and
I have some sensibility as a woman that
a man would not have. I try to speak in
real honestly from the inner voice. It is
like giving birth. I cannot stop it until it
is over. I guess that is the truest calling
of an artist, a person who follows that
voice. It would be very easy for me to be
a very rich and famous artist if I stayed
doing pieces like Native Americans
and cowboys and pretty landscapes.
Sometimes it’s like the voice of the
society coming through me and I just
follow it.
Did you compromise through your
I don’t think I have, maybe not the
smartest thing. I really try not to
compromise because my teacher, Ted
Egri, said “you know that’s the worst
thing you do as an artist”. He was the
one who kept saying keep exploring,
keep changing your style, and keep
reaching in different subject matter... I
guess I was lucky I was stubborn.
Were you struggling financially as
an independent artist?
It goes up and down. I have been
reaching into doing public artwork. Now
the United States has a program, every
state building or federal building one
percent or two percent of that budget has
to go to artwork for that building. So I
have been applying for that job. I am a
big believer in public art. I have become
saddened with the gallery and the
museum scene because you only have a
certain group of people who are going.
Public art influenced me living in Latin
America where they always have public
art everywhere. So people who would go
to a hospital have this art that they can
see because they normally would not
go to a gallery. So that voice is stepping
into society. So I am getting money from
those public art jobs. It is a sacrifice
when there is no money sometimes. It
would be more a sacrifice to me not to
make the artwork than to have a steady
paycheck. My second husband passed
away four years ago and I am bouncing
back from his death. We were very close
art comrades, friends and it has been
very difficult, more difficult than I would
ever think to be without him. I went to
California in total grief and did some
artwork. So the experience I had was life
changing and horrifying by the number
of homeless people. I made it to a point
to meet and get to know them and what
their fight was. To see that in the United
States the number of homeless people
really tore me apart. So part of what I
was doing was taking art into the streets
and putting up art for the homeless.
I started doing street art and making
friends. People who are homeless are
just beautiful people who have had a
really hard time. So it was very sad.
Your artwork touches the imbalance
of wealth, science, mythology,
politics, capitalism and anything
and everything. Do you label your
It is contemporary figurative working
with concepts of politics, mythology,
science, basically what makes us human
and the search for who we are in our
universe. Why are we here, how did we
get these bodies that are made of three
trillion cells. That is one of the most
fascinating to be alive how we fit in
the microcosmic and macrocosmic. So
those are particular issues I like to deal
with whether politics comes into play or
Is your art science fiction also?
Yeah kind of! I like being controversial
in a sense where I take Hebraic writing
into Christian values that also has
Native American concepts. I like that
mixing whether people get it or not but
I see people responding to it. Not to get
them angry just to see if anyone notices
that juxtaposition. In the United States
we are visual with TV but in terms of
art and its symbolism it has kind of been
Even though I have that lineage, my
family was more Spanish, I am very
careful not to step on some of their
history because I am not an insider with
their culture. I did not grow up on a
reservation with the cultural identity
that they still have today, which is
very powerful. I know so many native
American artists who are doing a great
job and breaking a lot of boundaries. I
have too much respect for them. Growing
up in Latin America, the woman who
cooked in our house was Mayan. She
taught me great things that I will never
forget like how to treat others and how
to cook. To me there is not just one
standard. It would not be an interesting
world if we lived the same or looked the
same, like here in Ethiopia you have
had this amazing culture for thousands
of years. And also in New Mexico the
native people have that.
What is your inspiration?
Everything creative! Being here in
Ethiopia seeing the way they carry
themselves in a very proud way. It
is really inspiring. Everything but
war inspires me. I have done a couple
of political pieces on war. I haven’t
exhibited them yet.
Which war?
Which war, right? It started on 9/11 and
it went on for ten years. This war was
never ending. I like doing art in public
spaces. Doing street art in Los Angeles
was really exciting to me. You never
know who is going to see it. I have to get
much better at making it permanent.
You can get arrested for it. Someday
I will be thrown in jail. It is not a goal
What are your current projects?
My work is progressing. I am doing
sculptures with clay. I visualize a better
world where people accept each other
and have more compassion. I want
everything to be original as an artist;
keeping the work real to the heart. I am
hoping the art that I make helps see the
world in a different way. We can bring
some artists from Ethiopia, New Mexico.
Art is a bridge for peaceful relationships
among people and challenge through art.
How is your experience in Ethiopia?
It is amazing. I have just seen the bits
and pieces of different cultures because
I am doing so many activities. I am
staying in a fancy hotel and it removes
you from real life. I haven’t been able to
really walk through the city as much as
I would like to. This experience, going
to the school, doing some art classes
with the children, meeting the different
artists has been incredibly empowering
to me. Every culture has its own beauty!
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South Sudan
and agriculture.
Nor has the government used any of
its oil money to establish a favorable
business environment by improving
road conditions or providing access to
Still, there was no need for the angry
criticisms to be one sided calling the
edict as xenophobic while insisting on
an extended presence of a foreign labor
force because of low average standard of
education in the country with 25 percent
literacy rate. This of course does not
prove the country is unable to produce
enough skilled and unskilled workers to
meet national needs.
What is indefensible is the fact that the
Western press and concerned NGOs
wanted not to involve the opinions of
journalists and civil society leaders
in the debate. At the same time, they
unscrupulously opted to portray foreign
companies, NGOs and UN agencies
and their foreign workers as altruistic,
philanthropic souls uninterested and
unwilling to exploit and profit from
fragile, conflict ridden South Sudan,
be it in amassing wealth or career
enhancement. This war-ravaged nation
has immense, untapped opportunities
which should benefit the investor and
the host country fairly and evenly.
Foreign businesses and investors have a
key role to play in building a peaceful and
stable South Sudan by making honest
tax payments as well as participating in
job training projects and hiring locals
for well-paying jobs. A Sudan Tribune
report estimates up to 60 percent of the
nation’s salaried workforce is made up
of foreigners although The Economist
puts the figure at 25 percent; still very
It was no surprise therefore that some
institutions and businesses are “100
percent foreign” according to Foreign
Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin
who stressed in a Reuter’s interview in
September the necessity to give jobs to
citizens where there was capacity.
Why urgent labor policy change?
Opponents of the proposed foreignworker guidelines do not seem to have
looked at the recruitment methods of
foreign companies and aid agencies
which appear to make no satisfactory
effort in search of skilled South Sudanese
workers locally and in the diaspora.
I have lived in South Sudan for over
two years as a journalist and media
consultant and here are some of my
observations about real employment
South Sudanese national James Bol (not
his real name to protect his privacy) holds
a Master’s Degree in management from
an American University. 32-year old Bol
had been looking for a job for 8 months
since he returned to his homeland in
early 2013. He came back after 13 years
in the US where he went to school and
worked as a Human Resources specialist
in New York State. We shared a housing
compound in Juba where I tried to help
him in researching addresses of NGOs,
UN agencies and foreign businesses.
His endeavors ended in disappointing
results. Most government branches were
neither hiring nor able to pay enough
for his qualifications. Penniless and
heartbroken, Bol, a Dinka, and his new
Nuer bride returned to the US having
failed to secure employment in his new
John Deng (not his real name) is
another well-educated, skilled worker
among thousands of other competent
diaspora professionals. Deng returned
from neighboring Uganda after many
years in exile. He holds a BA degree
in business administration from a
Ugandan university. After a long wait
without employment, Deng joined one
of the leading foreign service businesses
in Juba, which reluctantly hired him
at a managerial level at a monthly
salary of 1/3 of what it paid a foreign
manager with much less education and
qualification than his. The company was
in clear violation of a 2012 government
circular requiring “equal pay for equal
work”. Though aware of the company’s
discriminatory practices, neither the
Juba County Labor Office nor the
National Ministry of Labor intervened
to end the illegal salary disparity which
hurts the dignity and human rights of
South Sudanese workers. Deng, with
a wife and three young kids, had no
choice but to take the job having wasted
too much time without employment. In
less than a week, Deng mastered all that
was required by his new managerial
position to the satisfaction of the
general manager. Indeed, the company’s
estimated one dozen senior and midlevel management posts were filled by
foreign workers in the same way with a
week or two of paid job training.
And finally, there is one of the many UN
agencies (which will remain nameless)
in the heart of Juba. This agency’s newly
seems to reserve all managerial posts for
foreigners without considering whether
local or diaspora skills were available.
He is no doubt protected by his agency’s
contract with the government and does
not have to worry about South Sudan’s
1997 Labor Law which the authorities
appear to lack the capacity to implement.
My observation was that none of the high
paying 5 to 6 foreign held managerial
posts at this UN agency including that of
the Country Representative would have
been too difficult for competent South
Sudanese nationals to fulfill. All that
would be required was to go through
short-term job training and orientation
programs. The agency appeared not
interested in such a plan as there was
no legal obligation to do so. Thus locals
ended up serving mainly as drivers,
kitchen workers and office or toilet
cleaners while foreigners had all the
profitable jobs.
Responsible foreign investment
Despite its diminishing popularity
following the outbreak of violence
in December 2013, President Kiir’s
government declared last month that
foreign companies and aid agencies
were obliged to hire competent locals as
part of a plan to create jobs and repair
the economy in a country which gained
its independence only three years ago
after 50 years of devastating liberation
struggle sacrificing 2.5 million lives.
The government welcomes responsible
foreign investors who will not only work
to benefit themselves but the country as
well through augmentation of national
revenue and creation of jobs. The plan
is for the country not to become just
a market for foreign businesses and
traders to sell their goods and services
without the participation of locals in
the production and distribution of those
goods and services.
Evidently, no economic growth and
stability can be achieved without the
introduction of a comprehensive legal
structure, which, inter alia, guarantees
of independent labor unions and
establishes supervisory labor offices.
The time for change is now.
Ed.’s Note: Michael Abraha is a Jubabased freelance journalist and former
Editor in Chief of South Sudan’s Pioneer
newspaper. The views expressed in this
article do not necessarily reflect the views
of The Reporter. He can be reached at
[email protected]
But a new issue risks bringing about a similarly problematic outcome: By
repeatedly repressing financial-market volatility over the last few years, centralbank policies have inadvertently encouraged excessive risk-taking, which has
pushed many financial-asset prices higher than economic fundamentals warrant.
The return...
than its developed counterparts, it is not
yet robust enough to be able to adjust
smoothly to a significant shift in external
demand to other countries. There is also
the risk that, given the role of the ECB
and the Bank of Japan in shaping their
currencies’ performance, such a shift
could be characterized as a “currency
war” in the US Congress, prompting a
retaliatory policy response.
Furthermore, sudden large currency
moves tend to translate into financialmarket instability. To be sure, this risk
was more acute when a larger number
of emerging-economy currencies were
pegged to the US dollar, which meant
that a significant shift in the dollar’s
value would weaken other countries’
balance-of-payments position and erode
their international reserves, thereby
undermining their creditworthiness.
Today, many of these countries have
adopted more flexible exchange-rate
regimes, and quite a few retain adequate
reserve holdings.
But a new issue risks bringing about
a similarly problematic outcome: By
repeatedly repressing financial-market
volatility over the last few years,
central-bank policies have inadvertently
encouraged excessive risk-taking, which
has pushed many financial-asset prices
higher than economic fundamentals
warrant. To the extent that continued
currency-market volatility spills over
into other markets – and it will – the
imperative for stronger economic
fundamentals to validate asset prices
will intensify.
