Document 4203

executive committee of
the directing council
HEALTH
ORGANIZATION
.e
worMng party of
the regional committee
HEALTH
ORGANIZATION
113th Meeting
Washington, D.C.
27June-1
July1994
t
Provisional Agenda Item 4.5
CEl13/13 (Eag.)
17 May 1994
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
INTERNATIONAL
BASIC SAFETY STANDARDS FOR
PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION AND FOR
SAFETY OF RADIATION SOURCES
The technical document International Basic Safety Standards for Protection
against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources ('BSS) is presented to
Member States to encourage them to consider and use it, at their discretion, in future
radiation protection regulations.
·'
:
In order to cope with the expanding uses of radiation sources and nuclear
practices, and in view of the particular character of the radiation risks, radiation
protection has developed during the last few decades a unique and elaborate system of
concepts, principles and techniques for the prevention and control of radiological risks.
The scientific and conceptual bases for this system are established by the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in the form of recommendations that are
· regularly updated and adapted to new scientific knowledge. In its 1991 publication the
ICRP adopted a different radiation risk model and a revised dosimetry of the Hiroshima
and Nagasaki atomic explosions. The main consequence is that cancer mortality due to
radiation is considered to be three to four times higher than previously thought, leading
to the need for a reduction on dose limits both for occupationally exposed persons and
for the general public. Another "new" feature in the 1991 ICRP publication was the
development of the concept of "potential exposures," i.e., those that could occur in
accidental situations requiring special safety measures for their prevention.
Because the ICRP recommendations are deliberately drafted in general and
scientific terms, sufficient scope for interpretation and application is left to the users of
the recommendations, particularly national authorities. There is, therefore, a continuing
need for a conversion of the ICRP guidance into terms which are sufficiently practical
CEl13/13
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(Eng.)
and straightforward to facilitate their transfer into regulatory and operational practices
at the national level.
The need for international harmonization was recognized in 1982 when the
previous edition of the BSS was jointly sponsored by the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency
(NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and
the World Health Organization (WHO). In 1990, an Interagency Committee of Radiation
Safety (IACRS) was constituted as a forum for consultation on collaboration in radiation
safety matters between international organizations. This Committee is comprised of the
Commission of European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), the IAEA, the ILO, the NEA/OECD, the Pan American Health Organization
(PAHO)--which joined them in 1991--the United Nations Scientific Committee on the
Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and WHO. The ICRP, the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Radiation Protection Association
(IRPA) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have international
observer status on the IACRS. The first effort of the IACRS was to prepare this current
version of the BSS, which is jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, ILO, NEA/OECD,
PAHO, and WHO.
PAHO is not a newcomer to this field. It initiated radiological health activities
in the 1950s, promoting public health aspects of radiation and providing fellowships for
the training of physicians and other professionals in radiation medicine. In 1960 a
Radiation Protection Unit was established at the regional level. Today the radiological
health program covers the uses of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in health services,
such as diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine, and it emphasizes
radiation protection and safety, including preparedness training and assistance in the case
of radiological emergencies.
PAHO is interested in sponsoring the document in order to ensure that the
Standards reflect the needs of its Member States, where most radiation applications
involve not large sources such as nuclear power plants but small sources mostly in the
field of medicine. It is thought that the document could be used by most governments
of Latin America and the Caribbean that lack the necessary radiation safety infrastructure
or need to update their legislation/regulations. Furthermore, the specific guidance of the
document on accidental situations can be used in case of radiological emergencies, such
as those that have occurred in this Region in recent times. An accident in Argentina in
1984 resulted in the death of a worker. There have been two serious accidents caused
by medical radioactive sources: one in 1984 in Ciudad Jufirez, Mexico (where more than
4,000 people were exposed and recovery costs were US$34 million), and another in 1987
in Goiania, Brazil (where over 100,000 people had to be monitored, four people died
from radiation sickness, and decontamination costs alone surpassed US$20 million). In
m
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E1 Salvador in 1989, an industrial irradiator accident resulted in the death of one worker
and amputation of both legs of another (the total cost of the accident was to US$20
million). The last fatal accident in the Region occurred in November 1992 in the United
States of America (Indiana, Pennsylvania) when a patient being treated for anal
carcinoma with a high dose rate bmchytherapy remote aftefioading device, died after
receiving an overdose of radiation. Ninety-four persons were evaluated for possible
overexposure. The financial consequences axe still being evaluated.
The main purpose of the BSS is to give guidance to national authorities on the
establishment of regulations and operational criteria adapted to local situations. The
applicative requirements and guidelines of the BSS were given the character of
"standards" so that national authorities could use them directly as a regulatory basis for
the protection of workers and members of the public, or simply as reference material.
Members States, in fact, are not formally committed to bring their legislation into
conformity with the Standards, which are not intended to replace national laws and
regulations.
Another function of the BSS is to provide technical guidance to the
management bodies with responsibilities for radiation protection in their own operations,
as well as to the professional operators in radiation protection.
The Standards cover protection for all radiation sources that can be controlled.
These include natural radiation sources, activities in the nuclear fuel cycle, the medical
applications of radiation, and sources used in industry, research, agriculture.
The
provisions of the Standards address the exposure of workers and members of the public
and patients exposed to medical radiation sources. The "Medical Exposures" section has
been considerably expanded from previous versions, having been written mainly by a
PAHO staff member.
The Standards contain general and specific requirements which in some cases are
completed by detailed numerical guidance in terms of limits, reference levels,
intervention levels, and exemption levels. The degree of development of this numerical
guidance differs by type of exposure, depending on the degree of international consensus
that was possible to achieve.
'
·
To obtain international consensus, successive drafts have undergone elaborate
review procedures. (See attached list for meetings held.) The organizations represented
in the Joint Secretariat approached the revision of the various internal drafts from
different perspectives:
for example, WHO and PAHO focused on radiation protection
in the medical uses of radiation; ILO was mindful of the reactions of employer and
worker groups; FAO was particularly interested in intervention measures relating to food
and agriculture, and IAEA and NEA/OECD, in the practical implications of nuclear
energy and nuclear applications.
CE113/13 (Eng.)
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The process of issuing the Standards is reaching its f'mal stage. Consensus on the
final draft of the BSS was, in fact, reached by the experts of Member States present at
the Technical Committee Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna in December
1993, attended by 152 representatives of 48 countries and 11 international organizations.
The document is now being submitted for adoption to the Governing Bodies of the six
sponsoring organi?ations. It is expected it will be published in 1995.
Annexes
CEl13/13 (Eng.)
ANNEX 1
ANNEX 1
'
REVIEWS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
BASIC SAFETY STANDARDS FOR
PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION AND FOR THE SAFETY
OF RADIATION SOURCES
Meetings of the Interagency
Committee
on Radiation Safety
WHO, Geneva, Switzerland: 4-5 February 1991
CEC, Brussels, Belgium: 19-20 October 1992
PAHO, Washington, United States of America: 19 April 1993
Meetings of the Joint Secretariat
NEA/OECD, Paris, France: 9-12 April 1991
IAEA/Vienna, Austria: 9-13 December 1991
NEA/OECD, Paris, France: 21-23 October 1992
PAHO, Washington, United States of America: 20-23 April 1993
Technical Committee
Meetings
IAEA, Vienna, Austria: 14-18 December 1992
IAEA, Vienna, Austria: 13-17 December 1993
Senior Experts Meeting
Vienna, Austria: 24-28 February 1992
·
.
Consultants
Meetings
London, United Kingdom: 24-28 June 1991; Ottawa, Canada: 23-27 September 1991
Vienna, Austria: 6-10 January 1992, 20-24 January 1992,
23-27 March 1992, 9-13 November 1992, 7-19 November 1993
Ad Hoc Working
Groups
ILO, Geneva, Switzerland: 29 March- 1 April 1993
NEA/OECD, Paris, France: 8-10 March 1993
CE113/13 (Eng)
ANNEX 2
FAO
1AEA
ILO
NEA
PAHO
WHO
INTERNATIONAL
BASICSAFETY STANDARDS
for
PROTECTIONAGAINSTIONIZINGRADIATION
and for the
SAFETY OF RADIATIONSOURCES
.
jointly sponsored by:
the Food and Agriculture 0rgapiT.ation of the United Nations;
the International Atomic Energy Agency;
the International Labour 0rganisation;
the Nuclear Energy Agency of
the 0rganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development;
the Pan American Health Organization; and
the World Health Organization.
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FOREWORD
(to the interim edition)
by the Director General
These International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the
Safety of Ra&ation Sources mark the culmination of efforts that have continued over the past several
decades towards the harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards internationally
The
Standards are jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the Umted Nations (FAO),
the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the Nuclear
Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), the Pan
American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the "Sponsoring
Organlzations").
The unprecedented international effort to draft and review the Standards involved hundreds of
experts fi.om the Member States of the Sponsoring Organizations and from specialized organizations The
meeting of the Techmcal Committee that endorsed the Standards in December 1993 was attended by 127
experts from 52 countries and 11 organizations.
The IAEA's Board of Governors approved the Standards on its ... Meeting on June ... 1994, and the
IAEA is herewith issuing them in an interim publication (in English only). Once the Standards have been
formally adopted or acknowledged by the other Sponsoring Organizations, they will be issued in the IAEA
Safety Series as a final publication in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
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PREFACE
Background
Although all the Sponsoring Orgamzations are revolved m the international harmonization of
radiation protection and safety, the IAEA is speclficallyauthorized under the terms of its Statute to estabhsh
standards of safety for the protection of health and the minimiz_lon of danger to life, in consultation with
the United Nations and the specialized agencies concerned. Not surprisingly, therefore, m the family of
international governmental organizations, the first endeavour to establish ra&atlon safety standards was made
al the IAEA. The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved radiation
protection and safety
measures in March 1960 _,when it was stated that "The Agency's basic safety standards.., will be based, to
the extent possible, on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection
CICRP)". The Board first approved basic safety standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA
as Safety Series No. 92. A revised version was published in 19673 A third revision was published by the
IAEA as the 1982 Edition of Safety Series No. 94;this Editaon was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, the ILO,
the OECD/NEA and the WHO.
In 1990, an important step towards international harmonization ofradlation safety took place, an
Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACILS) was constituted as a forum for consultation on and
collaboration in radiation safety matters between international organizations s. The IACRS initially
comprised the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance (CMEA) (now defunct), the FAO, the IAEA, the ILO, the OECD/NEA, the United Nations
Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the WHO. The PAHO jomed
subsequently. The ICRP, the International CommLssion on Radlological Units and Measurements (ICRU),
the International Electrotecimical Commission (IEC), the International Radiation Protection Association
(IRPA) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have observer status on the IACRS.
The objective of the [ACRS is to promote consistency and co-ordination of policies with respect to the
following areas of common interest' applyingradlatlon safety principles, criteria and standards and translatmg
them into regulatory terms; co-ordinating research and development; advancing education and training,
promoting widespread information exchange, facilitating the Iransfer of technology and know-how; and
providing radiation safety services.
Within this framework, the Sponsoring Organizations established a Joint Secretariat (the "Joint
Secretariat") for the preparation of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing
Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, the "Standards", contained in this publication. The Joint
Secretariat was co-ordinated by the IAEA. The Standards supersede the previous basic international
standards and reflect knowledge gamed subsequently and developments in radiation protection and safety
and related fields.
2
1
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Agency's Health and Safety Measures, INFCIRC/18, IAEA,
Vienna (1960), The Agency's Safety Standards and Measures, INFCIRC/18/Rev t, IAEA, V'Denna(1976).
2
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Basic Safety Standards for Radlabon Protection, Safety Series
No 9, IAEA, Vienna (1962)
3
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Basic Safety Standards for Rad_fion
Safety Senes No 9, IAEA. Vienna (1967)
4
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Basic Safety Standards for Radlabon ProtectJon (1982 Edrbon),
Safety Series No 9, IAEA, Vienna (1982)
s
See the IAEA Annual Report for 1990, IAEA/GC(XXXV)/953,
p 86
Protecbon (1967 Ed_on),
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The Standards are based primarily on the recommendations of the International Commission on
Radiological Protection ('ICRP). The ICRP is a non-governmental scientffic organization founded m 1928
to establish basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection; the most recent recommendanons
of the ICRP were issued in 19916. Moreover, tn relation to safety, the Standards take account of the
principles recommended by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) which, under the
auspices of the IAEA, has been elaborating nuclear safety concepts since 1985, such as its Basic Safety
Principles for Nuclear Power Plants7; many of these principles are relevant to radiation sources and
installations other than nuclear installations The quanuties and units used in the Standards are primarily
those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a
sister organization of ICRP.
The Standards are published in the IAEA Safety Series. This series of publications encompasses
Safety Fundamentals, Safety Standards, Safety Guides and Safety Practices relating to nuclear safety and
radaation protectmn, including radioactive waste management. 8 The IAEA Safety Series includes other
related international standards, such as the Nuclear Safety Standards 0qUSS) for nuclear power plants, the
Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and the forthcoming Radioactive Waste
Management Standards (RADWASS). The other organizatmns of the Joint Secretariat have also produced
codes and guides in their respective spheres of activity. Notably, the ILO has issued a code of practice for
the radiation protection of workers as well as other relevant publications, the PAHO and the WHO have
issued a number of documents relating to the safety of workers and patients in medical applications of
radiation; the FAO and the WHO have established, through the Codex Alimentarius Commission, guideline
levels for radioactive substances in foodstuffs moving in international trade; and the OECD/NEA has
published documents on specific topics relating to radiation safety.
Objective
The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the nsks
associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter called radiation) and for the safety of radmnon
sources that may deliver such exposure.
The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles,
such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure
the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for
large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and large nuclear waste management and
disposal facilities. For these sources, more specific standard, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically
needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with
the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the
Standards.
The Standards are limited to specifying basic radiation safety requirements, with some guidance on
how to applythem. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publicatmns
of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of
experience gained in the application of the Standards.
6
INTERNATIONAl.
COMMISSION
ONRADIOLOGICAL
PROTECTION,
1990Recornmendabons
of the
International
Commissionon Radtolog,:alProte_on, Pubhcabon
No 60, PergamonPress,Oxfordand NewYork
(1991)
7
INTERNATIONAL
NUCLEARSAFETYADVlSORYGROUP,BasicSafetyPnncxples
for NuclearPowerPlants,
SafetySenesNo 75-1NSAG-S,
IAEA,Vienna(1988).
a
A "RadiationSafetyFundamentals"documentwhichsummariestheobjectives,conceptsand pnncaples
underlyingthe Standardsis currentlytn preparation
3
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Scope
The Standards comprise the basic requirements to be fulfilled in all activities involving ra&anon
exposure. The requirements have the force that is derived from the statutory provisions of the Sponsoring
Organizations. They do not entail any obligation for States to bring their legislauon into conformity with
them, nor are they intended to replace the provisions of natmnal laws or regulations, or the standards in
force They are aimed rather to serve as a practical guide for public authorities and services, employers and
workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and safety and health committees
The
requirements lay down basic principles and indicate the differera aspects that should be covered by an
effective radiation protection programme. They are not intended to be applied as they stand in all countries
and regions, but should be interpreted to take account of local situations, technical resources, the scale of
installations and other factors which will determine the potential for application.
The Standards cover a broad range of practices and sources that give rise to or could give rise to
exposure to radiation, and many of the requirements have therefore been drafted in general terms. It follows
that any given requirement may have to be fulfilled differently for different types of practice and source,
according to the nature of the operations and the potential for exposures Not all the requtrements willapply
to every practice or to every source, and it is up to the appropriate Regulatory Authonty to specify which
of the requirements are applicable in each case.
The scope of the Standards is limited to the protection ofhurnan beings only; it is consldered that
standards of protection that are adequate for this purpose willalso ensure that no other species is threatened
as a population, even if inchviduals of the species may be harmed. Moreover, the Standards apply only to
ionufing radiation, namely gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can reduce wnizauon
They do not apply to non-ionizing radiation; neither do they apply to the control of other non-radiological
aspects of health and safety. The Standards recognize that radmtion is only one of many sources of nsk m
life, and that the risks associated with radiation should not only be weighed against its benefits but also
viewed in perspective with risks from other sources.
Structure
The Standards comprise a Preamble, the Principal Requirements, Appendices and Annexes The
Preamble states the aims and the bases of the Standards, explains the underlying principles and philosophy,
and describes appropriate governmental arrangements for applying the Standards
The Principal
Requirements specify what is imperative in order to fulfilthe aims of the Standards. Consequential Detailed
Requirements, subsidiary to the Principal Requirements, are specified in the Appendices. Quantitative
standards and guidance are provided in the Annexes. A Glossary, the list of experts who contributed to
the drafting and review process, and the hst of the representatives of countries and organizauons in the
Technical Committee which endorsed the Standards in December 1993 are also included. The Sponsoring
Organizations are briefly described on the back inside cover.
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CONTENTS
PREAMBLE:PRINCIPLES
AND FUNDA.MENTALOBJECTIVES
PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS
Section I
General Requirements
1.1
Purpose
1.2
Defimtions
1.3
Scope
1.4
Exclnslons
1.5
Responsible pames
1.6
Inspections
1.7
Non-compliance
1.8
Entry into force
1.9
Resolution of conflicts
I.10
Interpretation
1.11
Communications
Sectmn II
Requirements for Practices
II.1
Application
11.2
Basic obligations
II.3
Administrative requirements
II 4
Radiation protection requirements
II.5
Management requirements
11.6
Technical requirements
II.7
Verification of safety
Section
Intervention
III.l
IIL2
1II.3
IIIA
APPENDICES:
III
DETAILED REQUIREMENTS
Appendix I:
-
Application
Basic obligations
Administrative requirements
Radiation protection requirements
Occupational exposure
1
Responsibilities
2
Conditions of service
3
Classificationof areas
4
Local rules and supervision
5
Personal protectlve equipment
6
Co-operatxon between employers, registrants
licensees
7
Individual monitoring and exposure assessment
8
Monitonng of the workplace
9
Health surveillance
10
Records
11
Special circumstances
and
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Appendix II:
Medical exposure
1
Responsibilities
2
Justification of mechcal exposures
3
Optimization of protection for medical exposures
4
Guidance levels
5
Dose constraints
6
7
8
Maximum activity in therapy patients discharged from
hospitals
/nvestigatmn of accidental medical exposures
Records
Appendix III:
Public exposure
I
Responsibiliues
2
Control of visitors
3
Sources of external irradiation
4
Radioactive contamination in enclosed spaces
5
Radioactive waste
6
Discharge ofradmactive substances into the enwronment
7
Rachation and environmental momtormg
8
Consumer products
Appendix IV-
Potential exposure: safety of sources
I
Responsibilities
2
Safety assessment
3
Requirements for design
4
Requirements for operations
5
Quality assurance
Appendix V:
Emergency exposure situations
I
Responsibihties
2
Emergency plans
3
Intervention for emergency exposure situations
4
Assessment and monltonng after accidents
5
Cessation of intervennon after an accident
6
Protection of workers undertaking an intervention
Appendix VI:
Chronic exposure situations
1
Responsibilities
2
Remedial actmn plans
3
Action levels for chronic exposure situations
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ANNEXES
Annex
Annex
Annex
Annex
I
II
III
IV
'
Annex V
Annex VI
Exemptions
Dose limits
Guidance levels for medical exposure
Dose levels at which intervention is expected to be undertaken under any
ch'_ces
Guidelines for intervention levels in emergency exposure situatxons
Guidelines for action levels in chronic exposure situatmns
GLOSSARY
THE SPONSORING
ORGANIZATIONS
STEERING, DRAFTING AND REVIEW
ENDORSEMENT
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PREAMBLE:
PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES
It has been recognized since early studies on X rays and radtoactive minerals that exposure
to high levels of radiation can cause cl/nical damage to the bssues of the human body In addition,
long term epidemtologlcat studies of populattons exposed to radtation, espectally the survn/ors of the
atomic bombing of Htroshtma and Nagasaki m Japan in 1945, have demonstrated that exposure to
radtatton also has a potent/al for the delayed Induction of malignancies It ts therefore essential that
acbvittes Involving radiation exposure, such as the productton and use of radtabon sources and
radJoactivematerials, and the operation of nuclear installationsand management of the radtoactive
waste they produce, be subject to certain standards of safety in order to protect those persons
advenbtiously exposed to radtabon.
Ionizing radiation and radtoactive substances are natural and permanent features of the
environment, and thus the risks associated with radlabon in all its forms can only be restricted, not
eliminated entirely Additionally, the use of man-made redtation ts widespread. Sources of iomz/ng
radiation are essential to modem health care. disposable medtcal suppltes stenltzed by Intense
radiation have been central to combat/ng dtsease; radiology is a vitaldtagnostic too/; and radtotherapy
ts commonly part of the treatment of mahgnancies The use of nuclear energy and applicabons of
Es by-products, £e. ionizing radtatlon and radioactive substances, cont/nue to increase around the
world Nuclear techmques are m grow/ng use for industry, agnculture, medicine and many fields of
research, benefitmg hundreds of millions ofpeople and giv/ng employmentto milltons ofpeople in the
related occupations Irradtabon is used around the world to preserve foodstuffs and reduce wastage,
and stenhzation techmques have been used to eradicate dtsease carry/ng insects and pests
Industnal radtography is in routine use, for example to exam/ne welds and detect cracks and help
prevent the failure of engineered structures.
The acceptance by society of risks assoctated with radtation is condrttonalon the benefits to be
ga/ned from the use made of radiation. Nonetheless, the risks must be restricted and protected
against by the application of radtabon safety standards. The Standards provide a destrable
mtemabonal consensus for this purpose
The Standards draw upon informabon derived from extensive research and development
work by scientific and eng/neenng orgamzations, at national and intemattonal levels, on the health
effects of radlabon and techniques for the safe design and operabon of radiation sources; and upon
experience m many countries in the use of radiation and nuclear techmques The United Nabons
Scientific Commrttee on the Effects of Atomic Radtation (UNSCEAR), a body set up by the Unrted
Nabons in 1955, compiles, assesses and dtsseminates informatton on the health effects of radiabon
and on levels of radiation exposure due to different sources, this Information was taken into account
in develop/ng the Standards. Purely scientific considerattons, however, are only part of the basis for
decistons on protection and safety, and the Standards implicitlyencourage deciston makers to make
valuejudgements about the relative importance of risks of dFrferentk/nds and about the balanc/ng of
risks and benefits.
RADIATION EFFECTS
Exposure to radiation can cause detrimental health effects At large doses, radiation effects
such as nausea, reddening of the skin or, m severe cases, more acute syndromes are chntcally
expressed in exposed individuals wrthm a short period of time after the exposure, such effects are
called 'determintsbc" because they are certain to occur if the dose exceeds a threshold level
Radiation exposure can also induce effects such as malignancies whtchare expressed after a latency
penod and may be eptdemiologlcally detectable in a population; thts inductton is assumed to take
place over the enttre range of doses without a threshold level Heredrtary effects due to radiabon
exposure have been stabsbcally detected in other mammalian poputabonsand are presumed to occur
9
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in human populabonsalso. These ep/demiologtcally detectable effects -malignanctes and hereditary
effects - are termed 'stochasbc" effects because of their random nature
Determtnistlc effects due to radtation exposure are the result of drfferentprocesses, mainly
cell kilhng and delayed cell divtston,whtchcan, ff extensive enough, impair the funcbonof the exposed
tissue The seventy of a particular determmtstic effect in an exposed tnd_wdua/tncreases wrththe
dose above the threshold for the occurrence of the effect
Stochastic effects may ensue if an irradmted cell is modifed rather than killed Modified
cells may, after a prolonged delay, develop into a cancer. The body's repair and defence
mechamsms make thts a verytmprobable outcome at small doses, nevertheless, there is no evidence
of a threshold dose below which cancer cannot result. The probability of occurrence of cancer ts
htgher for higher doses,but the seventy of any cancer that may resultfrom trradtabonis independent
of the dose. Also, if a germ cell whose funcbon is to transmit genetic mformabon to progeny Is
damaged owing to radtation exposure, it rs concen_ablethat hereditary effects of vanous types may
develop m the descendants of the exposed person The likelthood of stochastic effects rs presumed
to be proporbonal to the dose racen,ed - also without a dose threshold
In additton to the aforementioned health effects,other health effects may occurin infantsdue
to exposure of the embryo or foetus to radtabon. These effects include a greater likelihood of
leukaemia and, for exposure above various threshold dose values dunng certain penods of
pregnancy, severe mental retardation and congenital mafformabons.
Since a small likelihood of occurrence of stochastic effects at even the lowest doses Is
assumed, the Standards cover the enbra range of doses with the arm of constraining any radtabon
detriment that may arise
The many aspects of the concept of radtatton detriment make it
undestrable to select any single quanbty to represent it The Standards are therefore based on a
concept of detriment as recommended by the ICRP, which for stochasbc effects Includesthe followmg
quantrtles' the probabl#ty of fatal cancer attributable to radtation exposure; the wetghted probabt#ty
of mcumng a non-fatal cancer;,the wetghted probab#rty of severe hereditary effects, and the length
of lifettme lost if the harm occurs
PRACTICES AND INTERVENTIONS
Human activities that add radtation exposure to that whtch people normally recur due to
background radtatlon, or that increase the Itkellhood of their incumng exposure, are termed 'pracbces'
m the Standards. The human activlbes that seek to reduce the exisbng radiatton exposure, or the
extsttng likelthood of incumng exposure which ts not part of a controlled pracbce, are termed
'mtervenbons'. The Standards apply to both the commencement and the contmuabon of pracbces
that involve or could involve radlabon exposure, and also to extstmg, de facto s_tuabons In whtch
exposure or its hkelihood can be reduced or prevented by means of some intervenbon. For a
practice, provisions for radlabon protecbon and safety can be made before its commencement, and
the assoctated radmtion exposures and their likelihood can be restricted from the outset In the case
of intervenbon, the circumstancesgivtng rise to exposure or the Itkeithood of exposure already exist,
and their reduction can only be achieved by means of remedtal or protectn,e actions
The pracbces for which the Standards are intended to prowde the basts for protecbon
against radiation _ncludethe followtng' activittes involvingthe producbon of radiatton sources, the use
of radiation and radioacbve substances in medlctne, research, industry, agricultureand teaching; the
generation of electricity by nuclear power, including the entire cycle of related activrbes from the
mining and processing of radtoactlve ores to the operation of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle fac#ibes
and the management of radtoactive wastes, and activibes such as the underground mining of coal
and of phosphabc and other mtnerals that may enhance exposure to naturally occumng radtoacbve
substances Situattons that may requtre intervention include' chronic exposure to naturally occurring
sources of radiatJonsuch as radon m dwellings, and to radioactive rastdues from past activities and
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events; and emergency exposure situabons such as might result from accidents or from deficiencies
in existing installat/ons.
TYPES OF RADIATION EXPOSURE
*
!t is virtually certain that some radiation exposures will result from the performance of
pracbces and that the/r magnitudes will be predictable, albeit with some degree of uncertainty such
expected exposures are referred to in the Standards as 'normal exposures'. Also, exposure scenarios
can be envisaged for which there is a potential for exposure, but no certainty that an exposure will
tn fact occur, such unexpected but feasible exposures are termed 'potential exposures' Potential
exposures can become actual exposures if the unexpected situation does occur, for example as a
consequence of equipment failure, design or operating errors, or unforeseen changes tn
environmental conditions, e.g. at a disposal site for radioactive waste. If the occurrence of such
events can be foreseen, the probability of their occurrence and the resulting radiation exposure can
be estimated.
The means specified tn the Standards for controlling normal exposures is the restriction of
the doses delivered The primary means for controlling potential exposures is by good design of
installabons, equipment and operating procedures; this ts intended to limit the probability of
occurrence of events that could lead to unplanned exposures and to restrict the magnitudes of
exposures that could result if such events were to occur.
The relevant radiation exposures covered by the Standards encompass the exposures, both
normal and potential, of workers pursuing their occupations, of patients in diagnosis or treatment,
and of members of the public who may be affected by a practice, or by an intervent/on. For
intervenbon situations the exposure can be chronic or, in some cases of emergencies, temporary
Thus exposures are divided into: 'occupabonatexposures' which are incurred at work and pnnctpally
as a result of work, 'medical exposures' which are principally exposures of pabents in diagnosis or
treatment, and 'public exposures' which comprise all other exposures, potential exposures and
emergency and chronic exposures
The Standards ara intended to cover all people who may be exposed to rad/ation, including
those in future generabons who could be affected by present practices or interventions.
BASIC PRINCIPLES
.
The pnnciples of radiation protection and safety on which the Standards are based are those
developed by the ICRP and by INSAG The detailed formulation of these principles can be found tn
the publlcabons of the ICRP and INSAG and they cannot easily be paraphrased w_thoutlosing their
essence. However, a brief - although simplified, summary of the principles is as follows' a practice
that entails or that could entail exposure to radiation should only be adopted if it y_elds sufficient
benefit to the exposed individuals or to society to outweigh the radiation detriment tt causes or could
cause (i.e., the practice must be justified)s, individual doses due to the combmabon of all relevant
practices should not exceed specified dose limits; radiation sources and installations should be
provided with the best available protection and safety measures under the prevailing circumstances,
so that the magnitudes and likelihood of exposures and the numbers of individuals exposed are as
Iow as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account, and the doses
they deliver and the risk they entail should be constrained O.e. protection and safety should be
opbm/zed), radiation exposure due to sources of radiation that are not part of a practice should be
reduced by intervention when th/s Isjustified, and the intervention measures should be opttmtzed, the
legal person authorized to engage in a pracbce involwng a source of radlabon should bear the primary
responsibil/ty for protection and safety, a safety culture should be inculcated that governs the attitudes
s
Usually,compliancewitfithe pnncipleof jus'dficabon
is adequatelydemons13'ated
znrespectof a type of actwtty
bythe existenceor the la_nng
downof regula_ons
specrfically
concerningthe type of ac_v_y
11
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and behaviour in relation to protection and safety of all individuals and organrzabons dealing w/th
sources of radiation; in-depth defensive measures should be incorporated into the design and
operabng procedures for radratlon sources to compensate forpotenbaf failures in protection or safety
measures;and protection and safety should be ensured by sound management and engmeenng,
quality assurance, training and qualificabon of personnel, comprehensive safety assessments and
attention to lessons learned from experience and research
w
QUANTI77ES AND UNITS
Although most of the requrrements of the Standards are qual/tatrve, the Standards also
establrshquantitative limits, and gurdance levels For these purposes, the marn physrcal quant/ties
used m the Standards are the rate of nuclear transformabon of radlonuclldes (the act/vYe')and the
energy absorbed by a unit mass of a substance from the radratron to which it Is exposed (the
absorbed dose). The unit of activity ls the reciprocal second, representing the number of nuclear
transformations (or drsintegrabons) per second, whrch is termed the becquerel (Bq) The umt of
absorbed dose Is the joule per kilogram, termed the gray (Gy)
The absorbed dose Is the bastc physical dosrmetnc quantity of the Standards However,
# is not entirely satisfactory for radmbon protection purposes because effecbveness m damaging
human bssue differs for different types of ionizing radlat_on Consequently, the absorbed dose/n
bssues is multiplred by a radmbon weighting factor to take account of the effectiveness of the g/ven
type of radlatron m reducing health effects; the resulting quantity rs termed the equivalent dose The
quantrtyeqwvalent dose is used when individual organs or tissues are irradiated, but the I_kelihood
of mjudous stochastic effects due to a given equivalent dose differs for different organs and bssues.
Consequently, the equivalent dose to each organ and bssue ts multiplied by a bssue weighting factor
to take account of the organ's radiosensitivity The sum total of such weighted equivalent doses for
all exposed bssues in an mdiwdual is termed the effective dose. The unit of equivalent dose and
effective dose is the same as the unit of absorbed dose, namely joule per kilogram, but the term
slevert (Sv) Is used in order to avord confusion with unit of absorbed dose
When radlonuclJdes are taken into the body, the resulting dose _sreceived throughout the
period of time dunng which they remain in the body The committed dose is the total dose delivered
dunng this period of time, and is calculated as a specified bme integral of the rate of recerpt of the
dose Any relevant dose restncbon is applred to the committed dose from the retake
The total rmpact of the radiation exposure due to a given practice or source depends on the
number of indiwduals exposed and on the doses they receive The collecbve dose, defined as the
summabon of the products of the mean dose in the various groups of exposed people and the
number of individuals in each group, may therefore be used to characterize the radlabon Impact of
a practice or source The unit of collecbve dose is the man-slevert (man.Sv)
GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION
The Standards are intended to place requirements on those legal persons authorized to
conduct pracbces that cause radlation exposure or to _ntervene in order to reduce exrstmg
exposures; these persons have the primary responsibiln'yfor applying the Standards Governments,
however, have responsibility for therr enforcement, generally through a system that includes a
Regulatory Authority, and for planning and talong acbons tn different circumstances In addition,
governments generally provide for certain essenbal rad_abonsafety serwces and for interventions that
exceed or that complement the capabilities of the legal persons authorized to conduct practices
The Standards are based therefore on the presumpbon that a nabonal infrastructure is m
place enabling the Government to discharge its respons_bilibesfor radlabon protecbon and safety
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NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURES
.
Essential parts of a nabonal infrastructure are: legislation and regulations, a Regulatory
Authority empowered to authorize and inspect regulated activitres and to enforce the legtslabon and
regulatrons; sufficrent resources, and adequate numbers of trained personnel The infrastructures
must also provrde ways and means of addressing societal concerns whrch extend beyond the legal
responsrbil/tresof the persons authorized to conduct practices involving sources of redratron For
example, national authoritres ensure that appropriate arrangements are made for detecting any
buildup of radroacbve substances m the general envrronment, for drsposmg ofradroactn/e wastes and
for prepanng for interventions, partrcularly during emergencies that could result _nexposure of the
general public They also need to provide for the control of sources of rad;abon for which no other
organizabon has responslbi;/ty, such as natural sources and radioactn/e resldues from past practices
National infrastructures must provide for adequate arrangements to be made by the
responsible persons for the educabon and training of specialists in radrabon protection and safety, as
well as for the exchange of mforrnabon among specrallsts. A related respons;bilrty Is to set up
appropnate means of reforming the public, /ts representatives and the inforrnabonmedia about the
health and safety aspects of acbv/tles revolvingexposure to radtatron and about regulatory processes
This provides rnformation to facil/tate the pol/tlcal process of setting nabonal pnoritres and allocating
resources for protection and safety and also helps to make the regulatory process more read#y
understandable.
National infrastructures must also provide facil/ties and serwces that are essenbal for
radration protection and safety, but are beyond the capabilitres requrred of the persons who are
authorized to conduct practices Such facilitresand services include those needed for mtervenbon,
personal dosrmetry and environmental monitonng, and for calrbrabon and rntercompanson of radlabon
measunng equrpment Services could include the prowsron of central regtstnes for occupabonal
exposure records and the provrslon of information on equipment reliability The provision of such
services at the national level does not detract from the ultimateresponsrbil/ty for radlabon safety borne
by the persons authonzed to conduct the pracbces.
THE REGULA TORY AUTHORITY
Full and proper implementation of the Standards requires that a Regulatory Authonty be
established by government to regulate the introduction and conduct of any practice involwng sources
of radrabon Such a Regulatory Authority must be prowded w/th sufficrentpowers and resources for
effective regulabon and should be independent of any government departments and agencies that
are responsible for the promobon and development of the practtces being regulated The Regulatory
Authority must also be independent of registrants, licensees and the designers and constructors of
the radiation sources used rn practices The effective separation of responsibil/tres between the
funcbons of the Regulatory Authority and those of any other party is to be made clear so that the
regulators retain their independence of judgement and declsron as safety author/ties
,
The Standards are worded on the assumpbon that a single Regulatory Authonty is
responsrble for all aspects of radiation protectton and safety in a country. In some countries,
however, regulatory responsrbilityfor different practices or different aspects of radlabon safety may
be drwded between different authorities. Consequently, the term Regulatory Authority rs generally
used in the Standards to mean the relevant Regulatory Authority for the particular source or aspect
of radlabon safety in question. Regardless of the division of regulatory respons_b#ittes, the
government must ensure that all aspects are covered; for example, it must ensure that a specrfic
body rs assigned responsibility for the regulatory surveillance of protecbon and safety measures for
patlents and of qual#y assurance measures for equipment and techniques for medical uses of
radlabon
The type of regulatory system adopted in a country will depend on the size, complex/ty and
safety implicabons of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory trad/tlons in
13
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the country. The mechanism for carryfngout regulatory duties may vary, with some authorities being
completely self-sufficient and others delegating some inspection, assessment or other duties to
varfous governmental, public or pm/ate agencies A Regulatory Authority may also be serf-sufficient
in specialist expertise or it may consult expert advisers and advisory committees.
The general functions of the Regulatory Authority include the following the assessment of
applications for permission to conduct practices that entail or could entail exposure to radJatlon,the
authorization of such practices and of the sourcesassociated with them, subject to certain specrfied
conditions; the conduct of penodlc inspections to verify compliance with the condrtlons, and the
enforcement of any necessary actionsto ensure compliance with the regulations and standards For
these purposes, mechanisms are needed for notlficabon, reglstratton and licensing of the sources
w_th_npractices, with provision for the exclusionor exemption of sources or practices from regulatory
requirements under certain conditions. Provision is also needed for the surveillance, monrtonng,
review, verification and inspection of sources and for ensunng that adequate plans exist for dealing
with radJation accidents and carrying out emergency interventions The effectiveness of radiation
protection and safety measures for each authorized practice and the total potential impact of
authorized practices need to be assessed
The powers of the inspectors of the Regulatory Authority must be well defined and
consistency of enforcement must be maintained, w/th prowsion for appeal by those responsible for
sources Directives to both inspectors and regulated persons must be clear The Regulatory
Authority may need to prowde guidance on how certain regulatory requirements are to be fulfilled for
vanous practices, for example in regulatoryguideline documents An attitude of openness and cooperation must be fostered between regulated persons and inspectors, which includes fac#itatmg
access by inspectors to premises and to information
An additional responsibility of the Regulatory Authority !s to require all parties revolved to
develop a safety culture that includes individual and collective commitment to safety on the part of
workers, management and regulators, accountability of all individuals for protecbon and safety,
including individuals at senior management level, and measures to encourage a questioning and
learning att/rude and to discourage complacency w/th respect to safety.
Due account needs to be taken by both the Regulatory Authority and the regulated persons
of general expenence and of new developmentsm radiation protection and the safety of sources.
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EDITORIAL
-
NOTE
1.
The Pnncipal Requirements in the Standards, which are presented _nthe main body of the
text, generally use the term shall in making statements about requxrernents, duties and obhgations
The Detailed Requirements, which are presented in the Appendices, also use shall m statements
consequential to the Pnncipal Requirements, with the implication that these requirements apply unless
other more desirable options for protection and safety have been estabhshed As exceptions to this
general rule, the requirements on, or related to the justrficahon of practices and intervenhons,
statements refemng to the declaration of pregnancy by female workers and a number of statements
on medical exposures use the form should to mean a desired option and a precondlbon for protect]on
and safety.
2.
Many Principal Requirements in the Standards are not addressed to any specific party, the
implicat_on being that they should be fulfilled by the appropriate party(les) Conversely, m the Detaded
Requirements in the Appendices, the appropriate party0es) responsible for the requirement have
generally been specified.
15
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ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
_CTED
DISTR., ORIGINAL:ENGLISH
PRINCIPAL
REQUIREMENTS
17
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18
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/271S, _
1994
_CTED
DISTR., ORIGINAL:F..NGLL-_H
SECTION
GENERAL
1.1
I
REQUIREMENTS
PURPOSE
(1) These Standards specify the basic requirements
for protection of people against
exposure to radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, hereinafter termed protection
and safety.
.
1.2
DEFINITIONS
(2) Terms in italics shall be interpreted
Standards.
1.3
SCOPE
(3)
are:
The Standards
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1.4
apply to practices,
of the
sources within practices and interventions which
carried out in a State that chooses to adopt the Standards or requests any of
the Sponsoring Organizations to provide for the application of the Standards;
undertaken by States with the assistance of the FAO, the IAEA, the ILO, the
PAHO, or the WHO, in the light of relevant national rules and regulations;
carried out by the IAEA or involve the use of materials, services, equipment,
facilities and non-published
information made available by the IAEA or at
its request or under its control or supervision; or
carried out under any bilateral or multilateral
arrangement
whereby the
parties request the IAEA to provide for the application of the Standards.
EXCLUSIONS
(4) Any exposure whose magnitude
through the requirements
of the
Standards. l°
1.5
as they are del'reed in the Glossary
RESPONSIBLE
or likelihood
is essentially unamenable to control
Standards
is deemed to be excluded from the
PARTIES
I$
(5)
The Regulatory Authority and
in the case of intervention - the Intervening
Organizations shall be responsible for the enforcement
of the Standards.
'
(6)
The principal parties having the main responsibilities
Standards shall be:
(a)
registrants or licensees; and
(b)
employers.
for the application
of the
_o Examples are exposure from 4°K m the body, from cosmic mdmtlon at the surface of the earth and from unmodrfied
concentrahons of red,onucl_les in most raw materials
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(7)
Other
Standards.
(a)
CO)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
parties shall have subsidiary responsibilities
for the application
These parties may include, as appropriate:
suppliers;
workers;
radiation protection officers;
medical practitioners;
health professionals;
qualified experts;
Ethical Review Committees; and
any other party to whom a principal
party has delegated
responsibilities.
(8)
The parties
Standards.
shall have the general
and specific responsibilities
of the
specific
set out in the
(9)
The general responsibilities of principal parties, within the requirements
specified
by the Regulatory Authority, are:
(a)
to establish protection and safety objectives in conformity with the relevant
requirements
of the Standards; and
Co) to develop, implement and documem a protection and safety programme
commensurate
with the nature and extent of the risks associated with the
practices and interventions under their responsibility and sufficiem to ensure
compliance with the requirements
of the Standards, and, within this
programme:
(i)
to determine the measures and resources needed to achieve the
protection and safety objectives and to ensure that the resources
are provided and the measures properly implemented;
(ii)
to keep such measures and resources continually under review,
and regularly to verify that the protection and safety objectives are
being achieved;
(iii)
to identify any failures and shortcomings
in the protection and
safety measures and resources, and to take steps to correct them
and prevent their recurrence;
(iv)
to establish arrangements,
through representatives
if appropriate,
for facilitating consultation and co-operation between all relevant
parties with respect to protection and safety; and
(v)
to keep appropriate
records regarding the discharge of their
responsibilities.
20
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INSPECTIONS
(10)
The principal parties shall permit duly authorized representatives of the Regulatory
Authority, and oft he relevant Sponsoring Organizattons when applicable, to inspect their
protection and safety records and to carry out appropriate inspections of their authorized
activities.
1.7
*
NON-COMPLIANCE
(11)
In the event of a breach of any applicable requirement of the Standards, principal
parties shall, as appropriate:
(a)
investigate the breach and its causes, circumstances and consequences;
(b)
take appropriate action to remedy the circumstances that led to the breach
and to prevent a recurrence of similar breaches;
(c)
communicate
to the Regulatory Authority, and to the relevant Sponsoring
Organizations when applicable, on the causes of the breach and on the
corrective or preventive actions taken or to be taken; and
(d)
take whatever other actions are necessary as required by the Standards.
(12)
The communication
of a breach of the Standards shall be prompt and it shall be
mediate
whenever an emergency exposure situation has developed or is developing.
(13)
Failure to take corrective or preventive actions within a reasonable
time in
accordance with national regulations
shall be grounds for modifying, suspending or
withdrawing any authorization that had been granted by the Regulatory Authority or the
relevant Sponsoring Organization.
(14)
Wilful breach of, attempted breach of or conspiracy to breach any requirement
of the Standards is subject to the provisions for such infractions by the appropriate
national legislation of the State, or by the Regulatory ,_uthority or, when applicable, by
the relevant Sponsoring Organization.
1.8
ENTRY INTO FORCE
(15)
The Standards come into force one year after the date of their adoption
acknowledgement,
as appropriate,
by the relevant Sponsoring Organization.
or
,
(16) Should a State choose to adopt the Standards, the Standards
at the time indicated
in the formal adoption by that State.
shall come into force
_,
(17)
If a modification to an existing practice or source is required by the Regulatory
Authority or, where applicable, by the relevant Sponsoring Orgamzation, in order to
comply with some requirement
of the Standards, such a requirement
should take effect
within an approved period if such a period is required for the modification.
21
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RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS
(18) The requirements of the Standards axe in addition to and not in place of other
applicable requirements, such as those of relevant binding conventions and national
regulations.
(19) In cases of conflict between the requirements of the Standards and other
applicable requirements, the Regulatory Authorityshall determine which reqmrement is
to be enforced.
(20) Nothing in the Standards shall be construed as restricting any actions that may
otherwise be necessary for protection and safety.
1.10
INTERPRETATION
(21) Except as specifically authorized by the statutory Governing Body of a relevant
Sponsoring Organization,no interpretation of the Standards by any officer or employee
of the Sponsoring Organization other than a written interpretation by the Director
General of the Sponsoring Organizattonwill be binding on the Sponsoring Orgamzation.
I. 11
COMMUNICATIONS
(22) The appropriate responsible party, as established by the Standards, shall report
on compliance with the requirements of the Standards.
(23)
Reports on compliance and other communications on official interpretation of
the Standards shall be addressed to the Regulatory Authorityor the relevant Sponsoring
organizations, as appropriate.
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SECTION H
REQUIREMENTS
II. 1
II. 1.1
(24)
II. 1.2
FOR PRACTICES
APPLICATION
Practices
The practices to which the Standards shall apply include:
(a)
the production of sources and the usc of radiation or radioactive substances
for medical, industrial, veterinary or agricultural purposes, or for education,
training or research,
including any activity related to that use which
involves or could involve exposure to ra&ation or radioactive substances;
Co)
the generation of energy by nuclear power, including any activity in the
nuclear fuel cycle which involves or could involve exposure to radiation or
radioactive
substances;
(c)
practices involving exposure to natural sources specified by
the Regulatory Authority as requiring control; and
(d)
any other practice specified by the Regulatory Authority.
Sources
(25)
The sources within any practice to which the requirements
for practices of the
Standards shall apply include:
(a)
radioactive substances and devices that contain radioactive substances or
produce radiation, including consumer products, sealed sources, unsealed
sources, and radiation generators, including mobile radiography equipment;
Co)
installations and facilities which contain radioactive substances or devices
which produce radiation, including irradiation installations, mines and mills
processing radtoactive ores, installations processing radioactive substances,
nuclear installations, and radioactive waste management facilities; and
(c)
any other source specified by the Regulatory Authority.
.
(26)
The requirements
of the Standards
shall apply to each individual source of
radiation within an installation or facility and to the complete installation or facility
regarded as a source, as appropriate,
according to the requirements
of the Regulatory
Authority.
II. 1.3
Exposures
.n
(27)
The exposures to which the requirements
of the Standards
apply are any
occupational exposure, medical exposure or public exposure due to any relevant practice or
source within the practice, including both normal exposures and potential exposures.
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(28)
Exposure to natural sources shall normally be considered as a chronic exposure
situation and, if necessary, shall be subject to the requirements
for interventzon, except
thatn:
(a)
public exposure delivered by effluent discharges
or the disposal of
radioactive waste arising from a practice involving natural sources shall be
subject to the requirements for practices given in this Section, unless the
exposure is excluded or the source is exempted; and
Co)
occupational exposure of workers to natural sources shall be subject to the
requirements
for practices given in this section if these sources lead to:
(i)
exposure to radon required by or directly related to their work 12,
irrespective of whether the exposure is higher or lower than the
action level for remedial action relating to chronic exposure
situations involving radon in workplaces _3, unless the exposure is
excluded or the practice or source is exempted; or
(ii)
exposure to radon incidental to their work, but the exposure is
higher than the action level for remedial action relating to chronic
exposure situations involving radon in workplacesl2; unless the
exposure is excluded or
(iii)
exposure specified by the Regulatory.duthority to be subject to such
requirements.
(29)
The detailed requirements
for occupational exposures, medical exposures, public
exposures and potential exposures are specified in Appendices I, II, III and IV respectively.
These shall be considered consequential requirements subsidiary to those established in
this Section, unless other more desirable options for protection and safety are established
by the Regulatory _'luthorityor, where applicable, by the relevant Sponsoring Organization.
I1.2
BASIC OBLIGATIONS
II.2.1 General
Obligation
(30)
No practice shall be adopted, introduced, conducted, discontinued or ceased and
no source within a practice shall, as applicable, be mined, milled, processed, designed,
manufactured,
constructed, assembled, acquired, imported, exported, sold, loaned, hired,
received, sited, located, commissioned, possessed, used, operated, maintained,
repaired,
transferred,
decommissioned,
disassembled, transported, stored or disposed of, except in
accordance with the appropriate requirements of the Standards, unless the exposure from
such practice or source is excluded from the Standards or the practice or source is
24
Il
At the tJme of the Standards' endorsement, the available quanatat]ve recommendaaons from the ICRP for
prote_on agmnst exposure to natural sources were confined to radon It was therefore dec_ded that the General
Reqmrements on protecfJon against natural sources will be that exposure to natural sources, which _snormally a
chrontc exposure situatJon, should be subJeCtto tntervent_onand that the requzrements for pt'acbces should be
generally hm_ed to exposure to radon, the exposure to other natural sources being expeCted to be handled by
excluslon, exernp_on of the source, or otherw,se at the dzscretJonof the RegulatoryAuthonty
12
The meaning of '[exposures] requ,red by or d_rectly related to their work' relates to the purpose of the work, e g
to e_q3osureto matenal which is used specifically for _tsrad_oacbve prope_es
13
See Annex VI, Guidelines for Ac'bon Levels m Chronic Exposure SAuatlons, Radon in Workplaces, paragraph
(VI 3)
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exempted from the requirements
notification and authorization.
-
·
of the Standards,
including the requirements
of
(31) The application of the requirements of the Standards to any practice or any source
within a practice or to any of the actions specified in the previous paragraph shall be
commensurate with the characteristics of the practice or source and with the magnitude
and likelihood of the exposures and shall also conform to any requirements specified by
the Regulatory Authority or, whenever applicable, by the relevant Sponsoring
Organizations. Not all the requirements are relevant for every practice or source, nor for
ail the actions specified in the previous paragraph.
II.2.2 Transport
(32)
The transport of radioactive sources is subject to the requirements of the IAEA
Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive MateriaP4 and any applicable
international convention.
II.3
11.3.1
ADMINISTRATIVE
REQUIREMENTS
Notification, and Authorization by Registration or Licensing
(33) Any person intending to carry out any of the actions specified under the General
Obligations for practices of the Standards shall notify the Regulatory Authority of such
intention.
Notification for consumer products is required only with respect to
manufacturing, assembling, importing and distributing.
(34) The person responsible for any sealed source, unsealedsource or radiation generator
shall apply to the Regulatory Authority for an authorizationwhich shall take the form of
either a registration_5or a licence, unless the source is exempted.
(35) The person responsible for any irradiation installation, mine or mill processing
radioactive ore, installation processing radioactive substances, nuclear installation,
radioactive waste management facility, or for any use of a source which the Regulatory
Authority has not designated as suitable for registration, shall apply to the Regulatory
Authority for an authorization which shall take the form of a licence.
(36)
Any person applying for an authorization shall:
(a) submit to the Regulatory Authority and, if applicable, the relevant Sponsoring
Organization relevant information necessary to support the application;
14
The last edrbon of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Rad:oa_ve
IAEA Safety Senes No 6, IAEA, Vienna (1990).
Matenal was pubhshed as
is
Typical pracaces that are amenable to regas=atJen
are those for which (a) safety can largely be ensured by the
des:gn of the facilrbes and eqmpment, (b) the operating procedures are s_rnple to follow, (c) the safety trmmng
reqmrernents are mmtmal, and (d) there m a history' of few safety problems w_h operatmns Reglstrabon ts best
suited for those pracbces for whzch operations do not vary significantly.
25
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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DISTR., ORIGINAL-.F__GLISIt
Co) refrain from carrying out any of the actions described in the General
Obligations of the Principal Requirements
for practices of the Standards until
the registration or licence, as appropriate, has been granted;
(c) make an assessment of the nature, magnitude and likelihood of the exposures
attributed to the source and take all necessary steps for the protection and
safety of both workers and the public; and
(d) if the potential for an exposure is greater than any level specified by the
Regulatory Authority, then a saj_ty assessment shall be made and submitted to
the Regulatory Authority as part of the application.
(37)
With respect to an application for the authorization of a source to be used for
prescribing medical exposure, the person responsible for such a source shall include in the
application:
(a) the qualifications in radiation protection of the medicatpractitioners who are
to be so designated by name on the registration or licence; or
Co) a statement that only medicalpractitioners with the qualifications in radiation
protection specified in the relevant regulations or to be specified in the
registration or licence will be permitted to prescribe medical exposure by means
of the authorized source.
11.3.2
Authorized
Legal Persons:
Registrants
and Licensees
(38)
Registrants and licensees shall bear the responsibility
for setting up and
implementing
the technical and organizational
measures that are needed for ensuring
protection and safety for the sources for which they are authorized. They may appoint
other persons to carry out actions and tasks related to these responsibilities, but they
shall retain the responsibility for the actions and tasks themselves.
Regzstrants and
licensees shall specifically identify the individuals responsible for ensuring compliance
with these Standards.
(39)
Registrants and licensees shall notify the Regulatory Authority of their intentions to
introduce modifications
to any practice or source for which they are so authorized,
whenever the modifications could have significant implications for protection or safety,
and shall not carry out any such modification unless specifically authorized by the
Regulatory Authority.
II.3.3
Exemption
(40)
Practices and sources within a practice may be exempted from the requirements
of
the Standards provided that such sources comply with:
(a) the requirements on exemption specified in Annex I, or
CO) any exemption levels defined by the Regulatory Authority on the basis of the
exemption criteria specified in Annex I.
(41)
26
Exemption shall not be granted
for practices
deemed
not to be justified.
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II.3.4
'
Clearance
(42)
Sources, including substances, materials and objects, within notified or authorized
practices may be released from the requirements of the Standards subject to complying
with clearance levels approved bythe Regulatory Authority. Such clearance levels shall
take account of the exemption criteria specified in Annex I and shall not be higher than
the exemption levels specified in Annex I, unless otherwise approved by the Regulatory
.4uthority 16.
II.4
RADIATION
PROTECTION
II.4.1
Justification
of Practices
REQUIREMENTS
(43)
No practice or source within a practice should be authorized unless the practice
produces sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals or to society to offset the radiation
harm that it might cause; that is: unless the practice is justified, taking into account
social, economic and other relevant factors.
(44)
Detailed requirements
are given in Appendix 2.
for the justification
of practices involving
medical exposures
(45)
Except for justified practices involving medical exposures, the following practices
are deemed to be not justified whenever they would result in an increase, by deliberate
addition
or activation, of the activity of radioactive
substances
in the associated
commodities
or products:
(a) practices involving food, beverages, cosmetics or any other commodity or
product intended for ingestion, inhalation
or percutaneous
intake by, or
application to, a human being; and
(b) practices involving the frivolous use of radiation or radioactive
substances in
commodities
or products such as toys and personal jeweUery or adornments.
H.4.2
'
Dose limitation
(46)
The normal exposure of individuals shall be restricted so that neither the total
effective dose nor the total equivalent dose to relevant organs or tissues, caused by the
possible combination
of exposures from authorized practices exceeds any relevant dose
limit specified in Annex II, except in special circumstances provided for in Appendix I.
Dose limits shall not apply to medical exposures from authorizedpractices.
II.4.3
Optimization
of Protection
and Safety
(47)
In relation to any particular source within apractice, except for therapeutic
medical
exposures, protection and safety shall be optimi:,ed in order that the magnitude
of
individual doses, the number of people exposed and the likelihood of incurring exposures
all be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into
_6
Clearance of bulk amounts of rnatenals wrth actn,_ concentr_on lower than the exernptJonlevels specffiecl _n
Annex [ may requ_re further considerahon by the ReoulatoryAgthotrty
27
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account, within the restriction
subject to constraints.
that the doses to individuals
delivered
by the source be
(48) The process of optimization
of protection and safety measures may range from
intuitive qualitative analyses to quantitative analyses using decision aiding techniques, but
shall be sufficient to take all relevant factors into account in a coherent way so as to
contribute to achieving the following objectives:
(a) to determine
optimized protection and safety measures for the prevailing
circumstances, with account taken of the available protection and safety options
as well as the nature, magnitude and likelihood of exposures; and
(b) to establish criteria, on the basis of the results of the optimi?_tion,
for the
restriction
of exposures and their probabilities
by means of measures for
preventing
accidents and mitigating their consequences.
II.4.4
Constraints
(49)
Except for medical exposure, the optimi?ation of the protection and safety measures
associated with any particular source within a practice shall be subject to dose constraints
which:
(a)
do not exceed either the appropriate values established or agreed to by
the Regulatory Authority for such source or values which can cause the
dose limtts to be exceeded; and
(b)
ensure for sources (including
radioactive waste management facilitzes)
which can release radioactive substances to the environment,
that the
cumulative effect of each annual release from the source be restricted so
that the effective dose in any year to any member of the public, including
people distant from the source and people of future generations,
is
unlikely to exceed a relevant dose limit, taking into account the exposures
expected to be delivered by all other relevant sources and practices under
control.
I1.4.5
Guidance
Levels for Medical
Exposure
(50)
Guidance levels for medical exposure shall be established, for use as guidance to
medical practitioners. The guidance levels are intended:
(a) to be a reasonable indication of doses that are achievable for average sized
patients;
(b) to be established by relevant professional bodies in consultation with the
Regulatory Authority following the detailed requirements
of Appendix II and
the guidance levels given in Annex III;
(c) to provide guidance on what should be achievable with current good practice
rather than what should be considered as optimum performance;
(d) to be applied with flexibility to allow higher exposures if these are indicated
by sound clinical judgement; and
(e) to be revised as technology and techniques improve.
28
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I1.5
MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS
II.5.1 Safety Culture
'
'
(51) A safety culture shall be established and maintained to encourage a questioning
and learning attitude to protection and safety and to discourage complacency, which shall
ensure that:
(a) policies and procedures be established that identify the protection and safety
of the public and workers as being of the highest priority;
Co) problems affecting protection and saj_ty be promptly identified and corrected
in a manner commensurate with their importance;
(c) the responsibilities of each individual, including those at senior management
levels, for protection and safety be clearly identified and each individual be
suitably trained and qualified;
(d) clear lines of authority for decisions on protection and safety be established;
and
(e) organizational arrangements and lines of communications be established that
result in an appropriate flow of information on protection and safety at and
between the various levels in the organization of the registrant or licensee.
11.5.2
(52)
Quality Assurance
Quality assurance programmes shall be established that provide, as appropriate:
(a) adequate assurance that the specified requirements relating to protection and
saj'ktybe satisfied; and
Co) quality control mechanisms and procedures for reviewing and assessing the
overall effectiveness of protection and safety measures.
11.5.3 Human Factors
-
(53) Provision shall be made for reducing as far as practicable the contribution of
human error to accidents and other events that could give rise to exposures, by ensuring
that:
(a) all personnel on whom protection and safety depend be appropriately trained
and qualified such that they understand their responsibilities and perform
their duties with appropriate judgement and according to defined procedures;
Co) sound ergonomic piinciples be followed as appropriate in designing equipment
and operating procedures, so as to facilitate the safe operation or use of
equipment, to minimize the possibility that operating errors will lead to
accidents, and to reduce the possibility of misinterpreting indications of normal
and abnormal conditions; and
(c) appropriate equipment, sa2_ty systems, and procedural requirements be
provided and other necessary provisions be made:
(i)
to reduce, as far as practicable, the possibility that human error will lead
to inadvertent or unintentional exposure of any person;
(ii) to provide means for detecting human errors and for correcting or
compensating for them; and
29
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11.5.4 Qnallfied
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to facilitate intervention in the event of failure of safety systems or of
other protective measures.
Experts
(54)
Qualified experts shall be identified
the observance of the Standards.
and made available
for providing
advice on
(55)
Registrants and licensees shall inform the Regulatory Authority of the arrangements
made to make available the expertise necessary to provide advice on the observance of
the Standards.
The information provided shall include the scope of the functions of any
qualified experts identified.
II.6
TECHNICAL
REQUIREMENTS
(56)
Relevant principal parties shall ensure that the protection and safety measures for
practices and sources for which they have responsibilities, other than nuclear installations
and radioactive waste management installations, are governed by the interrelated technical
requirements
of this Subsection II.6. These technical requirements
shall be applied when
appropriate
and to an extent commensurable with the magnitude and likelihood of the
exposures expected from the practice or source. Nuclear installations and radioactive waste
management installations including disposal facilities are typically subject to more specific
requirements
such as those issued under the IAEA's NUSS _7 and RADWASS _s
programmes,
as well as other relevant requirements
of the Sponsoring Organizations.
As these more specific requirements
are generally consistent with the Standards, it
follows that, in complying with them, such more complex installations
should also
generally comply with the Standards.
II.6.1
Security
of Sources
(57)
Sources shall be kept secure so as to prevent theft or damage and to prevent any
unauthorized
person from carrying out any of the actions specified in the Basic
Obligations of the Principal Requirements,
by ensuring that:
(a) control of a source not be relinquished without compliance with all relevant
requirements
specified ia the registration or licence and without immediate
communication
to the Regulatory Authority, and when applicable
to the
relevant Sponsoring Organization, of information regarding any decontrolled,
lost, stolen or missing source;
Co) a source not be transferred unless the receiver possesses a valid authorization;
and
30
17
International Atomic Energy Agency,, Pubhcat_ons w_hm the NUSS programme,
IAEA, Vienna (1988)
Safety Series No 50
la
International Atomic Energy Agency A senes of International Consensus Documents on the Safe
Management and D_sposal of Rad:oactwe Wastes, RADWASS Programme, IAEA, Vienna (1992)
A'I_ACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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(c) a periodic inventory of movable sources be conducted at appropriate intervals
to confirm that they are in their assigned locations and are secure.
11.6.2 Defence in Depth
(58) A multilayer system of provisions for protection and safety commensurate with the
magnitude and likelihood of the potential exposures involved shall be applied to sources
such that a failure at one layer is compensated for or corrected by subsequent layers, for
the purposes of:
(a) preventing accidents that may cause exposure;
Co) mitigating the consequences of any such accident that does occur; and
(c) restoring sources to safe conditions after any such accident.
11.6.3 Good Engineering Practice
(59) As
operation,
on sound
(a)
applicable, the siting or location, design, construction, assembly, commissioning,
maintenance and decommissioning of sources within practices shall be based
engineering which shall, as appropriate:
take account of approved codes and standards and other appropriately
documented instruments;
Co) be supported by reliable managerial and organi?ational
features, with the aim
of ensuring protection and safety throughout the life of the sources;
(c) include sufficient safety margins for the design and construction of the sources,
and for operations involving the sources, such as to ensure reliable
performance during normal operation, taking into account quality, redundancy
and inspectability, with emphasis on preventing accidents, mitigating their
consequences and restricting any future exposures; and
(d) take account of relevant developments in technical criteria, as well as the
results of any relevant research on protection or safety and lessons from
experience.
11.7
11.7.I
-
VER.WICATION OF SAFETY
Safety Assessments
(60) Safety assessments related to protection and safety measures for sources within
practices shall be made at different stages, including siting, design, manufacture,
construction, assembly, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning, as
appropriate, in order:
(a) to identify the ways in which normal and potential exposures could be incurred,
account being taken of the effect of events external to the sources as well as
events
directly
involving
the
sources and
their ' associated
equipment;
Co) to determine the expected magnitudes of normalexposures; and, to the extent
reasonable and practicable, to estimate the probabilities and the magnitudes
of potential exposures; and
(c) to assess the quality and extent of the protection and safety
provisions.
31
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II.7.2 Monitoring and Verification of Compliance
(61) Monitoring and verification of the parameters necessary for demonstrating
compliance with the requirements of the Standards shall be conducted.
(62) For the purposes of monitoringand verification of compliance, suitable monitoring
equipment shall be provided and verification procedures introduced. The equipment
shall be properly maintained and tested and shall be calibrated at appropriate intervals
with reference to standards traceable to national or international standards.
11.7.3 Records
(63) Records shall be maintained of the results of monitoring and verification of
compliance, including records of the tests and calibrations carried out in accordance with
the Standards.
32
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SECTION III
INTERVENTION
III. 1
APPLICATION
(64)
The intervention situations to which the Standards
apply are:
(a) emergency exposure situations requiring protective action to reduce or avert
temporary exposures, including:
(i)
accident and emergency situations in which an emergency plan or
emergency procedures have been activated; and
(ii) any other temporary exposure situation identified by the Regulatory
Authority or the Intervening Organization as warranting intervention;
and
Co) chronic exposure situations requiring remedial action to reduce or avert chronic
exposure, including:
(i)
natural exposure, such as exposure to radon in buildings and
workplaces;
(ii)
exposure to radioactive residues from past events, such as to the
radioactive contamination
caused by accidents, after the situation
requiring protective action has been terminated,
and from the
conduct of practices and the use of sources not under the system
of notification, and authorization; and
(iii) any other chronic exposure situation specified by the Regulatory
Authority or the Intervening Organization as warranting intervention
(65)
The detailed requirements
relating to emergency exposure situations and chronic
exposure situations are set out in Appendices 5 and 6 respectively. These shall be
considered as consequential
requirements
subsidiary to those specified in this Section,
unless other more desirable options for protection and safety are established
by the
Regulatory Authority or, where applicable, by a relevant Sponsoring Organization.
Ili.2
BASIC
OBLIGATIONS
(66)
In order to reduce or avert
remedial actions will be undertaken
exposures in intervention situations,
whenever they are justified.
protective
or
(67)
The form, scale, and duration of any such protective or remedial action shall be
optimized so as to produce the maximum net benefit - understood
in a broad sense under the prevailing social and economic circumstances.
(68) In the case of emergency exposure situations, protective actions are not normally
likely to be necessary unless intervention or action levels t9 are or may be exceeded.
33
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(69)
In the case of chronic exposure situations, remedial actions are not normally
to be necessary unless the relevant action levels _9are exceeded.
111.3 ADMINISTRATIVE
111.3.1
likely
REQUIREMENTS
Responsibilities
(70) For occupational exposures incurred by workers undertaking
intervention , the
responsibilities
set forth in Appendix V shall be discharged by the registrant or licensee,
the employer and the Intervening Organizations, as required by the Regulatory Authortty.
(71)
For public exposure in intervention situations, responsibilities
for the various
organizational
and other functions necessary for ensuring effective intervention as
identified and designated by the government shall be discharged:
(a) by the appropriate national, regional or local Intervening Organizations; and,
Co) if a practice or source is involved that is registered or licensed by the regtstrant
or licensee.
(72)
The relevant Intervening Organizations shall prepare a general plan or plans for
co-ordinating
and implementing the actions required for supporting
protecttve actions
under emergency plans for registrants and licensees, as well as for other situations that
may require prompt intervention. This includes situations involving such sources of
exposure as sources illegally brought into the country, falling satellites equipped with
sources or radioactive materials from accidents beyond national borders.
(73)
Each registrant or licensee responsible for sources for which prompt intervention
may be required
shall ensure that an emergency plan
exists that defines on-site
responsibilities
and takes account of off-site responsibilities
appropriate for the source
and provides for implementation
of each relevant form of protective action, as set out
in Appendix V.
(74)
For chronic exposure situations in which relevant action levels for remedial actions
are or may be exceeded, the relevant Intervening Organizations shall ensure that generic
or site specific remedial action plans, as necessary, are developed. When remedtal action
is to be undertaken,
the legal person responsible for carrying it out shall ensure that the
remedial action taken is in accordance with the generic remedial action plan or that
specific remedial action plans are developed, approved and implemented.
111.3.2
Notification
Requirements
(75)
Registrants and licensees shall notify the Regulatory Authority and the relevant
Intervening Organizations promptly when a situation requiring protective action has arisen
or is expected to arise, and shall keep them informed of:
_s
34
Ir_ervent_onle_ls and action levels serve to protect members of the pubhc and are specified separately for
different protective acbons and rernedtal ac'boris Optimized levels for lustd_ecltnter_nt_ons are normally selected
for ,ncluslon m emergency plans and remedial actions plans, and, in the case of accidents, are re-evaluated at the
lame of their implementation on the basis of current cond_ons.
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(a) the situation
CO) the measures
and
as it develops and how it is expected to develop;
taken for the protection of workers and members of the pubhc;
(c) the exposures that have been incurred
IIL4
RADIATION
PROTECTION
and that are expected to be incurred.
REQUIREMENTS
(76)
Intervention should be justified only if it is expected to achieve more good than
harm, with due regard to health, social and economic factors.
Protective actions or
remedial actions will nearly always be justified if the dose levels approach or are expected
to approach the levels specified in Annex IV.
(77)
Optimized intervention levels and action levels shall be specified in plans for
intervention situations, on the basis of the guidance given in Annexes V and VI,
modified to take account of local and national conditions such as:
(a) the individual and collective exposures to be averted by the intervention; and
Co) the radiological and non-radiological
health risks and the financial and social
costs and benefits associated with the intervention.
(78)
During the response to an accident, justification of intervention and optimization
of intervention levels shall be reconsidered,
with account taken of:
(a) those factors which are unique to the actual situation, such as the nature of
the release, weather conditions and other relevant non-radiological
factors;
and
Co) the likelihood that the protective actions will provide
future conditions may be uncertain.
a net benefit, given that
35
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36
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APPENDICES
DETAILED
REQUIREMENTS
37
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38
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APPENDIX I
OCCUPATIONAL
1.
.
EXPOSURE
RESPONSIBILITIES
(79)
Registrants and licensees and employers of workers who are engaged in activities
involving normal or potential exposure shall be responsible:
(a) for the protection of workers from occupational exposure; and
Co) for compliance with any other relevant requirements
of the Standards.
(80)
Employers who are also registrants or licensees shall have the responsibihties
both employers and registrants or licensees.
of
(81)
Employers, registrants and licensees shall apply the requirements of the Standards
to any occupational exposure, from either man-made
or natural sources, which is not
excluded from the Standards.
'
(82)
Employers, registrants and licensees shall ensure, for all workers engaged in
activities that involve or could involve occupational exposure, that:
(a) occupational exposures be limited as specified in Annex II;
Co) occupational
protection and saj_ty be optimized
in accordance
with the
principal requirements of the Standards;
(c) decisions regarding measures
for occupational
protection
and safety, be
recorded
and made available
to the relevant
parties,
through
their
representatives
where appropriate, as specified by the Regulatory Authority;
(d) policies, procedures and organizational arrangements
for protection and saj_ty
be established for implementing the relevant requirements
of the Standards
with priority given to design and technical measures to control radiation
hazards;
(e) suitable and adequate facilities, equipment and services for protection and
saj_ty be provided, the nature and extent of which are commensurate
with the
expected magnitude and likelihood of the occupational exposure;
(f) all necessary health surveillance and health services be provided;
(g) appropriate
protective devices and monitoring equipment
be provided and
arrangements
made for its proper use;
(h) suitable and adequate human resources and appropriate training in protection
and safety be provided, as well as periodic retraining and updating as required
in order to ensure the necessary level of competence;
(i) adequate records be maintained as required by the Standards;
(j) arrangements be made to facilitate consultation and co-operation with workers
with respect to protection and safety, through their representatives
where
appropriate,
about
all measures
necessary
to achieve
the effective
implementation
of the Standards; and
(k) all necessary conditions to promote a safety culture be provided.
(83)
Employers, registrants or licensees shall ensure that workers exposed to radiation
from sources other than nattual sources that are not directly related to their work or not
39
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required by their work receive the same level of protection as if they were members of
the public.
(84)
Registrants or licensees shall, as a precondition for engagement of workers who are
not their employees, obtain from the employers, including self-employed individuals, the
previous exposure history of such workers and other information as may be necessary to
provide protection and safety in compliance with the Standards.
(85) If workers are to be engaged in work that involves or could involve a source that
is not under the control of their employer, the registrant or licensee responsible for the
source shall provide:
(a) appropriate
information to the employer for the purpose of demonstrating
that the workers are provided protection in accordance with the Standards; and
(b) such additional available information about compliance with the Standards as
the employer may request prior to, during and after the engagement of such
workers by the registrant or hcensee.
(86)
Employers, registrants and licensees shall take such administrative
actions as are
necessary to ensure that workers be informed that protection and safety are integral parts
of a general occupational
health and safety programme in which they have certain
obligations and responsibilities
for their own protection and the protection
of others
against radiation and for the safety of sources.
(87)
Employers, registrants and licensees shall facilitate compliance
requirements
of the Standards.
(88)
by workers with the
Workers shall:
(a) follow any applicable rules and procedures
for protection and safety specified
by the employer, registrant or licensee;
(b) use properly the monitoring devices and the protective
equipment
and
clothing provided;
(c) co-operate with the employer, licensee or registrant with respect to protection
and safety and the operation of radiological health surveillance and dose
assessment programmes;
(d) provide to the employer, registrant or licensee such information on their past
and current work as is relevant to ensure effective and comprehensive
protection and safety for themselves and others;
(e) abstain from any wilful action that could put themselves or others in situations
that contravene the requirements of the Standards; and
(f) accept such information, instruction and training concerning protection and
safety as will enable them to conduct their work in accordance
with the
requirements
of the Standards.
(89)
If for any reason a worker is able to identify circumstances that could adversely
affect compliance with the Standards, the worker shall as soon as feasible report such
circumstances to the employer, registrant or licensee.
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(90)
Employer&registrars or licensees shall record any report received from a worker
that identifies circumstances which could affect compliance with the Standards, and shall
take appropriate action.
·
'
(91) Registrants and licensees shall, as a precondition for engagement of workers in
activities that involve or could involve exposure from a source not under the registrants'
or licensees' control, provide the employer with any information about workerprotection
under the Standards which the employer requests in order for the employer to
demonstrate compliance with other applicable laws and regulations governing workplace
hazards.
(92) Nothing in the Standards shall be construed as relieving employersfrom complying
with applicable national and local laws and regulations governing workplace hazards,
including radiation hazards from natural sources which are unconnected with the work.
2.
CONDITIONS OF SERVICE
2.1
Special Compensatory Arrangements
(93) The conditions of service of workers shall be independent of the existence or the
possibility of occupational exposure. Special compensatory arrangements or preferential
treatment with respect to salary or special insurance coverage, working hours, length of
vacation, additional holidays or retirement benefits shall neither be granted nor be used
as substitutes for the provision of proper protection and safety measures to ensure
compliance with the requirements of the Standards.
2.2
Pregnant Workers
(94) A female worker should, on becoming aware that she is pregnant, notify the
employer in order that her working conditions may be modified if necessary.
,
(95) The notification of pregnancy shall not be considered a reason to exclude a female
worker from work; however, the employer shall adapt the working conditions of a female
worker who has notified pregnancy with respect to occupational exposure, in order to
ensure that the embryo or foetus be afforded the same broad level of protection as
required for membersof the public.
2.3
Alternative Employment
(96) Employers shall make every reasonable effort to provide workers with suitable
alternative employment in circumstances where it has been determined, either by the
RegulatoryAuthorityor in the framework of the health surveillance programme required
by the Standards, that the worker may, for health reasons, no longer continue in
employment involving occupational exposure.
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2.4
Conditions
for Young Persons
(97)
No person under the age of 16 years shall be subjected
to occupational exposure.
(98)
No person under the age of 18 years shall be allowed to work in a controlled area
unless supervised and then only for the purpose of training.
3.
CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Controlled
OF AREAS
Areas
(99)
Registrants and licensees shall designate as a controlled area any area in which
specific protective measures or safety provisions are or could be required for:
(a) controlling normal exposures or preventing the spread of contamtnatton during
normal working conditions; and
(b) preventing or limiting the extent of potential exposures.
(100) In determining the boundaries of any controlled area, registrants and hcensees
shall take account of the magnitudes of the expected normal exposures, the likelihood and
magnitude of potential exposures, and the nature and extent of the required protection and
safety procedures.
(101) Registrants and licensees shall:
(a) delineate controlled areas by physical means or, where this is not reasonably
practicable, by some other suitable means;
(b) where a source is exposed or energized only intermittently or is moved from
place to place, delineate an appropriate
controlled area and specify exposure
times by means that are appropriate under the prevailing circumstances;
(c) display a warning symbol, such as that recommended
by the ISO 2°, and
appropriate
instructions at access points and other appropriate
locations
within controlled areas;
(d) establish occupational protection and salty measures, including local rules and
procedures that are appropriate for controlled areas;
(e) restrict access to controlled areas by means of administrative procedures, such
as the use of work permits, and by physical barriers, which could include locks
or interlocks; the degree of restriction
being commensurable
with the
magnitude and likelihood of the expected exposures;
(f) provide, as appropriate, at entrances to controlled areas:
(i)
protective clothing and equipment;
(ii) monitoring equipment; and
(iii) suitable storage for personal clothing;
(g) provide, as appropriate, at exits from controlled areas:
(i)
equipment for monitoring for contamination of skin and clothing;
(ii) equipment for monitoring for contamination of any object or substance
being removed from the area;
2o
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(iii) washing or showering facilities; and
(iv) suitable storage for contaminated protective clothing and equipment;
and
Ca) periodically review conditions to determine the possible need to revise the
protection measures or safety provisions, or the boundaries of controlled areas.
3.2
Supervised Areas
(102) Registrants and licensees shall designate as a supervisedarea any area not already
designated as a controlled area but where occupational exposure conditions need to be
kept under review even though specific protection measures and safety provisions are not
normally needed.
(103) Registrants and licensees shall, taking into account the nature and extent of
radiation hazards in the supervised areas:
(a) delineate the supervised areas by appropriate means;
(b) display approved signs at appropriate access points to supervised areas; and
(c) periodically review the conditions to determine any need for protective
measures and salty provisions or changes to the boundaries of supervised
areas.
4.
.
LOCAL RULES AND SUPERVISION
(104) Employers, registrants and licensees shall, in consultation with workers, through
their representatives
if appropriate: ·
(a) establish in writing such local rules and procedures as are necessary to
ensure adequate levels of protection and safety for workersand other persons;
Co) include in the local rules and procedures the values of any relevant
investigation level or authorized level, and the procedure to be followed in
the event that any such value is exceeded;
(c) make the local rules and procedures and the protective measures and safety
provisions known to those workersto whom they apply and to other persons
who may be affected by them;
(d) ensure that any work involving occupational exposure be adequately
supervised and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the rules, procedures,
protective measures and safety provisions be observed; and
(e)
when required by the Regulatory.4uthority, designate a radiation protection
Officer.
(105) Employers, in co-operation with registrants and licensees, shall:
(a) provide to all workers adequate information on the health risk due to their
occupational exposure, whether normal or potential exposure, adequate
instruction and training on protection and safety, and adequate information
on the significance for protection and safety of their actions;
Co) provide to female workers who are liable to enter controlled or supervised
areas appropriate information on:
(i)
the risk to the embryo or foetus due to exposure of a pregnant
woman;
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(ii)
(c)
(d)
5.
the importance
for a female worker of notifying her employer as
soon as she suspects that she is pregnant; and
(iii)
the risk to an infant ingesting radioactive substances through
breast feeding;
provide to those workers who could be affected by an emergency plan
appropriate
information,
instruction and training; and
keep records of the training provided to individual workers.
PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
(106) Employers, registrants and licensees shall ensure that:
(a)
workers be provided
with suitable and adequate
personal
protective
equipment which meets any relevant standards or specifications, including
as appropriate:
(i)
protective clothing;
(ii) protective
respiratory
equipment
for
which
the
protection
characteristics are made known to the users; and
(iii) protective aprons and gloves and organ shields;
(b)
when appropriate, workers receive adequate instruction in the proper use of
respiratory protective equipment, including testing for good fit;
(c)
tasks requiring the use of some specific personal protective equipment be
assigned only to workers who on the basis of medical advice are capable of
safely sustaining the extra effort necessary;
(d)
all personal protective equipment be maintained in proper condition and
if appropriate
be tested at regular intervals;
(e)
appropriate
personal protective equipment be maintained for use in the
event of intervention; and
(lc) if the use of personal protective equipment is considered for any given task,
account be taken of any additional exposure that could result owing to the
additional time or inconvenience,
and of any additional non-radiological
risks that might be associated with performing the task while using protective
equipment.
(107) Registrants and licensees shall minimi?e the need for relying on administrative
controls and personal protective equipment
for protection and safety during normal
operations by providing appropriate protective measures and safety provisions, including
well engineered controls and satisfactory working conditions.
6.
CO-OPERATION
LICENSEES
BETWEEN
EMPLOYERS,
REGISTRANTS
AND
(108) If workers are engaged in work that involves or could involve a source that is not
under the control of their employers, the registrant or licensee responsible for the source
and the employers shall co-operate by the exchange of information and otherwise as
necessary to facilitate proper protective measures and safety provisions.
(109) The co-operation
where appropriate:
44
between
the registrant or licensee and the employer shall include,
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(a)
(b)
(c)
'
7.
the development and use of specific exposure restrictions and other means
in order to ensure that the protective measures and safety provisions for such
workers be at least as good as those provided for employees of the registrant
or licensee;
specific assessments of the doses received by such workers; and
a clear allocation and documentation
of the respective responsibilities of the
employer and the registrant or licensee for occupational protection and safity.
INDIVIDUAL
MONITORING
AND EXPOSURE
ASSESSMENT
(110) The employer of any worker, as well as self-employed
individuals, and the
registrants and licensees shall be responsible for arranging for the assessment of the
occupational exposure of workers, on the basis of individual monitoring where appropriate,
and shall ensure that adequate arrangements
be made with appropriate
dosimetry
services under an adequate quality assurance programme.
(111) For any worker who is normally employed in a controlled area, or who occasionally
works in a controlled area and may receive significant occupational exposure, individual
monitoring shall be undertaken where appropriate, adequate and feasible. In cases where
individual monitoring is inappropriate,
inadequate
or not feasible, the occupational
exposure of the worker shall be assessed on the basis of the results of monitoring of the
workplace and on information on the locations and durations of exposure of the worker.
(112) For any worker who is regularly employed in a supervised area or who enters a
controlled area only occasionally, individual monitoring shall not be required but the
occupational exposure of the worker shall be assessed. This assessment shall be on the
basis of the results of monitoring of the workplace or individual monitoring.
(113) The nature, frequency and precision of individual monitoring shall be determined
with consideration
of the magnitude and possible fluctuations of exposure levels and the
likelihood and magnitude of potential exposures.
(114) Employers shall ensure that workers who may be exposed to radioactive
contamination, including workers who use protective respiratory equipment, be identified
and shall arrange for appropriate monitoring to the extent necessary to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the protection provided and to assess the intake of radioactive substances
or the committed doses, as appropriate.
8.
-
MONITORING
OF _
WORRrPLACE
(115) Registrants and licensees, in co-operation
with employers if appropriate,
shall
establish, maintain
and keep under review a programme 'for the monitoring of the
workplace under the supervision, if so required by a Regulatory Authority, of a qualified
expert and a radiation protection officer.
(116)
The nature and frequency of monitoring of the workplace shall:
(a)
be sufficient to enable:
(i)
evaluation of the radiological conditions in all workplaces;
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(117)
(b)
(ii)
exposure assessment in controlled and supervised areas; and
(iii)
review of the classification of controlled and supervzsedareas; and
depend on the levels of ambient dose equivalent and activity concentration,
including their expected fluctuations and the likelihood and magnitude of
potential exposures.
The
(a)
Co)
(c)
(d)
programmes for monitoringof the workplace shall specify:
the quantifies to be measured;
where and when the measurements are to be made and at what frequency;
the most appropriate measurement methods and procedures; and
reference levels and the actions to be taken if they are exceeded.
(1lg) Registrants and licensees, in co-operation with employersif appropriate, shall keep
appropriate records of the findings of the workplace monitoringprogramme which shall
be made available to workers through their representatives where appropriate.
9.
ltEALTlt
SURVEILLANCE
(119) Employers, registrants and licensees shall make arrangements for appropriate
health surveillance in accordance with the rules established by the RegulatoryAuthority.
(120) If one or more workers are engaged in work that involves or could involve
exposure from a source that is not under the control of their employer, the registrant or
licensee responsible for the source shall as a precondition for such engagement make any
special arrangements for health surveillance with the employer which are needed to
comply with the rules established by the RegulatoryAuthority.
(121)
Health surveillance programmes shall be:
(a) based on the general principles of occupational health; and
(b) designed to assess the initial and continuing fitness of workers for their
intended tasks.
10.
RECORDS
(122) Employers, registrants and licensees shall maintain exposure records for each
worker for whom assessment of occupational exposure is required in Section 7 of this
Appendix.
(123) If workers are engaged in work that involves or could involve exposure from a
source that is not under the control of their employer,the registrant or licensee responsible
for the source shall provide both the workerand the worker5remployerwith the relevant
exposure records.
(124) The exposure records shall include:
(a) information on the general nature of the work involving occupational
exposure;
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Co)
(c)
·
(d)
information
on doses, exposures and intakes in excess of the relevant
recording levels and the data upon which the dose assessments have been
based;
when a worker is or has been occupationally
exposed while in the employ
of more than one employer, information on the dates of employment with
each employer and the doses, exposures and intakes
in each such
employment;
and
records of any doses, exposures or intakes due to emergency interventions
or
accidents, which shall be distinguished from doses, exposures or intakes
during normal work and which shall include references to reports of any
relevant investigations.