This is not to say that the currency realignment that is currently underway is
necessarily a problematic development;
on the contrary, it has the potential to
boost the global economy by supporting
the recovery of some of its most
challenged components. But the only way
to take advantage of the re-alignment’s
benefits, without experiencing serious
economic disruptions and financialmarket volatility, is to introduce
policy adjustments, such as accelerating
structural reforms, balancing aggregate
demand, and reducing or eliminating
debt overhangs.
After all, global growth, at its
current level, is inadequate for mere
redistribution among countries to work.
Overall global GDP needs to increase.
The US dollar’s resurgence, while
promising, is only a first step. It is
up to governments to ensure that the
ongoing currency re-alignment supports
a balanced, stable, and sustainable
economic recovery. Otherwise, they may
find themselves again in the unpleasant
Ed.’s Note: Mohamed A. El-Erian, Chief
Economic Adviser at Allianz and a
member of its International Executive
Committee, is Chairman of President
Barack Obama’s Global Development
Council and the author, most recently,
of When Markets Collide. The article
was provided to The Reporter by Project
Syndicate: the world’s pre-eminent source
of original op-ed commentaries. Project
Syndicate provides incisive perspectives
on our changing world by those who are
shaping its politics, economics, science,
and culture. The views expressed in this
article do not necessarily reflect the views
of The Reporter.
32| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
The Sunni...
The sectarianism plaguing the Sunni
belt is affecting even the relatively
stable oil sheikdoms of the Gulf, where
a schism within the Gulf Cooperation
Council is spurring new tensions and
proxy competition among its members.
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab
Emirates view Qatar’s efforts to aid
Islamists like the Muslim Brotherhood
as an existential threat, even as their
own wealth has fueled the spread of
Salafi jihadism and Al Qaeda ideology.
Both countries, along with Bahrain,
have recalled their ambassadors from
This rupture is compounded by a rift
between the Middle East’s two main
Sunni powers, Egypt and Turkey, whose
relationship soured last year, after the
Egyptian military ousted the Muslim
Brotherhood government, backed by proIslamist Turkish President Recep Tayyip
Erdo“an. Egypt recalled its ambassador
from Ankara and expelled the Turkish
ambassador from Cairo. In September,
the Egyptian foreign ministry accused
Erdo“an of seeking to “provoke chaos”
and “incite divisions in the Middle East
region through his support for groups
and terrorist organizations.”
A similar divide exists between
Afghanistan and Pakistan over the
latter’s provision of aid and sanctuary
to Afghan militants – a divide that will
only deepen when the United Statesled NATO coalition ends its combat
operations in Afghanistan this year.
Pakistan’s support has spawned two
incarnations of the Taliban: the Afghan
Taliban, sponsored by the Pakistani
military, and the Pakistani Taliban, the
Pakistani military’s nemesis. Successive
Afghan governments have refused to
recognize the frontier with Pakistan
known as the Durand line, a Britishcolonial invention that split the large
ethnic Pashtun population.
Such conflicts are spurring the
militarization of Sunni states. The
UAE and Qatar have already instituted
compulsory military service for adult
males. And Kuwait is considering
following in Jordan’s footsteps by
reintroducing conscription, which is
already in place in most Sunni states
(and Iran).
Against this background, efforts to
tame the deep-seated Sunni-Shia rivalry
(by, for example, improving relations
between Saudi Arabia and Iran), though
undoubtedly important, should not take
priority over a strategy to address the
sectarianism plaguing the Sunni belt.
That strategy must center on federalism.
Had federalism been introduced in
Somalia, for example, when the northsouth rift emerged, it probably would not
have ended up as a failed state. Today,
federalism can allow for the orderly
management of key Sunni countries,
where a unitary state simply is not
The problem is that federalism has
become a dirty word in most Sunni
countries. And the emergence of new
threats has made some governments,
most notably Saudi Arabia’s, staunchly
opposed to change. What these countries
do not seem to recognize is that it is the
petrodollar-funded export of Wahhabism
– the source of modern Sunni jihad – that
has gradually extinguished more liberal
Islamic traditions elsewhere and fueled
the international terrorism that now
threatens to devour its sponsors.
Stagnation is not stability. On the
contrary, in the Sunni arc today, it
means a vicious cycle of expanding
extremism, rapid population growth,
rising unemployment, worsening water
shortages, and popular discontent.
Political fissures and tribal and ethnic
sectarianism add fuel to this lethal mix
of volatility and violence.
It is time for the Sunni world to recognize
the need for a federalist approach to
manage the instability and conflict that
plagues it. Even the US must reconsider
its regional policy, which has long
depended on alliances with despotic
Sunni rulers. In a region ravaged by
conflict, business as usual is no longer
an option.
Ed.’s Note: Brahma Chellaney, Professor
of Strategic Studies at the New Delhibased Center for Policy Research., is the
author of Asian Juggernaut, Water:
Asia’s New Battleground, and Water,
Peace, and War: Confronting the Global
Water Crisis. The article was provided
to The Reporter by Project Syndicate:
the world’s pre-eminent source of
original op-ed commentaries. Project
Syndicate provides incisive perspectives
on our changing world by those who are
shaping its politics, economics, science,
and culture. The views expressed in this
article do not necessarily reflect the views
of The Reporter.
Ultimately, however, the public campaign had little impact on the
outcome, exemplified in the fact that Ban did not participate in the BBC
debate. Though efforts to share one’s vision can win a candidate wide
expressions of support, they can do the same for his or her opponents –
and, in the election of a UN secretary-general, Security Council members
can vote for as many candidates as they like.
The politics...
the old canard that Eastern Europe does
not have a credible candidate to offer.
(Full disclosure: all five are friends of
mine, and I consider them highly capable
and well suited for the role.)
But there is a hitch: Eastern Europe
must avoid attracting a Russian veto.
Indeed, that may be the main factor
derailing the prospects of former Polish
Foreign Minister Radek Sikorski. If, as
some fear, the Kremlin vetoes all East
European candidates, a representative
from the Western Europe and Others
Group, such as former New Zealand
Prime Minister and current UN UnderSecretary-General Helen Clark, could
stand a chance, especially given the
appeal of finally selecting a woman for
the role.
Will the global public get to see much
of the race? The 2006 election, in which
I finished a close second out of seven
candidates, featured an unprecedented
level of public exposure, with candidates
meeting with UN regional groups,
addressing the annual African Union
summit, and even participating in a
debate on the BBC. Web sites emerged
for the sole purpose of analyzing the
All of this represented an important step
forward. Given the importance of the UN
secretary-general’s vision, candidates
should have the opportunity to share
their ideas and goals publicly, as I was
committed to doing.
campaign had little impact on the
outcome, exemplified in the fact that Ban
did not participate in the BBC debate.
Though efforts to share one’s vision
can win a candidate wide expressions
of support, they can do the same for his
or her opponents – and, in the election
of a UN secretary-general, Security
Council members can vote for as many
candidates as they like.
This is not to say that the race does not
shape the outcome. In 2006, South Korea
launched a yearlong, amply-financed
outreach campaign that targeted all 15
Security Council members with official
visits in their capitals, and that often
dangled significant bilateral carrots
– gestures that other candidates had
neither the time nor the resources to
offer. Indeed, South Korea was the only
Security Council member country to
conduct such a campaign.
The obvious conclusion is that the
contest for UN Secretary-General
is about neither vision nor the best
resume, language skills, administrative
ability, or even personal charisma. It is
a political decision, made principally
by the P-5. (It is, after all, unlikely that
a candidate would win over the P-5 but
fail to win a majority in the Security
Council, given the option of casting
unlimited votes.)
The result is that the “least unacceptable”
candidate gets the job. And, as it stands,
there is no reason to believe that
the advent of social media, satellite
television coverage, or a more intrusive
press will change that fundamental
In 2016, the smart money will be on an
East European candidate acceptable
to the P-5, particularly Russia. How
agreement on the candidate will be
achieved is anyone’s guess. What is
clear is that any candidate who does not
fit that description will enter the race
with a crippling, though not necessarily
insuperable, handicap.
Ed.’s Note: Shashi Tharoor, a former
UN under-secretary general and former
Indian Minister of State for Human
Resource Development and Minister of
State for External Affairs, is currently an
MP for the Indian National Congress and
Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing
Committee on External Affairs. The article
was provided to The Reporter by Project
Syndicate: the world’s pre-eminent source
of original op-ed commentaries. Project
Syndicate provides incisive perspectives
on our changing world by those who are
shaping its politics, economics, science,
and culture. The views expressed in this
article do not necessarily reflect the views
of The Reporter.
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |33
The stark contrast was just mind-boggling. Unfortunately, such incidents of a gross mismatch
between available facilities, patients or instructors and the number of medical students is seriously
hampering the learning process. It is in fact a grim daily reality for the thousands of doctors-intraining and their instructors across Ethiopian medical schools. Perhaps more so in the 13 new
medical schools that have mushroomed in the last decade.
Too crowded to train: the dire state of
medical schools in Ethiopia
By M.H. Idriss (MD)
On a bright Monday morning I was
breezing through my routine lecture for
a group of medical students spending
a few weeks of clinical training in
the hospital I work at. As I began the
last part of my lecture detailing the
treatment of a common disease, I popped
a question asking how many of the
students had observed or perhaps done
a very common procedure commonly
used to treat the disease. I scanned
through the group looking for an answer
but to my surprise, not a single student
among the 40 (about one eighth of the
typical total medical school class size)
or so students had ever done or seen the
medical procedure being performed.
The students were on their last week of
training in my department so decided to
demonstrate the procedure.
Because of the sheer number of students
and small size of the procedure room,
I divided up the students in to four
groups. The procedure room was jam
packed with virtually no room to move
but somehow I managed to demonstrate
the procedure to the first three groups.
I could not do so for the fourth group
as there were no patient scheduled for
the procedure to teach on. I could only
demonstrate the instruments used and
verbally describe what is usually done.
At that moment, I briefly had flashback
of my days as a medical student where I
and my fellow students had ample chance
to observe the procedure many times
and even the opportunity to actually do
it once or twice under the watchful eyes
and mentorship of our instructors.
The stark contrast was just mindboggling. Unfortunately, such incidents
of a gross mismatch between available
facilities, patients or instructors and
the number of medical students is
seriously hampering the learning
process. It is in fact a grim daily reality
for the thousands of doctors-in-training
and their instructors across Ethiopian
medical schools. Perhaps more so in
the 13 new medical schools that have
mushroomed in the last decade.
The training of a physician is completely
different when compared with any other
college level discipline like engineering
or natural science. Medicine is an
interesting combination of both science
and art. It is the right mix between
classroom, laboratory and apprentice
training that would mould the competent
future doctor. The student doctor goes
through years of intensive training first
in the basic medical sciences mostly
thought in the classroom and laboratory
followed by instruction in clinical
sciences where the student is taught
with real patients.
This clinical (patient-oriented) training
introduces the future doctor with the
different disciplines of medicine by
rotating through the different parts
of the teaching hospital including
outpatients, inpatients and operating
theaters. The students work closely with
senior physicians in clinics practically
learning the nature of numerous
diseases affecting the human body, how
to identify/diagnose between different
diseases and how to treat or prevent
them. The students also learn how to
effectively communicate with patients
and other team members. With out
adequate patient exposure and training,
the future doctor will be severely
handicapped to practice medicine.