(125) Employers, registrants and licensees shall:
(a)
provide for access by workers to information in their own exposure records;
Co) provide for access to the exposure records by the supervisor of the health
surveillance programme, the Regulatory Authority and the relevant employer;
(c)
facilitate
the provision of copies of workers' exposure records to new
employers when workers change employment;
(d)
when a worker ceases to work, make arrangements
for the retention of the
worker's exposure records by the Regulatory _4uthority, or a State registry, or
the relevant registrant or licensee, as appropriate; and
(e)
in complying with(a)-(d), give due care and attention to the maintenance
of appropriate
confidentiality
of records.
(126) If employers, registrants or licensees cease activities that involve occupational
exposure of workers, they shall make arrangements for the retention of workers' exposure
records by the Regulatory Authority or State registry, or by a relevant registrant or licensee,
as appropriate.
(127) Exposure records for each worker shall be preserved during the worker's working
life and afterwards at least until the worker attains or would have attained the age of 75
years, and for not less than 30 years after the termination
of the work involving
occupational exposure.
11.
-
-
SPECIAL
CIRCUMSTANCES
(128) In special circumstances,
if a practice is justified as required by the Standards and
is designed and conducted according to good practice, and if radiation protection in the
practice has been optimized as required by the Standards but occupational exposures still
remain above the dose limits, and if it can be predicted that reasonable efforts can in due
course bring the occupational exposures under the limits, the Regulatory .4uthority may
exceptionally
approve a temporary change in the dose limitation requirement
of the
Standards. Such changes shall be approved only if formally requested by the licensee, if
the Regulatory Authority determines that the practice is still justified and is satisfied that
appropriate
consultation
with the workers concerned has taken place.
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(129) Should special circumstances exist which require a temporary change in some dose
limitation requirement of the Standards, the registrant or licensee may apply to the
RegulatoryAuthorityfor such a temporary change.
(130) No temporary change in the dose limitation requirement shall be made without
approval by the RegulatoryAuthority.
(131) The registrantor licensee shall, in any application for a temporary change in a dose
limitation requirement of the Standards:
(a) describe the special circumstances requiring the temporary change; and
CO) provide evidence to demonstrate that:
(i)
all reasonable efforts have been made to reduce exposures and
that protective measures and safety provisions have been
optimi?.ed in accordance with the requirements of the Standards;
(ii)
the relevant employersand workers, through their representatives
where appropriate, have been consulted and their agreement
obtained on the need for a temporary change and on the
conditions of the temporary change;
(iii)
all reasonable efforts are being made to improve the working
conditions to the point where the dose limits specified in
paragraph (11.5) Annex II can be observed; and
(iv)
the monitoringand recording of the exposures of individual workers
are sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the relevant
requirements of Annex II and are sufficient to facilitate the
transfer of exposure records between relevant employers as
required by the Standards.
(132)
48
Any temporary change in the dose limitation requirement of the Standards shall:
(a)
be in accordance with the dose limitation for special circumstances
given in Annex II;
Co)
be for a limited period of time;
(c)
be subject to annual review;
(d)
not be renewable;
(e)
relate to specified work areas.
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APPENDIX
MEDICAL
II
EXPOSURE
1.
RESPONSIBILITIES
(133)
Registrants and licensees shall ensure that:
(a)
no patient be administered
a diagnostic or therapeutic
medical exposure
unless the exposure is prescribed by a medical practitioner;
Co) medicalpractitioners be assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring
overall patient protection and saJkty when prescribing,
and during the
delivery, of medical exposure;
(c)
medical and paramedical personnel be available as needed, and either be
health professionals or have appropriate
training adequately
to discharge
assigned tasks in the conduct of the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that
the medical practitioner prescribes;
(d)
for therapeutic uses of radiation (including teletherapy and brachytherapy),
the calibration,
dosimetry and quality assurance requirements
of the
Standards be conducted by or under the supervision of a qualified expert in
radiotherapy
physics;
(e) the exposure of individuals incurred knowingly while voluntarily helping
(other than in their occupation) in the care, support or comfort of
patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment be constrained as
specified in Annex II; and
(f)
training criteria be specified or be subject to approval, as appropriate,
by
the Regulatory Authority in consultation with relevant professional bodies.
·
(134) Registrants and licensees should ensure that for diagnostic uses of radiation the
imaging and quality assurance requirements &the Standards be fulf'filed with the advice
of a qualified expert in either radiodiagnostic physics or nuclear medicine physics, as
appropriate.
(135) Medical practitioners shall promptly inform the registrant or licensee
of any
deficiencies or needs regarding compliance with the Standards with respect to protection
and safety of patients and shall take such actions as may be appropriate to ensure patient
protection and saJ_ty of patients.
_c
2.
_
JUSTIFICATION
OF MEDICAL
EXPOSURES
(136) Medical exposures should be justified by weighing the diagnostic or therapeutic
benefits they produce against the radiation detriment they might cause, taking into
account the benefits and risks of available alternative techniques that do not involve
medical exposure.
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(137) In justifying each type of diagnostic examination by radiography, fluoroscopy or
nuclear medicine,
relevant guidelines will be taken into account, such as those
established by the WHO212_-'_.
(138) Any radiological examination for occupational, legal or health insurance purposes
undertaken without reference to clinical indications is deemed to be not justified unless
it is expected to provide useful information on the health of the individual examined or
unless the specific type of examination is justified by those requesting it in consultation
with relevant professional bodies.
(139) Mass screening of population groups involving medical exposureis deemed to be
not justified unless the expected advantages for the individuals examined or for the
population as a whole are sufficient to compensate for the economic and social costs,
including the radiation detriment. Account should be taken in justification of the
potential of the screening procedure for detecting disease, the likelihood of effective
treatment of cases detected and, for certain diseases, the advantages to the community
from the control of the disease.
(140)
it is:
The exposure of humans for medical research is deemed to be not justified unless
(a)
(b)
in accordance with the provisions of the Helsinki Declaration2n and follows
the guidelines for its application prepared by Council for International
Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) 25 and WHO26; and
subject to the advice of an Ethical Review Committee (or any other
institutional body assigned similar functions by national authorities) and to
applicable national and local regulations.
(141) Radiological examinations for theft detection purposes are deemed to be not
justified; should they nonetheless be conducted, they shall not be considered medical
exposurebut shall be subject to the requirements for occupational and public exposure of
the Standards.
50
2_
World Health orgamz_hon, A R_onaJ Approach to Radlediagnosl_c Inve_gafions,
689, WHO, Geneva (1983).
Technical Report Senes No
22
World Health Organization, Rational Use of D_agno._c Imaging in Pedtat_acs,Techn,caJ Report Senes No 757,
WHO, Geneva (1987).
23
World Health Organ..at, on, Effeclwe Choices for Diagnostic Imag,ng in Cilmcal Practices, Techn,cal Report Senes
No. 7951 WHO, Geneva (1990).
24
Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsmka, Finland, 1974, and as amended by the 29th World
Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, 1975, and the 35th World Medical Assembly, Ven,ce, Italy, 1983, and the 41st
World MedlcaJ Assembly, Hong Kong, 1989; avaulable flora the World Medical A.sso_atmn Inc, 01210 FerneyVoltaire, France.
2s
Council for Intema_onal Organ=aaons of Medical Sciences in collaboration with World Health Organization,
International Ethical Gmdehnes for Biornedacal Research Invohnng Human Subjects, CIOMS, Geneva (1993)
2s
World Health Organizat, on, Use of Ionmng Redmtson and Red,onuchdes on Human Beings for Medical Research,
Trmn,ng and Non-Medical Purposes, Technical Report Senas 611, WHO, Geneva (1977)
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3.
OPTIMIZATION
OF PROTECTION
FOR MEDICAL EXPOSURES
(142) The requirements in this subsection shall be considered to be in addition to any
relevant requirements for optimization of protection specified in other parts of the
Standards.
3.1
3.1.1
Design Considerations
General
(143) The requirements for the safety of sources specified in other parts of the Standards
shall also apply to sources used in medical exposure, where relevant, and, in particular,
equipment used in medical exposure shall be designed such that:
(a) failure of a single component of the system be promptly detectable so that
any unplanned medical exposure of patients is minimiTed; and
(b) the incidence of human error in the delivery of unplanned medical exposure
be minlmi?ed.
(144) Registrants and licensees shall:
(a) identify, taking into account information provided by suppliers, possible
equipment failures and human errors that could result in unplanned medical
exposures;
Co) take all reasonable measures to prevent failures and errors, including the
selection of suitably qualified personnel, the establishment of adequate
procedures for the calibration, quality assurance and operation of diagnostic
and therapeutic equipment, and the provision to personnel of appropriate
training and periodic retraining in the procedures, including protection and
saJ_tyaspects;
(c) take all reasonable measures to minimize the consequences of failures and
errors that may occur; and
(d) develop appropriate contingency plans for responding to events which may
occur, display plans prominently, and periodically conduct practice drills.
'
·
(145) Licensees, in specific co-operation with suppliers, shall ensure that, with regard
to equipment consisting of radiation generators and that containing sealed sources used
for medical exposures:
(a) whether imported into or manufactured in the country where it is used, the
equipment conform to applicable standards of the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Org2niTation
for
Standardization (ISO) or to equivalent national standards;
Co) performance specifications and operating and maintenance instructions,
including protection and safety instructions, be provided in a major world
language understandable to the users and in compliance with the relevant
IEC or ISO standards with regard to 'accompanying documents', and that
this information be translated into local languages when appropriate;
(c) where practicable, the operating terminology (or its abbreviations) and
operating values be displayed on operating consoles in a major world
language acceptable to the user;
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(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
3.1.2
radiation beam control mechanisms be provided, including devices that
indicate clearly and in a fail-safe manner whether the beam is "on" or "off";
as nearly as practicable, the exposurebe limited to the area being examined
or treated by using collimating devices aligned with the ra&ation beam;
the radiation field within the examination or treatment area without any
radiation beam modifiers (such as wedges) be as uniform as practicable and
the non-uniformity be stated by the supplier; and
exposure rates outside the examination or treatment area due to radiation
leakage or scattering be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
Requirements for radiationgeneratorsand equipment using sealed sources for
diagnostic radiology
(146) Licensees, in specific co-operation with suppliers, shall ensure that:
(a) radmtion generators and their accessories be designed and manufactured so
as to facilitate the keeping of medical exposures as low as reasonably
achievable consistent with obtaining adequate diagnostic information;
CO) operational parameters for radiation generators, such as generating tube
potential, filtration, focal spot position, source-image receptor distance, field
size indication and either tube current and time or their product be clearly
and accurately indicated;
(c) radiographic equipment be provided with devices that automatically
terminate the irradiation after a preset time, tube current-time product or
dose; and
(d) fluoroscopic equipment be provided with a device that energizes the X ray
tube only when continuously depressed (such as a 'dead man's switch') and
equipped with indicators ofthe elapsed time and/or entrance surface dose
monitors.
3.1.3
Requirements
radiotherapy
for radiation generators and irradiation
installations
for
(147) Licensees, in specific co-operation with suppliers, shall ensure that:
(a) radiation generators and irradiation installations include provisions for
selection, reliable indication and confmnation (when appropriate and to the
extent feasible) of operational parameters such as type of radiation,
indication of energy, beam modifiers (such as filters), treatment distance,
field size, beam orientation and either treatment time or preset dose;
Co) irradiation installations using radioactive sources be fail-safe in the sense that
the source will be automatically shielded in the event of an interruption of
power and will remain shielded until the beam control mechanism is
reactivated from the control panel;
(c) high energy radiotherapy equcment:
(i) have at least two independent 'fail to safety' systems for terminating the
irradiation; and
(ii) be provided with safety interlocks or other means designed to prevent
the clinical use of the machine in conditions other than those selected
at the control panel;
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(d)
(e)
'
(f')
3.2
the design of safety interlocks be such that operation of the installation
during maintenance procedures, if interlocks are bypassed, could be
performed only under direct control of the maintenance personnel using
appropriate devices, codes or keys;
radioactive sources for either teletherapy or brachytherapy be so constructed
that they conform to the definition of a sealed source; and
when appropriate, monitoring equipment be installed or be available to give
warning of an unusual situation in the use of radiation generators and
radionuclide therapy equipmem.
Operational
3.2.1 Diagnostic
-
Considerations
Exposure
(148) Registrants and licensees shall ensure for diagnostic radiology that:
(a) the medical practitioners who prescribe or conduct radiologicaI diagnostic
examinations:
(i) ensure that the appropriate equipment be used;
(ii) ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum necessary to
achieve the required diagnostic objective, taking into account norms of
acceptable image quality established by appropriate professional bodies
and relevant guidance levels for medical exposure; and
(iii) take into account relevant information from previous examinations in
order to avoid unnecessary additional examinations;
(b) the medical practitioner, the technologist or other imaging staff select the
following parameters, as relevant, such that their combination produce the
minimum patient exposure consistent with acceptable image quality and the
clinical purpose of the examination, paying particular attention to this
selection for paediatric radiology and interventional radiology:
(i) the area to be examined, the number and size of views per examination
(e.g. number of films or computed tomography slices) or the time per
exam/nation (e.g. fluoroscopic time);
(ii)
the type of image receptor (e.g. high versus low speed screens);
(iii)
the use of anti-scatter grids;
(iv)
proper collimation of the primary X ray beam to minimi?_: the
volume of patient tissue being irradiated and to improve image
quality;
(v)
appropriate values of operational parameters (e.g. tube generating
potential, current and time or their product);
(vi)
appropriate image storage techniques in dynamic imaging (e.g.
number of images per second); and
(vii)
adequate image processing factors (e.g. developer temperature
and image reconstruction algorithms);
(c) portable and mobile radiological equipment be used only for examinations
where it is impractical or not medically acceptable to transfer patients to a
stationary radiological installation and only after proper attention has been
given to the radiation protection measures required in its use;
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(d)
(e)
(f)
(149)
radiological examinations
causing exposure of the abdomen or pelvis of
women pregnant or likely to be pregnant be avoided unless there are strong
clinical reasons for such examinations;
any diagnostic examination of the abdomen or pelvis of women of
reproductive
capacity be planned to deliver the minimum dose to any
embryo or foetus that might be present; and
whenever feasible, shielding of radiosensitive organs such as the gonads, lens
of the eye, breast and thyroid be provided as appropriate.
Registrants and licensees shall ensure for nuclear medicine that:
(a)
the medicalpractitioners who prescribe or conduct diagnostic applications
radionuclides:
of
(i)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum required to
achieve the intended diagnostic objective;
(ii) take into account relevant information from previous examinations in
order to avoid unnecessary additional examinations;
and
(iii) take into account the relevant guidance levels for medical exposure;
the me&cal practitioner, the technologist
or other imaging staff, as
appropriate, endeavour to achieve the minimum patient exposure consistent
with acceptable image quality by:
(i) appropriate selection of the best available radiopharrnaceutical
and its
activity, noting the special requirements
for children and for patients
with impairment of organ function;
(ii) use of methods for blocking the uptake in organs not under study and
for accelerated
excretion when applicable;
(iii) appropriate image acquisition and processing;
administration ofradionuclides
for diagnostic or radiotherapeutic
procedures
to women pregnant or likely to be pregnant be avoided unless there are
strong clinical indications;
for mothers in lactation, discontinuation of nursing be recommended
until
the radiopharmaceutical
is no longer secreted in an mount estimated to
give an unacceptable effective dose to the nursling:7; and
administration
of radionuclides
to children for diagnostic procedures
be
carried out only if there is a strong clinical indication, and that the activity
administered
be reduced according to body weight, body surface area or
other appropriate criteria.
3.2.2
Therapeutic
(150)
Licensees shall ensure that:
(a)
exposure of normal tissue during radiotherapy be kept as low as reasonably
achievable consistent with delivering the required dose to the planning target
volume, and organ shielding be used when feasible and appropriate;
27
Examples of good prance are at least 3 weeks for _Ga, rain, mi, 2re'il, at least 2 clays for =231
and at least 12 h for
'_Tc
54
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Co)
(c)
'
(d)
(e)
4
radiotherapeufic
procedures musing exposure of the abdomen or pelvis of
women who are pregnant or likely to be pregnant be avoided unless there
are strong clinical indications;
administration
of radionuclides for therapeutic procedures to women who
are pregnant or likely to be pregnant or who are nursing be avoided unless
there are strong clinical indications;
any therapeutic procedure for pregnant women be planned to deliver the
minimum dose to any embryo or foetus; and
the patient be informed of possible risks.
3.3 Calibration
(151)
Registrants and licensees shall ensure that:
(a)
the calibration
of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a
Standards Dosimetry Laboratory;
Co) radiotherapy equipment be calibrated in terms of radiation quality or energy
and either absorbed dose or absorbed dose rate at a predef'med distance
under specified conditions, e.g. following the recommendations
given in
IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 27728;
(c)
sealed sources used for brachytherapy
be calibrated in terms of activity,
reference air kerma rate in air or absorbed dose rate in a specified medium,
at a specified distance, for a specified reference date;
(d)
unsealed sources for nuclear medicine procedures
be calibrated in terms of
activity of the radiopharmaceutical
to be administered,
the activity being
determined and recorded at the time of administration;
and
(e)
the calibrations be carried out at the time of commissioning a unit, after
any maintenance procedure that may have an effect on the dosimetry and
at intervals approved by the Regulatory Authority.
3.4 Clinical
Dosimetry
(152) Registrants and licensees shall ensure that the following
documented:
(a)
Co)
"
(c)
2S
items be determined
and
in radiological
examinations,
representative
values for typical size adult
patients of entrance surface doses, dose-area products,
dose rates and
exposure times, or organ doses;
for each patient treated with external beam radiotherapy
equipment,
the
maximum and minimum absorbed doses to the planning target volume
together with the absorbed dose to a relevant point such as the centre of the
planning target volume, plus the dose to other relevant points selected by the
medical practitioner prescribing the treatment;
in brachytherapy
treatments
performed with sealed sources, the absorbed
doses at selected relevant points in each patient;
International Atomic Energy Agency, Absorbed Dose Determination for Photon and Electron Beams, Techmcal
Reports Senes No. 277, IAEA, Vienna (1987).
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(d)
(e)
in diagnosis or treatment with unsealedsources,representative absorbed doses
to patients; and
in all radiotherapeutic treatment, the absorbed doses to relevant organs
(153) In radiotherapy treatments, licensees shall ensure, within the ranges achievable by
good clinical practice and optimized functioning of equipment, that:
(a) the prescribed absorbed dose at the prescribed beam quality be delivered
to the planning target volume; and
Co) doses to other tissues and organs be minimized.
3.5 Quality Assurance for Medical Exposures
(154) Registrants and licensees, in addition to applying the relevant requirements for
quality assurance specified elsewhere in the Standards, shall establish a comprehensive
quality assurance programme for medical exposureswith the participation of appropriate
qualifiedexperts in the relevant fields, such as radiophysics or radiopharmacy, taking into
account the principles established by WHO29'3°'3]'
and PAHO32.
(155) Quality assurance programmes for medical exposures shall include:
(a) measurements of the physical parameters of the radiation generators, imagmg
devices and irradiation installations at the time of commissioning and
periodically thereafter;
Co) verification of the appropriate physical and clinical factors used in patient
diagnosis or treatment;
(c) written records of relevant procedures and results;
(d) verification of the appropriate calibration and conditions of operation of
dosimetry and monitoring equipment; and
(e) as far as possible, regular and independent quality audit reviews of the
quality assurance programme for radiotherapy procedures.
4.
GUIDANCE LEVELS
(156) Registrants and licensees should ensure that gutdance levels for medical exposure
be determined as specified in the Standards, revised as technology improves and used
as guidance by medical practitioners, in order that:
(a) corrective actions be taken as necessary if doses or activities fall substantially
below the guidance levels and the exposures do not provide useful
diagnostic information and do not yield the expected medical benefit to
patients;
29
World Health Organ=_on,
30
Qual_y Assurance ,n I_agno_c
Radmlogy, WHO, Geneva (1982)
World Health Orgamzabon, Qual_;y A._surance m Nuclear Medicine, WHO, Geneva (1982)
3]
Word Health Ofganxzat_on, Qualrty Assurance tn Radiotherapy, WHO, Geneva (1988)
32
Pan Amencan Health Organ_zat,on, Pubhcac;6n Cientific_ 499, Control de Cai;dad en Rad_oterapga Aspectos
Cllmcos y Fislcos, PAHO, Wash,ngton DC (1986)
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Co) reviews be considered if doses or activities are above the guidance levels as
an input to ensuring optimi?ed protection of patients and maintaining
appropriate levels of good practice; and
c)
for diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography examinations, and
for nuclear medicine examinations, the guidance levels be derived from the
data from wide-scale quality surveys which include entrancesurfacedoses and
cross-sectional dimensions of the beams delivered by individual facilities and
activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients for the most
frequent examinations in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine
respectively.
(157) In the absence of wide-scale surveys, performance of diagnostic radiography and
fluoroscopy equipment and of nuclear medicine equipment should be assessed on the
basis of comparison with the guidance levels specified in Annex III A and B. These
levels should not be regarded as a guide for ensuring optimum performance in all cases,
as they are appropriate only for typical adult patients, and therefore, in applying the
values in practice, account should be taken of body size and age.
5.
DOSE CONSTRAINTS
(158) The Ethical Review Committee or other institutional body assigned similar
functions on the subject by national authorities shall specify dose constraints to be applied
on a case by case basis in the optimization of protection for persons exposed for medical
research purposes if such medwal exposure does not produce direct benefit to the
exposed individual.
(159) Registrants and licensees shall constrain any dose to individuals incurred knowingly
while voluntarily helping (other than in their occupation) in the care, support or comfort
of patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment, and to visitors to patients who
have received therapeutic amounts of radionuclides or who are being treated with
brachytherapy sources, to a level not exceeding that specified in Annex II, paragraph I1.9.
6.
MAXIIvlUM
HOSPITAL
ACTIVITY
IN THERAPY
PATIENTS
DISCHARGED
FROM
(160) In order to restrict the exposure of any members of the household ora patient who
has undergone a therapeutic procedure with sealed or unsealed radionuclides and
members of the public, such a patient shall not be discharged from hospital before the
activity of radioactive substances in the body falls below the level specified in Annex III
C. Written instructions to the patient concerning contact with other persons and relevant
precautions for radiation protection shall be provided as necessary.
7.
INVESTIGATION
OF ACCIDENTAL MEDICAL EXPOSURES
(161) Registrants and licensees shall promptly investigate any of the following incidents:
(a) any therapeutic treatment delivered to either the wrong patient or the
wrong tissue, or using the wrong pharmaceutical, or with a dose or dose
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Co)
(c)
fractionation differing substantially from the values prescribed by the me&cai
practitioner or which may lead to undue acute secondary effects;
any diagnostic exposure substantially greater than intended or resulting in
doses repeatedly and substantially exceeding the established guidance levels;
and
any equipment failure, accident, error, mishap or other unusual occurrence
with the potential for musing a patient exposure significantly different from
that intended.
(162) Registrants and licensees shall, with respect to any investigation required under the
preceding paragraph:
(a)
calculate or estimate the doses received and their distribution within the
patient;
Co) indicate the corrective measures required to prevent recurrence of such an
incident;
(c) implement all the corrective measures that are under their own
responsibility;
(d)
submit to the Regulatory Authortty, as soon as possible after the investigation
or as otherwise specified by the Regulatory Authority, a written report which
states the cause of the incident and includes the information specified in (a)
to (c), as relevant, and any other information required by the Regulatory
Authority; and
(e)
inform the patient and his or her doctor about the incident.
8.
RECORDS
(163) Registrants and licensees shall keep for a period specified by the Regulatory
Authority and make available, as required, the following records:
(a)
in diagnostic radiology, necessary information to allow retrospective dose
assessment,
including the number
of exposures and the duration
of
fluoroscopic
examinations;
(b)
in nuclear medicine, types of radiopharmaceuticals
administered and their
activities;
(c)
in radiation therapy, a description of the planning target volume, the dose to
the centre of the planning target volume and the maximum and minimum
doses delivered to the planning target volume, the doses to other relevant
organs, the dose fractionation, and the overall treatment time; and
(d)
the exposure of volunteers in medical research.
(164) Registrants and licensees shall keep and make available, as required, the results of
the calibrations and periodic checks of the relevant physical and clinical parameters
selected during treatments.
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APPENDIX III
PUBLIC EXPOSURE
1.
RESPONSIBILITIES
(165) Registrants and licensees shall apply the requirements of the Standards as specified
by the Regulatory Authority to any public exposure delivered by a practice or source for
which they are responsible, unless the exposure is excluded from the Standards or the
practice or source delivering the exposure is exempted from the requirements
of the
Standards.
Should the non-excluded exposure or the non-exempted source be a natural
exposure or a natural source, respectively, registrants and licensees shall, as specified by
the Regulatory Authority, apply the requirements (see paragraph (28)) unless the exposure
to radon is below the action levels for chronic exposure established by the Regulatory
Authority, taking into account the guidance values specified in Annex VI.
(166) Registrants and licensees shall be responsible, with respect to the sources under
their responsibility,
for the establishment,
implementation
and maintenance
of:
(a)
protection and safety policies, procedures and organ;7:ational arrangements
in relation to public exposure in fulfilment of the requirements
of the
Standards;
Co) measures for ensuring:
(i) the optimization
of the protection of members of the public whose
exposure is attributable to such sources; and
(ii) the limitation of the normal exposure of the relevant critical group,
which is attributable to such sources, in order that the total exposure be
not higher than the dose limits for members of the public; in selecting the
critical group, account shall be taken of all those in present and furore
generations whether in the countries or places where the sources are
located or in any other country or place;
(c)
measures for ensuring the saJ_ty of such sources, in order that the likelihood
of public exposures be controlled in accordance with the requirements
of the
Standards;
(d)
suitable and adequate
facilities, equipment and services for the protection
of the public, the nature and extent of which are commensurate
with the
magnitude and likelihood of the exposure;
(e)
appropriate
protection and safety training to the personnel having functions
relevant to the protection of the public, as well as periodic retraining and
updating as required, in order to ensure the necessary level of competence;
(f)
appropriate
monitoring equipment and surveillance programmes
to assess
public exposure to the satisfaction of the Regulatory Authority;
(g)
adequate
records of the surveillance and monitoring as required by the
Standards; and
Ca) emergency
plans or procedures,
commensurate
with the nature
and
magnitude of the risk involved, and kept ready to actuate in accordance with
the Principal Requirements
and the Detailed Requirements
in Appendix V.
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(167) Registrants and licensees shall be responsible for ensuring that the optimizaUon
process for measures to control the discharge of radioactive substances from a source
to the environment is subject to dose constraints established or approved by the
RegulatoryAuthority,taking into account, as appropriate:
(a) dose contributions fxom other sources and practices, including realistically
assessed possible future sources and practices;
Co) potential changes in any condition that could affect public exposure,such as
changes in the characteristics and operation of the source, changes in
exposure pathways, changes in the habits or distribution of the population,
modification of critical groups, or changes in environmental dispersion
conditions;
(c) current good practice in the operation of similar sources or practices; and
(d) any uncertainties in the assessment of exposures, especially in potential
contributions to the exposures if the source and the critical group are
separated in distance or time.
(168) Should a practice or source within a practice discharge radioactive substances to
the environment that could cause public exposure in a country other than the country
where the practice or source is located, and where a monetary value of unit collective
dose is required by the Regulatory.duthority to be used for the optimization of the control
of discharges, registrants and licensees shall be responsible for ensuring that the
monetary value applied to the collective dose incurred outside the country where the
practice or source is located is not less than the value prescribed within it33.
2.
CONTROL OF VISITORS
(169) Registrants and licensees, in co-operation with employerswhen appropriate, shall.
(a) ensure that visitors be accompanied in any controlled area by a person
knowledgeable about the protection and salty measures for that area;
(b) provide adequate information and instruction to visitors before they enter
a controlled area so as to ensure appropriate protection of the visitors and of
other individuals who could be affected by their actions; and
(c) ensure that adequate control over entry of visitors to a supervised area be
maintained and that appropriate sigma be posted in such areas.
3.
SOURCES OF EXTERNAL IR.RADIATION
(170) Registrants and licensees shall ensure that, if a source of external irradiation can
cause exposure to the public:
(a) prior to commissioning, the floor plans and equipment arrangement for all
new installations and all significant modifications to existing installations
utilizing such sources of external irradiation
be subject to review and
approval by the Regulatory Authority;
33
The minimum intemaaonal value of the unfl toltec'rive dose for transboundary
ex4_sum recommended
IAEA should be used as a gmdance See International Atomic Energy Agency, Asslgmng a Value to
Transboundary Radiation Exposure, Safety Senes No 67, _
Vienna (1985)
60
by the
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Co)
(c)
4.
specific dose constraintsfor the operation of such a source be established to
the satisfaction of the RegulatoryAuthority; and
shielding and other protective measures that are optimized in accordance
with the requirements of the Standards be provided as appropriate for
restricting public exposureto the satisfaction of the Regulatory Authority.
RADIOACTIVE
CONTAMINATION IN ENCLOSED SPACES
(171) Registrants and licensees shall ensure that:
(a) for sources for which they are responsible, measures that are optimi?ed in
accordance with the requirements of the Standards be taken as appropriate
for restricting public exposure to contamination in areas accessible to the
public; and
Co) specific containment provisions be established for the construction and
operation of a source that could cause spread of contammation in areas
accessible to the public.
5.
RADIOACTIVE
WASTE
(172) Registrants and licensees shall:
(a) ensure that the activity and volume of any radioactive waste that results from
the sources for which they are responsible be kept to the minimum
practicable, and that the waste be managed, i.e. collected, handled, treated,
conditioned, transported, stored and disposed of, in accordance with the
requirements of the Standards and any other applicable standard34; and
Co) segregate, and treat separately if appropriate, different types of radtoactive
waste where warranted by differences in factors such as radionuclide content,
half-life, concentration, volume and physical and chemical properties, taking
into account the available options for waste disposal.
6.
"
DISCHARGE OF RADIOACTIVE
SUBSTANCES TO THE ENVIRONMENT
(173) Registrants and licensees shall ensure that radioactive substances fxom authorized
practices and sources not be discharged to the environment unless:
(a) the radioactive substance has been cleared or the discharge is within the
discharge limits authorized by the Regulatory Authority;
Co) the discharges are controlled;
(c) the public exposures committed by the discharges are limited as specified in
Annex II; and
(d) the control of the discharges is optimized in accordance with the Principal
Requirements of the Standards.
34
See Intemabonal Atom;c EnergyAgency,A Senesof Intemat_ona]Consensus Documentson the Safe
Management and _sposal of Rad_oactwe
Waste, RADWASSProgramme, IAEA(1992).
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(174) Registrants and licensees, before initiating the discharge to the environmem of any
solid, liquid or gaseous radioactive substance from sources under their responsibility,
shall, as appropriate:
(a)
determine the characteristics and activity of the material to be discharged,
and the potential points and methods of discharge;
Co) determine by an appropriate pre-operational
study all significant exposure
pathways by which discharged radionuclides can deliver public exposure;
(e)
assess the doses to the critical groups due to the planned discharges; and
(d)
submit this information to the Regulatory Authority as an input to the
establishment
of authorized discharge
limits and
conditions for their
implementation?
(175) Registrants and licensees, during the operational
stages of sources under their
responsibility,
shall:
(a)
keep all radioactive discharges as far below the authorized discharge
limits
as is reasonably achievable;
Co) monitor the discharges of radionuclides with sufficient detail and accuracy
to demonstrate
compliance with the authorized discharge
limits and to
permit estimation of the exposure of critical groups;
(c)
record the monitoring results and estimated exposures;
(d)
report the monitoring results to the Regulatory.duthorityat approved intervals;
and
(e)
report promptly to the Regulatory Authority any discharges exceeding the
authorized discharge limits in accordance with reporting criteria established
by the Regulatory Authority.
(176) Registrants and licensees shall, as appropriate and in agreement with the Regulatory
Authority, review and adjust their discharge control measures for the sources under their
responsibility
in the light of operating experience, taking into account any changes in
exposure pathways and the composition of critical groups that could affect the assessment
of doses due to the discharges.
7.
RADIATION
(177)
AND ENVIRONMENTAL
MONITORING
Registrants and licensees shall, if appropriate:
(a)
establish and carry out a radiation monitoring programme
sufficient to
ensure that the requirements of the Standards regarding public exposure to
sources of external irradiation be satisfied and to assess such exposure;
Co) establish and carry out an environmental monitoring programme sufficient
to ensure that the requirements
of
the Standards for discharges
of
radioactive substances to the environment and the requirements
established
by the Regulatory Authority in granting the discharge authorization be satisfied
and that the conditions assumed in deriving the authorized discharge limits
35
International Atomic Energy Agency, Pnnc_ples for Um=ng Releases of Radioactive Effluents into the Enwronment,
Safety Senes No 77, IAEA, Vienna (1986).
62
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(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
8.
remain valid and sufficient to enable the exposures to critical groups to be
estimated;
keep appropriate records of the results of the radiation and environmental
monitoring prograrnmes;
report a summary of the monitoring results to the Regulatory Authority at
approved intervals;
report promptly to the Regulatory Authority any significant increase in
environmental radiation fields or contamination that could be attributed to
the radiation beams or radioactive discharges emitted by sources under their
responsibility;
establish and maintain a capability to carry out emergency radiation and
environmental monitoring,in case of unexpected increases in radiation fields
and radioactive contamination due to accidental or other unusual events
affecting sources under their responsibility; and
verify the adequacy of the assumptions made for the prior assessment of
radiological consequences of the discharges.
CONSUMER PRODUCTS
(178) Consumerproducts capable of causing exposure to radiation shall not be supplied
to membersof the public unless:
(a) such exposure is excluded from the Standards;
Co) such products meet the exemptionrequirements specified in Annex I or have
been exempted by the Regulatory Authority; or
(c) such products are authorized for use by membersof the public.
'
(179) Suppliers of non-exempt consumer products shall ensure that such products comply
with the requirements of the Standards, in particular those aspects of their design and
construction that could affect the exposure of people during normal handling and use, as
well as in the event of mishandling, misuse, accidem or disposal, and have been
optimized, using dose constraints established or approved by the RegulatoryAuthority and
taking into account:
(a) the various radionuclides that could be used and their radiation types,
energies, activities and half-lives;
(b) the chemical and physical forms of the radionuclides that could be used and
their influence on protection and safety in normal and abnormal
circumstances;
(c) the containment and shielding of the radioactive material in the consumer
product and the access to this material in normal and abnormal
circumstances;
(d) the need for servicing or repair and the ways in which this could be done;
and
(e) relevant experience with similar consumerproducts.
(180) Suppliers of consumer products shall ensure that:
(a) where practicable, a legible label be fmnly affixed to a visible surface of
each consumer product stating that:
(i) the product contains radioactive material; and
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Co)
(ii) the sale of the product to the public has been authorized by the relevant
Regulatory Authority; and
the information in (a) be also displayed legibly on each package in which a
consumer product is supplied.
(181) Suppliers of consumer products shall provide clear and appropriate information and
instructions with each consumer product on:
(a)
the correct installation, use and maintenance
of the product;
Co) servicing and repair;
(c)
the radionuclides involved and their activities at a specified date;
(d)
radiation dose rates during normal operation and during servicing and repair
operations; and
(e)
recommended
disposal procedures.
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APPENDIX IV
POTENTIAL
1.
EXPOSURES:
SAFETY OF SOURCES
RESPONSIBILITIES
(182) Registrants and licensees shall ensure the safety of the sources, including
installations, for which they are responsible and shall:
(a)
apply the Principal Requirements specified in the Standards; and
Co) apply as appropriate the Detailed Requirements
set out in Appendix IV.
(183) Guidance on the practical aspects of the safety of nuclear installations and of
radtoactive waste management facilities is given in publications
within the NUSS
Programme
and RADWASS Programme in the IAEA Safety Series as well as in
documents of the Sponsoring Organizations. This section specifies requirements
on the
practical aspects of the safety of sources and practices other than nuclear installations and
radioactive waste management facihties, which are intended to support the Principal
Requirements
of the Standards.
2.
SAFETY
ASSESSMENT
(184) Registrants and licensees shall conduct a safety assessment, either generic or specific
for the source for which they are responsible,
as required
under the Principal
Requirements.
Generic safety assessments are usually sufficient for types of source with
a high degree of uniformity in design. Specific safety assessment is usually required in
other cases but the specific safety assessment need not reconsider those aspects covered
by a generic safety assessment, if such an assessment has been conducted for the source.
(185)
The safety assessment shall include, as appropriate, a systematic critical review of:
(a)
the nature and magnitude of potential exposures and the likelihood of their
occurrence;
Co) the limits and technical conditions for operation of the source;
(c)
the ways in which structures, systems, components and procedures
related
to protection or safety might fail, singly or in combination, or otherwise lead
to potential exposures, and the consequences of such failures;
(d)
the ways in which changes in the environment
could affect protection or
safety;
(e)
the ways in which operating procedures related to protection or safety might
be erroneous, and the consequences of such errors; and
(f)
the protection and safety implications of any proposed modifications.
(186) The registrant
assessment:
(a)
or licensee shall, as appropriate,
take
into account
in the safety
factors which could precipitate a substantial release of any
radioactive substance and the measures available to prevent or
control such a release, and the maximum
activtty of any
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(b)
(c)
(d)
radioactive substance which, in the event of a major failure of
the containment, might be released to the atmosphere;
factors which could precipitate a smaller but continuing release
of any radioactive
substance and the measures available to
prevent or control such a release;
factors which could give rise to the unintended operation of any radiation
beam and the measures available to prevent, identify and control such
occurrences;
the extent to which redundant and diverse safety features, being independent
of each other so that failure of one does not result in failure of any other,
are appropriate
in order to restrict the probability and magnitude of
potential exposures.
(187) The safety assessment shall be documented
and, if appropriate, independently
reviewed within the relevant quality assurance programme.
Additional reviews shall be
performed as necessary for ensuring that the technical specifications or conditions of use
continue to be met whenever:
(a)
Co)
(c)
significant modifications
to a source or its associated plant or its operating
or maintenance procedures are envisioned;
operating experience, or other information about accidents, failures, errors
or other events that could lead to potential exposures indicates that the
current assessment might be invalid; and
any significant changes in activities, or any relevant changes in guidelines or
standards, are envisaged or have been made.
(188) If as a result of a safety assessment, or for any other reason, opporttmities
for
improving the protection or safety measures associated with a source within a practice
seem to be available and desirable, any consequential
modifications shall be made
cautiously and only after a favourable assessment of all the implications for protection
and safety; and if such improvements cannot all be implemented, or not all at once, they
shall be prioritized so as to result in optimum improvements in protection or safety.
3.
REQUIREMENTS
3.1
Responsibilities
FOR DESIGN
(189) Registrants and licensees, in specific co-operation with suppliers, shall ensure that
the following responsibilities
be discharged, if applicable:
(a)
to provide a well designed and constructed source that:
(i)
provides
for protection and saJ_ty in compliance
with the
Standards;
(ii)
meets engineering, performance and functional specifications; and
(iii)
meets quality norms commensurate
with the protection and safety
significance of components and systems;
Co) to ensure that sources be tested to demonstrate
compliance
with the
appropriate
specifications;
and
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(c)
to make available information in a major world language acceptable to the
user concerning the proper installation and use of the source and its
associated risks.
(190) In addition, and where applicable, registrants and licensees shall make suitable
arrangements with suppliers of sources:
(a) to establish and maintain mechanisms for suppliers to obtain information
from the registrants and licensees or other users on the use, maintenance,
operating experience, dismantling and disposal of sources, and in any
particular normal or abnormal operating conditions that may be important
for the protection of individuals or the safety of the source;
Co) to establish and maintain a mechanism to feed back to registrants and
licensees information that may have implications for protection or saJkty
affecting other registrants or licensees, or that may have implications for
future improvements in protection or safety in the design of their products.
3.2
Prevention of Accidents and Mitigation of their Consequences
(191) Systems and components of sources that are related to protection or safety shall
be designed, constructed, operated and maintained so as to prevent accidents, as far as
possible, and in general to restrict to levels which are as low as reasonably achievable,
social and economical considerations being taken into account, the magnitude and
likelihood of exposure of workersand members of the public.
'
'
(192) The registrant or licensee of any source or practice shall make suitable
arrangements:
(a) to prevent, as far as possible, any accident, occurrence or incident that could
reasonably be foreseen in connection with the source or practice;
(b) to limit the consequences of any accident, occurrence or incident that does
occur;
(c) to provide workerswith the information, training, and equipment necessary
to restrict their potential exposure;
(d) to ensure that there be adequate procedures for the control of the source
and of any potential accident that could reasonably be foreseen;
(e)
to ensure that safety significant systems, components and equipment can be
inspected and tested regularly for any degradation that could lead to
abnormal conditions or inadequate performance;
(f)
to ensure that maintenance, inspection and testing appropriate to the
preservation of the protection and safety provisions can be carried out
without undue occupational exposure;
(g) to provide, wherever appropriate, automatic systems for safely shutting off
or reducing radiation output from sources in the event that operating
conditions exceed the operating ranges;
(h) to ensure that abnormal operating conditions that could significantly affect
protection or safety be detected by monitoring systems that respond quickly
enough to allow for timely corrective action to be taken; and
(i)
to ensure that all relevant safety documentation be available in local
languages.
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(193) As required in Appendix V, if the safety assessment indicates that there is a
reasonable
remaining likelihood for an accident affecting either workers or members of
the public, the registrant or licensee shall prepare an emergency plan. This plan is to be
designed to secure as far as possible the protection and safety of anyone who may be
affected by the accident. As part of this plan the registrant or licensee should ensure that:
(a)
any worker under the registrant's or hcensee's control who may be involved
in or affected by arrangements in the plan has been suitably and sufficiently
trained and if appropriate
issued with suitable protective equipment and
dosimeters; and
Co) if appropriate, rehearsals of the arrangements in the plans be carried out at
suitable intervals.
3.3
Location
and Siting of Sources
(194)
Account shall be taken in choosing the location for any small source within
installations
and facilities such as hospitals and manufacturing
plants of:
(a) factors that could affect the safety and security of the source;
Co) factors that could affect the occupational exposure and public exposure caused
by the source, including features such as ventilation, shielding and distance
from occupied areas; and
(c) the feasibility in engineering design of taking into account the foregoing
factors.
(195)
The selection of a site for a source that holds a large inventory of radioactive
substances and has the potential for releases of large amounts of such radioactive
substances shall take into account any features that might affect the radiation safety of
the source and features that might be affected by the source, and the feasibility of offsite intervention, including carrying out emergency plans and protective actions.
4.
REQUIREMENTS
4.1
Responsibilities
FOR OPERATIONS
(196)
Registrants and licensees may delegate certain tasks involved with the operation
of sources under their responsibility but shall retain the responsibility for ensuring that
all operations
are conducted in a manner consistem with the requirements
of the
Standards.