Finally, the doctor-in-training is made to
work under close supervision by senior
physicians usually for one year to make
sure that he/she can apply the scientific
Too crowded to train... page 34
Opinion +
By Tony Abbott
economy and create millions of new jobs
Almost a year ago, when Australia
assumed the presidency of the G20, I said
that the world needed less talk and more
The mere act of setting this goal –
something the G20 has never done
before – served to galvanize members
into action.
The arrival of leaders in Brisbane at
the end of this week will mark the
culmination of a year of action. The
Brisbane Summit is an opportunity to
finalise our commitments to strengthen
the global economy, create jobs and
delivery prosperity to billions of people.
Over the next several months, G20
nations came up with almost 1,000
measures to drive economic growth.
These included more investment in
infrastructure, measures to facilitate
trade, changes to competition policy
and initiatives to improve workforce
participation, especially by women and
young people.
With our considerable combined
political and economic influence, the
G20 nations are ideally placed to act.
Our leaders’ summit is the window of
economic opportunity that opens just
once a year.
Early in Australia’s host year, G20
nations set an ambitious goal: to boost
our collective economic GDP by at least
2 per cent on current trajectories over
five years, through a combination of
domestic actions, and shared global
commitments. Such a boost would add
more than USD 2 trillion to the global
The collective focus has paid off. In
September, after only seven months
of effort, the International Monetary
Fund (IMF) and the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) estimated the strategies we had
developed would take us 90 per cent of
the way to meeting our growth goal.
Since then, G20 members have
continued to identify new actions and at
the Leaders’ Summit it will be confirmed
how close we have come to achieving the
2 per cent target.
This 2 percent represents a stronger
economic future for all of our people and
demonstrates the real value that can
come from a forum like the G20. Driving
growth in the global economy has been
at the center of the G20’s efforts this year
for the simple reason that growth is key
to addressing almost every other global
problem – problems that deny people
ambition and constrain quality of life.
As leaders we are duty-bound to address
such problems. It is our job, individually
and collectively.
The decisions leaders will be asked to
make on November 15 and 16 cover many
subjects – jobs, infrastructure, tax, trade,
competition, corruption, development
and the reform of financial systems. But
all are inter-connected. And all are on
the table because they offer solutions
to one big challenge: how do we restore
confidence in the global economy now
and into the future?
A year... page 36
34| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Too crowded to train...
knowledge and skills acquired from
previous years of training to safely and
effectively practice medicine (called the
intern year or internship). Graduating
after successfully completing internship
(in Ethiopia graduation comes after
different in other countries), the
graduate doctor is entitled to practice
medicine independently. Depending on
the inclination of the graduate doctor
and depending upon government
regulation, he/she might pursue further
postgraduate training in a chosen
field like Surgery, Internal medicine,
Pediatrics etc to become a specialist.
Specialists might further their medical
expertise by pursuing a fellowship/
subspecialty training.
Rigorous training and assessment
at each step in the course of medical
education is the bare minimum to
ensure the quality of graduates who
would be entrusted in making life
and death decisions are well-versed
in the art and science of medicine. An
acceptable level of quality would need
adequate facilities in terms of lecture
rooms, laboratories, books and medical
rooms, dormitories and fully equipped
teaching hospitals consonant with
the number of students enrolled. In
addition, a fair number of well qualified
instructors to achieve an acceptable
minimum student to instructor ratio is
critical. During training students are
continually assessed by their instructors
and corrective measures are taken.
Each phase of training culminates
with a standardized examination
including practical testing (usually
on live patients) where the students
should demonstrate a minimum level of
competence to progress to the next level.
Ethiopia has one of the lowest number of
physicians per unit of population in the
world. By the year 2010 there was only 1
doctor per 25,000 population, a figure far
below the African average of 1 doctor per
5000. According to a study, in the 20 year
period between 1987-2006 a staggering
73.2 percent of Ethiopian medical doctors
had left the public sector mainly due
to attractive remuneration in overseas
organizations or the private sector. The
aggregate number of physicians who
graduated from the three main medical
schools in the country right from their
foundation years till 2006 totaled 3728. At
the same time the enrollment capacity of
all the medical schools in the year 2006
was less than 350 students per year.
A quick analysis of the figures above root
the problem of physician shortage at two
main causes: attrition and a low number
of trainees. It is absolutely empirical that
the number of physicians be increased
for any tangible improvement to be
made in public healthcare. To achieve
a realistic and long-lasting solution
to the problem, a wise combination
of policy instruments to stem the
root causes; attrition with innovative
strategies, coupled with a carefully
planned scaling up of training quality
doctors needs to be implemented. The
government reasons that the problem
at hand is a mere imbalance in the
market dynamics of supply and demand
of doctors without due consideration of
other factors at play. This misperception
has led to the ill fated solution to train
a large number of doctors with in a
short period of time as the major policy
approach to the problem. As a result, the
annual enrollment of medical schools in
Ethiopia has been ramped up nearly 10
times from the low 336 per year in 2005 to
around 3100 per year by the end of 2012
with in a short span of 6 years. The trend
is reported to continue with the number
projected to reach 8000 by the year 2015.
Sadly, the sharp increase in the number
of trainees has not been supported with
a concomitant upgrading or increase in
the capacity of teaching facilities and in
the number and balanced composition of
qualified instructors.
A few years down the line after the
implementation of the “ramp up” policy,
alarming stories of badly deteriorating
quality of medical education are
surfacing everywhere because many
medical schools are handling six to seven
times the number of trainees they are
built to accommodate. In a recent news
piece by the website, a medical
student from St. Paul’s Millennium
Medical School (one of the new medical
schools) reported that “there are
just not enough patients, books and
computers to aid our learning” The
student also reports “every time there
is an increase in students the problem is
further aggravated”. I can corroborate
the report as it my personal experience
as well as that of my colleagues. For
instance, it is common for patients
admitted to teaching hospital wards
to be interviewed and examined on
average between 12-15 times by different
students (it is absolutely empirical that
medical students interact, examine and
learn from patients as much as possible
acquiring the essential skills of history
taking and physical examination).
The patients after a few encounters
with the students are fed up that they
would not like to see another student.
Consequently, the students do not learn
much from admitted patients. In some of
the medical school teaching hospitals,
the shortage of patients in relation to
the sheer number of patients is so severe
that many of my colleagues are hard
pressed to even find patients to exam
students on. They are forced to find less
desirable but alternative ways. Further
aggravating the problem of learning is
the short supply of medical textbook and
facilities like laboratories in relation to
the number of students.
One of the more concerning problems
besides the facilities and available
patients is the shortage of well qualified
senior physician with postgraduate
qualification (specialist doctors). The
deteriorating work conditions, lack of
incentive and meager pay is continually
driving a large number of specialist
physicians leaving the public sector for
greener pastures elsewhere eventually
draining the medical schools. The
practical training of medical students
is heavily dependent on the instruction,
guidance and mentorship by senior
physicians. Medical students cannot
simply learn from attending lectures,
reading books or doing laboratory
experiments. They have to closely work
with and learn from senior physicians
in small groups where they will get a
chance to correctly examine patients,
perform operations or interact with
A surgeon colleague of mine was telling
me how between his busy operating and
patient clinic schedules, he had been
overwhelmed by the sheer number of
interns (doctors-in-training who have
completed the prescribed training in
medical school but have to work one
year under the supervision before
graduating) that he is finding difficult
even to remember their names let
alone carefully assess each intern’s
performance to make sure they can
Even with the limited the number of
instructors, the daily routine of caring
for so many patients trying to live up to
the ever increasing demand by hospital
management to see more patients
(another push by the government to
improve healthcare by increasing the
number of patients served by a health
facility) in addition to administrative
tasks of supervising the paramedical
staff, the teaching of medical students
frequently takes the back seat. The
meagre income from medical schools is
driving many experienced and highly
qualified physicians to work in the
private settings to supplement their
income which further encroaches upon
their academic responsibilities. The
medical schools are trying to overcome
this serious problem by recruiting
recent graduates to be instructors, a
futile exercise where the new graduates
have little or no experience and offer
the medical students little in terms of
practical guidance and mentorship.
The end result is nothing short of
shocking. These days it is not uncommon
to find medical graduates who have
never inserted a urinary catheter in
a patient, done venipuncture, seen
the blood specimen of a patient under
the microscope or delivered a baby by
instruments; all essential skills for a
physician practicing general medicine
in Ethiopia specially in a rural setting.
What is worrying even more is the
awareness of the quality problems by
the top brass of the government but the
conviction to continue increasing the
number of students enrolled year after
year and seconding the quality issues to
be solved in due time.
The deliberate government strategy
might be deemed by some pundits to be
successful in increasing the number of
doctors working in the public sector but
the actual effectiveness of the measure
in producing physicians who are are
not only well qualified but also have the
passion and morale to practice medicine
is seriously questionable. It used to be
that medicine attracted some of the
academically outstanding high school
graduates. The social prestige, financial
reward, academic achievement and
professional gratification in helping
fellow human beings that comes with
being a doctor lured the brightest and
best the country has to offer. But the
perception of the majority students
in their future career as a doctor in
Ethiopia once they join medical school
seems to be disillusioned. In a recent
study conducted to assess the attitude
of medical students at Addis Ababa
University School of Medicine towards
medical practice and migration has
yielded some “interesting” results. Of
the 632 medical students interviewed,
only 20 percent deemed their current
feeling about studying medicine as
excellent while 33 percent felt fair or
bad. 35 percent of the students felt that
the standard or quality of medical
eduction was below their expectation.
Only 30 percent of the students want
to practice medicine in a rural setting
and 21 percent of students wanted to
immediately leave the country right
after graduation while 52 percent wanted
to migrate outside Ethiopia at some
point to practice medicine. The desire
to migrate was interestingly highest
(79 percent of respondents) amongst
students in their final year of training
who tend to be the most experienced
among the medical trainees. It is worthy
to mention that Addis Ababa University
School of Medicine is the oldest, largest
and by far one of the better equipped
and staffed medical schools. I would
leave to the judgment of the reader what
the possible attitude and perception of
medical students in the newer medical
schools might be which fare far worse
than Addis Ababa University in every
One would ask the primary reason
behind such a quick fix approach which
is bound to have negative long lasting
effects in the delivery of quality health
care and possibly a ripple effect on the
entire health of the population. After the
countless hours of munching over the
subject the only answer I could logically
think of lies in the unquenchable desire
of the Ethiopian government for a false
perception of improving health care by
reaching certain “magical” numbers.
These numbers are put as yardsticks
of achievement by referees of the third
world, the UN organizations. For
instance, the World Health Organization
(WHO) recommends the minimum
ratio of 2.3 doctors per 1000 population
to achieve the minimum levels of key
health interventions. According to
higher officials of the ministry of health,
Ethiopia is slated to inch towards its
“magical” milestone by 2020. On the
domestic front, the increasing statistics
is a centerpiece of the state propaganda
machinery that Ethiopia is rising,
glorifying the achievements of the
incumbent and its policies. But behind
the facade, the reality is a 180 degrees
We are seeing the early cracks of the
“flooding” policy. The damage has
already been done to hundreds of recent
medical graduates. It is high time that
the top brass with in the government
realize the problem, go back to the
drawing board and think hard for a
logical and viable solution. Traditional
wisdom teaches that if one has a limited
resource at hand, one should first try to
minimize waste and maximize efficiency
before trying to increase the supply of
that specific resource. The very first step
should be minimizing attrition in every
way possible way. The country cannot
keep on losing its precious physicians.
The government should reserve no effort
in improving the working condition
and remuneration to make working
and teaching in public hospitals more
attractive to physicians.
The second measure should be the
revision of the current policy with a
sound and well thought out plan to scale
up the number of trainee doctors in a
graded manner keeping abreast with
the expanding facilities and number of
qualified instructors. A core component
of the plan would be the establishment
of an independent accreditation council
fashioned similar to the North American
Education. The council led by prominent
physicians but having members from
the government and medical schools
and preferably under the auspices of the
Too crowded to train.. page 36
Vol. XIX No. 949 |35
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Nebyou Baye, dean of the College of
Performing and Visual Arts
The interior of the Ethiopian National Theater
Theater fest taking a
toddler’s step
By Henok Reta
When 46-year-old Zenebe Telahun, a
theatergoer finally opts to go to the
theater festival organized by the Addis
Ababa University, School of Theater
Arts for the first time, he sticks to his
argument about the failure of theater in
the country. He is part of the generation
that overwhelmingly succumbed to
the magical performance of Wogayehu
Nigatu, who is considered by many as an
uncontested actor in the history of theater
in Ethiopia. He used to attend theaters
that played Tsegaye Gebremedhin’s
highly creative and mesmerizing plays.
“I can’t live without it. I can’t have any
other means of entertainment,” he says.
Now, he presents himself in the first
theater festival taking place at the Addis
Ababa University (AAU) for nine days.
Since its inception in 1978, the Addis
Ababa University School of Theatrical
Arts, renamed Yoftahe Nigussie School
of Theater Arts, has been finding a
way to return the golden years of
theater. Restructuring the department,
launching post-graduate programs and
organizing events to discuss theater
have been the main focus areas for the
department. In spite of the encouraging
steps taken by the school to restore the
influence of theater in the country, it
failed to realize such a festival a bit
earlier, many argue. The Ministry of
Culture and Tourism, in this regard,
will inevitably take the larger burden
of criticism as it ostensibly fosters the
developmental mission of theaters
and arts, the theatergoers opine.
Nevertheless, they want to see this
first-ever week for theater fest become
promising and become a larger theatrical
fest of a nation that established theater
in 1935.
theatrical arts started the festival inside
the campus. “I prefer the theaters to the
campuses so that the larger audience will
flock in,” Manyazewal says. He strongly
believes in the collaboration of the
ministry and the university to deliver
a larger quantity of influx towards
theater. He, however, sees the beginning
as being important in creating a larger
stage for theater festivals at a national
level. The festival that dedicates events
to commemorate and celebrate former
playwrights, actors and directors has
also faced criticism from the point
of gender. Amongst the former elite
personalities in theater, no woman has
been selected to be featured. “This will
be changed next time,” Nebyou Baye,
dean of the College of Performing and
Visual Arts, says.
According to Tesfaye Eshetu, Dean of
Theatrical Arts School, AAU, the theater
fest will inspire the theater goers who
feel television and motion pictures have
surpassed theater these days. When one
mentions the involvement of academic
institutions in theater, the cultural
center of AAU is a towering figure. It has
hosted thousands of plays by students
who have become famous artists. It has
also produced hundreds of playwrights,
actors and authors. “It gave us a
massive opportunity and start to make
a way forward,” Manyazewal Endeshaw,
artistic director told The Reporter. He
has been one of the few artistic directors
who have made an impact on Ethiopia’s
theater and films. For him, the then
center for creative arts was a milestone
providing art with pre-imminent artists
such as Tesfaye Gessesse, the late
Haymanot Alemu, Debebe Eshetu, and
Elisabeth Melaku.
Although the French-educated Bejerond
Teklehawariat Teklemariam is widely
known to be the founding father of
Ethiopian theater in the 20th century,
Yoftahe Nigussie, who lived from 19361974 is considered to be instrumental as
well. Nevertheless, many still believe in
the huge significance of Hakim Workeneh
Eshete and his wife Ketsela who started
theater at their home in the early 20th
century. Hakim, the term that stands
for the medical profession in Amharic.
historically approves Workeneh Eshete
Perhaps because of an effort to recognize
the center’s significance, the school of
Theater fest.. page 36
36| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Theater fest...
as the first trained physician in Ethiopia.
“The theater festival importantly credits
those individuals,” Nebeyou says. More
importantly, the festival promotes the
iconic figures of Ethiopian theater such
as Tesfaye Sahelu, a.k.a. Ababa Tesfaye
(Children entertainer and actor), and
Tsegaye Gebremedhin, one of the most
acclaimed Ethiopian playwrights and
poets. And Tesfaye Gessesse (actor,
director and lecturer), Abate Mekuria
(director), Haymanot Alemu (artistic
(playwright and poet).
For many, the festival would never yield
something special without celebrating
those idols. “I don’t expect much and
to train...
Ethiopian Medical Association would
have the sole authority to assess and
accredit medial schools. The facilities
and available human resource would
be evaluated periodically by the council
which would ultimately accredit the
medical school for the maximum number
of medical students it could train. Any
medical school increasing enrollment
capacity should seek the approval
of the council. The council would
also establish core competencies of
graduates across the board and institute
a board exam to assess the readiness of
graduating candidates for independent
practice. The current Higher Education
Review and Quality Assurance Agency
(HERQA) under the federal ministry of
education is responsible for quality in
higher education. It seems HERQA has
too much on its plate dealing with all
forms and shapes of higher education
and expecting a single organization to
handle the colossal task of ensuring
quality in higher education is virtually
impossible. To maintain impartiality,
the new council shall replace HERQA for
all matters related to medical education.
Most importantly the council should
be free of any government or political
I would finally like to quote the
farsighted comments of an expatriate
doctor who had worked in Ethiopia for
more than two decades and featured in a
news flash on the current state of affairs
saying “the new (medical) schools are
producing a generation of doctors who
don’t know what they’re doing, and the
new generation of doctors could do more
harm than good”. On the contrary, I
am hopeful that the new generation of
doctors would somehow maintain the
major dictum of the Hippocrates oath:
“first do no harm” to the patient.
Ed.’s Note: The author is a consultant
specialist physician who is trained in
Ethiopia and the US and is currently
working in Ethiopia. The views expressed
in this article do not necessarily reflect the
views of The Reporter.
“The incredible talent and creativity that had never been shaken over
the time of suppression and censorship was simply brevity for Tsegaye
and his fellows of the time,” he says. According to critics, Tsegaye and
a few others of his class like Mengistu Lema astonishingly shifted the
course of theater in the last years of the imperial regime.
anything promising from the young
artists but I will never get bored of
listening to those incredible individuals
of the past,” Zenebe who has been
visiting theater houses for three decades
says. As a staunch fan of the late laureate
Tsegaye Gebremedhin, Zenebe often
remains pessimist towards the current
playwrights and artists. “The incredible
talent and creativity that had never been
shaken over the time of suppression
and censorship was simply brevity for
Tsegaye and his fellows of the time,” he
says. According to critics, Tsegaye and
a few others of his class like Mengistu
Lema astonishingly shifted the course of
theater in the last years of the imperial
regime. The then playwrights came up
with deviant characters and new styles of
plays, which was extremely unfamiliar
with the majority of the social strata
who had only watched a drama genre
of religious, social and economic plays
intended to preach good manner.
Qene, a statement that has regular poetic
arrangements and underlying meaning
(mystery) simultaneously was the core
of the plays written by Tsegaye and
others. Enat Alem Tenu (his version of
Mother Courage), Yekermo Sew (man of
the olden day), Hahu be Sidist Werr (the
Ethiopian alphabet in six months) were
some of the plays he wrote in test of the
then ruling system. “I wonder when I
take a look at Yekermo Sew again. It just
shows me the time of my grandparents,
parents and children,” Nebyou hails
the farsighted view of Tsegaye. These
days, however, many theatergoers of
that generation will hardly find those
intricate elements in current theaters,
which are hugely dominated by comedy
strips and smooth plays declaring
prospects of socio-economic aspects
of life. Indeed, critics of these days
have resentment towards the criticism
over current plays mentioning every
generation and era has its own agenda
to sound. “I think every generation
and era has an agenda to amplify,” the
former director of the national theater
previously told The Reporter.
Leaving the issue of content apart,
the festival itself seemingly becomes
an issue itself. Veteran artists and
playwrights appear to be equivocal
about the inspiring efforts to realize a
theater festival. To the contrary, some
remain pretty unconvinced in the way
the festival is created. These individuals
present their outlandish platform of
organizing a theater festival unlike the
way the university handles it. Despite
the praise they have for the University
for its interest in theater a festival, they
would rather want see the huge gap
with the ministry of culture be filled.
Citing some of the theater festivals
across the globe, they keep advocating
that Ethiopia should have a world-class
theater festival to attract renowned
directors and actors in the world as the
Greater confidence will bring the
economic growth - which in turn will
deliver jobs, opportunity, and higher
standards of living for all.
Building confidence requires more than
tweaking fiscal and monetary policy
settings. It demands structural reforms
to improve the efficiency of individual
economies, and through them, the global
Over the course of 2014, through
persuasion, G20 nations have already
achieved collectively what might
have been impossible acting alone.
Cooperation on this scale, to lift global
growth through concerted domestic
structural reform, is unprecedented.
We have achieved much in other priority
areas too. We’ve on track to deliver the
first tranche of tax reforms to combat
base erosion and profit shifting, to help
ensure that corporations pay their fair
share of tax in the jurisdictions where
they make their profits.
We’ve agreed to a major, multi-year
piece of work to boost private-sector
investment in the infrastructure that
drives productivity: roads, ports,
railways and power stations. Seventy
trillion dollars worth of additional
infrastructure will be needed globally by
2030. No longer can governments alone
meet the demand.
It has been a year of action already but it
is not over yet.
In Brisbane, leaders can prove to the
world that a forum that showed its
mettle in responding to the dark days of
global crisis can prove it again; this time
in actually shaping the economic future.
We can deliver on reforms to financial
regulation that will ensure the
circumstances that led to the global
financial crisis are never repeated and
that we are better equipped to deal with
future crises.
We can ensure that taxpayers never
again bear the cost of bailing out
institutions that are deemed “too big
to fail” and we have an opportunity to
bring greater transparency to the opaque
oldest home of theater on the continent.
The Indian National Theater Festival
“Purva Ranga” in this regard, could be an
ideal instance to Ethiopia. In attempt to
save its very old theater, India struggles
to keep the audiences who have been
threatened by the booming Bollywood.
According to an Indian director, Indian
theater has been hailed for addressing
women’s lives in India, towards seeking
a better position and dignity in society
more than any other medium.
Women issues in Indian theater may
not be an issue of Ethiopian theater
this time around, but the dwindling
audience of the theater should be an
issue in Ethiopia, critics say. And one of
the significances of organizing a theater
festival is to motivate the persistent
goers of theater. If not now, upcoming
festivals should have a comprehensive
agenda of shaking up theater. “We will
team up and work together to restore
theater. And this is the first step that
should be rewarded,” Tesfaye, director
of the theatrical arts school, saya. The
school launched an MA program in Art
in 2012 to help the efforts to provide
talents to theater and offer education to
those already in theater. The progress
being made by the school is very is being
hailed by artists and is complimented
for this huge move of organizing the
promising festival.
world of shadow banking and to reform
over-the-counter derivatives trading.
We can set a global target to reduce the
individual country gaps between male
and female workforce participation by
25 percent by 2025.