(197)
68
Where applicable, registrants and licensees should:
(a)
establish clear lines of responsibility and accountability
for protection
and safety of the sources throughout their operational
lifetime, and
establish protection and safety organizations as appropriate;
Co)
for any source under their control that has the potential to give rise
to exposures at levels greater than those specified by the Regulatory
Authority as needing a specific
safety assessment as required
by
Appendix IV, carry out and keep up to date that special assessment;
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(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
4.2
assess the likely consequences of any potential exposures, their
magnitude and probability of occurrence, and the number of persons
who may be affected by them;
have in place operating procedures that are subject to periodic review
and updating under an adequate quality assurance programme;
establish procedures for reporting and learning from accidents,
occurrences and incidents;
establish arrangements for the periodic review of the overall
effectiveness of the protection and safety measures;
ensure that adequate maintenance, testing, inspection and servicing be
carried out as needed so that sources remain capable of meeting their
design requirements for protection and safety throughout their lifetime.
Source Accountability
(198)
Registrants and licensees shall maintain an accountability system that includes
records of:
(a) the location and description of each source for which they are responsible; and
Co) the activity and form of each radioactive substance for which they are
responsible.
4.3
Investigations and Follow-up
(199)
Registrants and licensees shall conduct formal investigations as specified by the
RegulatoryAuthority if:
(a) a quantity or operating parameter related to protection or saJktyexceeds an
investigation level or is outside the stipulated range of operating conditions;
or
Co) any equipment failure, accident, error, mishap or other unusual event or
circumstance occurs which has the potential for causing a quantity to exceed
any relevant limit or operating restriction.
(200)
The investigation shall be conducted as soon as possible after the event and
a written report produced on its cause, with a verification or determination of any doses
received or committed and recommendations for preventing the recurrence of similar
events.
'
(201)
A summary report of any formal investigation relating to events prescribed by
the Regulatory Authority, including exposures greater than a dose limit, shall be
communicated to the Regulatory Authority as soon as possible and to other parties as
appropriate.
4.4
Accident Management
Preparedness
(202)
Registrants and licensees shall be prepared to take any necessary action for
responding to and correcting any reasonably foreseeable operating mishap or accident
that could involve a source.
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(203)
For sources with the potential for abnormal exposures where there is a
possibility for taking action to control or otherwise influence the course of an accident
and to mitigate its consequences, registrants and licensees shall:
(a) prepare in advance guidance on accident management in their premises that
takes into account the expected response of the protection and safety features
of the source to accidents;
(b) make available equipment, instrumentation and diagnostic aids that may be
needed to control the course and consequences of accidents involving sources;
and
(c) train operating and emergencypersonnel and periodically retrain them in the
procedures to be followed if an accident occurs.
4.5
Feedback of Operating Experience
(204)
Registrants and licensees shall ensure that information on both normal and
abnormal operations significant to protectionor safety be disseminated or made available,
as appropriate, to the RegulatoryAuthorityand other relevant parties, as specified by the
Regulatory Authority. This information would cover, for example, doses associated with
given activities, maintenance data, descriptions of events and corrective actions.
5.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
(205)
Registrants and licensees shall be responsible for establishing the quality
assurance programme required by the principal requirements &these Standards, and the
nature and extent of the quality assurance programme shall be commensurable with the
magnitude and the likelihood of the potential exposures fi.om the sources for which they
are responsible.
(206)
70
The quality assurance programme shall provide for:
(a) planned and systematic actions aimed at providing adequate confidence that
the specified design and operational requirements related to protection and
safety are satisfied, including provisions for feedback of operational
experience;
(b) a framework for the analysis of tasks, developmem of methods, establishmem
of norms and identification of necessary skills for the design and operation of
the source; and
(c) validation of designs and supply and use of materials, of manufacturing,
inspection and testing methods, and of operating and other procedures.
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APPENDIX
EMERGENCY
_
.
1.
EXPOSURE
V
SITUATIONS
RESPONSIBILITIES
(207)
It is presumed that the State will have determined in advance the allocation
of responsibilities for the management of interventions in emergency exposure situations
between the Regulatory Authority, national and local Intervening Organzzations and
licensees or registrants.
2.
EMERGENCY PLANS
(208)
Emergency plans shall be prepared which specify how the responsibilities for
the management of interventions will be discharged on the site, off the site and across
national boundaries, as appropriate, in separate but interconnecting plans.
(209)
The appropriate responsible authorities shall ensure that:
(a) emergency plans be prepared and approved for any practice or source which
could give rise to a need for emergency intervention;
Co) Intervening Organizations be involved in the preparation of emergency plans,
as appropriate;
(c) the content, features and extent of emergency plans take into account the
results of any accident analysis and any lessons learned from operating
experience and from accidents that have occurred with sources of a similar
type;
(d) emergency plans be periodically reviewed and updated;
(e) provision be made for training personnel involved in implementing emergency
plans and the plans be rehearsed at suitable intervals in conjunction with
designated authorities; and
(f) prior information be provided to members of the public who could reasonably
be expected to be affected by an accident.
(210)
Emergency plans shall include, as appropriate:
allocation of responsibilities for notifying the relevant authorities and for
initiating intervention;
identification of the various operating and other conditions of the source which
could lead to the need for intervention;
interventionlevels, based on a consideration of the guidelines in Annex V, for
the relevant protective actions and the scope of their application, with account
taken of the possible degrees of severity of accidents or emergencies that
could occur;
procedures,
including communication arrangements,
for contacting any
relevant Intervening Organization and for obtaining assistance from fh-efighting, medical, police and other relevant organizations;
a description of the methodology and instrumentation for assessing the
accident and its consequences on and off the site;
(a)
Co)
(c)
(d)
(e)
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(f)
a description of the public information arrangements in the evem of an
accident; and
(g) the criteria for term;.nating each protective action.
(211)
Registrants and licensees shall ensure that adequate provision be made for
generating adequate information promptly and communicating it to the responsible
authorities, for:
(a) the early prediction or assessment of the extent and significance of any
accidental discharge of radioactive substances to the environment;
(b) rapid and continuous assessment of the accident as it proceeds; and
(c) determining the need for protective actions.
(212)
On-site emergency plans shall be implemented by registrants and licensees.
(213)
Off-site emergency plans and any transboundary plan shall be implemented
by the Intervening Organizations.
3.
INWERVENTION FOR EMERGENCY EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
3.1
General
(214)
Interventionin emergency exposure situations shall be carried out on the basis
of mterventionlevels and action levels. Interventionlevels are expressed in terms of the
dose that is expected to be averted over time by a specific protective action associated
with the intervention, and action levels in terms of the acnvity concentration of
radionuclides in, for example, foodstuffs, water, and crops.
(215)
Intervention levels and action levels shall be optimiT,ed for the relevant protecnve
actions but they should not allow that certain levels of doses, for which mtervention will
almost always be justified, be exceeded. The values of intervention levels included in
emergencyplans shall be used as initial criteria for implementing protective acttons, but
may be modified to take into account the prevailing circumstances and their likely
evolution.
3.2
Justification
of Intervention
(216)
Protective actions will be almost certain to be justified if the projected dose,
rather than the averted dose, or the dose rate to any individual is otherwise likely to lead
to serious injury. In such circumstances, any decision not to take protective action on an
urgent basis will have to be justified. The levels of dose which could lead to such injury
are given in Annex IV.
3.3
Optimization of Protective Actions: Intervention Levels and Actions Levels
3.3.1 Intervention and Action Levels for Immediate Protective Actions
(217) Decisions to take immediate protective action shall be made in the light of
circumstances prevailing at the time of an accident and be based on the expectation of
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a release, if this is feasible, of radioactive substances to the environment, rather than
delayed pending measurements to confirm the release. In addition to these protective
actions, there are others, such as personal decontamination or elementary forms of
respiratory protection, that may be invoked in special cases but for which intervention
levels have not been established.
.
(218)
Intervention levels for immediate protective actions, including sheltering,
evacuation and iodine prophylaxis, shall be specified in emergency plans, taking into
account the guidance given in Annex V, and intervention shall be considered for any
population in which the avertable dose is expected to exceed the interventionlevels.
(219)
Action levels for the withdrawal and substitution of specific supplies of food
and drinking water shall be specified in emergency plans as appropriate.
(220)
If there is no shortage of food and there are no other compelling social or
economic factors, the action levels for the withdrawal and substitution of specific supplies
of food and drinking water shall be based on the guidance given in Annex V and shall
comply with the recommendations
of the FAO-WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission
for the international trade of food that has been contaminated with radionuclides. 36
The action levels shall be applied to food as consumed, and to dried or concentrated
food after dilution or reconstitution.
(221)
In certain circumstances, if food is scarce or there are other serious social or
economic considerations, higher optimized action levels for food and drinking water
would be expected to be used. However, decisions to take action above the action levels
specified in Annex V shall be subject to the process of justification of interventionand
optimization of the action levels.
(222)
Classes of food, such as spices, that are consumed in small quantities (e.g. less
than 10 kg per person per year), which represent a very small fraction of the total diet
and would increase individual exposure very little, may have action levels ten times higher
than those for major foodstuffs.
3.3
Intervention and Action Levels for Longer Term Protective Actions
(223)
Agricultural, hydrological and other technical or industrial protective actions
shall be considered following contamination of land or water after an accident, taking into
account the guidance of FAO and IAEA on radiation accidents and agricultural
countermeasures. 37
36
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Ahmerrtanus Commission,
1 (lg91); Sectmn 6 1, Levels for Radlonuchdes
37
Codex Nimentanus, Volume
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Radiation
Accidents and Agricultural Countermezsures, FAO/IAEA, Vienna (1993).
73
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(224)
The international trading of food that has been contaminated with
radionuclides shall be subject to the recommendations of the FA)-WHO Codex
Alimentaxius Commission38 specified in Annex V.
(225)
Interventionlevels for temporary relocation and return of exposed persons shall
be specified in emergency plans taking into account the guidance given in Annex V.
(226)
The interveningorganizationshall keep people who axe temporarily relocated
informed of their likely time of return to their homes and about the safeguarding of their
property.
(227)
if:
Consideration shall be given to permanent resettlement
of exposed persons
(a) the duration of temporary relocation is expected to exceed an agreed period;
or
Co) permanent resettlement is justified by virtue of the dose which could be
averted.
Guidance on generic interventionlevels for permanent resettlement is given in Annex V.
(228)
before
4.
Appropriate consultations with people potentially affected shall be made
initiating programmes of permanent resettlement.
ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING AFTER ACCIDENTS
(229)
All reasonable steps shall be taken to assess exposure incurred by membersof
the public as a consequence of an accident, and the results of the assessments shall be
made publicly available.
(230)
The assessments shall be based on the best available information, and shall
be promptly updated in the light of any information that would produce substantially
more accurate results.
(231)
Comprehensive records shall be maintained of assessments and their updates,
and of monitoring results for the workers,public, and the environment.
5.
CESSATION OF INTERVENTION AFTER AN ACCIDENT
(232)
A protective action will be discontinued when further assessment shows that
continuation of the action is no longer justified.
3g
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Ahmentanus Commlss, on, Codex Ahmentanus, Volume
I (1991), Section 6 1, Levels for Radlonuchdes
74
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6.
-
-
PROTECTION OF WORKERS
UNDERTAKING AN INTERVENTION
(233)
No worker undertaking an intervention39shall be exposed in excess of the
maximum single year dose limit for occupational exposure specified in Annex II, except:
(a) for the purpose of saving life or preventing serious injury;
Co) if undertaking actions intended to avert a large collective dose; or
(c) if undertaking actions to prevent the development of catastrophic conditions.
When undertaking interventionunder these circumstances, all reasonable efforts shall be
made to keep doses to workers below twice the maximum single year dose limit, except
for life-saving actions, in which every effort shall be made to keep doses below ten times
the maximum single year dose limit in order to avoid deterministiceffects on health. In
addition, workers undertaking actions in which their doses may approach or exceed ten
times the maximum single year dose limit shall do so only when the benefits to others
clearly outweigh their own risk.
(234)
Workerswho undertake actions in which the dose may exceed the maximum
single year dose limit shall be volunteers 4° and shall be clearly and comprehensively
informed in advance of the health risk involved, and shall, to the extent feasible, be
trained in the actions that may be required.
(235)
The person responsible for ensuring
requirements shall be specified in emergency plans.
compliance
with the
foregoing
(236)
Once the emergency phase of an interventionhas ended, workers undertaking
recovery operations, such as repairs to plant and buildings, waste disposal or
decontamination of the site and surrounding area, shall be subject to the full system of
detailed requirements for occupational exposure prescribed in Appendix I.
(237)
All reasonable steps shall be taken to provide appropriate protection during
the emergency intervention and to assess and record the doses received by workers
involved in emergency intervention. When the interventionhas ended, the doses received
and the consequent health risk shall be communicated to the workers involved.
.
(238)
Workersshall not normally be precluded from incurring further occupational
exposure because of doses received in an emergency exposure situation.
However,
qualified medical advice shall be obtained before any such further exposure if a worker
who has been involved in an emergency exposure situation receives a dose exceeding ten
times the maximum single year dose hmit or at the worker's request.
39
Workers undertaking an m_rverfi_on may m=lude, in add,on to those employed by I_censees and
mgts_o-ants,such ass_sang personnel as pohce, firemen, medical personnel, and drwers anti crews of
evacuation vehicles
40
If milrtary personnel are revolved, in some mrcumstances, these requirements may not apply
Exposure of
thss personnel shall, however, be hmited to ad hoc levels to be specrhed by the Regulatory Au_onty
75
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76
ATTACHMENT
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1.
·
APPENDIX
VI
EXPOSURE
SITUATIONS
TO GOV/27IS,
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DISTR., ORIGINAL:ENGLIgH
RESPONSIBILITIES
(239)
It is presumed that the State
will have determined
the allocation
of
responsibilities
for the management
of interventions
in chronic exposure situations
between the Regulatory Authority, national and local Intervening Organizations and
licensees or registrants.
2.
REMEDIAL
ACTION
PLANS
(240)
Generic or site specific remedial action plans for chronic exposure situations
shall be prepared by the Intervening Organization, as appropriate.
The plans shall specify
remedial actions and action levels that are justified and optimized, taking into account:
(a) the individual and collective exposures;
(b) the radiological and non-radiological
risks; and
(c) the financial and social costs, the benefits and the financial liability
for the remedial actions.
3.
ACTION
LEVELS
FOR CHRONIC
EXPOSURE
SITUATIONS
nl
(241)
Action levels for intervention through remedial action shall be specified in terms
of appropriate
quantities, such as the annual average ambient dose equivalent rate or a
suitable average activity concentration
of radionuclides
that exist at the time remedial
action is being considered.
(242)
For the action levels for chronic exposure situations, account shall be taken of
the benefits and costs assessed in the remedial action plan. For radon in dwellings and
workplaces, optimi?ed action levels are expected generally to fall within the guidelines
specified in Annex VI.
-
(243)
The decision to undertake remedial actions for chronic exposure situations in
dwellings shall be voluntary in the case of owner occupied residences, and for other cases
the RegulatoryAuthortty or the Intervening organization shall decide whether the remedial
measures specified in remedial action plans are to be implemented
when an action level
is reached or exceeded, n:
41
At the 1line of the Standards' endorsement recommendations
were avmlable from the ICRP for chromc
exposure to radon only The detatled ancJ quant_tattve reqmrements for chromc exposure srtua_ons therefore
focus on exposure to radon.
42
The recommendat3ons of the ICRP emphasize the role of national authorrhes m demd,ng the levels of
funding for general radon reductton or o_er aspects of housing [mprovernents (See International
Cornrn_sston on Rad;at]on Prote_on, ICRP PubhcatJon No. 65, Protection agaJnst Radon -222 at Home and
at Work, Annals of the ICRP, VoL 23, No. 2, Pergamon Press (1993); paragraph (68)).
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ANNEX I
EXEMPTIONS
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ANNEX I
EXEMPTIONS
Exemption
_'
Criteria
(I. 1)
Practices and sources within practices may be exempted from the requirements
of the Standards,
including those for notification, registration or licensing, if the
Regulatory
Authority is satisfied that the sources meet the exemption criteria or the
exemption levels specified in this Annex or other exemption levels specified by the
Regulatory Authority on the basis of these exemption criteria. Exemption should not be
granted to permit practices that would otherwise not be justified.
(I.2)
(a)
(b)
(c)
The general principles for exemption43are that:
the radiation rtsks to individuals caused by the exempted practice or source be
sufficiently low as to be of no regulatory concern;
the collective radiological
impact of the exempted practice or source be
sufficiently low as not to warrant regulatory control under the prevailing
circumstances;
and
the exempted practices and sources be inherently safe, with no appreciable
likelihood of scenarios that could lead to a failure to meet the criteria in (a)
and (b).
(I.3)
A practice or a source within a practice may be exempted without further
consideration
provided that the following criteria are met in all feasible situations:
(a) the effective dose expected to be incurred by any member of the public due to
the exempted practice or source is of the order of 10 pSv or less in a year, and
Co) either the collective effective dose committed by one year of performance
of the
practice is no more than about 1 man. Sv or an assessment for the optimization
of protection shows that exemption is the optimum option.
Exempted
'
'
Sources
and Exemption
Levels
(1.4)
Under the criteria in paragraphs
(1.1)-(1.3), the following sources within
practices are automatically exempted without further consideration from the requirements
of the Standards, including those for notification, registration or licensing:
(a) radioactive substances for which either the total activity of a given nuclide
present on the premises at any one time or the activity concentration
used in
the practice does not exceed the exemption levels given in Table I of this
Annexnn; and
43
See IntematJonaJ Atomtc Energy Agency, Pnnclples for the Exemptdon of Radiation
Sources
and Prac13cesfrom Regulatory Control, Safety Senes No 89, IAEA, Vienna (1988)
44
The gmdance exempt3on levels set forth m Table I of Annex I are subject to the following consmderabons
(a) They have been clenved using a conservatwe model based on (i) the crrtena of para (I 3) and (il) a senes of
hmrtlng (bound,ng) use and disposal scenarios
The values of actJv,ty concentration and total actJvrty represent
the lowest values calculated ,n any scenario, for a moderate quantTty of matenal (See Comm_sston of the
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(b) radiation generators, of a type approved by the Regulatory Authority, and any
electronic tube, such as a cathode ray tubes for the display of visual images,
provided that:
(i)
they do not cause in normal operating conditions an ambient dose
equivalent rate or a directional dose equivalent rate, as appropriate,
exceeding 1 gSv.h '_ at a distance of 0.1 m from any accessible
surface of the apparatus; or
(ii) the maximum energy of the radiation produced is no greater than
5 keV.
(1.5)
Conditional exemptions may be granted subject to conditions specified by the
Regulatory Authority, such as conditions relating to the physical or chemical form and to
the use or disposal of the radioactive materials. In particular, such an exemption may be
granted for an apparatus containing radioactive substances not otherwise exempted under
(1.4) (a) provided that:
(a)
it is of a type approved by the Regulatory Authority;
Co)
the radioactive
substances
are in the form of sealed sources that
effectively prevent any contact with radioactive
substances or their
leakage except that this should not prevent exemption of small quantities
of unsealed sources such as those used for radioimmunoassay;
(c)
in normal operating conditions it does not cause an ambient dose
equivalent rate or a directional dose equivalent rate, as appropriate,
exceeding 1 gSv.h 4 at a distance of O.lm from any accessible surface of
the apparatus; and
(d)
necessary conditions for disposal have been specified by the Regulatory
Authority.
(1.6)
Radioactive substances from an authorized practice or source whose release
to the environment
has been authorized, are exempted from any new requirements
of
notification, registration or licensing unless otherwise specified by the Regulatory Authority.
European Communrbes, Radia'non Protec_on 65, Pnnc,ples and methods for establ,sh,ng concentratons and
quantt,es below whach repo_ng is not requtred in the European _rectJve )
(b) The appl,caton of exempaon to natural radlonucl,des is I,m_ted to the mcorporaton of naturally occumng
rad,onucl_des into consumer products or their use as a radtoacbve source (e.g, Ra-226, Po-210) or for thewr
elemental properbes (thorium, uranium).
(c) In the case of more than one radlonucl,de, the appropriate sum of the ratos of the acttv/ty or a_vny
concentration of each radlonuci_de and the corresponding exempt actwtty or acttvfiy concentratJon shall be taken
into account
(d) Exemptton for bulk amount of materials wrth acavtty concenWaton lower than the exempbon levels may reqmre
further consideration by the RegulatoryAuthortty.
82
,_
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/27'15, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
TABLE I
OF
ANNEX I
EXEMPTION
LEVELS
83
AI'I'ACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
84
AI"FACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RF.b-_qRICTEDDISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
TABLE I EXEMPTION LEVELS:
Exeml _t Activity Concentrations and Exempt Activities
NUCLIDE
ACITVITY
CONCENTRATION
,
.
of Radionuclides
ACTIVITY
Bq/g
Bq
H-3
1 00e+06
1.00e+09
Be-7
1.00e'+-03
100e.+07
(2-14
1.00e+04
1.00e+07
O-15
! 00e+02
l 00e+(O
F-IS
1 00e+01
1 00e+06
Na-22
1 00e+01
100e+06
Na-24
1 00e+01
1 00e+05
*Si-31
1.00e+03
I 00e+06
P-32
I 00e+03
1 00e+05
*P33
1 00ce05
I 00e+0g
S-35
1.00e+05
1.0(O+08
CI-36
1.00e+04
1 00e+06
*CI-3g
1 00e+01
! 00e+05
Ar-37
1.00e+06
1.00e+13
Ar-41
1 ooe+o2
I.OOe+O9
*K-40
1 00e+02
! 00e+06
K-42
1 00e+02
1 ooe+o6
*K-43
1.00e+01
1.00e+06
C.a-45
1.00e+04
1 00e+07
C_.a-47
1.00e+01
I 00e+06
So.46
! 00e+01
1.00e+06
*Sc47
1 00e+02
1.0(006
*Sc-48
100e+Ol
1.00e+05
*V.4.8
1.00e+01
1.00e+05
Cr-51
1.00e+03
1.00e+07
Fe-52
I 00e+01
I 00e+06
Fe-55
1_
1.00e+06
Fe-59
1.00e+01
1 00e+06
*Mn-51
l.O(k+Ol
1 0(O-q)5
*Mn-52
1.00e+01
1 00e+05
*Mn-52m
1 00e-+Ol
1 00e+05
*Mn-53
1 00e+04
i.OOe'g)9
m
85
ATTACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL.: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
86
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
Bq/g
ACTIVITY
Mn-54
1 00¢+01
1 0(k-+06
Ivln-56
1 00e+OI
! 00e+05
*Co-55
I 00c+01
1 00c'+06
Co-56
1 00c+0l
1 00c+05
Co-57
I 00e+02
I 00e406
Co-.58
1 00e-_l
1 00e+06
*Co-58m
1 00e+04
i 00e+07
C..o..60
I 00e+01
10{_.05
*Co-60m
1.00e+03
l 00e+06
*Co-6l
1.00e+02
1
*Co..62m
1.00e+01
100e4.05
*NJ-59
1.00e+04
1 00e+08
Ni-63
] 00e+05
1 00e+08
*Ni-65
1 00e+01
1 00c-+06
Cu-64
! 00e+02
1 00c+06
Zn-65
I 00e+01
I 00c'+06
*Zn-69
1 0(L'+04
1 00e+06
Zn-69rn
!.00e+02
I 00e+06
*Ge-71
1.0{L'+04
I 00e+08
Ga-72
1 00e+01
1 00e+05
*As-73
1.00c'+03
1 00e+07
As-74
1.00_'+01
1.00e+06
*As-76
1.0{L'+02
I 00e+05
*.t_-77
l.OOe+03
1 00e+06
8¢-75
1.0{L-+02
I 00e+06
Br-82
!.00e+01
1 00e+06
*Kr-74
1.00c+02
1
*Kr-76
1.0{L"+02
I 00e+09
*Kr-77
! 0(k+02
1.00e+09
*Kr-79
1 00cq-03
i 00e+10
*Kr-81
1 00e+04
l 00e+l !
*Kr-g3m
I 00c+05
l 00e+12
F,J-85
1 00e+05
100e+l I
Bq
,_
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAl.: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bq/g
"
,,
"
4r
*Kr-g5m
1.00e+03
1.00e+ I0
*Kr-S7
l 00e+02
I 0(0-+09
*Kr-88
1 00e+02
1 00e+09
St-g5
1.00e+02
1 00e-+06
Sr-85m
I 00e+02
I 00¢+07
Sr-g7m
1 000-02
I 00e+06
Sr-89
1 00e+03
I _6
St-90+
I 0(0+02
1.00e+04
*Sr-91
I 00e+0l
1 00c+05
*Sr-92
l 00e+01
1 00_-06
Y-90
1 00e+03
1 00e+05
*Y-91
I 00e+03
1 00e+06
*Y-91m
1 00e+02
1 (N)e+06
*Y-92
1.00e+02
1.00e+05
*Y-93
1 00e+02
I 00e+05
Rb-86
1 00e+02
I 00e+05
*Zr-93+
1 00e+03
1 00e+07
Zr-95
1 00e+01
1.00e+06
*Zr-97+
1 (R)e+01
1.00e+05
*Nb-93m
100e+04
100e+07
*Nb-94
1 00e+01
I OOe+06
Nb-95
1 00e+01
1 00e+06
*Nb-97
1.00e+01
1.00e+06
*Nb-98
1 00e+01
1 00e+05
*Tc-96
I 00¢401
l.O(k'+06
*Tc-96m
1 0(k'+03
l.OOe+07
*Tc-97
1 00_03
1.00e+08
*Tc-97m
1.00e+03
1.00e+07
*Tc-99
1 00e+04
! 00e+07
Tc-99m
1.00e+02
1 ooe+o7
*Mo-90
1.00e+01
1 00e+06
*Mo-93
1.00e-+03
1 00e+08
Mo-99
1.00_'-4-02
1 00e+06
87
ATTACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
_/g
88
ACI1VITY
Bq
*Mo-IOI
I OOe+OI
I OOe+06
*Ru-97
I (R)e-+02
1 00e+O7
Ru-103
1 00e+02
100e+06
'P,u-105
100e+Ol
100e+06
Ru-106+
1 0(0+02
1 0(k+05
*Rh-103m
100e+04
100e-+O8
*Rh-105
1 00e-l-02
1 0(O+07
*Pd-103
1 00e+03
1 00e+08
*Pd-109
! 00e+03
1 00e-+'06
Cd-109
!.00e+04
1 00e'+'06
*Cd-115
i .00c'+02
1 00e+06
*C,d-1ISm
!.00e+03
! 00e+06
*Ag-105
1.00e+02
1.(A}e+06
Ag-I l Om
!.00e+01
i .00e+06
Ag-111
1 00e-+03
1 00e+06
In-111
1.00e+02
1 00e+06
In-113m
! .00e+02
1.00e+06
*In-114m
1.00e+02
!.0(O+06
"In-115m
i .00e.+02
1.00e+06
*Sn-113
1.00e-i-03
1 00e+07
*Sn-125
100e+02
100e+05
Sb-122
1 00_-02
l.OOe-'d)4
Sb-124
l.OOe_ 1
I OOe+06
Sb-125
!.OOe+02
100e+06
!-123
1.00e+02
I 00e.+07
1.125
1.00e+03
I 00e+06
'1o126
1 00t'+02
1 00e+06
'1-129
I 00e+02
10(k+05
'I-130
1 00e+01
1 00e+06
1-131
1 00e+02
1 00e+06
1-132
1 00e+01
I 00e+05
*I-133
100e-_l
I 0/k-_6
'1-134
I 00e+01
!.00e+05
,,-
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bq/g
·
.-
Bq
*i-135
1.00e+01
i.00e+06
*Cs-129
1 00e+02
! 00e+05
Cs-131
1 00e+03
1 00e+06
*C.s-132
1.00e+0 i
1.00c"+05
*Cs-134m
1.00e+03
1 00e+05
Cs-134
100e-+-Oi
I 00e-+-04
*Cs-135
I 00e+04
! 00e+07
*C.s-136
1 00c--H31
1.00e+05
C,s-137+
1.00e+Ol
100e+04
*Cs-138
1.00e+01
100e-+-04
*Te-123m
i.O0e+02
1 00e+07
*Te-125m
I 00e+03
1 0{L-+07
*Te-127
! OOe'+03
100e-H)6
*T¢-127m
1 00e+03
1 00e-+-07
*Te-129
1 00e+02
1 00e+06
*Te-129m
100e+03
1 00e+06
*Te-131
1.00e+02
1 00e+05
*Te-13 lm
1.00e+01
100e+06
T¢-132
1.00e-+-02
1.00e+07
*Te-133
! 00e+01
! 00e+05
*Te-133m
100e+01
I 00e+05
*Te-134
1 00e+01
100e+06
*Xe-131m
1 00e+04
1 00e+l 1
Xe-133
1 00e+03
100e+10
*Xe-135
i .0(0+03
1.0(k+10
Ce-139
! 00e+02
1.00e+06
Cel41
100e+02
1 {g)e+07
*Ce!43
1 00e+02
1 00e+06
Ce-144+
1.00e+02
1 00e_5
*Ba-131
!.O0e+02
!.00e+06
Ba-140+
1 00e+01
1 00e+05
La-140
1 00e+01
1 00e+05
*Pr-142
1 00e+02
100e-+-05
at
89
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
Sq/g
90
ACTIVITY
Sq
Pro143
I (X)e-H)4
I OOe+06
Pm-147
1 00e+04
1 00e+07
*Pm-149
1 00e+03
1 00e+06
*Nd-147
1 00e+02
1 00e+06
*Nd-149
I 0(k'+02
I 00e+O6
*Sm-151
100e.._4
I 0(0+08
*Sm-153
1 00e+02
1 0(0+06
Eu-152
1.00e+01
1 00e+06
*Eu-I $2m
1.00e+02
1 00e+06
Eu-154
100e+01
1 00e+06
Eu-155
100e+02
I OOe+07
*Gd-153
1 00e+02
1 00e+07
*Gd-159
1 00e+03
! 00e+06
*Tb-160
1 0{L--+01
1 00e+06
*Dy-165
I 00r_3
1 00e+06
*Dy-166
1 00e+03
1 00e+06
*Ho-166
1 00e+03
1 00e+05
Er-169
i.00e+O4
l.O0e+07
*Er-171
!.00e+02
1.00e.+06
'Tm-170
!.00e-_3
1.00e+06
"Tm-I 71
1.00e+04
1.00e+08
*Yb-175
100e+03
1 0(O+07
*Lu-177
100e+03
I 00c'+07
Ta-182
104L-+O1
I 0Oe+O4
'I-If-181
100e+Ol
I OOe+06
"W-181
1 00e+03
I 00e+07
W-185
1 00e+04
1 00e+07
*W-187
i .00e.+-02
1 00e+06
Kc-186
1 00e+03
i 00e+06
*Re-188
! OOe+02
i 00e+05
*Os-185
1 00e+0l
I 00e+06
*Os-191
I 00e+02
1 00e+'07
*Os-191m
I 00e+03
1 00e+07
ATTACHMEHT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bq/§
Sq
i,
_'
*Os-193
1 00e+02
1.00e+06
*Ir-190
1 00e+01
i .00e+06
Ir*192
1 00e+01
1.00e+04
*h-194
1 00e+02
!.00e+05
'Pt-191
1 00e+02
1._
*Pt-193m
1 00e+03
1.00e+07
*Pt-! 97
1 00e-+03
!.00e+06
*Pt-197m
100e+02
! 00e+06
Hg-197
I 00e+02
I 00e+07
*Hg-197m
1.00e+02
I 00e+06
Hg-203
I 00e+02
10(0+05
Au-198
1 00e+02
1.00e+06
*Au-199
1.00e+02
I 00e+06
*'1'1-200
1.00e+01
I 00e+06
'13-201
I 00e+02
100e+06
*TI-202
1 00e+02
I 00e+06
11-204
1 0(0+04
100e+04
Bi-206
1 0(O+01
I 00e+05
*Bi-207
1 00e+01
1 00e'H_
*Bi-210
1.00e+03
I 00e+06
*Bi-212+
1 00e+01
I 00e+05
*Pb-203
l.(N)e+02
I 00e+06
Pb-210+
1.00e+0]
1 00e+04
*Pb-212+
1 00e+0]
1 00e+0$
*Po-203
I 00e+0l
1.00e+06
*Po-205
1.00e+O1
1.00e+_
*Po-207
1.00e+01
1.00e+06
Po-210
1.00e_l
100e+04
*At-211
1.00e+03
I 00e+07
*Rn-220+
l OOe+04
I 00e+07
Rn-222+
1 00e+01
1 00e+08
*Ra-223+
I O(k"+{32
100e+05
*Ra-224+
100e+O ]
1.OOe+O5
91
ATTACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bq/g
*1_-225
100e+02
l OOe_5
Ra-226+
1ooe-+Ol
1 ooe+o4
*Ra-227
I 00_+02
1 00r_6
*Ra-228+
1 00_01
1 00e+05
*Th-226+
1 00e+03
I (X)e+07
*Th-227
1.00e+01
100e.+04
Th-228+
1 00e+O0
i 00e+04
*Th-229+
! 00c-+00
I 00e+03
Th-230
I 00e-_00
! 00c+04
*Th-23
1 0(Ye+03
1 00c'+'07
1 00c+00
10(_-03
1 00c+03
1 00c+05
Th-NAT
(mci Th-232)
*Th-234+
92
Bq
*Ac-227+
! 00e-01
I 00e+02
*Ac-228
I 00c'+01
I 00e+06
*Pa-230
1 00e+01
1.00_1-06
*Pa-231
I 00e+00
1 00c+03
*Pa-233
1.0(L-+02
1 00c+07
*U-230+
1 00c+01
1.00e+05
*U-231
1 00c-+02
! 00c+07
*U-232+
1.00c+00
1 00e+03
*U-233
!.00c+O1
1 00c+04
U-234
1.00e+01
1 0(0+04
*U-235+
I 00e+01
1 00e-+04
*U-236
1 00e+01
1 00c-_
*U-237
I 00c+02
1 00e-+06
U-238+
1.0Or+0i
1 00e+04
U-nat
1 00e+00
i 00e+03
*U-239
1 00e-+02
1.00e+06
*U-240
1.00e+03
! 00e+07
*U-240+
I 00e+01
I 0(0-+06
*Np-237+
1 00c+00
1 00c+03
*Np-239
1 0(0+02
1 00e+07
*Np-240
1.00c+01
1 0{L-+O6
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bo/g
'
e
*Pu-234
I 00e+02
1.00_-07
*Pu-235
100e+02
1.0(0+07
*Pu-236
100e+O1
l.OOe+04
'Pu-237
1.00e4'03
I 00e'_7
Pu-238
1.00e+O0
1 00e+04
Pu-239
1.00e+00
1 00_,.04
'Pu-240
100e+00
1 00e+03
*Pu-241
1.00e+02
1 00e+05
*Pu-242
1 00e+00
1 00e+04
*Pu-243
1.00e+03
1 0(0+07
*Pu-244
1 00e+00
1 00e+04
Am-241
I 00e+00
1 00e+04
*Am-242
1.00e+03
i.00e+06
*Am-242m+
I 00e+00
i .00e-+04
*Am-243+
I 00e+00
i.O0e+03
*Cm-242
1 00e+02
1.00e'+05
*Cm-243
1.00e+00
1.00e+04
Cm-244
1.00e+01
1.00e+04
*Cm-245
!.00=+00
1 00e+03
*Cm-246
1.00e+00
1 00e+03
*Cm-247
!.00e+00
1 00e+04
'Cm-248
1.00e+00
l 00e+03
Bk-249
1.00e+03
1.00e+06
*Cf-246
1.00e+03
1 00e+06
*Cf-248
1 00e_l
100e+04
*CT-249
1.00e+00
1 00e+03
*Cf-250
I 00e+01
1 00e+04
*CT-251
1 00e+00
1 00e+03
Cf-252
I OOe+O!
100e+04
'Cf-253
1.00c'-H)2
1.00:+05
'Cf-254
I 00e+00
1.00e+03
*Es-253
I OOe+02
l.OOe+05
Es-254
1 _l
! 00e+04
93
ATfACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
NUCLIDE
ACTIVITY
CONCENTRATION
ACTIVITY
Bq/g
(')
(+)
Par_t
*Es-254m
1 00e'+'02
! OOe-+.06
*Fm-254
100e-_4
1 00c+07
*Fm-255
100e+03
100e+06
Thc potential u._ of these ra&onuclidcs is unknown
Refers to progeny as follows
Nuchdc
Progeny
included
tn aemtlar eqmhbnum
Sr-90-_
Y-90
Zr-93",'
Nb-93m
Zr-9?+
Nb*97
Ru-106+
R.b-106
Cs-]3? ''_
Ba-13Tm
Ce-134+
La-134
Ce-144+
Pt-144
Ba-140-+
La-140
Bi-212+
"11-208 (36), Po-212 (64)
Pb-210+
Bt-210, Po-2lo
Pb-212+
Bi-212, TI-208 (36),
lan .220+
Po-216
Kn.222+
Po-2] g, Pb-214. Bz-214, Po-214
Ra-223+
Kn-2l 9, Pc-2] 5, Pb-21 t, B_-211,1'1-207
R_-224+
Kn-220. Po-2] 6, Pb-212, B:-212,1'1-208
Rz-226'+
Rn-222, po-218
Po-212 (64)
(36), Po-212 (64)
Pb-214 BI-214, Pc.-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
Ra-228+
Ac-22g
Th-226+
Ra-22,2 Rn-218, Po-214
Th-228+
Ra-224, R.n-220. Po-216, Pb-212 Bi-212, TI-208 (.36), Po-212 (64)
Th-229+
Ra-225, Ac-225, Fr-221, At-21?
Th-NAT
Ra-228, Ac.-?.28, Th-225. Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, PI_.212, Bi-212, TI-208 (-36), Po-212 (re4)
Th-234-
Pa-234m
AC-227+
Th-22?, Ra-223, Rn-219 Po-215. Pb-211, Bi-2! ], 1'1-207
U.230°.-
Th-226, Ra-2.?.2,R.n-2I$
U-232+
Th-2.28, Ra-224, Rn-2,?.O, Po.-216. Fo-2 ] 2, Bt-212, TI-208 (..36), Po-212 (64)
U-23 S+
Th-231
U-238+
Th-234, Pa-234m
U-NAT
Tb-234. P&-234m. U-234. Th.230. Ra-2.26 Y,.n-222 Pc--2]g, Pb-214, Bt-214, Po-214, Pb-210, B_-210, i:'o-210
U-240_-
Np-240m
Np-23'7+
Pa-233
Am-242m+
An_242
Am-243_-
Np-239
94
Bq
BI-2] 3, PO-213, Pb-209
Po-.214
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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ANNEX II
DOSE LIMITS
(including conversion co-efficients for effective dose)
95
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96
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ANNEX
II
DOSE LIMITS
(including conversion co-efficients for effective dose)
Application
(II.1) The dose limits specified in Annex II apply to exposuresat_butable to practices,
with the exception of medical exposures and exposures from natural sources that cannot
reasonably be regarded as being under the responsibility of any principal party of the
Standards.
(11.2) Subject to the requirements set forth in paragraph (28), for exposure to radon at
or above an average annual concentration of 1000 Bq.m'3 45of air, of radon progeny
in a workplace, the dose limits for occupational exposure and the relevant requirements
of Appendix I shall apply.
(11.3) The dose limits are not relevant for the control of potential exposures.
(11.4) The dose limits are not relevant for decisions on whether and how to undertake
an intervention, but workers undertaking an intervention shall be subject to the relevant
requirements of Appendix V.
Occupational
Exposure
Dose Limits
(11.5) The occupational exposure of any worker shall be so controlled that the following
limits are not exceeded:
(a) an effective dose of 20 mSv per year averaged over five consecutive years46;
Co) an effective dose of 50 rosy in any single year;
(c) an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of 150 mSv in a year; and
45
The Intemataonal Commission
on Radaological Protection has recommended that the actton levels for
ocoupatlonal exposure to radon can fall m the range 500.1500 Bq m 'a. (See International Commtsslon on
Radmt]on Protection; ICRP PubhcatJon No 65, Protection agaJnst Radon -222 at Home and at Work, Annals of
the ICRP, Vol 23, No. 2, Pergamon Press (1993))
46
The start of the averaging
period shall be co,ncident with the first day of the relevant annual period after the date
of entry into force of the Standards, w_thout any retroa_ve
averaging
97
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(d) an equivalentdose to the extremities (hands and feet) or the skinn7of 500 mSv
in a year.
(II.6) For apprentices of 16 to 18 years of age who are training for employment
involving exposure to radiation and for students of age 16 to 18 who are required to use
sources in the course of their studies, the occupational exposure shall be so controlled that
the following limits are not exceeded:
(a) an effective dose of 6 mSv in a year;
Co) an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of 50 mSv in a year; and
(c) an equivalent dose to the extremities or the skin4° of 150 mSv in a year.
Special Circumstances
(11.7) When, in special circumqances 48, a temporary change in the dose limitation
requirements is approved pursuant to Appendix I:
(a) the dose averaging period mentioned in (II.5)(a) may exceptionally be up to 10
consecutive years as specified by the RegulatoryAuthority,and the effectivedose
for any workershall not exceed 20 mSv per year averaged over this period and
shall not exceed 50 mSv in any single year, and the circumstances shall be
reviewed when the dose accumulated by any worker since the start of the
emended averaging period reaches 100 mSv; or
Co) the temporary change in the dose limitation shall be as specified by the
RegulatoryAuthoritybut shall not exceed 50 mSv in any year and the period
of the temporary change shall not exceed 5 years.
Public Exposure
Dose Limits
(11.8) Exposure of membersof the public attributable to practices shall not exceed the
following limits which shall apply to the estimated average doses to the relevant critzcal
groups:
(a) an effective dose of 1 rosy in a year;
Co) in special cireum._anees, an efj_ctive dose of up to 5 mSv in a single year
provided that the average dose over five consecutive years does not exceed 1
rosy per year;
(c) an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of 15 mSv in a year; and
(d) an equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv in a year.
Dose Limitation for Comforters
of Patients and Visitors to Patients
47
The equivalent dose limits for the skln apply to the average dose over 1cra2 ,n the most h_ghly ,rrad_ated area of
the skin Skin dose also contributes to the effectJve dose, where thBs ¢ontnbubon ,s the average dose to the
enbre skin mulbphed by the bssue weighting factor for the skin.
48
See Appendix I
98
Provaslons for 'alternative employment'
may be relevant
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/27'15,APRIL 1994
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-
(I1.9)
The dose limits set out in this part shall not apply to comforters of patients, i.e.,
to individuals
knowingly exposed while voluntarily
helping (other than in their
employment
or occupation) in the care, support and comfort, including visiting, of
patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treamaent. However, the exposure of any such
comforter of patients shall be constrained so that it is unlikely that his or her exposure
will exceed 5 mSv during the period of a patient's diagnostic examination or lxeatment.
The dose to children visiting patients who have ingested radioactive materials should be
constrained to less than 1 mSv per treatment.