Most importantly, in bringing much
of our post GFC agenda to completion,
we can now focus on what the global
economy will need in the years ahead.
I look forward to welcoming G20 leaders
to Brisbane. Discussions will inevitably
be robust - as they should be – but based
on what we have already achieved to
date, I am confident we will together
deliver strong action on the economic
issues that matter most to the world
Ed.’s Note: Tony Abbott is Prime Minister
of Australia. The article was provided to
The Reporter by the Australian Embassy
in Addis Ababa. The views expressed in
this article do not necessarily reflect the
views of The Reporter.
Vol. XIX No. 949 |37
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Court drops Zone9...
The court also ordered federal
prosecutors to amend the charges of
terror to include details. As per the
court’s order, prosecutors are expected
to specify the act of terror the defendants
are alleged to have committed as
per Article 3 of the anti-terrorism
proclamations which lists ‘Terrorist
The ordered amendment also includes
which designated terrorist group
the defendants are alleged to have
collaborated with and other details to
corroborate the prosecutor’s allegations
including the “clandestine” acts and the
roles of each of the defendants.
The defendants are accused as having
links with Ginbot 7 and OLF (Oromo
Liberation Front), groups designated
as terrorists by the House of Peoples
Meanwhile, a representative from the
Addis Ababa Prisons Administration
was present in court to dispel allegations
of abuse by two of the female defendants
– Mahlet Fantahun and Edom Kassaye,
under its custody.
In a previous hearing, the pair told the
court that they were being marginalized
within the prison administration
and are being labelled as “terrorists”
when they should have been presumed
innocent. They also accused the prison
administration of restricting their right
to be visited by their family members.
The representative of the prison
administration denied being aware of
They also accused
the prison
administration of
restricting their right
to be visited by their
family members.
any wrongdoing and insisted that the
prison administration is keen to take
measures whenever they find such
The court told defense lawyers to sort
the issue with the prison administration
and would “investigate the matter and
hear testimonies of relatives of the
defendants if the allegations continue”.
Federal prosecutors are expected to
present the amended charge before
December 3.
PM appoints...
work hard and I am sure we will succeed,” Alemu told The Reporter.
Last year, Prime Minister Hailemariam appointed the first Minister of State for the
Ministry of Mines, Tewodros Gebreigzabher. Tewodors is tasked with developing
and supervising the artisanal mining sector. He focuses on the promotion and
development of artisanal gold mining.
Currently, there are seven international and local petroleum companies engaged
in oil and gas exploration projects under 13 licenses. So far Ethiopia is a non oil
producing country. But now a Chinese company is under preparation to extract
gas reserves found in the Ogaden basin. The Ministry of Mines and the Ethiopian
Petroleum Development Enterprise will supervise the gas development project. The
Ethiopian Petroleum Enterprise is a new governmental organ tasked to develop
the hydrocarbon potential of the country. Prime Minister Hailemariam recently
appointed Asfaw Dengamo to lead the enterprise.
Asfaw Dengamo was the Minister of Water Resources between 2005-2010. Later, he
was transferred to the Ethiopian Sugar Corporation where he was adviser to Abay
Tsehaye, former director general of the corporation.
Asfaw is now organizing the new enterprise with the close support of professionals
who served the Ministry Mines for many years.
38| Vol. XIX No. 949
By Leyou Tameru
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Bits Pieces
A few days ago, I was reminded of a quote by Idi
Amin Dada regarding freedom of expression. It said
“You have freedom of speech, but I cannot guarantee
freedom after speech.” This had me thinking about
how we understand some rights. When it comes to
freedom of expression, what matters is not only that
one is able to freely say what one thinks, but also
what will be the consequence of one having exercised
that freedom. As far as Idi Amin was concerned,
the second part of that right was not something he
would tolerate.
I want to bring attention to something that has
always made me question the meaning of certain
rights, even when I was in law school. I’ll take
another example, the right to vote. This right can
be interpreted as the simple right for one to go to
a polling station and cast one’s vote. But this right
is much more than that, in order to have the right
to vote, there must be an election. Elections by
their nature mean that there are more than just
one group that one can vote for, so in order for it
to be an election there have to be different parties
to choose from. Elections also imply another thing,
campaigning. Therefore, the different political
parties need to have platforms available to them in
order to inform the people about their plans. The
accessibility of these platforms also matters, i.e.
whether the different parties can organize rallies,
can advertise equally to the ruling party. There is
also another aspect to all of this, how accessible
are the polling stations? Are there any in remote
locations? Are there ways for those who can’t read of
write to cast their vote? What are the identification
and pre-election registration requirements? And the
list goes on…
As crazy as it sounds often times freedom requires
freedom. It somewhat of a chicken and egg question,
you can’t really identify which one comes first, they
are both necessary for each other’s existence. In
addition freedom will constantly be a confrontation
between two parties. And the struggle to secure
freedom is one that will ever end. One freedom is
the foundation of the next; our ultimate goal is not
to have basic freedoms but to have them all. That
we may all have the option, the possibility and the
opportunity to express or not our rights.
Almost all rights come with the implications
that certain freedoms already exist. And this
interconnectivity between these rights and
freedoms is not well understood. And unfortunately
many would settle for the simplistic and onedimensional interpretation of some rights. I find it
very disappointing when countries are commended
for holding elections or allowing opposition parties
to run for elections. Have we really reached a stage
where the bear minimum is an achievement?
So I want to dedicate this column to all those who
have quietly or loudly fought, bled, died and continue
to suffer so that we may have some freedom today.
Whether we recognize them or not, these are the
people that are keeping our society moving forward.
Thank you.
Ed.’s Note: Leyou Tameru is a graduate of Georgetown and Addis
Ababa University Law schools, specializing in International Legal
Studies. Born and raised in Addis Ababa, she seeks to understand
the impact of economic, political and social issues on everyday
lives. She can be reached at [email protected]
New bill proposes...
acts committed by private sectors, particularly by
those who administer funds collected from the public
or collected for public purposes in the category of
the corruption office.
The draft bill will not deal with religious, political
organizations and international organizations (due
to their immunity).
The reason for excluding the aforementioned
bodies, including Edir (a traditional community
other during the mourning process), religious
organizations, small and micro-finance institutions
and other organizations of a traditional and
religious nature is because, “The amount of the
finance they are mobilizing, and due to the small
number of members they have, are not equivalent to
the amount of financial and labor cost that is spent
to investigate and bring them before justice.”
justification as to why the religious organizations
and political parties are not dealt with in the draft
law, which says “during investigation attempts some
believers and members may take it negatively. as if
the government is intervening in their affairs, they
may also take it as if the government is attacking
them, which may in turn affect the development and
stability of the nation.”
Another important provision that was added in the
draft bill gives the commission a more influential
role in regulating other federal government
agencies in their pursuit of taking action against
any suspected corruption acts.
According to the proposed bill, no federal government
offices are allowed to carry out investigations on
corruption without notifying the commission.
The House has referred the draft bills to the Law and
Justice Standing Committee.
Chinese consortium...
of the Chinese city Shenzen, has been selected by the
Ethiopian Railways Corporation (ERC) to handle
the operation and maintenance of the LRT for the
next five years.
Head of public relations at ERC, Dereje Tefera, told
The Reporter that the new consortium has won
the limited international bid that the corporation
floated to hire an experienced rail operator for
the flagship LRT project which is currently under
construction in Addis Ababa. In return, ERC will pay
the consortium USD 116 million for these services
over the next five years, according to Dereje. The
deal also covers the regular maintenance of the LRT
system apart from its day-to-day operations.
“The formal contract signing ceremony is expected to
be held soon,” Dereje said. Initially, the consortium
is expected to bring 290 Chinese professionals to
Ethiopia to work with 396 Ethiopians on operation
and maintenance. However, this number is agreed
to slowly decline over five years where, in the
second year of the project, the 48/52 ratio of Chinese
professionals to Ethiopians is expected to go down
to 24/76. Further down the road, in the third year of
the project, for instance, the ratio is expected to slide
to 13/87 marking a gradual take over by Ethiopian
professionals by the end of the fourth year. Dereje
also said that by the fourth year the role of the
Chinese should be minimized to an advisory level
making way for Ethiopians to handle operation of
the rail system completely.
According to the terms of the contract, Shenzen
Metro is expected to implement all the technology
that it is currently employing to operate the rail
system of the city of Shenzen. On the other hand, the
USD 475 million LRT project, which according to the
contract terms is expected to be completed after two
months, looks to be on its way to outlive its project
time. Had it been for the contract, the project should
be completed in January and currently the project
should have been on its last stages. However, since the
project has not yet used all its alloted time, officials
of the corporation still assure that the project would
be completed on schedule and that there will be no
delays. And, it is also noted that ERC reserves the
contractual right to ask for compensation if indeed
the project was not completed in the scheduled time
Black Lion hospital...
to expand the Black Lion Referral Hospital and coal
chemical fertilizer factory are well progressing.
“We want to do a cluster of projects where we can
undertake the development, construction and
services and operation maintenance activities of
projects. We want to be involved in financing and
investments”, Jianguo said.
CMEC sees further in the Ethiopian market in
areas of railways, roads, building constructions,
machinery supplies and the likes. From the
financing point of view, CMEC says it is in a
good position. Appealing projects could be found,
Jianguo expresses his strong desire to embark
on partnerships and get finances from China’s
well-established creditors and funds. That said,
the Export-Import bank of China (EX-IM bank),
the China Development Bank, Bank of China and
the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China are
among the closely contacted ones by CMEC.
When asked how much it would cost to expand the
hospital, Jiaguo said that its a work in progress.
The government wants Black Lion Hospital to
have an international face. It has planned to host
international medical related conferences. The
future international hospital will also be serving as
a center for trainings and researches. The hospital
will be set to treat all types of diseases. Furthermore,
it will become a state-of-the-art medical center
equipped for emergency services including a
helipad on the rooftop.
Cai Ning is project director general at CMEC who
oversees the coal chemical fertilizer factory and
the Black Lion Hospital projects. He declined to
mention the total budget and cost of the two projects.
The coal chemical fertilizer factory was designed to
produce 1.5 million tons of urea and dap. According
to previous estimates, the cost of construction
is close to one billion birr for the Yayu project.
However, CMEC will provide technical, equipment
and managerial activities. But According to Cai,
CMEC is to render both funding and actual works
for 300,000 tons of urea per year.
Established in 1978, CMEC operates in areas
of engineering and construction, financing,
commodity trading. Amassing USD six billion in
revenue last year, CMEC runs USD five billion
worth projects across Africa.
The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
(MoFED) has confirmed to The Reporterr that
negotiations are well-under process with CMEC.
Following the death of his daughter, Emperor
Hailesellaise I gave personal holdings for the
establishment of the Black Lion Hospital in the
capital. Currently, Black Lion Hospital provides
diagnoses and treatments for some 400 thousand
patients a year. The emergency department cares
for some 800 thousand patients a year.
Vol. XIX No. 949 |39
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Poly-GCL signs...
Barton said that his company is also
in the process to rehabilitate the 26 km
Shilabo-Calub road. The gravel road is
said to be in bad condition that needs
an urgent rehabilitation work. “This
road connects the Shilabo town with our
camp. It enables us to transport supplies
to our camp.” According to Barton, the
company will have a groundbreaking
ceremony on November 16.
“Since signing the agreement with the
Ministry of Mines of Ethiopia on October
16, 2013, we have done a great deal of
effective work, including the prospecting
analysis of the upstream, the feasibility
study report of the downstream, taking
over the Calub camp, and signing the
framework agreement for the LNG plant
with the Djibouti government,” the
president said.