Verification
of Compliance
With Dose Limits
(II.10)
The dose limits specified in Annex II apply to the sum of the relevant doses
from external exposure in the specified period and the relevant committed doses from
mtakes in the same period; the period for calculating the committed dose shall normally
be 50 years for intakes by adults and to age 70 years for intakes by children.
(1I. 11)
For the purpose of demonstrating
compliance with dose limits, the sum of the
personal dose equivalent from external exposure to penetrating
radtation in the specified
period and the committed equivalent dose or committed ef_ctive dose, as appropriate, from
intakes of radioactive substances in the same period shall be taken into account.
(II.12)
Compliance with the foregoing requirements for application of the dose limits
on ef/kctive dose shall be determined by either of the following methods:
(a) by comparing the total effectzve dose with the relevant dose limtt, where the
total ef2'kctivedose E r is calculated according to the following formula:
where H/d) is the personal dose equivalent from penetrating radiation 49during
the year; h(g)j,_, and h(g)j,.aare the committed effective dose per ingested or
inhaled unit intake for radionuclide j by the group of age g; and/J,,.s and /_._
respectively are the intake via ingestion or inhalation of radionuclide j during
the same period; or
Co) by satisfying the following condition:
49
The use of the ICRUoperatJonalquantity,personaldoseequn,aJent,
Hp(d), for this purpose ,sappropnate for all
radiations except neurons _nthe energy range 1 eV to 30 kev In srmatJonswhere neutrons_nth_senergy range
contribute a major _a_on of the ef[ec'tn_dose, add_onal reformation may be necessaryto cleterrnmethe
relat,onsh_pbetweenthe value of Hp(10) and the corresponding effecbvedose
99
ATrACHMENI' TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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where DL is the relevant limit on effective dose, and /j =g.Land /j,,_L respectively
are the annual limit of intake via ingestion or via inhalation of radionuclide j (i.e.
the intake, through the relevant route of radionuclide j that leads to the relevant
limit on effective dose); or
(c) by any other approved method.
(11.13)
Except for radon and thoron progeny, values of the committed effective dose per
unit intake for ingestion h(g)j.,,g and inhalation h(g)j,,g are given in Tables II-I and II-II.
Values of/j.,,g.L and /j,_ may be obtained from the relevant values of the committed
effective dose per unit intake, using the following relationships:
(a) For workers:
The assumption for workers is that the only route of intake is
inhalation, and a sole 'Annual Limit of Intake' (AL]), Ij,L, is to be
considered and therefore given by:
DL o
where DLo is the relevant mmualdose limit on e_ctive
dose for
occupational exposures to be considered (either 20 mSv or 50 mSv)
and h(adult)j._h is the value given in Table II-II, column 'adults', for
radionuclide j.
Co) In the case of public exposure, for the relevant critical group of the practice
being considered,
values
following formulas:
of/_.mL and /j,,_L may be obtained
by using the
DLp
h gcc )
where DLr is the relevant annual dose limit on effective dose for public exposure
to be considered (1 rosy or, in special circumstances, 5 rosy) and
h(gcc, ms)_
and h(gcc._) _ are respectively the committed effective doses per unit intake via
ingestion
and via inhalation
of radionuclide
j for the age group (gcc)
corresponding
to the relevant source-related critical group of interest, given in
Tables II-I and II-II. The table for ingestion includes values corresponding
to
different gut transfer factors fl for infants and older persons. The table for
inhalation includes values for different gut transfer factors for the component
of the intake transferred to an ingestion route, and also for different retention
times (days D, weeks W or years Y). If there is information
on these
100
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2'715, APRIL 1994
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parameters, the appropriate value shall be used; if not, the most restrictive
value shall be used.
'
(II.14) For exposure to radon, using a conversion coefficient of 1.4 mSv per ml hrn'3, the
dose limits in II.5 may be interpreted as follows: 20mSv corresponds to 14 mi h m'3 (4
WLM) and 50mSv corresponds to 35 ml.h m'3 (10 WI,M). For exposure to radon and
thoron progeny,/j.,_ and/j, mL in formulas given in paragraphs (II.12) may be expressed
in terms of potential alpha energy intake, using the limits specified in Table II-III;
alternatively, /l._ and /j._z may be replaced by potential alpha energy exposure or
working level months (WLM) of exposure,using the relevant limits specified in Table IIIII.
(II.15)
The committedequivalent dose in a given organ or tissue due to a given route
of intake of any given radionuclide may be determined:
(a)
by multiplying the estimated intake of the given nuclide through such a
route by the appropiate value of the committed equivalent dose per mt
intake corresponding to such an organ or tissue; or
Co) by any other approved method.
101
A'I'I'ACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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102
A'I'FACHMENT
TO GOV/2715,
APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
TABLES II-I AND II-II
OF ANNEX II
COMMITTED
EFFECTIVE DOSE PER UNIT INTAKE
(via ingestion and via inhalation)
The values in these tables are based on the latest recommendations of the ICRP on
the committed effective dose per unit intake coefficients.
However, ICRP is
reviewing these coefficients.
Should new co-efficients be recommended they will
be used to update these tables.
103
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104
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TABLE II-I COMMITTED EFFECTIVEDOSE PER UNIT INTAKE. IN (Sv Bq-_)VIA
INGESTION
FOR DIFFERENT GUT TRANSFER (fl)_ VALUES AND FOR
DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS sl (IN YEARS)
'_
Nuchde
fl
< I
fl
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
H-3
IE+0 1
69E-11
1E+0
4.3E-11
3 5E-11
24E-11
I gE-11
1 gE-11
Ot-3
IE+0 I
1.3E-10
1E+0
1.1E-10
8 5E-Il
6 1E-II
4 1E-11
4 IE-11
B¢-7
5E-2 I
2 0E-10
5E-3
1.2E-10
8 gE-11
5.gE-1 !
3 9E-Il
3.3E-I I
Be-10
5E-2 I
2 gE-OS
5E-3
1.2E-0g
7 6E-09
4 IE-09
23E-09
1 gE-09
C-II
IE+0 I
3.1E-II
1E+0
1 7E-11
1 IE-11
6 6E-12
4 0E-12
33E-12
C-14
1E+O I
1.5E..09
IE+0
1 5E.-09
1 IE-09
g SE-10
5.6E-10
5 6E-10
F-I 8
IE+O I
5.2E-10
IE+0
2 7E-10
1'?E-10
1 0E-10
5 gE-I 1
4 7E-! I
Na-22
1E+O l
2.0E-0g
IE+0
13E-OS
g gE-09
5.5E-09
3.5E-09
3.0E-09
Na-24
IE+0 I
3 6E-09
IE+0
2.1E-09
14E-09
g3E-10
5 1E-10
4.2E-10
Mg-2g
1E+0 I
g gE-09
SE-1
1 6E-Og
I 0E-0g
5 7E-09
3.2E-09
2 6E-09
S]-31
2E-2 I
1 gE-09
IE-2
9 1E-10
5 6E-10
3 0E-10
1.6E-10
l_3E-10
Si-32
2E-2 I
13E-08
IE-2
6.2E-O9
3 gE-09
2 1E-09
I.IE-09
9 0E-10
P-32
gE-I I
3 4E-Og
gE-i
1.gE-0g
I IE-Og
6 0E-09
3.3E-09
2 6E-09
S-35
gE-! I
1 gE-09
8E-I
1.0E-09
6.2E-10
3 4E-10
1.gE-10
I.SE-IO
S-35
2E-I I
3 gE-09
IE-1
2 1E-09
1.3E-O9
7 0E-10
3 gE-10
3 0E-10
So-35
IE+O 1
4 5E-O9
1E+0
2 5E-09
17E-09
1 IE-09
73E-I0
7.0E-10
CI-36
IE+O I
1.1E-Og
IE+0
5 8E-09
3.6E-09
1 9E-09
1.1E-09
g 4E-10
CI-3g
1E+0 1
1.5E-O9
IE+0
7 7E-10
4 gE-10
2 6E-10
I.SE-10
1.2E-10
K-40
1E+O I
5.6E-Og
IE+O
33E-Og
2 IE-0g
I IE-0g
6.2E-09
5.0E-09
K=42
1E+0 I
53E-09
IE+0
2 7E-09
1.7E-09
9.2E-10
5.1E-10
4.0E-10
K-.43
1E+O !
2.3E-09
IE+0
1.2E-O9
g 1E-10
4 gE-10
2 gE-10
23E-10
Ca-4I
6E-I I
2.2E-09
3E-I
9 9E-10
64E-I0
4 1E-lO
3 IE-10
3 0E-10
Ca-45
6E-1 I
13E-Og
3E-I
6 0E-09
3 7E-09
2 0E-09
I 1E-09
g 9E-10
Ca47
6E-! I
2 0E-Og
3E-1
14E-Og
g 5E-09
4 gE-09
2 7E-09
2.2E-O9
Sc-46
1E-3 I
1 7E-0g
IE..4
9 6E-09
6 4E-09
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
2 0E-09
Sc-47
IE-3 I
I IE-Og
IE-4
5 8E-09
3 6E-09
2 0E-09
I.IE-O9
g 6E-10
50
I - Indicates ingestion
51
See International Commission on Radiolog]cal Protection, Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from
Intake of Radionuchdes, ICRP Pubhc_i;ion 56, in Annals of the ICRP, Vol 20 No. 2, page 5, Pergamon Press
105
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RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchde
fl
-= I
fl
1-2
2-?
%12
12-17
> 17
(AdulO
Sc,-4g
IE-3 I
1 9E-08
IE-4
I IE-08
? 1E-09
4.3E..09
2 6E-09
2 IE-09
Ti-44
2E-2 I
g.3E..0g
IE-2
4.2E-05
2 7E.-0g
1 $E-0S
9 IE-09
7 6E..09
V..48
2E-2 I
2.2E..0g
IE-2
I-3E..0g
g 4E-09
5 1E-09
3 1E-09
2 6E-09
Ct-S!
2E-2 1
5 SE-10
IE-2
3.0E-10
19E-10
1 IE-10
6.5E-11
53E-I1
Ct-S1
2E-I I
5 IE-10
IE-I
29E-10
1 9E-10
I.IE-10
6.4E-11
5.2E-!1
M.n-S2
2E-1 I
I.SE-0B
1E-I
9 IE..09
6.3E..09
4.0E-09
2 5E-09
2 IE-09
Mn-S2m
2E-1 I
8.5E-10
IE-1
44E-10
2.8E-10
1.5E-10
g 7E-II
7.0E-11
Mn-S4
2E-I I
5.2E-09
IE-I
2.8E-09
2.0E-09
1.3E-09
8 SE-10
7.3E-10
Mn-S6
2E-1 I
2 7E-09
IE-I
! 4E-09
9 0E-10
5 IE-10
2.9E-10
L.SE-10
Fe-52
2E-I I
1 TE-O8
IE-I
).5E-09
6.0E-09
3.4E-09
1 9E-09
1.5E-09
Fe-52
6E-I I
1.1E-08
3E-1
8.2E-09
5.2E-09
2 9E-09
I.TE-09
1.3E-09
Fc-55
2E-1 I
1 9E-09
IE-I
8 6E-10
5.3E-t0
2 9E-10
I.TE-10
I.SE-10
Fe-55
6E-! I
S 0E-09
3E-I
2.2E-09
1.3E-09
7.3E-10
4 415-10
4 0E-10
Fe-59
2E-I I
2.0E-0g
IE-I
10E-0S
6 ?E-09
4.0E-09
2 4E-09
2 0E-09
Fc-59
6E-I I
3.3E-08
3E-I
1 5E-08
9 8E-09
6 0E-09
3 TE-O9
3 IE-09
Cc-56
8E-I I
1.4E-07
gE-I
1 0E-O7
7.0E-0g
4 SE-0g
2 9E-0g
2.5E-08
Co-56
IE-I I
2.SE-OS
515-2
1.3E-08
9.1E-09
5 6E-09
3.5E-09
2.9E-09
Cc-56
1E+0 I
! TE-07
Co-56
6E-I I
2 7E-0g
3E-I
I.SE-08
1 IE-0g
6 6E-09
4.2E-09
3.6E--09
Cc-57
8E-I I
2.1E-OS
SE-1
1.6E..08
I IE-0g
6.6E-09
4 0E-09
3.5E-09
Co-S7
1E-1 I
2 4E-09
5E-2
1.3E-09
8 5E-10
5 0E-10
2 9E-lO
2 4E-10
Cc-S7
IE+O I
2 6E-Og
Co.-57
6E-I I
3.2E-09
3E-!
1 7E-O9
1.1E-09
67E.10
4 IE-10
3.4E-10
Cc-58
gE-I I
3 ?E-OS
8E-I
2 7E-0S
!.9E-0g
1.2E-Og
7 8E-09
6 gE-09
Co-SS
IE-I I
6 7E-09
SE-2
3 9E-09
2 ?E-09
1 6E-09
1.0E-09
g 7E-10
Cc.58
1E+0 1
4.SE-Og
Co-58
6E-I I
7.4E-09
3E-1
4.3E-09
3.0E-09
1 9E-09
12E-09
l 0E-.09
Cc,-58m
gE-1 I
3 4E-I 0
gE-!
22E-10
!.SE-! 0
8 9E-11
5.5E-11
4 6E-! 1
Co-58m
IE-I I
3.5E-10
5E-2
1.8E-10
I IE-10
6.3E-11
3 SE-Il
28E-11
Cc-58m
IE+0 1
33E-I0
Co-58m
6E-1 I
2.3E-10
3E-1
1.6E-10
9 9E-i 1
5.5E-I !
3 1E-I 1
2.SE-i 1
Cc-60
gE-1 !
4 0E-07
8E-I
3 4E-07
23E-07
1 SE-07
1.0EO?
9.2E-08
Co-60
IE-I I
2.3E-08
5E-2
13E-0g
8 6E-09
S 4E-09
3 4E-09
3 0E-09
Cc,-60
IE+0 I
4 9E-07
106
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/271S, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
·
Nuclide
fl
< I
ft
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(AdulO
Co-60
6E-I I
5.3E.-08
3E-1
2 6E-08
1 8E-08
1.2E-08
7 9E-09
7.2E-09
Cc..60m
8E-! I
2.4E-11
8E-1
1.3E-I I
8 1E-12
4.5E-12
2 5E-12
2 0E-12
Cc-60rn
IE+0 I
2.5E-11
Ni-59
IEd 1
7.8E-10
5E-2
3 gE-10
2 4E-10
1.3E-10
7 gE-11
6 gE-II
N_-63
IE-! I
2.3E-09
5E-2
1 1E-09
7.1E-10
3.9E-10
2.3E-10
! 9E-10
Ni-65
1E-I I
1 9E-09
5E-2
9 gE-10
6 IE-10
3 4E-I0
l 9E-10
! 5E-10
Cu-64
1E+0 1
5 5E-10
5E-1
9.3E-10
5 gE-10
3.2E-10
1 gE-10
14E-10
Cu-67
1E+0 I
2.1E-09
5E-I
3 1E-09
1 9E-09
! IE-09
5 9E-10
4 7E-10
Zn-65
1E+0 I
3.3E-0g
SE-1
1 4E-08
9 gE-09
6 4E-09
4.2E-09
3.8E-09
Zn-69
1E+0 I
3.8E-10
SE-1
2 1E-10
1.3E-10
7 0E-I 1
3 gE-Il
3 0E-II
Zn-69m
IE+0 1
13E-09
SE-1
2 7E-09
I 7E-09
9.3E-10
5.2E-10
4.2E-10
Ga-66
IE-2 1
1 6E-08
IE-3
8 6E-09
5 4E-09
3 0E-09
i.7E-09
14E-09
Ga-67
1E-2 I
2 9E-09
IE-3
1 5E-09
9 gE-10
5 6E-10
3.2E-10
2 6E-10
G-a-68
1E-2 I
1.2E-09
IE-3
6 1E-10
3 gE-10
2 IE-10
1.2E-10
9 6E-Il
Ga-72
IE-2 i
1 4E-0S
IE-3
7 7E-09
4 9E-09
2 gE-09
!.6E-09
1.3E-09
Ge-68
IE+0 I
3..3E-09
IE+0
1 7E-09
I IE-09
6.2E-I0
3.6E-10
2 9E-10
Ge-71
1E+01
3 7E-I!
1E.+.0
1.9E-I !
1.2E-I 1
64E-12
3.5E-12
2 7E-12
G_-77
1E+-0I
2.2E..09
IE.+O
1.2E..09
? 4E-10
4.2E-10
24E-10
1 9E-10
As-73
1E+0 I
14E-09
SE-1
1 gE-09
1.1E-09
6 0E-10
3.3E-10
2.6E-10
As-74
1E+0 I
5.5E-09
5E-I
g.3E-09
52E-09
3 0E-09
1 TE-09
!.4E-09
As-76
1E+0 I
5 0E-09
5E-1
1.3E-0g
7.8E-09
43E-09
2.3E-09
1.9E-09
As-77
1E+0 I
1.2E-09
5E-1
3.3E-09
2.0E-O9
1 IE-09
6 0E-10
4.gE-10
S¢-75
1E-I I
4 0E-09
5E-2
2 1E-09
1.4E.-09
9 IE-10
5 7E-10
4 SE-10
Sc-75
ged I
1.2E-08
gE-1
g.SE.-09
6.0E-09
3 gE-09
2 5E-09
2 IE-09
S¢-75
IE+0 1
14E-0g
Se-79
1E-1 I
6 0E-09
5E-2
3.0E-09
1 SE-09
9 9E-10
5 4E-10
4.3E-10
Se-79
gE1 I
1 5E-08
gE-1
1.0E-OS
6.3E-09
3 4E-09
1.9E-09
1 6E-09
S¢-79
IE+0 I
1 7E-0g
Bt-77
1E+0 1
5 5E-10
1E+0
3.4E-10
2 4E-10
1.5E-10
9 9E-I 1
g.3E-! 1
BT-g2
1E+0 1
33E-09
IE+0
2.0E-09
14E-09
g gE-10
5 6E-10
4.8E-10
Bt-84
IE+0 1
1 IE-09
IE+O
5.gE-10
3 6E-10
2 0E-10
I IE-10
R.SE-I 1
Rb-gl
IE+01
5 7E-10
IE+0
3.0E-10
1.gE-10
1.1E-10
6 5E-II
5.3E-11
Rb-86
IE+O I
3 IE-Og
1E+0
1.7E-08
1.0E-0g
5 7E-09
3 1E-09
2 5E-09
Rb-g7
IE*0 1
1 4E-08
1E+O
8 SE-09
5.4E-09
2.9E-09
1 6E-09
1.3E-09
a
107
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuclide
fj
_ I
fz
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
· 17
(Adult)
Rb-gg
IE+0 I
1.21[-09
IE+0
6.3E-10
3 gE-10
2 1E-10
I 1E-10
9.1E-I !
Rb-g9
IE+0I
S.gE-10
1E+O
3 0E-10
1.9E-10
1 0E-10
5 gE-11
47E-II
Sr-g2
ZE-2 1
13E-07
IE-2
6 6E-0g
4 IE-Og
2.2E-OS
1.?.E-0g
9 7E-09
St-S2
6E-I I
8 IE-08
3E-I
5 5E-0g
3 4E-0g
1 9E-08
1 0E-0g
g.2E-09
Sr-g5
2E-2 I
3 0E-09
1E-2
i.8E-09
1.2E-09
7 7E-10
4 9E-10
4 IE-10
St-g5
6E-I I
3 9E-09
3E-1
2.2E-09
1 5E-09
9 gE-10
63E-10
53E-10
Sr-85m
2E-2 1
4 5E-Il
1E-2
2.6E-11
1 gE-11
I.IE-! 1
7.0E-12
5 gE-12
Sr-g5m
6E-1 I
4.2E-11
3E-1
26E-I1
1 gE-Il
I.IE-II
69E-12
5 gE-12
Sr-g7m
2E-2 I
3 0E-10
1E-2
1.6E-10
I IE-10
6.2E-11
3 ?E-I i
3 0E-11
Sr-gTm
6E-I I
2 4E-I0
3E-I
1.5E-10
9 gE-II
5.gE-Il
3 4E-Il
2 gE-11
Sr-g9
2E-2 1
52E-OS
1E-2
2 7E-Og
1.6E-Og
g 9E-09
4 gE-09
3 gE-09
Sr-89
6E-1 I
3 7E-0g
3E-I
23E-0g
1.4E-0g
7.gE-09
43E-09
3 4E-O9
St-90
2E-2 !
S.2E-Og
1E-2
2 6E-Og
!.6E-Og
9 0E-09
S IE-09
4.2E-09
St-90
6E-I I
2 6E-07
3E-1
1.2E-07
7.4E-08
4 4E-05
3 0E-0g
2 gE-0g
St-91
2E-2 1
1 IE-0g
1E-2
5 9E-09
3.7E-09
2 0E-09
I.IE-09
9 IE-10
St-91
6E-1 I
6 7E-09
3E-1
4 gE-09
3.0E-09
1 7E-09
93E-10
7 4E-10
Sr-92
2E-2 1
6 5E-09
IE-2
3 4E-09
2.1E-09
1.2E-09
6 4E-10
5 IE-10
Sr-92
6E-I I
4 IE-09
3E-1
2 9E-09
i.gE-09
9 gE-I0
5 4E-10
4.3E-10
Y-g7
1E-3 I
73E-O9
1E--4
4 0E-09
2.6E-09
1 6E-O9
93E-10
7 6E-10
Y-g7
1E-2 I
73E-09
IE-3
4 0E-09
2.6E-09
I 6E-09
93E-10
7 6E-I 0
Y-90
IE-3 I
5.gE-Og
IE-4
3.0E-Og
I.gE-0g
9 9E-09
S 4E-09
4.2E-09
Y-90
IE-2 1
5 gE-0g
1E-3
3.0E-0g
I.gE-Og
9 9E-O9
5 4E-09
4.2E-09
Y-91
IE-3 I
5 4E-0g
1E-4
2 8E-Og
1.7E-Og
9.2E-O9
5 0E-09
4.0E-09
Y-91
IE-2 I
5.5E-0g
1E-3
2 gE-0g
l.TE..0g
9.3E-09
5 0E-09
4 0E-O9
Y-91m
IE-3 I
I 0E-10
IE-4
5 gE-Il
3.9E-11
2.3E-11
1 4E-11
1.2E-I 1
Y-91m
IE-2 I
1.0E-10
1E-3
S gE-Il
3 9E-Il
2.3E-11
1 4E-II
12E-Il
Y-92
IE-3 I
6.3E-09
1E-4
3.2E-O9
2 0E-09
I 1E-09
5.9E-10
4 7E-10
Y-92
IE-2 I
6.3E-09
IE-3
3.2E-09
20E-09
I 1E-09
S 9E-I 0
4 7E-10
Y-93
IE-3 I
I 9E-0g
IE-4
9 SE-09
6 0E-O9
33E-09
I gE-O9
1 4E-09
Y-93
IE-2 I
I 9E-Og
IE-3
9 gE*09
60E-09
3.3E-09
l.gE-09
14E-09
Y-94
IE-3 I
I.IE-09
1E-4
5 6E-10
3 SE-10
1 9E-10
1 0E-10
$3E-I 1
Y-94
IE-2 I
I.IE-09
IE-3
S 6E-10
3.SE-10
1 9E-10
I 0E-10
g3E-I 1
IE-2
2 7E-O9
1 9E-09
1 4E-09
1 1E-O9
1.0E-09
2E-3
1.3E-09
g.3E-10
5.2E-10
3.6E-10
3 IE-10
Zr-93
Zr-93
108
2E-2 I
5.6E-09
_,
A'I-I'ACHMENT TO G0¥/2'715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAl.: ENGLISH
Nuclide
fi
< I
Zr-9S
'
Zr-95
2E-2 1
1 4E-0g
Zr-97
,
fa
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
1E-2
7.5E-09
4.gE-09
2.8E-09
1 6E-09
13E-09
ZE-3
7.2E-09
4 6E-09
2 7E-O9
1 6E-09
1.3E-09
IE-2
1 BE-08
1 IE-0g
6.2E-09
3.5E-09
2 7E-O9
Zr-97
2E-2 I
3 5E-08
2E-3
1.gE-OS
1 IE-Og
63E-09
3 5E-09
2 gE-09
Nb-91
2E-2 1
g.gE-10
IE-2
4JE-10
2 7E-10
I-5E-10
8 0E-I 1
6 4E-I 1
Nb-91m
2E-2 I
8 7E-09
1E-2
4 4E-09
2 7E-09
1 5E-09
7 9E-10
63E-10
Nb-92m
2E-2 I
3 9E-09
IE-2
24E-09
1 7E-09
I 1E-09
7 IE-10
6 0E-10
Nb-93m
2E-2 1
2 8E-09
1E-2
1 4E-09
g gE-10
4 gE-10
2.6E-10
2 1E-10
Nb-94
2E-2 1
2.2E-08
IE-2
1.2E-0g
7 9E-09
4.6E-09
2 gE-09
23E-09
Nb-95
2E-2 1
6.gE-09
1E-2
3 gE-09
2.5E-09
1.5E-09
9.3E-10
7 7E-10
Nb-97
2E-2 I
7 gE-10
1E-2
4.1E-10
2.5E-10
1 4E-10
g 0E-Il
6 4E-Il
Nb-98
2E-2 I
13E-09
115-2
6 7E-10
4.2E-I0
24E-10
14E-10
1 1E-10
Mo-90
gE-i I
3.2E-09
SE-I
1.gE-09
1.2E-09
69E-10
4 1E-10
3 4E-10
Mo-90
IE-I I
7 4E-09
5E-2
4.2E-09
2 7E-09
1.6E-09
93E-10
7 6E-10
Mo-90
IE+0 I
1 9E-O9
Mo-93
SE-1 I
2 gE-09
5E-2
5 0E-10
3 1E-10
1 7E-10
9 4E-I 1
7.5E-11
Mo-93
IE-1 1
1 0E-09
8E-I
1.7E-09
I.IE-09
5 gE-10
3.2E-10
26E-10
Mo-93
IE+0 I
33E-09
Mo-99
gE-1 I
I IE-0g
5E-2
13E-0g
8 0E-09
4 4E-09
2 4E-O9
! 9E-09
Mo-99
IE-1 I
2 4E-OS
SE-1
5.5E-09
3 4E-09
1 9E-09
1 1E-09
g 4E-10
Mo-99
! E+0 I
7 !E-09
Mo-101
gE-1 I
5.3E-10
5E-2
2.SE-10
1 7E-10
9 7E-Il
54E-11
4.3E-11
Mo-101
1E-1 I
5 4E-10
SE-1
2.gE-10
1 715-10
96E-I1
53E-11
4.3E-Ii
Mo-101
]E+0 I
5.2E-10
Tc-95m
8E-I i
3 gE-09
gE-I
23E-09
!.5E-09
9.3E-10
5 SE-10
4 gE-10
Tc-96
gE-1 I
5.3E-09
SE-I
3 4E-09
24E-09
1 SE-09
1 0E-09
8 5E-10
Tc-96m
gE-I I
9 IE-11
gE-!
53E-I I
3.5E-I 1
2 IE-11
13E-I !
1 0E-I 1
Tc.-97
gE-1 I
99E-10
gE-I
5.4E-10
33E-10
I 7E-10
9.3E-11
73E-11
T¢-97m
gE-I I
7.gE-09
gE-I
4.2E-09
2 6E-09
1 4E-09
7.2E-10
5 7E-10
T¢-99
SE-1 I
9.2E-09
gE-I
5.0E-09
3 0E-09
1.6E-09
g 6E-10
6.7E-10
Tc-99m
gE-I I
2.3E-I0
gE-I
13E-10
S IE-I1
4.5E-11
2 6E-11
2.1E-Il
Tc-101
gE-1 1
2 SE-10
gE-1
13E-10
S 1E-11
4 4E-Il
2 4E-11
1 9E-l]
Tc-104
RE-I I
1 IE-09
8E-I
5.5E-10
34E-I0
1 9E-10
1 0E-10
g.2E-I l
Ru-97
IE-1 I
I 7E-09
5E-2
1.0E-09
6 6E-10
4 0E-10
2 4E-10
2 0E-10
109
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL.: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
4= I
fs
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Ru-103
1E-1 !
1.2E-08
5E-2
63E-09
4 0E-09
23E-09
15E-09
I IE-09
Ru-105
IE-I I
3 4E-09
5E-2
1 8E-O9
1 IE-09
64E-10
3.6E-10
29E-10
Ru-106
IE-I 1
1 4E..07
5E-2
79t:..08
4.5E-08
2 4E-Og
1.3E-0g
1 IE-Og
Rh-103m
IE-1 I
i.0E-I !
5E-2
2 6E-11
1.6E-11
8 6E-12
4.7E-12
3 7E-12
Rh-105
1E-I I
69E-09
5E-2
3 TE-09
2.3E-09
1.3E-09
69E-10
5.4E-10
Rh-107
IE-1 I
3.2E-10
5E-2
1 6E-10
10E-10
5 6E-11
3 IE-II
24E-11
Pd-103
5E-2 1
4 IE-09
5E-3
2.2E..09
13E..09
7.3E-10
4.0E-10
3 IE-10
Pd-103
2E-2 I
4.2E-09
IE-2
2.2E-09
1.3E-09
73E-10
4.0E-10
3 1E-10
Pd-107
5E-2 I
g3E-10
5E-3
43E-10
2 7E-10
14E-10
7.9E-1 !
62E-11
Pd-107
2E-2 I
g 4E-10
IE-2
43E-10
2 7E-10
1 4E-10
7.gE-I 1
6.2E-1 !
Pd-109
5E-2 1
9 5E-09
5E-3
5.0E-09
3 IE-09
1.7E-09
9 1E-10
7.2E-10
Pal-109
2E-2 I
_7E-09
IE-2
5 0E-09
3 IE-09
1 7E-09
9 0E-10
7.1E-10
Ag-105
1E-1 I
5 0E-09
5E-2
2 7E-09
1 8E..09
1 1E..09
6.9E-10
5 gE-10
Ag-10gm
1E-1 I
1 9E-0g
5E-2
9 5E-09
6 5E-09
4 0E-09
2 5E-09
2 IE-09
Ag-11 Om
IE-1 I
2 5E-0g
5E-2
13E-Og
g 9E-09
5 6E-09
3 5E..09
3 0E-09
Ag-I 11
1E-1 I
2 7E-0g
5E-2
1 4E-Og
g 6E-09
4 7E-09
2 6E-09
2.0E-09
Cd-109
IE-I !
3.0E-08
5E-2
1.3E-Og
8.2E-09
4.5E-09
2.5E-09
2.2E-09
Cd-113m
! E-I I
1.6E-07
5E-2
7.3E-0g
4 gE-0g
3 1E-0g
2 4E-08
2.3E-08
Cd-I 15
IE-1 I
2 6E.-0g
5E-2
14E-0g
g gE-09
4.gE-09
2 7E-09
2.1E-09
Cd-115m
IE-I I
6 8E-Og
5E-2
3.2E.-0g
1.9E-Og
I.IE-0g
5.8E-09
4.6E-09
ln-1101
4E-2 1
1 4E..09
2E-2
8 '7E-I 0
6.2E-10
4.1E-10
2.7E-I0
2.3E-10
In-110s
4E-2 1
I IE-09
ZE-2
5.7E-10
3.6E-I0
2 IE-10
1.2E-10
9.5E-11
In-Il I
4E-2 I
3.'7E-09
2E-2
2.1E..09
1.3E-09
B.0E-10
4 gE-10
3 9E-]0
In-113m
4E-2 1
3.0E-10
2E-2
1 6E-10
9.9E-I 1
5.6E-11
3.2E-! 1
2 6E-Il
In-ll4m
4E-2 I
9.0E-Og
2E-2
4.4E..0g
2 TE-og
I.SE-0g
g 1E-09
6 4E-09
ln-llSm
4E-2 I
1 IE-09
2E-2
5.6E-10
3.5E-10
1 9E-10
!.IE-10
8 6E-I 1
Sn-! 13
4E-2 1
1.4E-Og
2E-2
7.4E-09
4 6E-09
2 6E-09
14E-09
1.2E-09
Sn-! 19m
4E-2 I
7.5E-09
2E-2
3 9E..09
2 4E-09
13E..09
7 0E-10
5.6E-10
Sn-121m
4E-2 1
g 4E-09
2E-2
4.3E-09
2 7E-09
!.4E-09
7.9E-10
63E-10
Sn-123
4E-2 1
4.TE-0g
2E-2
2 4E-0g
1.5E-0g
g 1E-09
4 4E-09
3.5E-09
Sn-125
4E-2 1
6 5E-0g
2E-2
3.4E-Og
2 IE-0g
1 IE-0g
6.3E-09
5 0E-09
Sn-126
4E-2 1
8.2E-08
2E-2
4.3E-0g
2 7E-Og
1.5E-0R
g.5E-09
6 9E-09
Sb-122
2E-I I
3.0E-Og
1E-I
1 7E-08
1 1E-08
5.9E-09
3.2E-09
2.6E-09
Sb-122
2E-2 I
3.6E--08
IE-2
1 9E-08
1.2E-08
6.3E-09
3 5E-09
2 gE..09
110
ATTACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuchde
"
fi
< I
fz
1-2
2-?
?-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Sb-124
2E-I I
3.6E-0g
IE-!
2 0E-OS
13E-0S
7 4E-09
4.3E-O9
3.4E-09
Sb-124
2E-2 I
4 0E-0g
IE-2
2.2E-08
1.4E-08
7.gE-09
4.5E-09
3.6E-09
Sb-125
2E-! I
1 0E-0g
IE-I
5 7E-09
3.6E-09
2.1E-09
1.2E-09
9.6E-10
Sb-125
2E-2 I
I IE-08
IE-2
5 9E-09
3.7E.09
2 IE-09
1.2E-09
9.8E-I0
Sb-127
2E-1 I
2 9E.O8
IE-1
1 7E-08
!.0E-0g
5.8E-09
3.2E-09
2.6E-09
Sb-127
2E-2 1
3.5E-08
IE-2
1 8E-08
!.IE-08
6_2E-09
3.5E-09
2.gE-09
Sb-1281
2E-I I
7 7E-09
IE-I
4..5E-09
2 9E-09
1.7E-09
I.OE-09
83E-10
Sb-12gl
2E-2 1
8 6E-09
IE-2
4 7E-09
3 IE-09
1.8E-09
I IE-09
8 gE-10
Sb-129
2E-1 I
4 8E-09
1E-1
2.6E-09
1.7E-09
9..3E-10
5.2E-10
4.2E-10
Sb-129
2E-2 1
5.2E-09
1E-2
2.7E-09
1 7E-09
9 7E-10
5 4E-10
4 4E-10
Sb-130
2E-I I
9 SE-10
IE-I
5.1E-10
33E-10
19E-10
1.1E-10
9 0E-11
Sb-130
2E-2 I
96E-10
IE-2
5.1E-10
33E-10
1.gE-10
1 1E-10
90E-II
Sb-131
2E-I I
1.5E-09
IE-I
7.7E-10
4 gE-10
2 7E-10
1 4E-10
I IE-10
Sb-131
2E-2 I
1.5E-09
IE-2
7.7E-I0
4 gE-10
2 7E-10
1 4E-10
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Te-li9m
4E-I !
5.3E-09
2E-1
3.6E-09
2 5E-09
1 5E-09
9.gE-10
83E-10
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2E-I
7.9E-09
4 9E-09
2 7E-09
1.5E-09
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Te-125m
4E-I I
1.3E-08
2E-I
6.5E-09
4 0E-09
22E-09
1.2E-09
9.5E-10
Te-127
4E-I I
2.4E-09
2E-I
1.5E-09
9.1E-10
5 0E-10
2.7E-10
2.1E-10
Te-127m
4E-I I
3.3E-08
2E-1
i 6E-Og
1 0E-0g
5 4E-09
3.0E-09
2 4E-O9
T¢-129
4E-I 1
8 0E-10
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4 IE-10
2 SE-10
I 4E-10
7.6E-I1
6 0E-11
Tc-129m
4E-I I
4 8E-08
2E-1
2.7E-08
l 6E-08
9.0E-09
4 9E-09
3 9E-09
To-131
4E-I I
13E-09
2E-I
6 gE-10
4.2E-10
23E-10
1.2E-I 0
9 0E-11
Te-13 lm
4E-I I
4 6E-Og
2E-I
2 4E-0g
I.SE-0g
8.4E-09
4.3E-09
3 4E-09
T¢-132
4E-1 I
5 bE-OS
2E-1
3.2E-08
1.8E-0g
9 IE-09
4.6E-09
3..5E-O9
Te-133
4E-I I
1.1E-O9
ZE-I
6 SE-10
3.8E-10
1 9E-10
9.6E-11
7 4E-II
Te-133m
4E-! I
4.3E-09
2E-I
2.6E-09
1 5E-09
7.7E-10
3 9E-10
3.0E-10
T¢-134
4E-1 I
9 0E-10
2E-I
5.2E-I0
3.3E-10
1 9E-10
I.IE-10
S TE-I I
1-123
IE+0 I
3 1E-09
IE+0
2 IE-09
1.2E-09
5 7E-10
2.8E-10
2 IE-10
1-125
IE+0 1
7.gE-0g
1E+O
6.6E-08
4 9E-0g
3 8E-0R
1.9E-0g
1.SE-0g
1-126
IE+0 1
2 8E-07
IE+0
2.1E-07
13E-07
7.gE-0g
3.8E-0g
2 9E-Og
!-129
1E+0 I
24E-07
1E+0
2.2E-07
I gE-O?
2.1E-07
I IE-07
1 IE-0?
1-130
IE+0 1
2 7E-08
1E+0
1 8E-0S
1.0E-08
5.1E-09
2 5E-09
1.9E-09
!-131
IE+0 1
2 4E-07
1E+0
1.8E-07
I.IE-07
6 0E-()S
2.9E-08
2.2E-0g
!-132
1E+0 !
3 7E-09
1E+0
2_3E-09
1.3E-09
6 9E-10
3.5E-I0
2 7E-10
111
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuehde
f_
.= 1
f_
1-2
2-?
%12
12-1'/
> I?
(Adult)
1-133
]E+0 1
6 5E-08
IE+0
4 4E-08
2 5E-0B
i.2E-0B
5 ?E-09
42E-09
1-134
IE+0 1
13E-09
IE+0
7 4E-10
4 SE-10
2 4E-10
13E-10
10E-10
1-135
IE+0 1
13E-0g
IE+0
g 8E-09
5 0E-09
2 4E-09
1.2E-09
9 0E-10
Cs-129
IE+0 1
5.0E-10
IE+O
2 gE-10
!.9E-10
1.2E-10
7.3E-11
6 1E-II
Cs-131
IE+01
6.5E-10
IE+0
3.2E-10
2 1E-10
1.3E-10
g 0E-11
6 6E-11
Cs-132
IE+0 I
2 7E-09
IE+0
I 6E-09
1.2E-09
g IE-10
5.gE-10
5 0E-10
Cs-134
IE+O I
2 5E.-0S
IE+O
1.3E-OB
1.3E-Og
t 4E-OB
1.9E-Og
1 9E-08
Cs-134m
1E+O I
2.3E-10
IE+0
1.2E-10
73E-11
4 IE-II
24E-11
2 0E-11
Cs-135
1E+O I
4 0E-09
IE+O
1 gE-O9
1 7E-09
1 6E-09
1 9E-O9
1 9E-09
C$-136
1E+O I
1 4E-OB
IE+0
7 gE{Y)
6 IE-09
4 4E-09
3 4E-09
3 0E-O9
Cs-137
1E+O I
2 1E-0g
IE+0
9 9E-09
9 9E-09
10E-OS
1.3E-08
1.3E-08
Cs-13g
IE+0 I
I 1E-09
IE+O
5 9E-10
3 7E-10
2 1E-10
1.2E-10
9.2E-11
Ba-131
2E-I I
5 IE-09
IE-I
3.1E-09
2 0E-09
12E-09
7 0E-10
5 7E-10
Ba-133
2E-I I
R.SE-09
1E-I
4 7E-09
3 0E-09
1 gE-09
I IE-O9
9 7E-10
Ba-133m
2E-1 I
9 5E..09
IE-I
5 4E--09
3.3E-09
1 gE-09
9 9E-I 0
7 gE-10
Ba-139
2E-1 I
1 5E-09
IE-I
7.6E-10
4 ZE-10
2 6E-10
1 4E-10
1 1E-10
Ba-140
2E-1 I
4.2E-0g
IE-I
2 4E-08
1 5E-08
g 3E-09
4 7E-09
3 7E-O9
Ba-141
2E-i I
g gE-10
IE-I
4 6E-10
2 BE-10
1.6E-10
g.6E-11
6 gE-I 1
La-140
IE-2 I
3.2E-08
1E-3
1 7E-0g
I IE-08
6 1E-09
3.5E-09
2 8E-09
La-14l
1E-2 1
4 gE-09
IE-3
2 4E-09
1.5E-09
g IE-10
44E-10
3 5E-10
La-142
IE-2 I
i gE-09
IE-3
9 gE-10
6.2E-I0
3 SE-10
2 0E-I0
1.6E-10
La-143
IE-2 I
g 1E-10
IE-3
4.2E-I 0
2 6E-10
1 4E-10
7.6'E-1 !
6 0E-11
Ce-139
3E-3 I
4 4E-09
3E-4
23E-09
1 5E-09
g 4E-10
4 gE-10
3 9E-10
Ce-139
IE-2 I
4 7E-09
leo3
2.3E-09
1 5E-09
g 4E-10
4 9E-10
3 9E-10
Ce-141
3E-3 I
1 6E-08
3E-4
8.0E-09
4 9E-09
2 7E-09
1 5E-09
1.2E-09
Ce-141
IE-2 I
1 6E-0g
IE-3
g.0E-09
4 9E-09
2 7E-09
1 5E-09
1.2E-09
Ce-143
3E-3 I
2.2E-OB
3E-4
i 1E-0B
7 0E-09
3 gE-09
2 IE-09
1 7E-09
Ce-143
1E-2 I
2.2E-0g
IE-3
I 1E-08
7 0E-09
3 gE-09
2 IE-09
1 7E-09
Ce-144
3E-3 I
1.2E-07
3E-4
6 IE-OB
3.?E-0g
2 0E-0g
1 1E-OS
g 7E-09
Ce-144
IE-2 !