Poly-GCL inaugurated its country
office in Addis Ababa on Saturday.
The Ethiopian Ministry of Mines
Minister of State, Alemu Sime (PhD),
the Chinese Ambassador to Ethiopia,
Xie Xiaoyan, World Bank Ethiopia
country director, Guang Z. Chen, and
Barton Yu inaugurated the new office
on Medhanialem Mall. Representatives
of oil companies operating in Ethiopia,
other dignitaries and members of the
media attended the ceremony.
The gas reserves in Calub and Hilala
localities is estimated at 118 billion
cu.m (4TCF). The gas reserve was first
discovered by an American oil company,
Tenneco, in 1972. Crude oil reserve was
also discovered in the Hilala block.
Ambassador Xiaoyan said that Chinese
companies’ investment in Ethiopia is
increasing from time to time. He said that
Poly-GCL is the first company to invest
in the oil and gas sector in Ethiopia.
“Our embassy will fully support this
project,” the ambassador said.
Alemu, on his part, said that the
ministry and Poly-GCL overcame many
challenges since signing the petroleum
development agreement. He said that
his ministry will continue providing all
the required support to Poly-GCL. “The
company has the capability to execute
the project,” he told The Reporter.
Barton Yu told The Reporterr that
the company had hired 100 Chinese
petroleum experts and engineers for
the Ethiopian gas development project.
According to him, the experts had
worked in Africa for five to eight years.
Poly-GCL is expected to drill exploration
and appraisal wells in the Calub, Hilala
and eight other exploration blocks.
Ethiopia to take...
integration but ironically most African
states deny traffic rights to African
airlines and grant it to non-African
carriers, mostly to Gulf carriers,” the
expert said. “This has to change,” he
In a related development, AFRAA
honored Ethiopian Airlines as the “Best
African Airline of the Year” during
the association’s annually general
Ethiopian Airlines Group CEO, received
the accolade.
Ethiopian was crowned “Airline of
the Year” for its exceptional results
in 2013, consistent profitability, and
sound strategy, which has enabled it to
forge win-win partnerships with fellow
sisterly African airlines. This is the
third year in a row that Ethiopian has
Medrek, AEUP...
of the party. In the course of that time,
two groups banned and outlawed one
another which led to last week’s election
for the leadership position of the party.
The general assembly meeting that was
held in its headquarters located around
Tewodros Square culminated in electing
Mamushet to be the second president
after the veteran Hailu Shawel (Eng.)
left the position.
that the problems that occurred in the
party before he came to power is still
challenging it.
Furthermore, the meeting dwelt on
issues that brought about the divide
between the two groups and also
appointed Tadiwos Bogale (PhD) as first
vice president and Tesfaye Melaku as
secretary of the party.
It is to be remembered that, the proposed
merger between AEUP and UDJ was
halted after a quorum-related issue
surfaced in the wake of the decision
to merge. And the Board responded
by rejecting the decision to form the
merger on basis of insufficient quorum.
Mamushet further said that the pending
merger issue will be reviewed by the
new administration after examining all
the relevant documents.
Meanwhile, Abebaw Mehari, who
served as a president of the party for
the past two years also announced his
resignation from the party by stating
The newly elected president told The
Reporter on the occasion that the
damaged relationship with the NEBE
will be repaired soon on account that the
new leadership will work to restore the
party’s credibility with.
continued to receive the award from
Upon receiving the award, Tewolde
remarked: “We are highly honored
for this recognition by fellow sisterly
airlines in Africa. The award goes, first
and foremost, to the more than 8,000
employees at Ethiopian, who work
very hard every day to provide the best
services on the ground and in the air to
our valued customers. We also thank our
customers for giving us the opportunity
to serve them and for traveling on
Ethiopian in great numbers. It is also a
testimony of the soundness of our Vision
2025 fast, profitable and sustainable
growth strategy.”
Tewolde said although Africa is
registering rapid economic and travel
growth, this growth is primarily
benefiting non-African carriers. “The
times are really challenging for African
airlines, whose very survival is at risk,
unless two things happen very quickly.
Firstly, African carriers must look
inwards in the continent to leverage
on the available internal resources to
create synergy through collaborative
partnership among themselves. Today,
Africa has world class Aviation Training
Centers, MRO facilities and management
expertise. I am convinced that there
are ample opportunities for deepened
commercial, technical and other types
of partnerships among African carriers.
Secondly, Africa must become one
single unified market without any
restriction for African airlines. The
continued fragmentation of our skies
is only benefiting foreign carriers and
will lead to our certain demise. African
governments must act now and fast to
unify African skies, which would also
give great impetus to the continent’s
economic integration.”
of Ethiopia to improve the quality of life for children and youth through enhanced family and community capacity for sustainable development.
CCFC has been implementing a three-year project (December 2011 to March 2015) entitled IMPACT:
T Improving Maternal and Child Health, Partnership and Action
for Community Transformation in Damot Pulasa district in Southern Nations and Nationalities People Regional State (SNNPRS) and in Arsi Negele and Adaa
districts in Oromia national regional state. IMPACT project has a total budget of 2.6 million Canadian dollars which is funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs,
newborns and children). IMPACT is being implemented in partnership with local NGOs, namely (1) Ratson - Women, Youth and Children Development Program in
The consultant is expected to undertake the following key activities: Desk review of all relevant documents, development of data collection tools and methods,
x @
!+!%$~_<[email protected]$!$$†+
x A team leader should particularly be a health professional or have a health background with minimum of Masters in Public health and who preferably have
experience of working on maternal, newborn and child health interventions.
x The team should have at least one member with statistics background.
x Preference to those with working experience in NGO environment.
x Well-developed interpersonal skills,
x Professionally and technically competent
x Excellent attention to detail with emphasis placed on quality.
x ]$=
x Able to work independently and maintain dead line
located next to Atlas Hotel, on the road to Shalla Public Park. Bolle sub city, house # 638, telephone +251 662 7535/34.
Interested applicants should submit two separate sealed documents in which one document should include the technical proposal including curriculum vitae of the
work along with copy of renewed Professional š+
40| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Kuma Demeksa...
of controversy at the House of Peoples’
Representatives, as her report on the
result of the population census reported
the Amhara population as being lower
than estimated earlier. In fact, in an
unusual scenario, MPs from the ruling
(EPRDF), partnered with opposition
groups to mount a strong protest against
the then census that recorded the
Amhara population as being over two
million below the projection.
diplomacy affairs in Washington DC,
US, is assigned to represent the country
to the African Union as Permanent
Representative, replacing the long
serving diplomat Konjit Sinegiorgis who
has been regarded as the most influential
woman who had been serving in
diplomacy for more than half a century.
Ambassador Grum Abay is Director
General for European Affairs and took up
this post in December 2010. He is a career
diplomat who has previously served
as Director General for International
Organizations (September 2009 to
December 2010) and was Ambassador to
Italy from May 2006 to September 2009.
Ambassador Grum Abay has also served
in a number of posts since entering the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs in December,
Director General for the International
Organizations Directorate General.
He was previously Deputy Permanent
Representative to United Nations (2006–
2007) and Ambassador to the State of
Israel with non-resident accreditation
to the Republic of Greece and to the the
Holy City (2002-2006). He has also served
as Chargé d’Affaires at the Ethiopian
Embassy in New Delhi, India and had
earlier postings in Ethiopian embassies
Similarly, the other renowned figure,
Ambassador Dina Mufti, currently
a serving Spokesperson for MoFA
is appointed to Nairobi, Kenya as
Sesame exporters...
The same sources also told The
Reporterr that the long serving diplomat,
Ambassador Grum Abay is to be sent to
Moscow, Russia while another veteran
diplomat, Ambassador Negash Kibret
was appointed to Geneva, Switzerland as
Permanent Envoy.
surplus will pressure the prices. The
point I want to emphasize is that last
year the sellers pushed the prices up.
As a result, consumption was reduced
worldwide. I don’t want the buyers to do
the same now”, Philippas warned.
Wahide Belay, current chief of public
Crisis in
Following the delayed rain and drought
in China, which stands the 40 percent
buying nation of Ethiopia’s sesame, some
exporters are not worried by the current
low market price. In September, sesame
was sold at USD 2,200 per ton. However,
in October the price went down to USD
1,700. Philippas estimated that the latter
price will remain to be the market price
of Ethiopia for the year. However, Haile
Berhe, president of EPOSPEA, differs
alone sanctions imposed by IGAD, other
sanctions imposed by the international
diplomatic community like the United
Nations and the African Union, were not
implemented. He raises the case of the
sanctioned Eritrea since its imposition
in 2009 and later in 2011 where no harm
came to the belligerent president Isaias
Afeworki. In this regard, sanction by
the IGAD will not change anything,
he continues to argue. Rather, it
exacerbates the conflict and make both
parties to be defiant to discuss and in
turn pose danger to the citizens of the
in opinion. The prices are known to be
fluctuating for years and exporters will
behave accordingly, he argues.
The orchestra of the sesame market
seems to get louder when China said that
it will ship close to 850,000 tons for the
year. That again annoys Philippas who
strongly criticized the Chinese side for
not providing the realistic volumes they
will buy. For Philippas, the best China
will buy is set at a maximum of 650,000
tons. The Sudanese production for this
year also was questioned. It intends to
bring some 600,000 tons of sesame this
year. Yet, half of the total produce is
destined for local consumption in Sudan.
Ethiopia this year expects to harvest
in Geneva, Stockholm, New Delhi, Tel
Aviv, and New York.
Ambassador Dina Mufti is the
Spokesperson of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, taking up this position in 2010.
Ambassador Dina was previously
Ethiopia’s Ambassador to Sweden, also
accredited to Norway, Finland, Denmark
and Iceland (2006–2010) and Ambassador
Resident in Zimbabwe and accredited
to Zambia, Mozambique, Mauritius and
Angola (2001–2006).
In similar developments, the former
Ministry of Mines who and recently
appointed Ambassador of Ethiopia
to Brazil, Chile and Argentina,
Ambassador Sinknesh Ejigu presented
her credentials to the president of Brazil,
Dilma Roussef on Monday November 10,
350,000 tons of sesame. Previously, the
government was bullish to produce
and export 500,000 tons. Realizing
the unrealistic plan, the target was
reset to 350,000 or less. The concluded
budget year production stood at 270,000
tons. According to Assefa Mulugeta,
director general of the export promotion
directorate general, this year harvest
will be challenged due to the heavy
rainfall and windy weather condition
witnessed affecting the major producing
regions in northern Ethiopia.
Huyton Inc. Group was associated
in supplying coal to the Ethiopian
Petroleum Enterprise (EPE) since 2011.
The contract was terminated after the
government had bought 800,000 tons
of coal form Huyton in three years.
However, the group sticks on supplying
in wheat and barley for the beer industry.
Huyton mostly is known for being one of
the major buyers of sesame, shipping out
some 40,000 tons a year.
Total Ethiopia...
by 2017. On the other hand, it is
believed to reinforce Total’s position
as an attractive employer of choice and
ensures that it becomes one of the top
three preferred employers amongst the
graduates within the zone. Anyone with
a high profile Bachelor’s in engineering,
business or finance with less than a year
post-graduate experience shall qualify to
apply for the program. Total, one of the
largest integrated oil companies in the
world has 99,000 employees and works in
130 countries.
It is also very challenging to impose
economic interaction of other member
states of the regional block with the
exception of Kenya and Uganda with
South Sudan is mainly insignificant. In
case of the last two countries as well,
the conduct of trade is mainly between
communities in the border areas which
is highly informal and very difficult to
control, Abel concludes.
DSGE says it...
800 vulnerable children receive school
supplies to attend class. Sangeeta
Verma, wife of the Indian Ambassador
on her part said that the capacity of
the group is gaining strength as the
cultural exchange between participating
countries is also deepening towards
better understanding. As a result,
reaching out the charities that need
Meanwhile, observers still say that the
9th of November agreement stood a
slim chance of being fully implemented
by citing the ongoing violence in the
country currently.
As it stands at moment, it seems tough for
the regional block to bring peace to South
Sudan since the two warring factions
of SPLA have still continued to accuse
one another of violating the cessation
of hostilities agreement to which they
recommitted again on November 9 in
Addis Ababa. They continue to engage
in fierce battle in Northern Upper Nile,
Jonglei and Unity State.
Funds include equipment, furniture,
and small-scale constructions and
rejects funding salaries, rent, utilities,
transportation, food and running costs.
According to the committee, DSGE
has been active in organizing similar
events in the country for over 25 years in
embassies and the AU compound before
moving to the Millennium Hall in 2009.
Tickets are available at Addis Ababa
But those at the losing end of this
dynamics, the citizens of South Sudan,
are still hoping and waiting for a better
day to come.
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |41
1. Ceases
6. Dirty air
10. Baby cow
14. Author _____ Ingalls
15. Bean curd
16. Semi-precious gem
17. More likely
18. Soviet Union
19. Former Oakland pitcher
____ Blue
20. Baths
22. Enthusiastically
24. Goes astray
25. Alters
26. Issued a passport
29. Women’s
30. Assemble or modify
31. Frank or candid
37. Deacon
39. Consume
40. Late Princess of Wales
41. Rehabilitates (political
44. Dollop
45. Even scores in golf
46. Prioress
48. Leaves that form the
52. Threesome
53. Austin ______
54. The quality of being
highly valued
58. Germanic earth goddess
59. Beside
61. Did not (contraction)
62. Aquatic bird
63. Box
64. 2nd most populous
65. Queen Elizabeth’s
66. Unrestrained excessive
sexual activity
67. Pharaohs ruled here
1. Shredded cabbage
2. Spanish hors d’oeuvres
3. Three of these per half
4. Made hot before putting
in the food
5. Philosopher Jean-Paul
6. Nubs
7. Grows on the north side
of rocks and trees
8. Orange Free State
9. British soldiers from
10. Group of witches
11. Mimicking
12. Serving spoon
13. Excoriates
21. A language of India
23. Lessened
25. Island in the
26. Swerve
27. Inactive
28. Not front nor back
29. Urchins
32. Approaches
33. Wrapping with ribbon
34. Glen or glade
35. Son of Seth
36. Swabs
38. Currency of
42. Caribbean music
43. “Roseanne” actress
____ Gilbert
47. One under par (golf)
48. Pincer
49. _____autics
50. Radioactive gas
51. Flying vehicle
52. Weepy
54. Pull along the ground
55. Current
56. Cut or trim
57. Immediately
60. Annual Percentage Rate
Kuncho Komments
US Box
Kuncho, how are
the exams?
I will get you a
bike if you finish
top of your class.
What do you
mean by
That’s nice.
But I want a
special bike?
Very nice dad! I
am going to get top
marks this year.
Your Zodiacs
I want a
Big Hero 6
Gone Girl
St. Vincent
John Wick
Alexander and the Terrible,
Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day
The Book of Life
ARIES (Mar. 21- April 20)
CANCER (June 22-July 22)
LIBRA (Sept. 24 -Oct. 23)
CAPRICORN (Dec 22.- Jan. 20)
Don’t let small mistakes cause unprecedented remarks
with a loved ones. The good week to make investments.
Express your opinion clearly and loudly for all to
understand. You will have to face an emotional problem
with your loved one that you have been avoiding for some
time now. Don’t try to get a support from elders in your
family who don’t under stand your present situation. This
week lucky numbers are: 37, 7, 56, 61, 66
Try to think everything over before you decide to invest
money. Your personal life may seem to be empty and dull. Try
to make up something new in this area( go to the strip bar
with your beloved for example). It may help to refresh your
relationships. Let yourself to be involved into into projects
that could turn into moneymaking ventures. If you are
more disciplined you will be able to complete work by the
necessary time. This week lucky numbers are: 8, 77, 58, 33, 53
Set a priority of your own. Try to spend more time out
with friends. Interesting meeting may instantly turn into
a romance. Don’t let the pile of unwashed plates get you
down. There are also many things to do at work, but don’t
give up; it’s not as hard as it appears. You may expect to
receive some unpleasant news from your relatives. This
week lucky numbers are: 20, 22, 97, 60, 17
new ways of making money. Someone who you know pretty
well is trying to take advantage of you. Be aware of those who
might try to do it and take appropriate steps.Opportunities to get
involved in some criminal affair are also possible. This week
lucky numbers are: 93, 78, 13, 14, 36
LEO (July 23-Aug 22)
SCORPIO (Oct. 24 - Nov. 22)
You can make some changes in your usual behavior that
should please family members and your mutual relations
will become much more interesting. You may decide to make
some changes in your house. Good!! Try to get every one
involved; it will help bring you closer together and the task
will turn out to be more interesting. This week lucky numbers
are: 64, 93, 33, 63, 60
Your positive smile and intellectual outlook will attract the
other people’s interest. Short trips are also expected and they
will be very productive. Don’t be shy and promote your ideas.
It also can be productive if you do it wisely enough. Relaxing
with a hobby should lift your spirits this week. This week lucky
numbers are: 87, 35, 66, 72, 51
TAURUS (Apr. 21- may 21)
Go on a voyage or participate in social affairs that require
energy and intelligence. Some of your relatives may be not
will turn up in the less obvious of places. This week is very
good for you to take up a new hobby. An invitation may be
received from an old friend. This week lucky numbers are:
52, 87, 95, 2, 31
AQUARIUS (Jan. 21 -Feb. 19)
GEMINI (May 22-June 21)
Opportunities to get closer to your goals will appear this
week. Be ready, and don’t push your luck. Don’t let a loved
one talk you into doing something unwise. Emotions could
run hot and heavy, just as you expected they might. Spend
a little time alone to have more clear understanding of the
situation. This week lucky numbers are: 80, 54, 22, 75, 1
VIRGO (Aug. 23 -Sept. 23)
An interesting and important meeting may fall through at the
last possible moment this week, so be prepared for such a
possibility. You will be too emotional this week . Relatives
will be happy if you visit them. This week lucky numbers are:
87, 63, 45, 54, 17
Don’t avoid situations that may bring you cash. There are some
possible so try to use them . Check your personal papers and make
sure everything is in order. Some problems with health are also
possible so pay more attention to your health and use wisely your
power of choice this week. This week lucky numbers are: 25, 64,
62, 85, 79
SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 23 -Dec. 21)
PISCES (Feb. 20-Mar. 20)
New circumstances will create new problems for you this week.
So try to stay calm and not to say the wrong thing at the wrong
time. Even the best idea may be spoilt if you don’t sound earnestly.
Gastronomic indulgences must be avoided during the evening.
This week lucky numbers are: 70, 89, 43, 25, 94
The social side of your job can serve you well this week. Groups
you work with not only enjoy your company, but they also share your
interests. It is very good because you can achieve all your goals
surrounded by such people. Don’t be too strict and rough this week.
Visit friends or relatives you haven’t seen for long time. This week
lucky numbers are: 91, 4, 48, 24, 66
Can you spot the 12 differences between the two pictures?
42| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
For the love of the game
By Mark Jenkin
“Most Ethiopians love football,” says Dr
Tesfaye Haileselassie. “It’s the greatest
of sports.”
Tesfaye is in good company at Addis
Ababa Stadium on Sunday, cheering for
Arba Minch in their Ethiopian Premier
League clash against Defense.
Among the passionate supporters
from the Southern Nations, his wife
Wubayehu Amare is urging her team
forward in search of their first win of the
And despite having loyalties towards
other Ethiopian clubs, today their
daughters Bethlehem and Blen are also
wearing the traditional Dinguz colours
of red, yellow and black.
supports St George because “they
always win,” while,6-year-old Blen is a
fan of Dedebit, the early season leaders.
They are joined by plenty of other Abra
Minch followers, a few thousand fanatics
dancing, singing and chanting in the
baking mid-afternoon sun.
“It is a good atmosphere,” notes Tesfaye,
enjoying a sporting family occasion.
This is a typical weekend in the football
crazy capital
The return of the new domestic season
three weeks ago means men, women and
children can regularly see their favorite
sides from across the country.
Meanwhile, thousands flock to bars
to watch on television the latest
developments in the English Premier
Walk down the street and the replica
shirts of Arsenal, Manchester United,
Chelsea and Liverpool will far
outnumber those of St George, Ethiopian
Coffee or Adama City.
So where do the loyalties lie? Would
the people of Addis rather witness the
leading European Leagues beamed in
live via SuperSport satellite, or does
the vibrancy and enthusiasm of their
home-grown competition hold the same
At Sami Leyou Kuret’s bar in Bole Sub
City, the grip of the English game is
plain to see.
In a small room, fans are packed around
the screen for one of English football’s
biggest fixtures.
Half are shouting for the red of Liverpool,
managed by Brendan Rodgers, the other
half are giving their backing to Jose
Mourinho’s Chelsea team in blue.
Prior to kick-off, they fall silent, listening
to a rousing rendition of the Liverpool
fans’ famous hymn You’ll Never Walk
Alone. Even halfway across the world,
the magic of the Merseyside anthem
comes through.
One Chelsea fan is lifted by the sight
of his all-time favorite player Didier
Drogba. “He is African,” he explains
While temperatures in Addis are now
reaching 25 degrees, the chill of the
English winter can be seen with strikers
Mario Balotelli and Diego Costa wearing
gloves to warm their hands.
It is a red-hot atmosphere, though,
particularly after Liverpool take the lead
with a deflected shot from Emre Can.
Then comes an example of the ultramodern technology which plays a part
in European football. Gary Cahill’s
equalizer is only awarded after the
referee consults Hawk-Eye, an instant
video replay to confirm the ball has
crossed the line. Such mod cons are yet
to be implemented in Ethiopia.
Finally, the majority of the 44,698 fans in
Anfield - and the red half of a lively Bole
bar - are left disappointed when Diego
Costa nets the Chelsea winner.
It is a result which pleases Chelsea fan
Sisay Beyene, a regular follower of the
English game.
“All the players are fantastic players and
I love the country,” he says. “The people
are nice. The stadiums are nice.
“The Ethiopian Premier League can
not compare with the English Premier
League. There aren’t any fantastic
players in Ethiopia. Ten years ago I was
a St George supporter. Now I don’t follow
the Ethiopian League. I don’t go to the
games. I don’t have time.”
Sisay, originally from Lalibela, moved
to Addis six months ago for his job
supplying fuel for aircraft at Bole
It seems his loyalty towards London
clubs is negotiable.
“For one year I have supported Chelsea,”
he says. “Before that I supported
Arsenal but when Cesc Fabregas went to
Barcelona I disliked the manager Arsene
Wenger and transferred to Chelsea. I
will go back to Arsenal if Arsene Wenger
is removed from the Arsenal team.”