!.3E-07
IE-3
6.2E-08
3 gE-0g
2 IE-Og
1 IE-Og
g gE-09
Pr-142
3E-3 I
2 5E-0g
3E-4
13E-08
7 9E-09
43E-09
23E-O9
I 8E-09
Pr-142
IE-2 I
2.5E-0g
IE-3
13E-OB
7 9E-09
4 3E-09
2 3E-09
I gE-09
Pr-143
3E-3 I
2.6E-0B
3E-4
1 4E-0g
g3E-09
4 5E-09
2 5E-09
1.9E-09
Pr-143
1E-2 I
2 6E-08
1E-3
14E-OB
83E-09
4.5E-09
2 5E-09
1 9E-09
112
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIl. 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuclide
'
fl
< 1
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-I7
> 17
(Adult)
Pr-144
3E-3 I
7.1E-I0
3E-4
3 6E-10
2.2E-10
1.2E-10
6.6E-11
5.2E-I I
Pr-144
IE-2 I
7 IE-10
IE-3
3 6E-10
2.2E-I0
1.2E-10
6 6E-II
5.2E-11
Pr-145
3E-3 I
5 8E-09
3E-4
3 0E-09
1.8E-09
9 9E-10
5 4E-10
4.2E-10
Pr-145
IE-2 I
5 gE-09
IE-3
3 0E-09
1 8E-09
9 9E-I0
5 4E-10
4.2E-10
Nd-140
3E-3 I
3 8E-0g
3E-4
1 9E-0g
1.2E-08
6 4E-09
3 5E-09
2 gE-09
Nd-140
IE-2 I
3 7E-0g
1E-3
! 9E-0g
1.2E--08
6.4E-09
3 5E-O9
2.gE-09
Nd-147
3E-3 I
2.3E-Og
3E-.4
!.2E-Og
7.3E-09
4.0E-09
2.2E-09
1 7E-09
Nd-147
IE-2 I
23E.-08
IE-3
1.2E-0g
73E-09
4 0E-09
2.2E-09
1 7E-09
Nd-149
3E-3 I
1.7E-09
3E..4
9 0E-10
5.6E-10
3.1E-10
!.7E-10
13E-10
Nd-149
IE-2 I
1 7E-09
IE-3
9 0E-I0
5 6E-10
3 1E-10
1.7E-10
l$E-10
Pm-147
3E-3 I
6.2E-09
3E-4
2 9E-09
1 8E-09
9 gE-10
5.4E-10
4.2E-10
Pm-147
1E-2 I
7 4E-09
IE-3
3 IE-09
1 9E-09
1 0E--09
5 6E-10
44E-10
Pm-14g
3E-3 I
5.6E-0g
3E-4
2 9E-Og
1 8E..08
9 gE..09
5 4E-09
43E.-09
Pm-148
IE-2 !
5.6E-08
IE-3
2.9E-Og
1 8E-.0g
9 gE-09
5 4E..09
43E-09
Pm-148m
3E-3 I
2.3E-0g
3E-4
13E-08
gJE-09
4.9E-09
2 9E-09
2 4E-O9
Pm-148m
1E-2 I
2 4E-08
IE-3
13E-Og
R.3E-09
4.9E-09
30E-09
2 4E-09
Pm-149
3E-3 I
2.1E-O8
3E-4
I IE-08
6 7E-09
3 6E-09
2 0E-09
i.6E-09
Pm-149
IE-2 I
2.1E-0g
1E-3
1 IE-0g
6 TE-09
3 6E-09
2 0E-09
!.6E-09
Pm-151
3E-3 I
13E-0g
3E-4
6 9E-09
4.3E-09
2 4E-09
13E-09
!.0E-09
Pm-151
1E-2 I
13E-08
1E-3
6 9E-09
43E-09
24E-09
1.3E-09
l 0E-.09
Sm-146
3E-3 I
1 0E-O6
3E-4
I IE-O7
7.3E-0g
4 7E-Og
3.6E-Og
3 4E-Og
Sm-146
1E-2 !
3 4E-06
IE-3
3.2E-07
2 IE-07
1 4E-07
I.IE-07
1 IE-07
Sm-147
3E-3 1
9 5E.-07
3E-4
!.0E-07
6 7E-Og
4.3E-Og
33E-0g
3 IE-0g
Sm-147
IE-2 1
3 1E-O6
IE-3
2.9E-07
1 9E-07
1.3E-07
I 0E-07
9 7E-08
Sm-151
3E-3 I
2.2E-09
3E..4
9 6E-10
5 9E-10
3.2E-10
I gE-10
14E-10
Sm-151
IE-2 I
3 1E-09
IE-3
1 0E-O9
6.4E-10
3.6E-10
2 1E-10
1 7E-10
Sm-153
3E-3 I
1 5E-0g
3E-4
7 8E-09
4.RE-O9
2.6E-09
1 4E-09
I IE-O9
Sm-153
IE-2 I
!.5E-Og
IE-3
7 8E-09
4.gE-09
2.6E-09
14E-09
I IE-09
Eu-152
IE-2 I
2 7E-Og
IE-3
1 0E-Og
6 6E-09
3.9E-09
2 4E-09
2 0E-09
Eu-152m
IE-2 !
7 8E-09
IE-3
4 0E-O9
2 5E-09
14E-09
7.5E-10
5 9E-10
Eu-154
IE-2 I
4 6E-0g
IE-3
I.gE-0g
I IE-0g
6.5E-09
3 8E-09
3 IE-09
Eu-155
IE-2 1
8.5E-09
IE-3
3 4E-09
2 1E-09
1.2E-09
6 6E-10
5.3E-10
Gd-14g
3E-3 I
I IE-06
3E-4
1.2E-07
8 0E-0g
5 IE-08
3 gE-O8
3.6E-08
Gd-14g
IE-2 I
3 6E-06
IE-3
3.5E-07
23E-07
I 5E-07
I 1E-07
I IE-07
113
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuehde
fl
_ I
fl
1-2
2-7
?-12
12-17
> IT
(Adul0
Gd-153
3E-3 I
5 0E-09
3E-4
2.6E-09
1.6E-09
9.1E-10
5.1E-10
4 IE-10
Gd-153
IE-2 1
S 4E-09
IE-3
2 6E-09
!.6E-09
9.2E-10
52E-10
42E-10
Gd-159
3E-3 I
92E-09
3E..4
4 7E-09
2 9E-09
1 6E-09
g 715-10
6 gE-10
Gd-159
1E-2 1
9.2E-09
IE-3
4 7E-09
2 9E-09
1 6E-09
8 ?E-I 0
6 gE-10
Tb-160
3E-3 I
2.TE-0g
3E-4
14E-0g
9 IE-09
5.2E..09
3.0E-09
2 4E-09
Th-160
IE-2 1
2 gE-08
1E-3
14E-08
9.2E-09
5.2E-09
30E-09
2 4E-09
Dy-165
3E-3 I
1.2E-09
3E-4
6 IE-10
3 7E-10
2 0E-10
I.IE-10
8.7E-I 1
Dy-165
IE-2 1
1.2E..09
IE-3
6 1E-10
3.7E-10
2.0E-10
1 IE-10
8 7E-I 1
Dy-166
3E-3 I
3 9E-08
3E-4
2 0E-08
1.2E-Og
6 7E-09
3.7E-09
2 9E-09
Dy-166
IE-2 !
3 9E..0g
IE-3
2.0E-0g
1.2E-08
6 7E-09
3.6E-09
2 9E-09
Ho-166
3E-3 1
2 gE-OS
3E-4
1 4E-08
g gE-09
4.gE-09
2.6E-09
2.0E-09
Ho-166
IE-2 I
2 8E-0g
IE-3
1 4E-0g
8 7E-09
4 gE-09
2.6E-09
2.0E-09
Ho-166m
3E-3 i
2 5E-0g
3E-4
I.IE-0g
7.2E..09
4 4E..09
2 7E-09
2.3E-09
Ho-166m
IE-2 !
4 4E-0g
1E-3
1.2E-08
g.2E..09
5 IE-09
3 4E..09
3 0E-09
Er-169
3E-3 I
g 5E-09
3E..4
43E..09
2.7E-09
1.4E-09
7.gE-10
6.2E-10
Er-169
IE-2 1
g 4E..09
IE-3
4.3E-09
2.7E-O9
!.4E-09
7.8E-! 0
6.2E-10
Er-171
3E-3 I
5 IE.-09
3E-4
2 7E-09
1.7E-09
9 IE-10
5.1E-10
4.0E-10
Er-171
IE-2 !
5 1E-09
IE-3
2.7E-09
1.7E-09
9 IE-10
5.IE-I0
4.0E-10
Tm-170
3E-3 !
3 0E-0g
3E-4
!.SE-0g
9.5E-09
5.2E-09
2.gE..09
2.2E-09
Tm-170
IE-2 I
3.1E-0g
IE-3
i.6E-0g
9.5E-09
5.2E.-09
2 gE-09
2.2E-09
Tm-171
3E-3 I
2.5E-09
3E-4
12E..09
7.5E-10
4 IE-10
2,2E-I0
1.TE-10
Tm-171
IE-2 I
2 9E-09
IE-3
1.21[-09
7.7E-10
4.2E-10
2.3E-10
1.8E-10
Yb-169
3E-3 I
13E-0g
3E-4
6 6E-09
4.2E-09
2 4E-09
1.3E.-09
1.1E-09
Yb-169
IE-2 l
1.3E..0g
IE-3
6 6E-09
4.2E.-09
2 4E-09
1.3E-09
1.1E.09
Yb-175
3E-3 1
93E-09
3E4
4 gE-09
3 0E-09
!.6E-09
g gE-10
7.0E-10
Yb-I75
IE-2 I
9.3E-09
IE-3
4 8E-09
3.0E-O9
!.6E-09
g.gE-10
7.0E-10
Lu-174
3E-3 !
4 gE-09
3E-4
2 4E-09
i.5E-O9
8 SE-10
4.gE-10
3.9E-10
Lu-I?4
IE-2 I
5.7E..09
IE-3
2.5E-09
1.6E-09
g.gE-10
5 0E-10
4 IE-10
Lu-l?7
3E-3 I
1.2E-0g
3E-4
6.0E-09
3.7E.4)9
2 0E-09
I IE-09
g 7E-10
Lu-177
1E-2 I
!.2E-Og
IE-3
6 0E-O9
3.7E-09
2 0E--09
1 1E-09
g 7E-10
Hf-175
2E-2 I
5 9E-09
2E-3
3 IE-09
2 0E-09
1.2E-09
7 IE-10
5 gE-10
Hf-lgl
2E-2 I
2 IE-0g
2E-3
1.1E-08
6.7E..09
3 gE.-09
2.1E-09
1 7E-09
Ta-179
IE-2 I
9 gE-10
1E-3
5.2E-I0
3.3E-10
1 9E-10
I IE-10
9.0E-11
Ta-i 82
1E-2 1
2 4E-0g
IE-3
1.3E-08
8.3E-09
4 gE-09
2 8E-09
2.2E-09
114
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchde
fi
< I
fl
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
W-!81
2E-2 I
1.2E-09
IE-2
67E-10
43E-10
24E-10
1 4E-10
I IE-10
W-IS1
6E-I I
6.0E-10
3E-I
5 IE-10
3.2E-10
1 9E-10
I IE-10
8 9E-I 1
W-lg5
gE-2 1
I.IE-O8
IE-2
5.gE-09
3.6E-09
1 9E-09
I.IE-09
83E-10
W-lg5
6E-I I
5.0E-09
3E-1
4.2E-09
2 6E-09
i 4E-09
7.7E-10
6.1E-10
W-lg7
2E-2 I
1.2E-Og
1E-2
6 4E-09
4 0E-09
22E-09
1.2E-09
9.gE-10
W-187
6E-1 I
5 8E-09
3E-1
4 gE-09
3 0E-09
1.7E--09
93E-10
7 4E-10
Re-183
gE-1 I
9.TE-09
8E-I
5 4E-09
3.3E-09
I.gE-O9
9 bE-10
7.6E-10
Re-186
gE-1 I
1 9E-08
gE-!
1 0E-08
6 IE-09
3.2E-09
I 7E-O9
13E-09
Re-187
8E-I I
60E-11
8E-I
3.3E-Ii
20E-Il
1 0E-I!
5 6E-12
44E-12
Re-ig8
8E-I I
1.9E-0g
8E-I
1 0E-08
6.2E-09
3.2E-09
i 7E-09
1.3E-09
Os-lg5
2E-2 I
4 gE-09
IE-2
2.gE-09
1 9E-09
1.2E-09
7.6E-10
64E-10
Os-191
2E-2 I
1.2E-0g
1E-2
6 IE-09
3.gE-09
2 IE-09
i.IE-09
9 IE-10
Os-191m
2E-2 I
1 7E-09
IE-2
8 9E-10
5.5E-10
3 0E-10
!.6E-10
!.3E-10
Os-193
2E-2 I
1 6'E-0g
IE-2
g3E-09
5 IE-09
2 gE-09
1.5E-09
1.2E-09
Ir-190
2E-2 I
1.6E-08
IE-2
g 9E-09
5 gE-09
3 4E-09
2.1E-09
! 7E-09
Ir-192
2E-2 I
2 3E-08
IE-2
12.E-08
7 gE-09
4 4E-09
2.5E-09
2.0E-09
Ir-193m
2E-2 I
63E-09
IE-2
3.2E-09
2 0E-O9
I.IE-09
5 9E-10
4 6E-10
Ir-194
2E-2 I
2 5E-0g
1E-2
1.3E-08
7 9E-09
4.3E-09
23E-09
I gE-09
Pt-190
2E-2 I
1 4E-07
1E-2
5 6E-0g
3 4E-08
1.gE-0g
1.0E-O8
R.2E-09
Pt-191
2E-2 I
50E-09
IE-2
2.7E-09
1 TE-09
1.0E-09
5.gE-10
4.7E-10
Pt-193m
2E-2 I
9.gE-09
IE-2
5.1E-O9
3.1E-09
1 7E-O9
9.2E-10
73E-10
Pt-195m
2E-2 1
1.3E-08
IE-2
6 8E-09
4.2E-09
23E-09
13E-09
9 9E-10
Pt-197
2E-2 I
7.5E-09
IE-2
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
13E-09
7.1E-10
5 6E-10
Pt-197m
2E-2 I
1.2E-O9
IE-2
6 4E-10
3 9E-10
2 IE-10
1.2E-10
93E-11
Au-193
2E-I I
I 8E-09
IE-I
1 IE-09
6 7E-10
3 gE-10
2.1E-10
I 7E-10
Au-194
2E-I I
3 8E-09
IE-!
24E-O9
1 6E-09
9.9E-10
6.2E-10
5.2E-I0
Au-195
2E-I I
4.3E-09
IE-I
2 5E-09
1.6E-09
g TE-10
4.9E-10
3 9E-10
Au-196
2E-I I
3.5E-09
IE-I
2.1E-09
14E-09
g.6E-10
53E-10
4 4E-10
Au-19g
2E-1 I
I.gE-0g
IE-I
1.0E-0g
6 4E-09
3.5E-09
2.0E-09
1.6E-09
Au-199
2E-I I
g. IE-09
IE-1
4.6E-09
2 gE-09
1.6E-09
8.6E. I0
6 gE-10
Hg- 194
IE+0 I
1.3E-07
!E+O
12E-07
g 9E-Og
6.gE-Og
5.7E-0g
53E-08
Hg-194
gE-! I
I.IE-07
4E-I
4 7E-0g
3 6E-08
2.8E-0g
23E-Og
2.2E-Og
H1-194
4E-2 I
8 7E-09
ZE-2
43E-09
3.1E-09
2.2E-09
1.7E-09
1.5E-09
Hg-197m
IE+0 1
1.7E-09
1E+0
9 0E-10
5 6E-10
3.1E-10
I 7E-10
1 4E-10
4
115
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchde
fl
_g I
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Hg-19?m
gE-1 I
3 IE-09
4E-!
3.2E-09
2.0E-09
1.1E-09
5 9E-10
4 7E-10
I-h-197m
4E-2 1
g.gE-09
2E-2
4 6E-09
2 9E-09
1 6E-09
g 6E-I 0
6 gE-10
Hg-203
IE+0 1
1 6E-0g
IE+0
1 0E-08
6.5E-09
3 gE-09
22E-09
l gE-09
Hg-203
gE-1 I
I 5E-Og
4E-I
6.9E-09
4 4E-09
2 5E-09
1.5E-09
12E-09
Pa-203
4E-2 1
9 gE-09
2E-2
5.2E-09
3.2E-09
I gE-09
1 0E-O9
g2E-10
TI-200
IE+O I
1.2E-09
IE+O
7 IE-10
5 0E-10
32E-10
2 1E-10
1 gE-10
TI-201
IE+O I
7.SE-10
lea0
4 1E-10
2.7E-I0
I.$E-10
9.1E-1 !
7 4E-1 !
TI-202
IE+0 1
2 5E-09
lea0
1zSE-09
I IE-09
6 gE-10
4 4E-10
3 7E-10
TI-204
lea0
1 0E-Og
lea0
5.5E-09
3 4E-09
1 gE-09
1 0E-09
7 9E-10
Pb-201
4E-I I
14E-09
2E-I
L3E-10
6 IE-10
3 7E-10
22E-10
1 gE-10
Pb-201
6E-I I
1.2E-09
3E-I
8 7E-10
5 7E-10
3 4E-10
2 IE-10
1 7E-10
Pb-202
4E-I I
3 6E-0g
2E-I
1 7E-0g
13E-0g
1.1E-O8
93E-09
8 gE-09
Pb-202
6E-1 I
53E-0g
3E-I
2.SE-Og
2 0E-Og
1 6E-08
14E-Og
1.3E-0g
Pb-205
4E-I I
2.3E-09
2E-I
1 IE-09
73E-10
5 0E-10
3 9E-10
3 6E-10
Pb-205
6E-I I
3 IE-09
3E-I
1 4E-09
1 0E-09
7 0t5-10
5 5E-10
5 IE-10
Pb-210
4E-I I
5 6E-06
2E-I
2.5E-06
1 7E-06
I IE-O6
g 9E-07
8 6E-07
Pb-210
6E-1 I
g.4E-06
3E-I
3 7E-06
2.5E-06
1.7E-O6
1.3E-06
13E-06
Pb-212
4E-I I
2.0E-07
2E-!
60E-08
3.7E-08
2.0E-08
1 !E-08
g 7E-09
Pb-212
6E-I I
2 9E-07
3E-I
g IE-Og
4 9E-0g
2.7E-0g
1 5E-Og
1.215-08
B_-206
IE-1 I
1 9E-Og
5E-2
I IE-0g
7 6E-09
4.715-09
2 9E-09
2 4E-09
Bi-207
1E-I I
I.SE-0g
$E-2
g 7E-09
5 7E-09
3 4E-09
2 0E-09
I 7E-09
Bi-20g
1E-I I
g IE-09
5E-2
5.2E-09
3 7E.09
2 4E-09
1 6E-09
1 4E-09
Bi-210
1E-1 I
2.7E-08
5E-2
1 4E-08
g 9E-09
4.gE-09
2 6E-09
2 IE-09
B_-210m
IE-I I
3.5E-07
5E-2
13E-07
7 TE-Og
4.2E-og
23E-Og
1 8E-0g
Bi-212
IE-1 I
3.3E-09
5E-2
1 TE-O9
1.0E-O9
5.6E-10
3 IE-10
2 SE-10
Po-206
2E-1 I
I IE-06
IE-!
33E-07
2 0E-07
I IE-07
6 0E-Og
4 7E-Og
Po-206
6E-1 I
3.2E-06
3E-I
8 gE-0?
5 4E-07
2 9E-07
1 6E-07
13E-07
Po-20g
2E-I I
5 7E-06
IE-I
1.8E-06
1.1E.O6
6 0E-07
32E-07
2 6E-07
Po-20g
6E-I I
1 YE-05
3E-1
53E-06
3.2E-O6
!.gE-06
9 6E-07
7 7E-07
Po-209
2E-I I
5.6E-06
IE-I
l.gE-06
I.IE.O6
5 9E-07
3.2E-07
2 6E-07
Po-209
6E-I I
1.7E-05
3E-I
53E-06
3.2E-06
I.gE-06
9.5E-07
7 7E-07
Po-210
2E-1 I
4 7E-06
IE-I
1 4E-06
g 9E-07
4 8E-07
2 6E-07
2 IE-07
Po-210
6E-1 I
1 4E-05
3E-I
4.2E-06
2 6E-06
1 4E-06
7 7E-O7
62E-07
At-211
1E+0 1
1 5E-07
lea0
7.4E-Og
4.6E-Og
2 5E-08
13E-0g
i IE-08
116
1
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchde
fl
.= 1
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Ra-223
4E-I I
3 1E4)6
2E-I
9.5E-O7
5 8E-07
3.2E-07
17E-07
14E-07
Ra-224
4E-1 I
I.SE-06
2E-I
5.5E-07
3 4E-07
1 9E-07
1.0E-07
8 0E-0g
Ra-225
4E-! I
1 8E-06
2E-I
5 lEO?
3 IE-07
17E-07
9.2E-08
73E-0g
Ra-226
4E-! I
2.2E-06
2E-I
9 0E-07
5 7E-07
3.5E-07
2AE-07
2.2E-07
Ra-228
4E-1 I
2 5E-06
2E-1
I.IE-06
7.0E-07
4.0E-07
2.8E-07
2 7E-07
Ac-225
IE-2 I
9 5E-07
1E-3
2 8E-O?
1?E-07
9 4E-08
5.1E-08
4 0E-08
Ac-227
IE-2 I
5 9E-05
IE-3
5 4E-06
3.8E-06
2.7E-06
23E-06
2.2E-06
Ac-228
IE-2 I
1 IE-08
IE-3
3 IE-09
1.9E-09
! 1E-09
6.1E-10
50E-10
Th-227
2E-3 I
3 4E-07
2Eal
9 IE-08
5.6E-08
3.1E-0S
I 7E-08
13E-08
Th-22?
5E-3 I
6 IE-O7
5E-4
I IE-07
6.6E-0g
3 6E-08
1.9E--08
1.5E-08
Th-227
IE-2 I
I IE-06
IE-3
13E-07
8.2E-Og
4 5E-08
24E-08
19E-0g
Th-228
2E-3 I
3 4E-O6
2E-4
3 gE-O?
2 4E-07
13E-07
7 5E-08
6 7E-08
Th-228
5E-3 I
8.2E-O6
5E-4
7.9E-07
4.8E-07
2 6E-O7
1 6E-07
1 4E-07
Th-228
1E-2 I
!.6E-05
IE-3
1.5E-06
9 0E-07
4 9E-07
2 9E-07
2 7E-07
Th-229
2E-3 I
1.2E-05
ZE--4
1.1E-O6
8.1E-07
6 0E-O7
5 IE-07
4 8E-07
Th-229
5E-3 I
3.0E-05
5E-4
2 8E-06
2 0E-06
1 5E-06
1.2E-06
1.2E-06
Th-229
1E-2 I
6 0E-05
1E-3
5 5E-06
3.9E-06
2 9E-O6
2 5E-06
2 4E-06
Th-230
2E-3 I
1.8E-06
2E-4
2 0E-07
14E..07
1 0E-07
8 IE-08
7.6E-08
Th-230
5E-3 I
4 5E-06
5E-4
4 4E-07
3.1E-07
23E-07
!.9E-07
1.8E-07
Th-230
1E-2 1
8 9E-06
IE-3
8 4E-07
6.0E-07
4 4E-07
3 7E-07
3.5E-07
Th-231
2E-3 I
6 6E-09
2E-4
3 4E-09
2.1E-O9
I.IE-09
6.2E-10
4 9E-10
Th-231
5E-3 I
6 6E-09
5E-4
3 4E-09
2.1E-09
!.IE-09
62E-10
4 9E-10
Th-231
IE-2 I
66E-09
IE-3
3 4E-09
2 IE-09
I.IE-09
6.2E-10
49E-10
Th-232
2E-3 I
6 5E-06
2E-4
6 4E-07
S.IE-07
43E-07
3.9E-07
3 TEl}7
Th-232
5E-3 I
16E-05
5E-4
!.6E-06
1.2E-06
I IE-06
9.7E-07
9.2E-07
Th-232
IE-2 I
3.2E-05
IE-3
3.1E-06
2.5E-06
2 IE-06
1 9E-06
1 SE-06
Th-234
2E-3 I
7 7E-0g
ZE.4
4.0E-0R
2.4E-Og
13E-08
7.2E-09
5 7E-09
Th-234
5E-3 I
7.7E-08
5E-4
4 0E-0g
2.4E-08
13E-Og
7.2E-09
5 7E-09
Th-234
IE-2 I
7.7E-0g
IE-3
40E-OS
2 4E-OS
13E-0S
7.2E-09
5.7E-09
Pa-230
IE-2 I
5.5E-08
IE-3
8.8E-09
5.5E.09
32E-09
I.SE-09
1.5E-09
Pa-231
IE-2 I
2 7E-05
1E-3
2 6E-06
2.2E-O6
I 8E-06
1.6E-06
I 4E-06
Pa-232
IE-2 I
1.2E-08
1E-3
5 4E-09
3 5E-09
2 0E-09
1.2E-09
9 9E-10
Pa-233
IE-2 I
1 SE-08
1E-3
9 4E-09
5 8E-09
32E-09
I SE-09
14E-09
U-230
IE-i I
3.2E-06
5E-2
l 0E-06
62E-07
3 4E-07
1 8E-07
14E-07
,m
117
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL.: ENGUSH
Nuclide
f,
< I
f_
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
U-230
2E-2 I
1 IE-06
2E-3
3.2E-07
20E-07
I.IE-0?
5.8E-08
4 6E-Og
U-232
IE-I I
1.2E-06
5E-2
5.0E 07
33E-07
2.2E-07
1.8E-O?
1 7E-07
U-232
2E-2 I
3 IE-07
2E-3
6 6E-0g
4 IE-O8
2 4E-0g
1.5E-08
13E-Og
U-233
IE-1 I
43E-07
5E-2
1 7E-07
1.1E-07
6 6E-0g
4 4E-08
40E-08
U-233
,,
2E-2 1
1.6E-07
2E-3
4 gE.-0g
3 015-08
1.6E-Og
9.2E-09
7 4E-09
U-234
IE-I I
4 5E-07
5E-2
1 7E.-07
I IE-07
63E-0g
4 4E-Og
3 9E-Og
U-234
2E-2 I
1.6E-07
2E-3
4 8E-08
3.0E-Og
1 6E-Og
9 1E-O9
7 4E-09
U-235
1E-1 I
43E.-07
5E-2
1 6E-07
1 0E..07
63E-08
4.2E-Og
3 $E-Og
U-235
2E-2 I
1 6E-07
2E-3
S IE-0g
3.2E-0g
1.7E-0R
9 7E-09
7 gE-09
U-236
IE-I I
4.2E-07
5E-2
1 6E-07
1.0E-07
6.1E-0g
4 1E-0g
3 7E-0g
U-236
2E-2 1
1 5E-O7
2E-3
4 5E-Og
2.gE-0g
1.5E-0g
8 6E-09
6 9E..09
U-238
IE-1 I
4 0E-07
5E-2
1 5E-07
9 8E-0g
5.9E-08
4 0E-O$
3.6E-08
U-23g
2E-2 I
1 4E-07
2E-3
4 4E-08
2 7E-08
I.SE-Og
g 4E-09
6 8E-09
Np-233
IE-2 I
2.2E-I 1
IE-3
1.2E-I I
7 8E-12
4 5E-12
2 7E-12
2.2E-12
Np-233
5E-3 1
2.2E-11
5E-4
1.2E-I 1
7.8E-12
4.5E-12
2 7E-12
2.2E-12
Np-234
1E-2 I
9 0E-09
IE-3
5 IE-09
3 4E-09
2 IE-09
13E-09
1 0E-09
Np-234
5E-3 I
9 0E-09
5E-4
5.1E-09
3.4E-09
2.1E-09
1.3E-09
1 0E-09
Np-235
1E-2 I
1 4E-09
IE-3
62E-10
3 gE-10
2 IE-10
I IE-10
9 0E-I!
Np-235
5E-3 I
13E-09
5E-4
6 0E-10
3 7E-10
20E-10
I IE-10
8gE-ll
Np-2361
IE-2 I
23E-06
IE-3
23E-07
1.9E-07
1.6E-07
14E-07
1.2E-07
Np-2361
5E-3 I
1 IE-06
5E-4
1.2E-07
9 7E-og
g. IE-0g
7.1E-08
63E-08
Np-236s
IE-2 I
6.2E-09
IE-3
19E-09
1.2E-09
6.9E-10
4 IE-10
3 4E-10
Np-236s
5E-3 I
4 7E-09
5E-4
I gE-09
I.IE-09
63E-10
3.6E-10
2 9E-10
Np-237
IE-2 1
1 4E-05
IE-3
1 4E-06
1 0E-06
8.0E-07
6 gE-07
6 4E.07
Np-237
5E-3 I
7.3E-06
5E-4
7.1E-07
53E-07
4 1E.07
3.5E-O7
3.2E-07
Np-23g
IE-2 I
1 7E-Og
IE-3
g.6E-09
5 4E-O9
3.0E-09
1 7E-09
14E-09
Np-23g
5E-3 I
1 7E-0g
5E-4
g 6E-09
5 4E-09
3.0E-09
1 7E-09
13E..09
Np-239
IE-2 I
1.6E-08
IE-3
g3E-09
5.1E-09
2.8E-09
13E-09
1.2E-09
Np-239
5E-3 I
1 6E-08
5E..4
gJE-09
5.1E-09
2 gE-09
13E-09
1.2E-09
Np-240
IE-2 I
8 9E-10
IE-3
4.7E-10
3 0E-10
1 7E-10
9.6E-I 1
7 gE-I 1
Np-240
5E-3 I
g 9E-10
5E-4
4 7E-10
3 0E-10
1TE-10
9.6E-11
7 gE-Il
Pu-236
IE-4 i
1.7E-07
IE-5
6 0E-0g
3 7E-08
2 IE-O8
1.2E-O8
9 6E-09
Pu-236
5E-3 I
3 IE-06
5E4
3.2E-07
2.1E-07
1 4E-07
1.1E-07
9.gE-08
Pu-236
IE-2 1
6 0E-06
IE-3
5 8E-07
3 9E-07
2 6E-07
2 0E-07
1 9E-07
118
A'I'FACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
'Il
Nuclide
fl
'= I
fi
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
Pu-236
1E-3 !
7 OEO7
1E-4
I 1E-07
6 9E-08
4.2E-08
2 9E-08
2.6E-08
Pu-236
2E-3 I
1.3E-06
2E-4
1 6E-07
I 0E-07
6 7E-0g
4 8E-08
4 4E-08
Pu-.238
IE-.4 I
2.2E-07
IE-5
6.3E-08
4 0E-08
23E-08
1 5E-08
1.2E-08
Pu-238
5E-3 I
6.2E-06
5E-4
6 IE-07
4 4E-07
3.2E-07
2 7E.-07
2 6E..07
Pu-238
IE-2 I
1..2E-05
1E-3
1.2E-06
8 4E-07
63E..07
$ 4E-07
5.1E-.07
Pu-238
IE-3 I
i.3E-.06
IE-4
1.6E-.07
I IE-07
7 9E-08
6.2E-08
5 7E-08
Pu-238
2E-3 I
2.5E-06
2E-4
2 7E.-07
1.9E-07
1 4E..07
1.1E-07
I.IE-07
Pu-239
1E..4 I
2.2E-07
1E-5
6 IE-08
3.9E-08
23E-08
1.5E-08
1..2E-08
Pu-239
5E-3 I
6 5E.-06
5E-4
6 4E-07
4.7E-07
3 6E-07
3.0E-07
2 8E-.07
Pu-239
1E-2 i
13E..05
IE-3
1.2E-06
9.1E-07
7 0E..07
6.0E-07
5 6E-07
Pu-239
1E-3 I
14E-O6
IE-4
1.7E-07
1.2E-07
8 4E-08
6 8E-08
6.2E-08
Pu-239
2E-3 I
2 7E-06
2E-4
2 9E-07
2 IEO?
1.5E-07
13E-07
!.2E.-07
Pu-240
IE-4 I
2.2E-07
IE-5
6 IE-08
3 915-08
23E-08
1.5E-08
1.3E-08
Pu-240
5E-3 1
6 5E-06
5E-4
6 4E-07
4 7E..07
3 6E-07
3 0E-07
2.8E-07
Pu-240
IE-2 1
1.3E-05
IE-3
1.2E-06
9 IE-07
7 0E-07
6 0E-07
5.6E-.07
Pu-240
IE-3 I
14E-06
IE-4
1 7E-07
12E-07
8 4E..08
6 8E-08
6.2E-08
Pu-240
2E-3 I
2 7E-06
2E-4
2.9E.-07
2 1E-07
1.5E-07
15E-07
1.2E-07
Pu.241
IE-4 I
2.3E-09
IE-5
4.2E-10
3 0E-10
2.1E-10
1 6E-10
1 4E-10
Pu-241
5E-3 I
9.1E-08
5E-4
8 9E-O9
7 5E-09
6.5E-09
5 9E-09
53E-09
Pu-241
1E-2 !
1.8E..07
1E-3
1.8E-08
!.5E-08
1.3E-08
1.2!..08
I 1E-Og
Pu-241
IE-3 I
1.9E-08
1E-4
2.0E-09
1.6E-09
1 4E-09
1.2E-09
I IE-09
Pu-241
2E-3 I
3 7E-08
2E-4
3 7E-09
3.1E-09
2.6E-09
2 4E-09
2.2E-09
Pu-242
IE.-4 I
2.1E-07
IE-5
5.8E-08
3.7E-08
2.2E-08
14E-05
1.2E-08
Pu-242
5E-3 I
62E-06
5E-4
6.1E-07
4.$E-07
3 4E-07
2 9E-07
2 7E-07
Pu-242
IE-2 I
1.2E-05
1E-3
!.2E-06
g.7E-07
6 6E-07
5 7E-07
53E-07
Pu-242
IE-3 I
13E-06
IE-4
1.6E-07
1.1E-07
$ 0E-O8
64E-08
5 9E-O8
Pu-242
2E-3 1
2.5E..06
ZE-.4
2 TE-O?
2.0E-07
1 4E-07
1.2E,.07
I.IE-07
Pu.243
IE-4 1
1.2E-09
IE-5
6 0E-10
3.7E-10
2 0E-10
I.IE-10
8 7E-I I
Pu.243
5E-3 I
1.2E-09
5E..4
6 0E-10
3.7E-10
2 0E-10
I.IE-10
8 7E-I 1
Pu-243
IE-2 I
1.2E-09
IE-3
6 0E-10
3 7E-10
2 0E-10
I.IE-10
8 7E-I 1
Pu-243
IE-3 I
1.2E-09
IE-4
60E-10
37E-I0
20E-10
1 IE-10
g.TE-]I
Pu-243
2E-3 I
].2E-09
2E..4
6 0E-10
3.7E-I 0
2 0E-10
1 IE-10
8 7E-11
Pu-244
1E-4 I
2 7E-07
IE-5
8 7E-08
5.5E-08
3.2E..08
1 9E-.08
1.6E-O8
Pu-244
5E-3 I
6.2E-06
5E-4
6..3E-07
4.6E-07
3.5E.-07
2 9E-07
2.7E-07
m
119
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclule
fl
.:: I
fz
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
Pu.244
IE-2 1
1.2E-05
IE-3
1.2E.06
8.8E.07
6 7E-07
5 7E.07
5.3E-07
Pu-244
1E-3 I
1.4E-06
IE.4
19E.07
13E.07
9 0E-08
6 9E-0g
63E.08
Pu-244
ZE-3 !
2 6E4)6
2E-4
3 0E.07
2 IE.07
1 5E.07
1.2E.07
IE.07
Am-241
5E-3 I
6 8E-06
5E-4
6 TE-07
4 9E-07
3 7E.07
3 !E.07
2 9E-07
Am-241
IE-2 I
13E.05
1E-3
13E-06
9.5E.07
7.2E-07
6 IE.07
5 7E-07
Am-241
2E-3 I
2 8E-06
2E..4
3.0E-07
2.2E-07
!.6E-07
13E-07
1.2E-07
Am-242
5E-3 1
7.1E-09
5E..4
2.7E-09
1 7E-09
9.2E-10
5.0E-10
4.0E-10
Am-242
1E-2 1
9.1E-09
IE-3
2 9E--09
1.8E-09
9 7E-10
5.3E-10
4.3E-10
Am-242
2E-3 I
5 9E.09
2E-4
2 7E-09
! 6E-09
89E-10
49E-10
3 gE-10
Am-242m
5E-3 I
6 0E.06
5E-4
5 7E.07
43E.07
3 4E.07
2 9E.07
2 gE-07
Am-242m
1E-2 1
1.2E-05
IE-3
1 IE-06
8 6E-07
6 7E.07
5 9E.07
5.5E-07
Am-242m
2E-3 I
24E.06
2E-4
2 3E.07
1.8E-07
1.4E.07
1.2E.07
I IE-07
Am-243
5E-3 I
6 7E.06
5E-4
6 6E-07
4 9E-07
3 7E-07
3.1E-07
2.9E.07
Am-243
IE-2 I
13E-05
IE-3
13E.06
9.4E-07
72.E-07
6 1E.07
5 TE.07
Am-243
2E-3 I
2 7E-06
2Eal
3.0E.07
22E-07
1.6E.07
13E-07
1.2E.07
Cm-242
5E-3 1
7 0E.07
5E-4
1 0E.07
6 3E-08
3 5E.08
1 9E-0g
1 6E.08
Cm-242
IE-2 1
13E.06
1E-3
1 5E-07
9 0E-08
5 0E-0g
2 8E-08
2 4E-08
Cm-242
2E-3 I
3 5E-07
2E-4
7.5E-08
4 6E.08
25E.08
14E-08
1.1E-08
Cm-243
5E-3 I
5 4E.06
5E-4
5 4E-07
3.7E-07
2.6E-07
2.1E-07
2 0E.07
C'm-243
IE-2 !
I IE-05
1E-3
1.0E-06
7 1E.07
5.0E.07
4.2E-07
4 0E.07
Cm-243
2E-3 I
2.2E-06
2E-4
2 5E-07
1 7t5.07
1.2E.07
93E-0g
g.7E-Og
Cm-244
5E-3 I
4 8E-06
5E-4
4 TE-07
3.2E-07
2.1E-07
1 7E-07
1 7E-07
Cm-244
IE-2 I
9 4E-06
1E-3
8 9E-07
6 0E-07
4 IE-07
3 4E.07
3.2E.07
Cm-244
2E-3 I
2 0E-06
2E-4
2.2E-07
1.5E.07
9.7E-08
7 5E-Og
7 1E.08
Cm-245
5E-3 I
6.9E-06
5E-4
6.8E-07
5.0E-07
3 8E.07
3.2E.07
3 0E.07
Cm-245
IE-2 1
1.4E-05
IE-3
13E-06
9 7E.07
7 4E.07
63E-07
5 9E-07
Cm-245
2E-3 I
2 gE.06
2E-4
3 0E-07
2.2E.07
1 6E.07
13E.07
1.2E.07
Cm-246
5E-3 I
6 9E.06
5E4
6 gE-07
50E-07
3.7E-07
3.2E-07
3 0E.07
Cm-246
IE-2 1
14E.05
IE-3
13E-06
9 6E-07
73E-O7
63E.07
5.9E.07
Cm-246
2E-3 !
2 gE.06
2E-4
3 0E.07
2.2E.07
1.6E-07
13E-07
1.2E-07
Cm-247
5E-3 !
63E-06
5E-4
63E-07
4.6E.07
3 5E.07
2 9E-07
2 7E.07
Cm-247
1E-2 I
13E-05
IE-3
1.2E-06
g 9E.07
6 8E-07
5 8E.07
5 4E.07
Cm-247
2E-3 I
2.6E-06
2E-4
2 8E-07
2 IE-07
1.5E-07
12E-07
1 1E.07
Cm-248
5E-3 I
2 5E-05
5E-4
2.5E-O6
1.9E-06
1 4E.06
1.2E-06
I 1E.06
120
A'VFACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRIG__D DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
'Il
NucUde
fl
_ I
fj
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Cm-248
IE-2 I
5 0E-05
IE-3
4 8E-06
3 6E-06
2.7E-06
2.3E-06
2.2E-06
Cm-248
2E-3 I
1 0E-05
2E-4
1.2E-06
8 5E-07
6.2E-07
5.1E-07
4.7E-07
Bk-245
5E-3 I
1 IE-O8
5E-4
5 7E-09
3 6E.-09
2.0E..09
I.IE-09
&gE-10
Bk-245
IE-2 I
1 IE-08
IE-3
5 7E-09
3 6E-09
2.0E-09
I IE-09
8 9E-10
Bk-246
5E-3 I
5.2E-09
5E-4
3 0E-09
2.0E-09
1.2E-09
7.3E-10
6.0E-10
Bk-246
IE-2 I
5.2E-09
IE-3
3 0E-.09
2 0E-09
1.2E-.09
7.3E-10
6 0E-10
Bk-247
5E-3 I
8 0E-06
5E-4
7 9E-07
5.$E-07
4.4E-O7
3.8E-07
3.5E-07
Bk-247
1E-2 I
] 6E-.05
IE-3
1 5E-06
I.IE-06
8.7E,-07
7.5E-07
6.9E-07
Bk-249
5E-3 I
2.1E.-08
5E..4
3.2E-09
2.2E..09
1.5E-09
1.2E-09
1.1E.-09
Bk-249
1E-2 i
3.9E-08
IE-3
4 9E-O9
3.5E-09
2.5E-09
2.1E-O9
1 9E-09
Cf-246
5E-3 1
7.9E-08
5E-4
3 4E-08
2 IE-08
I IE-O8
6.2E-09
4 9E-09
Cf-246
IE-2 I
9.2E-08
IE-3
3 5E-08
2.2E-08
1.2E-08
6 4E-09
5 0E-09
Cf-248
5E-3 I
14E-06
5E-4
1 TE-07
1.0E-07
5 9E-08
3 6E-08
3.2E-08
Cf-24g
IE-2 I
2 7E-06
1E-3
2 7E-O7
1.TE-07
9 9E-08
6.1E-08
5 5E-08
Of-249
5E-3 I
8 IE-06
5E-4
8 0E-O7
5.9E-07
4 5E-07
3 8E-07
3 5E-07
Cf-249
IE-2 I
1 6E-05
1t5-3
1 5E-06
I.IE-06
8 7E-07
7 5E-07
7 0E-07
Cf-250
5E-3 I
5 0E-06
5E4
5 0E-07
33E-07
22E-07
I 7E-07
I 6E-07
Cf-250
IE-2 I
9 9E-O6
IE-3
9.3E-O7
6.2E-07
4 1E,.07
33E-07
3.2E-07
Cf-251
5E-3 I
8.2E-.06
5E-4
8 IE-07
6 0E-07
4.6E-07
3 9E-07
3 6E-07
Cf-251
1E-2 I
1 6E-05
IE-3
1 6E-O6
12E-06
8.9E-07
7 6E-07
7 IE-07
Cf-252
5E-3 i
4 6E-06
5E-4
5 IE-07
3.2E-07
1.8E-07
! IE-07
9 $E-08
Cf-252
1E-2 I
8 9E-06
IE-3
8 gE-07
5 4E-07
3.0E-07
1.9E-07
I 7E-07
Cf-253
5E-3 I
1.1E-07
5E-4
1.3E-Og
7.gE-09
4.3E-09
23E-09
1 9E-09
Cf-253
1E-2 I
2 0E-07
1E-3
1 9E-08
I.IE-O8
6.2E-09
3 4E-09
2 7E-09
i
Cf-254
5E-3 I
1 4E-05
5E-4
3 4E-06
22E-06
1.2E-O6
7.0E-07
5 6E-07
CT-254
IE-2 I
2.2E-05
IE-3
4 0E-06
2.5E-06
I 4E-06
8 0E-07
6 4E-07
Es-250
5E-3 I
2.2E-10
5E-4
8 6E-11
5.8E-11
3 6E-Il
2.3E-11
2 0E-Il
Es-250
IE-2 I
3 IE-10
IE-3
94E-II
6.3E-! 1
40E-I!