A change of manager is yet to make the
difference for Manchester United with
supporters across the world still waiting
for an improvement under new boss
Louis van Gaal.
In a muted L’Escale Bar and Restaurant,
a small group watch their team take
on Crystal Palace, more in hope than
expectation. Since Sir Alex Ferguson
retired as manager two seasons ago,
United and their Ethiopian followers
are waiting to recapture their previous
In the end, a strike from sub Juan Mata
secures a scrappy 1-0 win for Manchester
but does little to lift the mood.
“The youngsters would rather watch on
TV but not me.
Contrast that to Addis Stadium the
following day where people are dancing
and swaying like it’s a New Year party.
The ground, which has a capacity of
35,000, is less than quarter full but those
in attendance have certainly come to
make themselves heard.
“If St George play here, I will choose to
watch them play. I have supported St
George since I was in high school.
As well as her beloved Arba Minch,
Wubayehu Amare also happens to be a
Manchester United supporter.
So who would she rather see win, the
team from Old Trafford or her local
“Arba Minch!” She says defiantly. “Arba
Minch is my birthplace. I have supported
them since I was 8-years-old.”
Today, as opponents Defense live up to
their name, she must be satisfied with a
0-0 draw. The game is fast and physical
but desperately lacking subtlety in front
of goal.
“I used to watch basketball and volleyball
“Even small kids playing football in the
road, I used to stop and watch.”
As fans drift from the stadium and
head home at the end of the weekend,
there is one last match to capture the
Despite the misgivings of Sisay, Arsenal
are perhaps the English team adored in
Ethiopia more than any other. A decade
ago, when ‘The Invincibles’ won the
Premier League without losing a match,
their popularity soared.
“Arsenal did not lose for 49 games,”
says Ayalkbet Kebede, a former follower
of Ethiopian Coffee, now an armchair
Gunners supporter.
Those who stay behind, though, can
enjoy two matches for the price of one
with Commercial Bank taking on Muger
Cement in the day’s second fixture.
“They had a fantastic team with Patrick
Viera, Robert Pires, Dennis Bergkamp
and Thierry Henry.”
As the sun goes down and the
temperature drops, there is a much
higher tempo to the next encounter.
Bank, in their striking purple strip,
show why they have already made a fine
start to the season by winning the Addis
Ababa City Cup.
With the rain lashing down under the
floodlights of the Liberty Stadium in
Swansea, Arsene Wenger’s team crash
to a 2-1 defeat.
A slick first-half display is rewarded with
a 2-0 lead before the Bank are breached
and Muger hit back for a 2-2 draw.
As a neutral observer, it is fine
entertainment for Dembel Balcha, a
football fan for five decades.
He had listened to his favorite English
team Liverpool on the radio but,
regardless of standard, a live game
remains the biggest thrill.
“It’s my pastime,” says Dembel. “The
fans are super standard but the play is
average by African standards. It’s not
that it’s the best football but you can see
at least two games in an afternoon.
How Arsenal could do with those players
It is a shock result which underlines the
enduring appeal of the Premier League.
Even on television, the grass appears so
green, the crowds so vociferous and the
action so relentless.
Yet the efforts of Abra Minch, Defense,
Bank and Muger Cement have proved
the domestic league has much to offer
as well. It is refreshing to see raw talent
and promising young players striving to
reach the next level.
Whether it is Anfield or Addis, football
fans in Ethiopia can truly enjoy the best
of both worlds.
Ed.’s Note: The writer is on an internship
at The Reporter.
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
Vol. XIX No. 949 |43
In the footsteps of Bobby Robson?
By Mark Jenkin
In the competitive environment of
African football, it is not always easy to
maintain team harmony.
If Mariano Barreto had any doubts about
the enthusiasm of Ethiopian football
supporters, he was given a rousing
reminder with a trip to Addis Ababa zoo.
From 2003, a year in charge of Ghana
included the high point and lowest ebb
of Barreto’s managerial career.
Eight months into his job as head coach
for the national team, Barreto faces a
critical week, with Africa Cup of Nations
qualifiers against Algeria and Malawi.
“Going to the Olympic Games with
Ghana in 2004 was fantastic,” he said.
“In the World Cup there are 32 teams.
In the Olympics there are only 16 teams
who make it. Only 16 coaches every four
years go there.”
The Portuguese coach, who speaks five
languages, has worked in soccer cultures
as varied as Ghana, Russia, Cyprus and
Saudi Arabia.
The Black Stars performed well in
Athens , drawing with Italy and beating
Paraguay before bowing out with defeat
to Japan. It was a tournament which
laid the foundations for the nation’s
subsequent appearance at the 2006 World
Cup - but by then, Barreto was gone.
There were disagreements with the
national federation and the coach sent
Sulley Muntari home from the Olympics
for disciplinary reasons, a fate the star
midfielder would suffer again 10 years
later during Ghana’s 2014 World Cup
campaign in Brazil.
Yet even he was taken aback by the
positivity of the fans following last
month’s 2-0 defeat at home to Mali.
“Here the people are really crazy for
football, especially for the national
team,” said Baretto. “It’s amazing. I
have never seen anything like this. I saw
it in Ghana but here, I think the passion
is more pure. In Ghana they make
problems if the team lose or if the team
don’t play well. Here, if the team lose or
win, they love the national team.
Barreto’s decision to quit and return to
Portugal with Maritimo proved costly
as he was ordered by FIFA to pay the
Ghana Football Association 83,000 US
dollars for failing to give them enough
“I remember the day after the Mali game,
in the morning I went to the zoo. After 30
or 40 minutes I had to leave because of
all the people who wanted to come to me
and say ‘coach, don’t worry. You tried.’
“Normally, when you lose a match,
the people are sad. Here it’s different.
They are very educated people, very
kindly people. They feel sad obviously
but they come to comfort me.”
Having witnessed Abyssinian lions
roaring on Sunday morning, four
days later the 57-year-old coach saw a
lionhearted performance from his young
Walias in the return fixture in Mali.
Despite having Getaneh Kebede sent
off with half an hour still to play, a
late free kick from Abebaw Butakow
gave Ethiopia a remarkable 3-2 win,
their first of the qualifying campaign.
“The whole country stopped when we
won in Mali,” said Barreto. “Nobody
believed it, especially after we made it
playing with 10 players for 30 minutes.
(It) gave confidence for the Ethiopian
people. It’s like now a light is shining in
the brains of the people.”
The coach was particularly proud of the
result having achieved it with a squad
which included five teenagers.
As someone who has guided emerging
stars such as Luis Figo and Michael
Essien, Barreto has always placed
priority in developing young players.
“I’m a proud and happy guy because in
my career I have contributed to bringing
(through) some of the best players on this
planet,” he said. “I taught them and they
are big stars. Coaching Figo, Ricardo
Carvalho, Michael Essien, Paulo Sousa,
Diniyar Bilyaletdinov in Russia - they
are my gold medals.
“Yasser Al-Shahrani was a young player
in Saudia Arabia and now he is a big
player with the national team.
“This is my challenge here. I plan when
I finish one day and I am watching on
television that I can say ‘wow’ this boy, I
helped him’.”
In a nation of 90 million, Barreto’s sees
tremendous potential for the national
team but is adamant people must
work together to make it happen. The
federation, players, supporters and club
coaches all have a role to play.
The coach has been critical of the
youth set-up in the country and sees
the provision of structured training for
children as crucial for the game’s longterm development.
“In Germany, France, Portugal they
start six-years-old playing,” he said.
Even in Mali, he witnessed greater
opportunities for youngsters to practice
their skills.
“Bamako is not a nice city like Addis
Ababa but they have a lot of open space,”
he said.
“We saw hundreds of children, may be
thousands, running with the ball. In
Addis we don’t have open space where
children can run with the ball.
We can start organizing tournaments for
under-12s, under-14s.
“Since I came, I talked about the
importance of under-20s - nothing
“We have to learn from the mistakes
of the past. This is the time to make an
investment in the future. You can’t look
only to next week, next month, next
season. We have to look forward to the
next five years.”
Portugal has a reputation for producing
young and innovative coaches such as
Jose Mourinho and Andre Villas-Boas.
As a teenager, Barreto led the way,
stepping into a coaching role with
Belenenses when a promising playing
career was cut short by injury.
“I was a player and I finished my career
(because) I had a big problem with the
tendon in my ankle,” he said.
“Thirty years ago there was not the
(medical) expertise like now. I finished
my career at 19-years-old and I decided
to finish university. Because I was a
very skillful player, they invited me to
coach the youngsters.”
Later, a decade with Sporting Lisbon
brought the opportunity to work
Portugal’s emerging ‘golden generation’.
Six of his players won the World
Under-20 Cup for Portugal on home soil
against Brazil in 1991.
Figo, who went on to win the Spanish
League with Barcelona and the
Champions League with Real Madrid,
was the star pupil.
“I was coaching Figo for six years,” said
Barreto. “He was a fantastic guy. He’s
the player I give as an example, he was
such a worker. The other five guys all
won the World Cup also but didn’t make
big careers.”
It was at Sporting, too, where Barreto
learned from Bobby Robson, the coach
who led England to the World Cup semifinal in 1990. Chelsea manager Jose
Mourinho, who was Robson’s translator
at the time, also credits the Englishman
as a great influence on his career.
“I have worked with many coaches,”
said Barreto. “But Bobby Robson, there
is no chance to compare him to anyone.
I learned with him about the right
behavior. He was a gentleman, a man
and a fantastic coach.”
“A big disappointment was making the
decision to leave Ghana when I was in
the first position for the World Cup in
2006,” he said.
“I was there alone. I was angry. There
was a lot of pressure and problems.
Now, I’m 10 years older. I have more
Back in Africa a decade on and Barreto is
still dealing with the familiar challenges
of expectant fans, limited resources and
rumors of unrest within his federation.
The aim in the short-term is to see
Ethiopia qualify for Afcon 2015, a
task which looked almost impossible
after defeats to Algeria, Malawi and
Mali in the opening three fixtures.
On Sunday, an understrength lineup lost 3-0 in a friendly in Uganda but
the serious business resumes today
(Saturday, November 15).
Ethiopia face one of the toughest tests
in African football, an away match in
Algeria who have already qualified after
winning their first four games.
Second place in the group B is still up for
grabs and Ethiopia’s hopes will hinge on
the meeting in Blida, and Wednesday’s
home qualifier against Malawi.
In similar style, Barretto asks his sides
to play positively with passing and
movement key elements of the game.
The coach will hope for more
inspirational performances like the one
which brought the surprise result in the
return fixture in Mali.
“The Portuguese and Spanish are
neighbors and rivals and our philosophy
is similar to Barcelona’s football,” he
“Mali was only one game,” he said. “It’s
only one example. We need everybody
coming together to work.
“My teams always play in an offensive
way. Trying to make the right
movements. When the team have the
ball, we have to win space. When the
team lose it, we have to come back and
recover the ball quickly.
“And for me, the most important thing
in football is the teamwork, not the
individual players, it is always the
“I’m very happy with the boys. I think
they will make a strong national team
but they need some experience. They
need time.”
If the Walias could cause a major shock
by beating Algeria this evening, then
Barreto would happily enjoy another
hectic visit to the zoo.
Ed.’s Note: The writer is on an internship
at The Reporter.
44| Vol. XIX No. 949
The Reporter | Saturday | November 15, 2014
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