2 6E-11
2.3E-11
Es-251
5E-3 i
3.1E-09
5E-4
1 6E-09
1 0E-09
5.6E-10
3 IE-10
2 5E-10
Es-251
1E-2 I
3.2E-09
IE-3
1 6E-09
1 0E-09
5 6E-10
3 IE-10
2 5E-10
Es-253
5E-3 I
2.3E-07
5E-4
6 6E-Og
4 0E-O8
2.2E-08
12E-08
9 4E-09
Es-253
]E-2 I
3.5E-07
IE-3
7.2E-08
44E-08
2 4E-08
1.3E-08
I 0E-08
Es-254
5E-3 I
1 4E-06
5E-4
1.8E-07
1 IE-07
62E-08
3.7E-08
3.3E-08
Es-254
IE-2 1
2 6E-06
IE-3
2 8E-07
17E-07
9 8E-08
6 0E-08
5 4E-08
121
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
< I
fl
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Es-254m
5E-3 I
9.9E-08
5E-4
4 5E-08
2 8E-08
1 5E-08
8 4E-09
6 6E-09
Es-254m
IE-2 l
1.1E-07
1E-3
4 6E-08
2 8E-08
16E-Og
8 5E-09
6 TE-09
Fm-252
5E-3 I
5.9E-08
5E-4
2 6E-08
1.6E-08
8 8E-09
4 8E-O9
3 gE-O9
Fm-252
lE-2 1
6 7E-O8
1E-3
2 7E-08
1.6E-08
9 0E-09
4 9E-09
3 9E-09
Fm-253
5E-3 1
3 4E-O8
5E-4
9 7E-09
6.0E-O9
3.3E-09
1.8E-09
14E-09
Fm-253
!£-2 I
5 IE-08
IE-3
I.IE-08
6.6E-09
3 6E-09
2 0E-09
1 6E-09
Fm-254
5E-3 I
6 0E-09
5E-4
2.9E-09
I 8E-09
9 6E-10
5.2E-10
4 IE-10
Fm-254
IE-2 t
6 4E-09
IE-3
2 9E-09
I 8E-09
97E-10
53E-10
4.2E-10
Fm-255
5E-3 I
53E-O8
5E-4
2 5E-08
1 5E-O8
83E-09
4 5E-09
3 6E-09
Fm-255
1E-2 I
5 6E-0g
IE-3
2.5E-O8
1 5E-O8
8 4E-09
4 6E-O9
3 6E-09
Fm-257
5E-3 I
9 gE-07
5E-4
13E-07
7 9E-08
43E-Og
2 4E-O8
1.9E-08
Fm-257
IE-2 I
1 8E-O6
IE-3
19E-07
1.2E-07
64E-08
3.5E-08
29E-08
Md-257
5E-3 I
3 4E-O9
5E-4
9.2E-10
5.7E-10
3 1E-10
1.7E-10
1 4E-10
Md-257
IE-2 I
5.2E-09
IE-3
1 1E-O9
6.5E-10
3 6E-10
20E-I 0
1 6E-10
122
A'I'TACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
TABLE H-H COMMITTED
EN_I'AKE VIA INHALATION
EFFECTIVE
DOSE PER UNIT
FOR DIFFERENT GUT TRANSFER
(fl) sz VALUES AND RETENTION CATEGORIES
DIFFERENT
AGE GROUPS s3 (IN YEARS)
(Sv Bq 'l) FOR
Nuclide
ft
_ 1
fj
I-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
>17
(Adult)
H-3
IE+0 v
69E-Il
IE+0
43E-11
3.5E-I I
24E-11
1.SE-I 1
1 SE-Il
Or-3
IE+0 v
1.2E-10
1E+0
1 0E-10
S IE-I!
5.9E-11
4 0E-Il
4 0E-II
Be-7
5E-2 Y
4 4E-I0
5E-3
3 IE-IO
2.2E-10
1..SE-10
9.8E-I 1
S 5E-! !
Be-7
5E-2 W
34E-10
5E-3
2.3E-I0
1.6E-10
I IE-10
73E-I1
6.2E-II
Be-10
5E-2 Y
4 7E-07
5E-3
4 OEO7
2.5E-07
1.5E-07
I 0E-07
9.5E.-08
Be-I 0
5E-2 W
8.2E-08
5E-3
53E-OS
33E-0g
i.8E-0g
1.1E-08
9 0E.-09
C-I!
IE+O v
3.1E-11
IE+0
1.7E-II
I IE-I1
6.6E-12
4 0E-12
3.3E-I2
Cx-I 1
IE+0 v
2.0E-I I
IE+0
I.IE-I I
7.3E-12
43E-12
2.6E-12
2.1E-12
Cy-I I
4E-I v
1 IE-I 1
4E-1
6.2E-12
4 IE-12
2 4E-12
14E-12
1.2E-12
(?-14
1E+0 v
1 5E-09
IE+0
i.5E-09
1 1E-09
8.5E-10
5 6E-10
5.6E-10
Cx-14
1E+0 v
2 1E-II
IE+0
! gE-Il
1 4E-Il
9.6E-12
63E-12
6 4E-12
Cy-14
4E-I v
I IE-11
4E-I
5_5E-12
34E-12
I.gE-12
99E-13
7.gE-13
F-IS
IE.+O D
2 7E-10
IE+O
1 4E-10
9 0E-I I
$.IE-I !
2 9E-11
2 4E-11
F-IS
IE+0 W
2 4E-10
1E+0
IAE-10
7.9E-11
4.5E-! !
2.5E-11
2.0E-11
F-IS
IE+OY
2 $E-10
IE+0
1.3E-10
84E-11
4.$E-11
2 7E-11
2.2E-11
Na-22
1E+O D
14E-0g
1E+O
g 6E-09
5 9E-09
3.7E-09
2 4E-O9
2 0E-09
Na-24
1E+0 D
3.1E-09
1E+0
1.7E-09
1 IE-09
6.6E-I0
3 9E-10
3.2E-10
Mg-2g
1E+0 W
1.2E-0g
SE-1
93E-09
S gE-09
3.2E-09
I.SE-09
i 4E-09
Mg-2g
1E+O D
g IE-09
5E-I
6.0E-O9
3 SE-09
2.1E-09
!.2E-09
9 6E-10
S_-31
2E-2 Y
g IE-10
IE-2
4.1E-10
2.5E-10
1.4E-10
7.5E-11
5.9E-11
Si-31
2E-2 W
7 4E-10
IE-2
3.gE-! 0
23E-10
13E-10
6 gE-Il
5 4E-11
gi-3l
2E-2 D
7.gE-10
IE-2
4.0E-10
2 SE-10
13E-10
7.2E-I I
5.7E-I !
Si-32
2E-2 Y
1.3E-06
IE-2
I.IE-06
73E-07
43E-07
3 0E-07
2 7E-07
52
v - indicated vapour, Y mdtcates lung class, yeats; W ind,cates lung class, weeks, D ,ndlcates lung class, days
53
See tntemat3onal Commission on Radlologlcal Protection, Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from
Intake o! Radionuchdes, ICRP Publication 56, in Annals of the ICRP, Vol 20 No 2, page 5, Pergamon Press
123
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
I
Nuchde
fz
-_ I
fi
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Si-32
2E-2 W
1 SE-0?
IE-2
9 ?E-08
6 0E-O8
3.2E-08
1.8E-08
14E-05
SI-32
2E-2 D
S 4E-0g
IE-2
3 gE-08
23E-0g
1.3E-08
6 9E-09
5 7E-09
P-32
gE-I W
5 5E-.08
gE-!
3 0E-08
l 8E-08
9 9E-09
5 4E--09
43E-09
P-32
8E-I D
2 1E-08
gE-1
I 1E-08
6 gE-09
3 7E-09
2 0E-09
1.6E-09
S-35
IE+0 v
I.IE-09
IE+0
6.5E-i 0
4 0E-10
2.2E-10
1.2E-10
9.5E-11
S-35
gE-1 D
1.0E-09
gE-1
5.9E-10
3.6E-I0
2 0E-10
I 1E-10
8 SE-11
S-35
gE-1 W
? 9E-09
gE-1
4 7E-09
2 9E-09
1 6E-09
8 SE-10
6 8E-I 0
CI-36
IE+0 D
g 0E-09
IE+O
42E-09
2 6E-09
1 4E-09
7 7E-10
6 IE-10
(21-36
IE+0 W
6 5E-08
IE+0
4 1E-08
2 5E-08
1 4E-08
? 4E-09
6 0E-09
CI-38
IE+0 D
5 SE-10
1E+0
2 8E-10
1 7E-10
9 6E-I 1
53E-11
4.?.E-I 1
Cl-38
IE+0W
44E-10
IE+0
2.2E-10
14E-10
7 6E-II
4.2E-11
33E-!1
K-40
1E+0 D
3 7E-08
IE+0
22E-08
1.4E-08
7 5E-09
4 1E-09
3.3E-09
K-42
1E+0 D
5 1E-09
IE+0
2 6E-09
1.6E-09
8 8E-10
4.8E-10
3 gE-10
K-43
IE+0 D
2 0E-09
1E+0
! 1E-09
? 0E-10
4 0E-10
23E-10
l 9E-10
Ca-41
6E-1 W
2 1E-09
3E-I
1.2E-09
? 9E-10
4.gE-10
3 4E-10
3.2E-10
Ca-45
6E-I W
2 1E0g
3E-1
12E-OS
7 4E-09
4 0E-09
2.2E-09
1 8E-09
Ca-47
6E-I W
2 1E-08
3E-I
12E-0g
? 7E-09
43E-09
24E-09
19E-09
Sc-46
1E-3 Y
5.8E-08
IE-4
4 0E-08
2 6E-08
1 6E-0g
9 5E-09
8 0E-09
Sc-47
IE-3 Y
7 9E-09
IE-4
4 IE-09
2.5E-09
14E-09
7 6E-10
6 0E-10
Sc-48
1E-3 Y
1 1E-08
IE-4
62E-09
4 IE-09
24E-09
1.5E-09
12E-09
T_-44
2E-2 Y
13E-06
IE-2
1 IE-06
7.OEO7
4.2E-07
2 9E-07
2 7E-O7
T_-44
2E-2 W
3.2E-07
IE-2
23E-07
1.5E-07
g 9E-OS
5 5E-0g
4 9E-0g
Ti-44
2E-2 D
5.7E-07
1E-2
4 9E-07
3.2E-07
2.0E-07
13E-07
1.2E-07
V-48
2E-2 W
2 5E-0g
1E-2
! 4E-08
9.5E-09
5.7E-09
3.5E-09
2.9E-09
V-4g
2E-2 D
93E-09
]E-2
5 6E-09
3.gE-09
2_3E-09
1 5E-09
1.2E-O9
Ct-51
2E-I Y
9.5E-10
IE-1
5 6E-10
3 6E-10
2.1E-10
1.2E-10
9 8E-I I
Ct-51
2E-1 W
7 6E-10
IE-I
44E-10
2 gE-10
16E-10
9 5E-II
7 7E-11
Cr-51
2E-I D
2 6E-10
IE-!
1 SE-10
1.0E-10
62E-11
3 gE-I 1
3 IE-I 1
Mn-52
2E-1 W
l.lE-0g
IE-I
6 9E-09
4 ?E-09
3.0E-09
! 9E-09
1 6E-09
Mn-52
2E-I D
? 7E-09
IE-I
4 8E-09
33E-09
2 IE-09
1 4E-09
1.2E-09
Mn-52m
2E-I W
I.gE-10
1E-I
99E-I1
6 1E-II
3 4E-Il
19E-11
1.SE-11
Mn-52m
2E-I D
2.5E-10
IE-1
13E-10
8 1E-Il
45E-I1
2.5E-11
20E-II
Mn-54
2E-I W
9 8E-09
IE-1
6 6E-09
4 7E-09
3 1E-09
2 0E-O9
1 7E-09
Mn-54
2E-1 D
6 8E-09
IE-I
4 6E-09
33E-09
2.2E-09
1 4E-09
1.2E-09
124
AI'I'ACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
,,
Nuchoe
fl
< I
f_
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Mn-56
2E-1 W
1 1E-09
IE-i
5 7E-10
3 5E-10
20E-10
I IE-10
8 7E-11
Mn-56
2E-] D
1.2E-09
IE-1
6.2E-! 0
3.9E-10
2.2E-10
1.2E-10
9.gE-I l
Fe-52
2E-I W
7 IE-09
IE-I
3 8E-09
2 4E-09
13E-09
7 5E-10
6 0E-10
Fe-52
2E-! D
5 9E-09
1E-I
3.2E..09
2.0E-09
I.IE-09
6 4E-10
5.2E-10
F¢-55
2E-I W
30E-09
IE-I
1.9E-09
1.2E-09
6.5E-10
3 8E-I0
3.3E-10
Fe-55
2E-1 D
4.2E-09
IE-1
3 4E-09
2 IE-09
I 1E-09
69E-I0
64E-10
Fe-59
2E-I W
3.0E-08
IE-I
! 715-08
1 1E-Og
6.gE..09
4 IE-09
3 4E-09
Fe-59
2E-1 D
2 6E-08
1E-1
1.7E-08
I IE-Og
7.IE-09
4 5E-09
3 8E-09
Cc-56
gE-I D
1.0E-07
8E-I
7.4E-0g
52E-OS
33E-Og
2.2E-08
1.9E-0g
C0-56
IE-1 Y
7.3E-0g
5E-2
5.0E-08
33E-0g
2.0E-08
1.3E-08
I.IE-Og
Co-56
IE-I W
4 5E-0g
5E-2
2.9E-Og
1 9E-Og
1.2E-Og
73E-09
6.2E-09
Cc-57
gE-1 D
1 6E-0g
gE-1
1.2E-0g
8 1E-09
4.9E-09
3 0]5-09
2.6E-09
Co-57
IE-I Y
1 gE-Og
5E-2
13E..0g
8 4E-09
4 gE-09
2 8E-09
2 4E-09
Co-57
1E-I W
6 5E-09
5E-2
4 1E-09
2 6E-09
I 5E..09
8 ?E-10
7.2E-10
C.c-58
gE-1 D
2 7E-08
gE-I
2 0E-OS
14E-08
g 9E-09
5.8E-09
5.0E-09
Co-58
IE-1 Y
20E-Og
5E-2
1.3E-08
9 1E-09
5 6E-09
3 4E-09
2.9E-09
Co-58
1E-1 W
1.3E-0g
5E-2
8 0E-09
5 4E-09
33E..09
2 IE-09
I 7E-09
Cc-58m
8E-I D
2.3E-10
8E-I
l 5E-10
10E-10
62E-I1
3 9E-11
33E-11
Co-58m
IE-I Y
2.5E-10
5E-2
1.SE-10
9 5E-I 1
5.5E-I 1
3.2E-11
2 6E-il
Co-58m
1E-I W
2.0E-10
5E-2
1.1E-10
7 IE-I 1
4 IE-11
23E-11
1.9E-11
Cc-60
8E-I D
2.9E-07
gE-I
2 5E-O7
1 gE-07
I IE-07
7.5E-0g
6 9E-0g
Co-60
IE-I Y
2 6E-07
5E-2
2.2E-07
I 5E-07
9 1E-Og
60E-0g
5 6E-08
C.o-60
1E-I W
5 7E-08
5E-2
3 9E-Og
2 6E-08
1 6E-Og
! 0E-0g
9.0E-09
Cc-60m
gE-1 D
6 9E-12
8E-I
3 9E-12
2 5E-12
1 4E-12
g.2E-13
6.8E-13
N_-59
1E+0 V
3 8E-09
IE+O
33E-09
2 0E-09
1 1E-09
7.6E-10
73E-10
N_-59
1E-i W
2.2E-09
5E-2
I 5E-09
9.0E-10
5 0E-10
2.9E-10
2 5E-10
N1-59
1E-I D
1 9E-.09
5E-2
16E.-09
10E-09
5 7E-10
3.gE-10
3 6E-10
NI-63
IE+0 v
9 0E-09
IE-+O
7 7E-09
4 gE-09
2 7E-09
!.gE-09
I 7E-09
Ni-63
1E-1 W
5 8E-09
5E-2
3 gE-09
23E-09
13E-09
7 SE-10
6 4E-10
N_-63
IE-! D
4 7E-09
5E-2
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
1 4E-09
8 9E-10
g.SE-10
N_-65
IE+O v
1.2E-09
IE+O
6.2E-10
3.9E-10
2 IE-10
1.2E-10
9.2E-11
NI-65
1E-I W
7 7E-! 0
5E-2
4 0E-10
2 SE-10
13E-10
7 4E-I 1
5 9E-l !
NI-65
IE-I D
g.2E-10
5E-2
42E-I0
2 6E-10
i 4E-10
79E-I1
6 3E-11
Cu-64
IE+0 Y
6 9E-10
5E-I
5.2E-10
3.2E-10
I gE-10
I 0E-10
g 0E-I 1
125
A'f'FACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAl.: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
< I
fz
1-2
2-7
%I2
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Cu-64
IE+0 W
6 7E-10
5E-1
4 gE-10
3 0E-10
I 7E-10
9.2E-11
7.3E-I1
Cu-64
1E+O D
5 0E-10
SE-1
3 5E-10
2.2E-10
1.2E-I0
6 9E-l_
5 6E-11
Cu-67
IE+0 Y
3.3E-09
SE-1
2.5E-09
1.6E-O9
8 6E-10
4 gE-10
3 gE-10
Cu-67
IE+0 W
32E-09
5E-I
2 4E-O9
I 5E-09
g 0E-! 0
4 4E-10
3 SE-10
C.u-67
IE-+-0D
1 7E-09
5E-I
1.2E-09
74E-10
4 IE-10
_3E-10
1 gE-10
Zn-65
IE+0 Y
33E-08
5E-I
2.0E-0g
14E-08
_2E-09
5 9E-09
53E-09
Zn-69
IE+0 Y
1 5E-10
5E-I
7.6E-I 1
4 7E-Il
2.5E-11
14E-II
I IE-I1
Zn-69m
IE+0 Y
2 0E-09
5E-I
1.6E-09
9 gE-10
5 4E-10
3 0E-10
2 4E-10
0a-66
IE-2 W
6.3E-O9
IE-3
3.3E-09
2 IE-09
1_2E-09
6 5E-10
5.2E-10
Ga-66
IE-2 D
52E--09
IE-3
2 7E-09
1 7E-O9
9 6E-10
5 4E-10
4.3E-10
Ga-67
IE-2 W
1.9E-09
IE-3
10E-09
6 4E-10
3 6E-10
2 1E-10
1 7E-10
Ga-67
IE-2 D
9 9E-10
1E-3
5 4E-10
3 4E-10
2 0E-10
1.2E-10
_4E-11
G'a-68
IE-2 W
4.0E-10
1E-3
2 1E-10
1.3E-10
7.0E-! 1
3 9E-11
3.1E-II
C_ra-6g
IE-2 D
4.gE-10
IE-3
2 5E-10
1 5E-10
8 6E-I l
4 gE-I I
3.gE-11
Ga-72
IE-2 W
5 8E-09
IE-3
3 1E-09
2 0E-09
I IE-09
6 6E-10
5.3E-10
Ga-72
IE-2 D
43E-09
IE-3
2.3E-09
1.5E-09
8 5E-10
5 0E-10
4 0E-10
Ge-68
IE+0 W
1 5E-07
IE+O
9 1E-O8
5 6E-08
3.lE-08
1 7E-Og
1 4E-Og
G-e-68
1E+0 D
5 4E-09
IE+0
2 gE-09
I 8E-09
9.8E-I0
5.5E-10
4 4E-10
G-e-71
IE+0 W
4.3E-10
IE+0
2.3E-10
14E-10
?.6E-1 !
4.2E-! 1
3.3E-! 1
Ge-71
IE+O D
5 gE-I l
IE+0
3 0E-I 1
I.gE-I l
9 9E-12
54E-12
4.2E-12
Ge-?7
1E+0 W
3.7E-09
IE+0
1.9E-09
1.2E-09
6.6E-10
3.6E-! 0
2 9E-10
Ge-77
IE+0 D
23E-09
IE+0
i.2E-09
7 6E-10
4.2E-10
2.4E-10
19E-10
As-73
IE+0 W
1.0E-Og
5E-I
6 6E-09
4 IE-09
2.2E-09
1.2E-09
9 6E-10
As-74
IE+0 W
2.2E-0g
5E-I
1 4E-08
9 0E-09
5 0E-09
2.gE-09
23E-09
As-76
IE+0 W
9 7E-09
5E-I
7 gE-09
4 gE.09
2 6E-09
!.4E-09
1 IE-09
A5-77
IE+0 W
2.gE-09
5E-I
23E-09
1.4E-09
7 6E-10
4.1E-10
3.2E-10
Se-75
gE-I W
1.2E-0g
gE-I
g 4E-09
5.8E-09
3 6E-09
23E-09
2 0E-09
S¢-75
gE-I D
g.gE.-09
gE-I
6.3E-09
4 4E-09
2 gE-09
l.gE-09
1 6E-09
Se-79
gE-I W
2 IE-08
gE-I
1 4E-08
g 7E-09
4 7E-09
2.6E-09
2.1E-09
S¢-79
gE-I D
I 1E-Og
gE-I
7.5E-09
4 6E-O9
2.5E-09
1 4E-09
1.1E-09
Bt-77
i E+0 D
4 0E-10
IE+0
2.4E-10
1 7E-10
I IE-10
6 gE-I l
5 7E-I l
Bt-77
IE+0 W
5 SE-10
1E+0
33E-10
22E-I0
1 4E-I0
g 7E-il
7.2E.! 1
Bt-g2
IE+0 D
2 4E-09
IE+O
1 4E-09
9.9E-I0
62E-10
4 0E-10
33E-10
Bt-82
IE+O W
3.3E-09
1E+0
1.9E-09
1.3E-09
7 9E-10
4 9E-10
4 1E-10
126
.
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
_g 1
f_
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Bt-84
IE+OD
3 9E-10
IE+0
2.0E-10
1.2E-10
6.9E-11
3 gE-Il
3 0E-II
Br-84
1E+0 W
3 0E-10
lea0
1.6E-! 0
9.7E-11
5.3E-I 1
2 9E-II
2.3E-11
Rb-81
lea0
D
4.2E-10
IE+0
22E-10
1 4E-I0
7.9E-11
4.5E-11
3 7E-! 1
Rb-g6
1E+0 D
2.2E-OS
IE+0
1.2E-08
7.3E-09
4 0E-09
2.2E-09
!.7E-09
Rb-g7
IE+0 D
9.5E-09
lea0
5 8E-09
3 5E-09
1.9E-09
I 0E-09
g 4E-10
Rb-gg
lea0
D
3.6E-10
lea0
1.gE-10
I.IE-10
6 IE-I1
3.3E-I1
2 6E-11
Rb-g9
lea0
D
1 6E-10
IE+0
8.5E-!1
53E-11
2 9E-Il
1 6E-II
1.3E-I 1
Sr-g2
2E-2 Y
2.2E-07
IE-2
1.2E-07
7.5E.Og
4.1E-0g
25E-08
I gE-08
Sr42
6E-1 D
4 lEOS
3E-1
2 4E-08
1 5E-08
g 4E-09
4 7E-O9
3 7E-09
Sr-g5
2E-2 Y
g 7E-09
IE-2
6 0E-09
4 0E-09
2.5E-09
1.6E-09
1.3E-09
Sr-g5
6E-I D
2.9E-09
3E-i
19E-09
14E-09
g.gE-10
5.?E-10
4.9E-10
Sr-g5M
2E-2 Y
1 gE-11
IE-2
1.1E-I 1
7 IE-12
43E-12
2 7E-12
22E-I2
Sr-gSM
6E-! D
I 7E-11
3E-I
1.0E-!I
6.7E-12
4 IE-12
2 6E-12
2.2E-12
Sr-g7M
2E-2 Y
12E-10
1E-2
6.3E-11
4.0E-11
23E-II
13E-II
I IE-11
Sr-gTM
6E-I D
I.IE-10
3E-1
64E-11
4.1E-II
24E-11
1 4E-II
1.1E-11
Sr-89
2E-2 Y
1.4E-07
IE-2
g 1E-0g
5 0E-OS
2 7E-OS
I.SE-0g
1.2E-08
Sr-89
6E-1 D
2 1E-OS
3E-I
12E-0g
7 6E-09
4.1E-09
2.2E-09
1 8E-09
St-90
2E-2 Y
1.9E-06
IE-2
i 6E-06
9.9E-07
5.7E-O7
3 ?E-07
3.5E-07
St-90
6E-I D
2.3E-O7
3E-1
!.8E-07
I 1E-07
6.gE-O8
4.gE-08
4.6E-08
St-91
2E-2 Y
5.gE-09
IE-2
3 IE-09
1.9E-09
I.IE-09
5.9E-10
4.7E-10
St-91
6E-1 D
2 9E-09
3E-I
1.7E-09
1.1E-09
6 0E-10
3 4E-10
2.7E-10
Sr-92
2E-2 Y
2 8E-09
IE-2
14E-09
g 9E-10
4.9E-10
2 7E-10
2 IE-10
Sr-92
6E-1 D
2 0E-09
3E-I
I.IE-09
7.0E-10
3.9E-I0
2 IE-10
1.7E-10
Y-g7
IE-3 Y
5.1E-09
IE..4
2.gE-09
I gE-09
I.IE-09
64E-10
5.2E-10
Y-g7
IE-3 W
4.gE-09
IE-4
2.6E-09
1 7E-09
1.0E-09
6 0E-10
4 9E-10
Y-90
IE-3 Y
3 gE-O8
1E-4
2.0E-Og
i.2E-08
6.6E.-09
3 6E-09
2.8E-09
Y-90
IE-3 W
3.SE-0g
IE-4
1.8E-0g
1.1E-0g
6.0E-09
3.3E-09
2.6E-09
Y-91
IE-3 Y
1.5E-07
IE4
9.5E-08
5 gE-0g
3.2E-Og
1.7E-0g
1.4E-Og
Y-91
IE-3 W
I.IE-O?
IE4
6 4E-0g
3 9E-0g
2.1E-Og
12E-Og
9.2E-09
Y-91m
IE-3 Y
i. IE-10
IE4
6.6E-11
4.1E-I 1
2__E-I I
13E-11
1.0E-11
Y-91m
IE-3 W
83E-11
IE4
4 7E-II
3 0E-II
1.6E-11
9.2E-12
7 4E-12
Y-92
IE-3 Y
2.gE-09
IE-4
1.4E-09
8 gE-10
4 gE-10
2.6E-10
2.1E-10
Y-92
IE-3 W
2 6E-09
IE4
13E-09
g 1E-10
44E-10
2.4E-10
1 9E-10
Y-93
IE-3 Y
g 5E-09
IE-4
43E-09
2 7E-O9
1.4E-09
7.9E-10
6.2E-I0
a
127
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuclide
fl
-: I
fm
1-2
2-?
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
Y-93
IE-3 W
7 TE-09
IE.4
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
1.3E-09
7.1E-10
5 6E-10
Y-94
IE-3 Y
2 6E-10
IE-4
I__E-10
S.2E-11
4 SE.11
24E-11
I.gE-I l
Y-94
IE-3 W
2 4E-10
IE-4
1.2E-10
7 7E-I 1
4.2E-11
2.3E-I 1
1.8E-I !
Zr-93
2E-2 Y
5 4E-08
2E-3
4 6E-Og
3.2E-08
2 IE-08
!.6E-08
!.5E-08
Zr-93
2E-2 W
3 0E-08
2E-3
2.5E-08
I 8E-08
14E-08
12E-08
I.IE-0g
Zr-93
2E-2 D
93E-08
2E-3
8 5E-08
6.5E-08
5 IE-08
4 $E-0g
43E-OS
Zr-95
2E-2 Y
53E-08
2E-3
3 5E-08
2.2E-08
13E-08
7.6E-09
63E-09
Zr-95
2E-2 W
3 6E-08
2E-3
2.2E-08
14E-08
82E-09
4 8E-09
3 9E-09
Zr-95
2E-2 D
3.2E-08
2E-3
22E-08
!.4E-08
8 4E-09
5 0E-09
4.2E-09
Zr-97
2E-2 Y
1 7E-08
2E-3
8 7E-09
5.4E-09
3 0E-09
i 6E-09
13E-09
Zr-97
2E-2 W
1.5E-08
2E-3
7.8E-09
4.9E-09
2 7E-09
i 5E-O9
!2E-09
7_a97
2E-2 D
10E-08
2E-3
53E-09
33E-09
1 8E-09
10E-09
8 IE-10
Nb-91
2E-2 Y
2 0E-08
IE-2
1.7E-08
I.IE-08
6.5E-09
44E-09
4 IE-09
Nb-91
2E-2 W
3.7E-09
IE-2
2 4E-09
!.5E-09
8 0E-10
43E-10
3 6E-10
Nb-91M
2E-2 Y
2 5E-08
1E-2
1.6E-08
9.6E-09
5.2E-09
2 8E-09
23E-O9
Nb-91M
2E-2 W
I 8E-08
1E-2
1 0E-08
6 4E-09
3 5E-09
1 9E-09
1 5E-09
Nb-92M
2E-2 Y
4 0E-09
1E-2
2.5E-09
1.7E-09
1 1E-09
7 0E-10
5 9E-10
Nb-92M
2E-2 W
3 8E-09
IE-2
23E-09
1.6E-09
1.0E-09
6 TE-10
5 6E-10
Nb-93m
2E-2 Y
4 6E-0g
IE-2
3.9E-08
2 4E-0g
13E-0g
8 5E-09
7 9E-O9
Nb-93m
2E-2 W
8 8E-09
IE-2
5 6E-09
3.4E-09
1 9E-09
I 0E-09
8.3E-10
Nb-94
2E-2 Y
4 4E-07
1E-2
3.8E-07
2.5E-07
1.6E-07
1.2E-07
I I E-O7
Nb-94
2E-2 W
7.2E-O8
IE-2
4 8E-08
3 IE-O8
I 8E-08
1 IE-08
9.3E-09
Nb-95
2E-2 Y
1.3E-Og
IE-2
8 IE-09
5.3E-09
3.2E-09
19E-09
1 6E-09
Nb-95
2E-2 W
I IE-08
IE-2
6 5E-09
43E-09
2 6E-09
1.6E-09
1.3E-09
Nb-97
2E-2 Y
2 9E-10
1E-2
I.SE-I 0
93E-11
5 IE-11
2 gE-I 1
23E-! 1
Nb-97
2E-2 W
2 7E-10
IE-2
14E-10
8.6E-11
4 gE-11
26E-11
2 IE-II
Nb-98
2E-2 Y
4 IE-10
IE-2
2.1E-10
1.3E-10
7.3E-I 1
4 IE-II
33E-I1
Nb-98
2E-2 W
3.8E-10
IE-2
2 0E-10
1.2E-10
68E-11
3 8E-Il
3 1E-11
Mo-90
IE-I Y
3..5E-09
5E-2
1.9E-09
1.2E-09
7.2E-10
4.3E-10
3 5E-10
Mo-90
8E-I D
1.7E-09
8E-I
9.6E-10
6.2E-I0
3 7E-10
2.2E-10
1 8E-10
Mo-93
IE-I Y
3.0E-08
5E-2
2 6E-08
I 7E-0g
I IE-08
83E-09
7 6E-09
Mo-93
8E-I D
2 0E-09
gE-I
1.3E-09
7 9E-10
4.3E-10
2-_E-10
1 9E-10
Mo-99
IE-I Y
1 7E-08
5E-2
8 9E-09
5.5E-09
3 0E-09
1 6E-09
13E-09
Mo-99
SE-1 D
6 1E-09
SE-1
3.2E-09
2 0E-O9
I IE-09
6 0E-I 0
4.8E-10
128
_,
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRIc/r-D DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
._ 1
fa
1-2
2-7
%12
12-I?
> 17
(Adul0
Mo.-! 01
IE-! Y
1.3E-10
5E-2
6 TE-I 1
4.2E-1 !
23E-1 ]
1.3E-I i
1 0E-i 1
Mo-101
gE-I D
l 6E-10
8E-I
g.3E-ll
5.2E-I I
2.9E-11
1 6E-II
1.3E-I1
Tc-95m
8E-I W
7.7E-09
gE-1
4 9E-09
3.3E-09
2.0E-09
1.3E..09
I.IE-09
Tc-95m
gE-I D
2.5E..09
8E-I
1.5E-09
1 0E-09
6 IE-10
3 gE-10
3.1E-10
Tc-96
gE-1 W
4 4E-09
gE-1
2.gE-09
1 9E-09
1.3E-09
8.2E-10
6 9E-10
Tc-96
gE-1 D
3.2E-09
gE-I
2.l E-09
1.4E-09
93E-10
6 0E-10
5.0E-10
Tc-96m
gE-I W
5.0E-I!
gE-I
30E-II
2.1E-II
1.3E-Il
g IE-12
6 gE-12
Tc-96m
gE-! D
4.9E-11
gE-1
29E-11
1 9E-Il
1.2E-II
7.0E-12
6 0E-12
Tc,-97
gE-I W
3.1E-09
SE-1
19E-09
1.2E-09
64E-10
3.5E-10
2.gE-10
Tc-97
gE-1 D
6 9E-10
gE-I
3.gE-10
2.3E-I0
L2E-10
6 4E-1 !
5 0E-I 1
Tc-97m
gE-1 W
1.7E-08
gE-!
1.0E-0g
6.2E-09
3.4E-09
I.gE-09
1.5E-09
Tc-97m
gE-I D
53E-09
gE-I
2.gE-09
I.?E.O9
9.0E-10
4.gE-10
3 gE-10
Tc-99
gE-I W
2.?E-Og
gE-I
1.7E..08
10E,..0S
5 6E-09
3 0E..09
2 4E.-09
Tc-99
gE-1 D
63E-09
gE-1
3 4E-09
2 0E-09
I 1E-09
5 gE-10
4.5E-10
Tc-99M
8E-I W
90E-11
gE-t
5 IE-ll
3.2E-11
1 gE-Il
1 0E-Il
g.2E-12
Tc-99M
gE-1 D
1..3E-10
gE-1
7.3E-11
4.$E-11
2 SE-11
14E-II
1.1E-11
Tc-101
gE-1 W
5.5E-11
gE-1
2 gE-11
1 7E-I 1
9.EE-12
5.2E-12
4 1E-12
Tc-101
gE-! D
8.2E-11
gE-I
4.9E-11
2.9E-I 1
1.6E-I I
g.3E-12
6 1E-12
Tc-104
gE-I W
24E-10
gE-i
1.3E-10
7 ?E-11
4.2E-11
2.3E-! 1
1 gE-Il
Tc-104
gE-1 D
3.5E-10
gE-1
2.3E-10
14E-10
7.3E-11
3 9E-I 1
2.gE-I 1
Ru-97
1E-I Y
1.2E-09
5E-2
6.?E-I 0
44E-I0
2.6E-I 0
1.6E-10
13E-10
Ru-97
1E-I W
I.IE-09
5E-2
6.2E-10
4 IE-10
2 4E-10
!.SE-10
1.2E-10
Ru-97
IE-1 D
6.2E-10
5E-2
3 6E-10
2.4E-10
ISE-10
9 1E-I I
7.5E-11
Ru-103
IE-1 Y
2.6E-08
5E-2
l.$E-0g
9.gE-09
5.5E-09
3.1E-09
2.YE-09
Ru-103
IE-I W
1.9E-Og
5E-2
I.IE-0g
7.1E-09
4 0E-09
23E-09
19E-09
Ru-103
IE-1 D
7 4E-09
$E-2
4 4E-09
2.9E-09
I ?E-09
1 0E-09
g.SE-10
Ru-105
IE-1 Y
1.6E-09
5E-2
g4E-10
5.?.E-10
29E-10
1 6E-10
liE-10
Ru-105
IE-I W
1.5E..09
5E-2
?.TE-10
4.gE-10
2 6E-10
1 SE-10
1.2E-10
Ru-105
IE-I D
1.2E-09
5E-2
6.3E-I0
4 0E-10
2.2E-10
1.2E-10
9 9E-I 1
Ru.106
1E-1 Y
!.lE-06
5E-2
g.2E-07
S 0E-07
2 TE-07
1 5E-07
1.3E-07
Ru-106
IE-1 W
3 ?E-0?
5E-2
2.2E-07
1 4E-07
7.SE-0g
4 IE-Og
3.3E-0g
Ru-106
IE-I D
1.4E-07
5E-2
9.gE-0g
6 IE-0g
3$E-Og
1 gE-0g
I 6E-0g
Rh-103m
IE-I Y
I.gE-I 1
$E-2
9.0E-12
5 6E-12
3 0E-12
1 6E-12
1.3E-12
Rh-103m
IE-I W
I 6E-II
$E-2
g.3E-12
5 IE-12
2 gE-12
1 5E-12
1.2E-12
a
129
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
._ I
fl
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Rh-10Bm
IE-I D
20E-Il
5E-2
1 0E-Il
62E-12
3 4E-12
1 8E-12
1 4E-12
Rh-105
IE-I Y
4.0E-09
5E-2
2 1E-09
1.3E-09
7.2E-10
3.9E-10
3 1E-10
Rh.105
1E-I W
3 6E-09
5E-2
1.9E-09
1.2E-09
6 SE-10
3 6E-10
2.8E-10
Rh-105
IE-1 D
I 9E-09
5E-2
!.0E-09
6.3E-10
3 415-10
1 9E-10
1.5E-10
Rh-107
IE-1 Y
7.8E-1 !
5E-2
4 0E-! I
2 5E-Il
4E-I!
7 4E-12
5 9E-12
Rh-107
IE-I W
7 4E-I I
5E-2
3 8E-I 1
2.3E-11
1.3E-I 1
7.0E-12
5 5E-12
Rh-107
IE-I D
96E-11
5E-2
4 9E-11
3 0E-II
1?E-Il
9.2E-I2
7.3E-12
Pal-103
5E-2 Y
5 9E-09
5E-3
3.2E-09
2 0E-09
I IE-09
5 9E-10
4 7E-I 0
Pd-103
5E-2 W
5 IE-09
5E-3
2.8E-09
1.7E-09
92E-10
5 0E-10
4 0E-10
Pd-103
5E-2 D
2.2E-09
5E-3
1.2E-09
72E-10
3.9E-10
2 IE-10
1 7E-10
Pd-107
5E-2 Y
l.TE-0g
5E-3
14E..08
9.2E-O9
5 5E.-09
3 7E-09
3 5E-09
Pd-107
5E-2 W
2 5E-09
5E-3
1 5E-09
9.3E-10
5.1E-10
2 7E-10
2.2E-10
Pd-107
5E-2 D
6 0E-10
5E-3
3.2E-10
2.0E-10
1 IE-10
S 8E-II
46E-11
Pd-09
5E-2 Y
4 4E-09
5E-3
2.3E-09
1 4E-09
7 ?E-10
4.2E-10
3.3E-I0
Pd-109
5E-2 W
4 0E-09
5E-3
2.1E-09
1.3E-O9
6 9E-I 0
3.8E-10
3.0E-10
Pd-109
5E-2 D
2 8E-09
5E-3
1 5E-09
9 0E-10
4 9E-10
2 TE-10
2 IE-10
Ag-105
IE-1 Y
9 5E-09
5E-2
5 9E-09
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
I 5E-09
12E-09
Ag-105
1E-I W
7 9E-09
5E-2
4 7E-09
3.2E-09
1 9E-09
1.2E-09
1.0E-09
Ag-105
1£-1 D
6 9E-09
5E-2
4 4E-09
3 0E-09
1.9E-09
1.2E-09
1 0E-09
Ag-10gM
IE-I Y
2 ?E-0?
5E-2
23E-07
1.6E-07
I 0E-07
7 6E-0g
?.IE-O8
Ag-10gm
IE-I W
4.5E-08
5E-2
3 0E-08
2.0E-08
1.2E-08
7 7E-09
6 5E-09
Ag-10gm
IE-! D
3 8E-08
5E-2
2.6E-08
1.8E-08
1.2E-08
7.5E-09
64E-09
Ag-ll0m
IE-I Y
1.2E-07
5E-2
9.1E-08
6 IE-08
3.8E-O8
2.4E-08
2 1E-08
Ag-I lorn
IE-I W
5.4E-0g
5E-2
3.5E-O8
2 4E-08
1 5E-08
9 4E-09
g.3E-09
Ag-I lorn
1E-1 D
4 9E-08
5E-2
3 4E-08
2 4E-08
1.5E-O8
9 9E-09
8 5E-09
Ag-I 1!
IE-I Y
2 6E-og
5E-2
1 4E-08
8__E-09
4 5E-09
2.5E-09
1 9E-09
Ag-I 11
IE-1 W
2 4E-08
5E-2
i 3E-0g
7.8E-O9
4.2E-09
2.3E-09
1.8E-O9
Ag-Ill
IE-I D
1.2E-08
5E-2
6 4E-09
3 9E-O9
2.2E-09
1.2E-09
9.3E-! 0
Cd-I09
IE-I Y
9.1E-08
5E-2
67E-08
4 IE-08
2.2E-08
1.2E-08
I IE-O8
Cd-109
IE-1 W
5 9E-08
5E-2
3.9E-08
2 4E-08
1_3E-08
? 4E-09
6 5E-09
Cd-109
1E-I D
1.2E-07
5E-2
93E-08
5.7E-08
3.1E-08
!.8E-08
I 6E-08
Cd-113m
IE-I Y
4 1E-07
5E-2
3 IE-07
2 0E-07
1.2E-07
83E-08
7 9E-08
Cd-113m
IE-I W
2 9E-07
5E-2
2.2E-07
14E-07
9.1E-08
7 IE-O8
6 8E-0S
Cd-113m
IE-I D
73E-07
5E-2
6 4E-07
4.2E-07
2 7E-07
2.2E-07
2 1E-07
130
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
_; I
fi
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Cd-ll5
IE-I Y
1 7E-Og
5E-2
9.2E-09
5.7E-09
3 IE-09
1.7E-09
1 4E-09
Cd-Il5
IE-I W
1 6E-0g
5E-2
g 4E-09
5.2E-O9
2 9E-09
1 6E-09
1.2E-09
Cd-115
IE-I D
1 0E-Og
5E-2
5 4E-09
3 4E-09
1.9E-09
I 0E-09
8.2E-I0
Cd-I 1Sm
IE-I Y
14E-O7
5E-2
8 0E-08
4 9E-08
2.7E-08
1 4E-08
1.2E-08
Cd-115m
IE-I W
1.2E-07
5E-2
6 5E-08
4 0E-08
2.2E-08
1.2E-08
9.5E-09
Cd-I 1Sm
IE-1 D
1.2E-07
5E-2
7.3E-0g
4.SE-0g
2 4E-0g
1.3E-0S
l.IE-Og
In-Il01
4E-2 W
3 9E-10
2E-2
2.4E-10
1.7E-10
I.IE-10
7.5E-II
6.3E-11
In.l!01
4E-2 D
4 7E-10
2E-2
2.9E-I0
2 IE-10
1 4E-10
9 0E-11
7.715-11
in-110s
4E-2 W
3.6E-10
2E-2
!.gE-10
1.2E-10
6 5E-11
3 7E-11
2.9E-11
In-ll0s
4E-2 D
4.4E-10
2E-2
2.3E-10
1 5E-I0
g.2E-11
4 6E-Il
3.7E-11
ln-I 11
4E-2 W
2__E-O9
2E-2
1.3E-09
8.3E-10
4 9E-10
2 9E-10
2.4E-I 0
In-111
4E-2 D
1.7E-09
2E-2
9.7E-10
64E-10
3 gE-10
23E-I0
I.gE-10
In-ll3m
4E-2 W
I IE-10
2E-2
S gE-11
3.6E-11
2 0E-11
I IE-II
9.0E-12
ln-113m
4E-2 D
1.3E-10
2E-2
6 gE-11
4.3E-11
2.4E-11
1.3E-I 1
1.115-11
In-114M
4E-2 W
1 8E-07
2E-2
10E-07
6.2E-0g
3 4E-08
l.gE-O8
I.SE-Og
In-114M
4E-2 D
2.1E-07
2E-2
I3E-07
7 8E-08
4.2E-08
2.3E-0g
I.gE-og
In-115M
4E-2 W
43E-10
2E-2
2.2E-I0
14E-10
7 6E-11
4.2E-11
3.3E-i I
In-11SM
4E-2 D
4.4E-10
2E-2
2 3E-10
1.4E-! 0
7 gE-11
4.3E-11
3 4E-I 1
Sn-113
4E-2 W
3.2E-0g
2E-2
1.gE-0g
1.2E..0g
6 7E-09
3 7E-09
B.0E-09
Sn-113
4E-2 D
g 9E-09
2E-2
5 7E-09
3 6E-09
2.1E-09
1.2E-09
1.0E-09
Sn-119M
4E-2 W
2.0E-0g
ZE-2
1.2E-Og
7.4E-09
4 0E-09
2.2E-09
l.gE-09
Sn-119M
4E-2 D
5.5E-09
2E-2
3.7E-09
2.2E-09
1.2E-09
6 7E-10
5.6E-I0
Sn-121m
4E-2 W
3.3E-0g
2E-2
2.1E-Og
1.3E-0g
7.1E-09
3 9E-09
32E-09
Sn-121m
4E-2 D
].2E..0g
2E-2
9 OEO:)
$.6E-09
3.0E-09
l 7E-09
1.5E-.09
Sn-123
4E-2 W
I.IE-07
2E-2
64E-0g
3.9E-Og
2 IE-O8
1.2E-O8
9.3E-09
Sn-123
4E-2 D
2.SE-0g
2E-2
l.SE-0g
9.2E-09
5 0E-09
2 7E-09
2.2E-09
Sn-125
4E-2 W
6.3E-08
2E-2
33E-Og
2.0E-0g
I IE-0g
6 IE-09
4.gE-09
Sn-125
4E-2 D
2.2E-0g
2E-2
1.2E-0g
7.2E-09
3.9E-09
2.2E-09
! 7E-O9
Sn-126
4E-2 W
2.5E-07
2E-2
1.6E-07
1.0E-07
5 7E-0g
3.3E-0g
2 7E-0g
Sn-126
4E-2 D
1.2E-07
2E-2
9 5E-Og
6.2E-0g
3 7E-0g
2.3E-0g
2 IE-0g
Sb-IZ2
2E-2 W
2.2E-Og
IE-2
l.!E-0g
?.0E-09
3 gE-09
2 1E-09
1 7E-09
Sb-122
2E-I D
9 0E..O9
IE-I
4 9E.-09
3.0E-09
I 7E-09
9.2E-10
7.3E-I0
Sb-124
2E-2 W
7.SE-Og
1E-2
4 4E-0g
2.gE..0g
1 6E-0g
g 9E-09
7.2E-O9
Sb-124
2E-1 D
!.SE-0g
1E-I
g.SE.-09
5.5E-09
3.2E-09
1 9E-09
1.5E-O9
131
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuclide
fa
< I
fl
! -9
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Sb-125
2E-2 W
33E-.0g
IE-2
2.1E-08
1.3E-0g
73E-09
4 IE-09
3 4E-09
Sb-125
2E-I D
5 IE-O9
IE-I
3.1E-09
20E-O9
1 IE-09
67E-10
5 5E-10
Sb-127
2E-2 W
2 4E-0g
IE-2
!.3E-0g
8 0E-O9
4 4E-09
2 4E-09
1 9E-09
Sb-127
2E-I D
8 9E-09
IE-I
4 9E-09
3 0E-09
1.7E-09
9 SE-10
7 6E-10
Sb-12gl
2E-2 W
3.2E-09
IE-2
I 7E-09
I 1E-09
6.5E-10
3 gE-10
3 IE-10
Sb-12gl
2E-1 D
2 6E-09
1E-I
1 4E-09
9 4E-10
LSE-10
33E-10
2 7E-10
Sb-129
2E-2 W
2 IE-09
1E-2
I.IE-09
6.9E-I0
3 gE-10
2 IE-10
1 7E-10
Sb-129
2E-I D
19E-09
IE-I
1 0E-09
63E-10
3 5E-10
2 0E-10
1 6E-10
Sb-130
2E-2 W
2 SE-10
IE-2
1.3E-10
g.3E-11
4 7E-11
2 7E-11
2.2E-11
Sb-130
2E-1 D
3.3E-10
IE-1
1.7E-10
I IE-10
6.3E-I 1
3 6E-11
2 9E-11
Sb-131
2E-2W
6 6E-lO
115-2
3 4E-10
2 IE-10
I.IE-10
5 gE-Il
45E-11
Sb-131
2E-I D
7 1E-10
IE-I
3 7E-10
2.3E-10
i..2E-I 0
64E-11
5 0E-11
T¢-119m
4E-I W
4 6E-09
2E-I
2 9E-09
1.9E.-09
1.2E-09
7 5E-10
6.3E-I0
Te-llgm
4E-1 D
24E-09
2E-I
1 5E-09
I.IE-O9
66E-10
4.2E-10
3.5E-10
T¢-123m
4E-1 W
2 gE-08
2E-1
1 6E-08
9 9E-09
5.5E..09
3.0E-09
2 5E-09
T¢-I23M
4E-1 D
1 6E-OS
2E-I
1.0E-0g
6 5E..09
3 6E-09
2.0E-09
l 7E-09
Te-125M
4E-I W
2.2E-08
2E-I
12E-Og
7 7E-09
4.2E-09
23E-09
I 8E-09
Te-125M
4E-I D
1 0E.-O8
2E-I
6.3E-09
3 gE-09
2 1E-09
1 IE..09
9.2E-10
Te-127
4E-I W
1.2E-09
2E-1
63E-I0
3 9E-10
2.1E-10
I IE-10
9.1E-II
Te-127
4E-I D
9.0E-10
2E-1
5.0E-10
3 IE-10
I 7E-10
90E-11
7.1E-11
T¢-I27M
4E-I W
6 7E..08
2E-I
3.9E..0g
2 4E-Og
13E.-0R
7.1E-09
5 7E-09
Te-127M
4E-I D
2 8E-0g
2E-I
I gE-0g
I IE-0g
6 0E-09
33E-09
2 TE-09
Te-129
4E-I W
2 9E-10
2E-I
1.5E-10
9 0E-ll
4 9E-Ii
2 7E-I l
2 lE-ll
Te-129
4E-1 D
3.4E-10
2E-I
1 7E-10
l.IE-10
5 gE-il
3 IE-11
2.5E-11
T¢-129m
4E-I W
g3E-08
2E-I
4 7E-Og
2.9E-0g
1.6E-08
8 6E-09
6.8E-09
Te-129m
4E-1 D
2 gE-0B
2E-1
1 6E-0B
9 gE-09
53E-09
2.9E-09
23E-09
Te-131
4E-1 W
6 IE-10
2E-1
3 IE-10
1 915-10
I IE-10
5..2E-11
40E-II
Te-131
4E-I D
6.5E-10
2E-1
3.3E-10
2 0E-10
I.IE-10
5 6E-Il
43E-I I
T¢-131m
4E-1 W
3 4E-0R
2E-I
I.gE-0g
I 1E-Og
6.1E-09
3 IE-09
2 4E-09
T¢-131m
4E-I D
2.8E-0g
2E-1
1.5E-08
9.1E-09
5.0E-09
2 5E-09
1 9E-09
Te-132
4E-I W
53E-08
2E-I
3 3E-08
!.9E-Og
9.2E-09
4 6E-09
3 5E-09
Te-132
4E-1 D
4 6E-08
2E-I
2 9E-Og
1.6E-Og
8 1E-09
4 0E-09
3 0E-09
Te-133
4E-I W
5.2E-I 0
2E-I
3.2E-10
I.gE-10
9.0E-I I
44E-11
3.3E-11
T¢-133
4E-I D
5 4E-10
2E-I
3.3E-10
1 9E-10
94E-I 1
4 6E-I 1
3 5E-I 1
132
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
< 1
fl
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
Te-133m
4E-I W
23E-09
2E-!
1.4E-09
g.2E-10
4.1E-10
2 0E-10
1.5E-10
Te-133m
4E-1 D
24E-09
2E-1
!.$E-09
8 5E-10
4.2E-10
2.1E-10
1 6E-10
Te-134
4E-1 W
3.3E-I0
2E-I
2.0E-I 0
1.3E-10
7 0E-11
3 9E-I i
2 gE-] 1
Te-134
4E-I D
4 0E-10
2E-I
3 IE-10
!.9E-10
1 0E-10
5 7E-11
3.6E-! 1
1-123
1E+0 D
1 7E-09
IE+0
I IE-09
6.2E-10
3.0E-10
I.SE-10
I.IE-10
1-125
IE+0 D
4 9E-08
IE+0
4 IE-08
3.1E-08
2 4E-08
1.2E-08
9 6E-09
1-126
IE+0 D
1.7E-07
IE+0
!.3E-07
8.3E-Og
4.8E-0g
2.4E-Og
I 8E-08
1-129
1E+O D
1.5E-07
IE+0
1.4E-07
1.2E-07
1.3E-07
7.2E-08
6 7E-08
1-130
IE-+-0D
1 4E-08
IE+0
9 4E-09
5.4E-09
2.7E-09
1.3E-09
1 0E-09
1-131
IE+O D
1 5E-07
IE+0
I IE-07
6.7E-08
3.7E-08
I.gE-08
1.3E-08
1-132
1E+0 D
I.gE-09
IE+0
I.IE-09
6 5E-10
3.3E-10
! 7E-10
13E-10
1-133
IE+O D
3 6E-08
IE+0
2 4E-08
1.3E-OR
6.5E-09
3.1E-09
2.3E-09
1-134
IE+0 D
5 4E-10
IE+0
3 1E-10
1.9E-10
I 0E-10
5.4E-!1
43E-11
1-135
IE+0 D
6.gE-09
IE+0
4 4E-09
2.5E-09
1.2E-09
6 1E-10
4 6E-10
Cs-129
IE+0 D
3 6E-10
IE+0
2 0E-10
1.4E-10
g.3E-I 1
5.1E-II
4.2E-! 1
Cs-131
IE+0 D
4 4E-10
1E+0
2.2E-10
1.SE-10
g 6E-II
5 4E-I 1
4 4E-II
Cs-132
IE+0 D
I gE-09
1E+0
1.0E-09
7.8E-I0
5.3E-I0
3.715-10
33E-10
Cs-134
IE+0 D
1.6E-08
IE+0
8 5E-09
8 7E-09
9.2E-09
1.2E-0g
1.2E-08
Cs-134M
IE+0 D
I.SE-10
IE+0
7.6E-11
4.7E-11
2.6E-11
1.5E-I 1
1.3E-1 !
Cs-135
IE+0 D
2.gE-09
IE+0
1.3E-09
1.2E-09
I.IE-09
1.2E-09
1.2E-09
Cs-136
IE+0 D
9 4E-09
1E+0
53E-09
4.1E-09
2.9E-09
2.2E-09
1.9E-09
Cs-137
1E+OD
1 4E--0g
IE+0
6.gE-09
6 6E-09
6 6E-09
g.2E-09
g. SE-09
Cs-13g
IE+O D
3.9E-10
IE+0
2 0E-10
13E-10
7.1E-11
3.9E-11
3.1E-I 1
Ba-131
2E-1 D
1 7E-09
IE-I
9.7E-10
63E-10
3.7E-10
2.2E-10
I.gE-10
Ba-133
2E-1 D
g 0E-09
IE-1
6.3E-09
43E-09
2 7E-09
1.9E-09
1 8E-09
Ba-I33m
2E-1 D
2 5E-09
1E-1
1 4E-09
&SE-10
4.6E-10
2 5E-10
2 0E-10
Ba-139
2E-1 D
6 SE-10
IE-1
33E-10
2.0E-! 0
I.IE-10
6 0E-11
4.7E-11
Ba-140
2E-I D
13E-08
IE-]
7.lEO:)
4 5E-O9
2.5E-09
1 4E-09
I.IE-09
Ba-141
2E-I D
3.0E.10
IE-I
1.6E-10
9.6E-11
5.3E-I !
2 9E-11
23E-11
La-140
1E-2 W
1.7E-0g
IE-3
9 0E-09
5 7E-09
3.2E-09
l.gE-09
1.5E-09
La--140
IE-2 D
1.0E-og
1E-3
5.6E-09
3.6E-09
2 IE-09
1.2E-09
9 ?E-10
La-141
1E-2 W
2 0E-09
1E-3
10E-09
64E-10
3.5E-10
I.gE-10
I.SE-10
La-t41
IE-2 D
2.0E-09
IE-3
!.0E-09
6 4E-10
3.5E-10
1.gE-! 0
1.5E-! 0
La-142
IE-2 W
6 6E-10
IE-3
3 4E-10
22E-10
12E-10
6 8E-I 1
5.5E-11
133
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nuehde
fl
<: I
fl
1-2
2-7
'7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
La-142
IE-2 D
7 gE-10
IE-3
4 IE-10
2 6E-10
I 5E-I 0
g3E-I l
6 7E-! l
La-143
IE-2 W
23E-10
IE-3
1.2E-10
74E-11
4 0E-11
22E-11
1 7E-Il
La-143
IE-2 D
2.3E-I0
IE-3
1.2E-10
7 4E-11
4 0E-il
22E-I 1
1 7E-Il
Ge-139
3E-3 Y
2.1E-0g
3E-4
14E-0g
9.0E-09
5 IE-09
2 9E-09
2 4E-09
Ce-139
3E-3 W
1 4E-0g
3E-4
9 5E-09
6.0E-09
3 5E-09
2 0E-09
1 7E-09
Cc-141
3E-3 Y
3 lE-0g
3E-4
1 gE-0g
I IE0g
6 0E-09
33E-09
2 6E-09
Cc-141
3E-3 W
2.7E-0g
3E-4
1.5E-0g
9.2E-09
5 0E-09
2 8E-09
2.2E-09
Cc-143
3E-3 Y
1 4E-05
3E-4
7.4E-09
4 5E-09
2.5E-09
1 4E-09
1.1E-09
Cc-143
3E-3 W
1.3E-0g
3E-4
6 ?E-09
4 IE-09
2.3E-09
1.2E-09
99E-10
Ce-144
3E-3 Y
g TE-07
3E-4
6.5E-07
4 0E-07
2.2E-07
12E-07
I 0E-07
O:-144
3E-3 W
4.gE-07
3E-4
3.2E-07
2.0E-07
1 IE-07
5 9E-Og
4 9E-Og
Pr-142
3E-3 W
l.lE-Og
3E-4
5.7E-09
3 5E-09
19E-09
1 0E-09
g.?E-10
Pr-143
3E-3 Y
3.3E-08
3E-4
1 7E-Og
l.!E-Og
5.gE-09
3.2E-09
2.5E-09
Pr-143
3E-3 W
3 0E-08
3E-4
1.6E-0g
9 7E-09
5.3E-09
2 9E-09
2.3E-09
Pr-144
3E-3 Y
1 6E-10
3E-4
g.4E-11
5.2E-11
2 gE-Il
1 5E-Il
l/E-Il
Pr-144
3E-3 W
16E-10
3E-4
79E-11
49E-11
26E-11
1 4E-II
I 1E-11
Pr-145
3E-3 Y
2 5E-09
3E-4
1.3E-09
7 gE-10
4.3E-10
2.3E-10
1 gE-10
Pr-145
3E-3 W
2.3E*09
3E-4
1.2E-09
72E-I0
3 9E-10
2 IE-10
1 7E-10
Nd-140
3E-3 Y
2 7E-0g
3E-4
1 4E-0g
8.4E.09
4 6E-09
2 5E-09
2 0E-09
Nd-140
3E-3 W
2 5E-Og
3E-4
1.3E-0g
7.gE-09
43E-09
23E-09
I.gE-09
Nd-147
3E-3 Y
2 6E-0g
3E-4
1 4E-Og
g 7E-09
4.gE-09
2 6E-09
2.1E-09
Nd-147
3E-3 W
24E-0g
3E-4
1.3E-Og
? 9E-09
4.3E-09
2 4E-09
1 9E-09
Nd-149
3E-3 Y
g 9E-10
3E-4
4 6E-10
2 gE-10
I.SE-I 0
84E-I 1
6 6E-I 1
Nd-149
3E-3 W
g.2E-10
3E-4
4.2E-10
2.6E-10
1 4E-10
'77E-I 1
6 IE-11
Pm-147
3E-3 Y
7.2E-0g
3E-4
5 gE-0g
3 6E-08
1 9E-0g
I 1E0S
I 0E-Og
Pm-14'7
3E-3 W
3.6E-Og
3E-4
2 6E-08
1 6E-0g
g 9E-09
53E-09
4 7E-09
Pm-14g
3E-3 Y
4.6E-Og
3E-4
24E-08
l.SE-0g
g IE-09
4 5E-O9
3.5E-09
Pm-14g
3E-3 W
4.3E-0g
3E-4
2.2E-0g
! 4E-0g
7 6E-09
4.2E-09
3.3E-09
Pm-14gm
3E-3 Y
5.SE-0g
3E-4
3 4E-Og
2.2E-0g
i.3E-Og
'7.6E-09
6.3E-O9
Pm-14gm
3E-3 W
4 TE-0g
3E-4
2 gE-Og
I.gE-Og
I IE-Og
6 4E-09
5.3E-09
Pm-149
3E-3 Y
1.3E-0g
3E-4
6.gE-09
42E-09
2.3E-09
12E-09
9 gE-10
Pm-149
3E-3 W
1.2E-OS
3E-4
63E-09
3.9E-09
2 IE-09
I IE-09
9 0E-10
Pm-151
3E-3 Y
7.1E-09
3E-4
3 7E-09
2.3E-09
13E-09
7.0E-10
5 5E-10
Pm-151
3E-3 W
6.5E-09
3E-4
3 4E-09
2.1E-09
I.IE-09
64E-I0
5 0E-10
134
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
=; !
fl
1-2
2.?
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Sm-146
3E-3 W
5 0E-05
3E-4
4.2E-05
2 gE-0S
1 gE-0S
1 4E-05
1.3E-05
Sm-147
3E-3 W
4 6E-05
3E-4
3 8E-0S
2 fiE-0S
1 6E-05
1.3E-OS
1.2E-0S
Sm-lSl
3E~3 W
2 0E-08
3E-4
1 7E-08
I IE-0g
6 9E-09
S.2E-09
5 0E-09
Sm-153
3E-3 W
8 fiE-09
3E-4
4 4E-09
2 7E-09
l.fiE-09
8 0E-I 0
63E-10
Eu.152
IE-2 W
1.8E-07
IE-3
14E-07
9 8E-0g
6 4E-08
4 9E-0g
4 7E-08
Eu-lS2m
IE-2 W
3 IE-09
IE-3
l 6E-09
9 gE-10
53E-10
2 9E-10
2.3E-10
Eu-154
1E-2 W
2 7E-07
IE-3
2.1E-07
1 4E-07
8 7E-0g
6.2E-Og
$ 9E..08
Eu-lS5
IE-2 W
4 6E-08
IE-3
3..SE-0g
2.2E-0g
1.3E-0g
g.2E-09
7 6E-09
Gd-148
3E-3 W
5 6E-05
3E.-4
4 6E-05
3 0E-05
!.9E-05
1 SE-05
! 4E-05
Gd-14g
3E-3 D
1.7E-04
3E-4
1 fiE-04
9 9E-OS
6.fiE-05
5.2E-05
5 0E-05
Gd-153
3E-3 W
1 gE-08
3E-4
1.2E-O8
7 7E..09
4.3E-09
2.fiE-09
2 IE..09
Gd-153
3E-3 D
2 9E-0g
3E-4
2.2E-08
14E-08
8 IE-09
4 7E-09
4 1E-09
Gd-lS9
3E-3 W
4 1E-09
3E.4
2 1E-09
13E..09
?.0E-10
3 gE-10
3 0E-10
Gd-159
3E-3 D
2.7E-09
3E-4
14E..09
8 fiE-10
4 6E-10
2.fiE-10
2.0E-10
TI>-160
3E-3 W
6.3E-08
3E-4
3.8E-08
2 4E-08
! 4E-08
7.8E-09
6 4E-09
Dy-165
3E-3 W
4 9E-I 0
3E-.4
2 fiE-10
1 fiE-10
8 4E-I 1
4 6E-I 1
3.6E-I 1
Dy-166
3E-3 W
33E-0g
3E-4
1 7E-08
1 0E-08
5.7E-09
3 1E-09
2 4E-09
Ho-166
3E-3 W
1.3E-08
3E..4
6 8E-09
4.2E-09
23E-09
1.2E-09
9.8E-I0
Ho.-166M
3E-3 W
3.7E-07
3E-4
3.2E-07
2.3E-07
I TE-07
14E-07
1 4E-07
Er-169
3E-3 W
8.2E-09
3E-.4
43E-O9
2 6E-09
IAE-09
7 gE-10
6.1E-10
Er-171
3E-3 W
2 0E-09
3E-4
1 0E-09
64E-10
3.fiE-10
1 9E-10
I fiE-10
Tm-170
3E-3 W
g. IE-0g
3E-4
4 9E-0g
3 0E-0g
1.6E-08
g 9E-09
7.2E-O9
Tm-171
3E-3 W
13E-08
3E..4
9.3E-09
5.7E-09
3.1E-09
1 8E-09
1 6E-09
Yb-169
3E-3 Y
2 5E-08
3E-4
14E-Og
9.0E-09
S 0E-09
2 gE-09
2.3E-09
Yb-169
3E-3 W
2 IE-0g
3E-4
1.2E-0g
73E-09
4 IE-09
23E-09
19E-09
Yb-175
3E-3 Y
7.1E-09
3E-4
3.7E-O9
23E-09
1..2E.-09
6.7E-10
SJE-I0
Yb-175
3E-3 W
6 6E-09
3E..4
3 4E.-09
2 1E-09
I 1E-09
6.2E-10
49E-10
Lu-174
3E-3 Y
6.2E-08
3E-.4
S IE-Og
3.2E-0g
1 8E-08
I IE-08
I 0E-08
Lu-174
3E-3 W
2.gE-0g
3E.4
2 IE-08
13E..0g
7.6E-09
4 8E-09
4.3E-09
Lu-177
3E-3 Y
1.0E-08
3E4
5 fiE-09
3.4E-09
1 gE-09
1.0E-09
7 9E-10
Lu-177
3EO W
9.8E-09
3E..4
S 1E-09
3.1E-09
1 7E-09
94E-10
7.4E-10
Hr-175
2E-2 W
1.2E-08
2E-3
7.fiE-09
4.8E-09
2 gE-09
1 7E-09
1 4E-09
Hf-175
2E-2 D
g 9E-09
2E-3
5 9E-09
3 9E-09
23E-09
14E-09
1.2E-09
H.f-181
2E-2 W
3 7E-0g
2E-3
2.1E-0g
1.3E-Og
7.fiE-lY)
4.2E-09
3 4E-09
ii
'
135
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuehde
fi
-c I
fl
1-2
2-7
'7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Hf-181
2E-2 D
2 6E-0g
2E-3
1 6E-08
i 0E-08
5.6E-09
3.2E-09
).6E-09
Ta-l?9
IE-2 Y
1.1E-0g
IE-3
8 9E-09
5 6E-09
3.2E-09
1.9E-09
1 7E-09
Tn-l?9
IE-2 W
3 0E-09
1E-3
1 9E-09
1.2E-09
? IE-10
4 IE-10
3 4E-10
Ta-lg2
1E-2 Y
10E-07
IE-3
7,0E,-0g
4 4E-0g
2 5E..0g
1 5E-0g
1.2E-08
Ta-lg2
1E-2 W
5.6E-0g
IE-3
3 4E-0R
2.2E-0g
1.2E-0g
7.2E-09
5.9E-09
W-Igl
6E-I D
26E-10
3E-1
1 gE-10
I IE-10
67E-11
40E-II
3.3E-I1
W-lg5
6E-I D
I 8E-09
3E-1
1.2E-09
?.3E-10
4 0E-10
2.2E-10
1 ?E-10
W-18?
6E-I D
2 IE-09
3E-I
13E-09
g 4E-10
4 6E-10
2 6E-10
2 1E-10
R¢-lg3
gE-1 W
2 1E-0g
gE-1
1.2E-0g
?.5E--09
4 IE-09
23E-09
I gE-09
Re-lg3
gE-I D
6 5E-09
gE-1
3.6E-09
2.2E-09
1.2E-09
6 4E-10
5 IE-10
Re-186
gE-i W
I 5E-08
gE-I
g IE-09
4 9E-09
2 6E-09
1 4E-09
1 IE-O9
Re-lg6
gE-I D
1.2E-0g
gE-I
6 5E-09
3 9E-09
2 0E-09
I IE-09
g.3E-10
Re-lg7
gE-I W
1 gE-10
gE-I
I.IE-10
6 7E-11
3.6E-11
20E-Il
I 6E-II
Re-I g7
8E-I D
4 IE-11
gE-1
2.2E-I 1
1.3E-I 1
? IE-12
3 gE-12
3 0E-12
Re-lgg
gE-I W
9 gE-09
gE-I
5.3E-O9
3.2E-09
! ?E-09
g 9E-10
6 9E-10
Re-I g8
gE-1 D
1 1E-Og
gE-1
6 3E-09
3 ?E-09
19E--09
1 0E-09
g.0E-10
O$-185
2E-2 Y
1 6E-0g
IE-2
1.2E..0g
7 9E-09
4 9E-09
3 IE,.09
2 6E-09
Os-IS5
2E-2 W
I.IE-0g
IE-2
?.3E..09
5 0E..09
3 1E-09
2 0E-09
1 7E-09
Os-lg5
2E-2 D
1.2E-0g
IE-2
g 4E-09
5.9E-09
3 gE-09
2 5E-09
2.2E-09
Os-191
2E-2 Y
1 6E-08
IE-2
g 5E-09
5.2E-09
2.9E-O9
I 6E-09
1.3E-09
Os-191
2E-2 W
1 4E-0g
IE-2
7 4E-09
4 6E-09
2.5E-09
1 4E-09
I.IE-09
Os-191
2E-2 D
6 0E-09
IE-2
3.3E-09
2 0E-09
1.1E-09
6.3E-! 0
5 0E-10
Os-19lM
2E-2 Y
1.2E-09
IE-2
6.2E-10
3 gE-10
2 1E-10
I IE-10
9 0E-Il
Os-191M
2E-2 W
1.0E-09
IE-2
5.5E-10
3 4E-10
1 gE-10
1 0E-10
g 0E-11
Os-191M
2E-2 D
5.9E-10
IE-2
3 IE-10
I.gE-10
1.0E-10
5 7E-11
4 6E-11
Os-193
2E-2 Y
g ?E-09
IE-2
4 5E-09
2 gE-09
1.5E-09
g.2E. 10
6 SE-10
Os-193
2E-2 W
7 9E-09
IE-2
4 IE-09
2 5E-09
1 4E-09
7 4E-10
5 9E-10
Os-193
2E-2 D
4 4E-09
1E-2
2__E-09
1 4E-O9
? 6E-10
4 IE-10
3.3E-10
ir-190
2E-2 Y
1 gE..0g
IE-2
!.0E-08
6.6E-09
3.9E-09
2.3E-O9
1.9E-09
Ir-190
2E-2 W
1.6E-0g
IE-2
9.3E-09
6 IE-09
3 6E-09
2.2E..09
1.8E--09
Ir-190
2E-2 D
9.7E-09
IE-2
5 8E-09
3 9E-09
2 4E-09
1 5E-09
13E--09
Ir-! 92
2E-2 Y
? 4E-0g
IE-2
4 ?E-0g
3 0E-08
1 7E-0g
9 5E-09
7 gE-09
Ir-192
2E-2 W
4 gE-0g
IE-2
2 9E-0g
1.gE-og
1 0E-0g
5 9E-09
4 8E..09
!r-192
2E-2 D
3 0E-0g
1E-2
!.9E-0g
1.3E-0g
7.5E-09
4 5E-09
3 7E-09
136
ATrACHMENT
TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
< I
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
lr-193m
2E-2 Y
7 0E-09
IE-2
3 7E-09
23E-09
1.2E-O9
6 7E*10
5.3E-10
Ir-193m
2E-2 W
63E..09
IE-2
33E-09
2 0E-09
I 1E.-09
6 0E-10
4 7E-10
Ir-193m
2E-2 D
2 6E-09
IE-2
1 4E-O9
8 SE-10
4 6E-10
2.5E-10
2 0E-10
Ir-194
2E-2 Y
1.2E-0g
IE-2
63E-09
3 9E.-09
2 IE-09
1.2E-09
9 1E-10
Ir-194
2E-2 W
I IE-08
IE-2
5 7E-09
3 5E-09
1.9E-09
1 0E-09
8.2E-10
Ir-194
2E-2 D
7 0E-09
IE-2
3 6E-09
22E..09
1.2E--09
6.5E-10
5.2E-10
Pt-190
2E-2 D
2 5E-06
IE-2
1.5E-06
9.3E.-07
5.1E--07
2 8E-07
23E-07
Pt-191
2E-2 D
1.6E-09
IE-2
8.5E-10
5.5E-10
3.2E-10
1 9E-10
1 $E-I0
Pt-193m
2E-2 D
2 9E-09
IE-2
1.5E-09
94E-10
5.1E-10
2 gE-10
2.2E-I0
Pt-195m
2E-2 D
3.9E-09
IE-2
2 0E-09
13E-09
7.0E-10
3.8E-I0
3 0E-10
Pt-197
2E-2 D
2 IE-09
IE-2
I.IE-09
6 6E-10
3.6E-10
1 9E-10
I.SE-10
Pt-197m
2E-2 D
4 4E-10
IE-2
2.2E-10
14E-10
7.5E-11
4 1E-Il
33E-11
Au-193
2E-1 Y
94E-I0
IE-!
$-2E-10
33E-10
!.8E-10
1 0E-10
84E-!1
Au-193
2E-l W
g o'E-10
IE-i
4.7E-10
3 0E-10
1.7E-10
9 4E-11
7.6E-11
Au-193
2E-1 D
5 gE-10
IE-I
3.2E-I0
2.0E-I 0
!.IE-10
6 SE-11
5.3E-i 1
Au-194
2E-I Y
2.2E-09
IE-I
1.3E-09
9 0E-10
5.5E-10
3 4E-10
2.9E-10
Au-194
2E-I W
2 IE..09
1E-I
1.2E-09
8.3E-I0
5.1E-10
3.2E-10
2.6E-10
Au-194
ZE-1 D
13E..09
1E-I
?.6E-10
5.2E-10
33E-10
2 1E-10
1.7E-10
Au-195
2E-I Y
3 0E-08
IE-1
2.2E-08
13E..08
7 4E-09
4 IE-09
3.5E-09
Au-195
2E-I W
1.2E-08
IE-1
7.5E-09
4 7E-09
2 6E-09
1.4E-09
!_2E-09
Au-195
2E-I D
1 4E-09
IE-I
?.9E-10
5 0E-10
2.8E-10
1 6E-10
13E-10
Au-196
2E-I Y
3 IE-09
IE-I
1.9E-09
1.2E4)9
73E-10
44E-10
3 7E-10
Au-196
2E-I W
2.9E-09
IE-I
1.7E-09
1.1E-09
6.7E-10
4 IE-10
3 4E-10
Au-196
2E-I D
1.2E-09
1E-I
73E-10
4 9E-10
3.0E-10
1.gE-10
1.6E-10
Au-198
2E-I Y
13E-08
1E-I
7.0E-09
43E..09
2.4E-09
1.3E-09
I IE-09
Au-198
2E-I W
1.2E-08
1E-I
6.4E-09
4.0E-09
2.2E-09
1.2E-09
9.6E-10
Au-198
2E-1 D
5.2E-09
1E-I
2.9E-09
1.8E-09
1.0E-09
5 6'E-10
4 4E-10
Au-199
2E-I Y
6 1E-09
IE-I
33E-09
2 0E-09
I IE-09
6.2E-10
4 9E-10
Au-199
2E-I W
5 5E-09
IE-I
3.0E-09
1 9E-09
l OE-09
5.6E-10
4 5E-10
Au-199
2E-I D
2 4E-09
IE-I
13E-09
7 9E-10
4 4E-10
2.4E-10
1.9E.10
Hg-194
IE+0 D
8.4E-08
IE+O
7.3E-08
5 6E-08
4.3E-08
3 6E-08
3 4E-05
H_-194
7E-I V
8.9E-08
7E-1
7.8E-08
6 1E-08
4 8E-08
4 IE-0$
3 9E-08
H]-194
4E-2 W
3.8E-08
2E-2
2.8E..08
2.0E-08
1 4E..08
I IE..08
1.0E-08
Hi-194
4E-2 D
6.1E-08
2E-2
5.3E-08
4 1E-08
33E-08
2 8E-08
2 6E-08
n_
·
I37
A'I'rACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchd¢
fz
-:: I
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adul0
Hg-197m
1E+0 D
!.5E-09
IE+0
8.0E-10
4.9E-I0
2 7E-10
I SE-10
1.2E-10
l-h-197m
7E-I V
4.0E-09
7E-I
2.1E-09
13E-09
7 IE-10
3.9E-10
3 IE-10
I-h-197m
4E-2 W
4 5E-09
2E-2
2.3E-09
I 4E-09
7 9E-10
4 4E-10
3.5E-10
I-_-197m
4E-2 D
2 6E-09
2E-2
1.3E-09
g.2E-10
4 SE-10
2.5E-10
2 0E-10
Hg-203
IE+O D
1.1E-0g
IE4.0
65E-09
4.2E-09
2 4E-09
14E-09
1.2E-09
HI-203
7E-I V
1 4E-0g
7E-!
? 9E-09
5 0E-09
2.9E-09
1 7E-09
14E-09
I-h-203
4E-2 W
1 gE-OS
2E-2
1.0E-08
6.3E-09
3.5E-09
2 0E-09
1 6E-09
Hi-203
4E-2 D
g 7E-09
2E-2
5 IE-09
3.3E-09
1.9E-09
I.IE-09
9 0E-I 0
11-200
1E+0 D
B3E-10
IE+0
5 0E-10
3 SE-10
22E-10
1.4E-10
1.2E-10
11-201
IE+0 D
6 IE-10
IE+O
33E-10
2.1E-10
1.2E-10
7.1E-! l
5 gE-Il
11-202
IE+0 D
1.7E-09
IE+0
1.0E-09
7.1E-10
4 5E-10
2 9E-10
2.5E-I0
11-204
1E40 D
7.4E-09
IE+O
4 0E-09
2 4E-09
13E-09
7.2E-10
5 7E-10
Pb-201
4E-I D
5 7E-10
2E-I
3 4E-10
2.2E-10
1.3E-10
7 9E-11
6 5E-I i
Pb-202
4E-1 D
4 7E-08
2E-I
4 IE-08
3.3E-08
2.7E-08
23E-0g
22E-08
Pb-205
4E-I D
2.6E-09
2E-I
2 IE-09
1 5E-09
i 1E-09
8.8E-I0
8.2E-10
Pb-210
4E-1 D
7.5E-06
2E-I
63E-06
4.2E-06
2.gE-06
23E-06
22E-06
Pb-212
4E-1 D
5.2E-07
2E-!
2 6E-07
1.6E-07
g 6E-08
4 7E-0g
3.7E-08
Bi-206
1E-1 D
6 IE-09
5E-2
3 6E-09
2.5E-09
1 5E..09
9 5E-10
g 0E-10
Bi-206
IE-1 W
1.5E-Og
5E-2
g 6E-09
5.8E-09
3.5E-09
2.2E-09
I.gE-09
Bi-207
1E-1 D
5 5E-09
5E-2
3.2E-09
2.1E-09
13E-09
7 7E-10
64E-10
Bi-207
1E-I W
4 4E-Og
$E-2
2.9E-08
1 9E-08
I IE-Og
6 6E-09
$.5E-09
Bi-208
IE-I D
3 4E-09
5E-2
2.2E-09
I 5E-09
I 0E-09
6 6E-10
5 6E-10
B_-208
IE-1 W
2.2E-Og
5E-2
1.6E-08
I IE-O8
72E-09
4 7E-09
4 0E-09
Bi-210
1E-I D
2 9E-0g
5E-2
!.5E-08
94E-09
5 IE-09
2.8E4)9
2.2E-09
Bi-210
IE-I W
5.gE-07
5E-2
3 5E-07
2.2E-07
1.2E-07
64E-Og
5 IE-08
B_-210M
IE-1 D
1 6E-06
5E-2
g3E-07
5 1E-07
2 gE-07
1 5E-07
1.2E-07
B_-210M
IE-I W
2.2E-05
5E-2
14E-05
g3E-06
4 5E.-06
2.5E-O6
2.0E-06
Bt-212
IE-! D
6.6E-08
5E-2
3 4E-0g
2 1E-0g
I lE-0g
6 IE-09
4.gE-09
B_-212
IE-I W
6 6E-08
5E-2
3 4E-0g
2.1E-08
1 IE-08
6 1E-09
4 gE-09
Po-206
2E-I W
5 IE-06
IE-1
2.6E-06
1 6E-06
g 6E-07
4 7E.07
3 715-07
Po-206
2E-1 D
3 IE-06
IE-1
1.6E-06
9 9E-07
5 4E-07
2 9E-07
23E-07
Po-208
2E-1 W
2 7E-05
1E-I
i 6E-05
9 9E-06
5 4E-06
2.9E-06
2 4E-06
Po-20g
2E-1 D
1.5E-05
IE-1
g 9E-06
5 4E-06
3 0E-06
1.6E-06
13E-06
Po-209
2E-1 W
2 6E-05
1E-1
1 6E-05
9 9E-06
5 4E-06
2 9E-06
2 4E-06
138
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/27'15, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
·
Nuehde
fl
_ 1
f_
1-2
2-7
7-12
12--17
> 17
(Adult)
Po-209
2E-I D
1.5E-05
IE-I
8.8E-O6
54E-O6
2.9E-06
1 6E-06
1.3E-06
Po-210
2E-I W
2.2E-05
IE-I
i.3E-05
8 0E-06
4 4E-06
2 4E-06
1.9E-06
Po-210
2E-I D
1.2E-05
IE-I
7.2E-06
4 4E-06
2 4E-06
1.3E-06
1.0E-06
At-211
IE+0 D
3.0E-07
IE+0
1.5E-07
9 4E-0g
5.1E-08
2 8E-08
2.2E-0g
At-21 ]
IE+0 W
3.TE-07
IE+0
1.9E-07
1.2E-07
63E-08
3 4E-08
2 TE-08
Ra-223
4E-I W
2.7E-05
2E-1
14E-05
g TE-06
4 8E-06
2 6E-06
2 0E-06
Ra-224
4E-1 W
I.IE-05
2E-I
5 7E-06
3.5E-06
1 9E-06
1.0E-06
8.2E-07
Ra-225
4E-I W
2 5E-05
2E-I
14E-05
g 6E-06
4 7E-06
2 5E-06
2.0E-O6
Ra-226
4E-1 W
2.2E-05
2E-1
14E-05
8 5E-06
4 7E-06
2 6E-06
2.1E-06
Ra-228
4E-1 W
9.6E-06
2E-]
6.$E-06
4.2E-06
2.3E-06
13E-06
! IE-06
Ac-225
IE-2 Y
2 8E-05
IE-3
1.5E-05
9.2E-06
5.0E-06
2.?E-06
2.1E-06
Ac-225
IE-2 W
2.8E-05
IE-3
1.5E-05
9 IE-O6
4.9E-06
2.7E-06
2 IE-06
Ac-225
1E-2 D
2 4E-05
IE-3
1.3E-05
7 8E-06
4.3E-06
23E-06
I 8E-06
Ac-227
IE-2 Y
1.2E--03
IE-3
1 0E-03
6 5E-04
4 IE-04
2.9E-04
2 8E-04
Ac-227
1E-2 W
8 0E-04
IE-3
6.9E-04
4 $E-04
3.5E-04
2 9E-04
2 8E-04
Ac-227
IE-2 D
2 8E-03
IE-3
2.5E-03
I 8E-03
1.3E-03
I.IE-03
1 1E-03
Ac-228
1E-2 Y
23E-07
IE-3
1.9E-07
1.1E-07
6.2E-0g
3.6E-0g
3.2E-08
Ac-228
1E-2 W
1.2E-07
IE-3
9.2E-08
5.6E.08
3 IE-0g
1.8E-Og
1.6E-08
Ac-22g
IE-2 D
3.1E-07
IE-3
2.6E-07
1.6E-07
$ gE-O8
53E-Og
5 0E-08
Th-227
2E-3 Y
5.0E-05
2E-4
2.9E-05
1.8E-05
9 8E-06
5.3E-06
4.3E-06
Th-22?
2E-3 W
4.2E-05
2E-4
2.4E-05
1.5E-05
8.1E-O6
4 4E-06
3.5E-06
Th-22g
2E-3 Y
6.2E-04
ZE..4
5.0E-04
3.1E-04
1 7E-04
9 6E-05
8 6E-05
Th-228
2E-3 W
3.0E-04
2E-4
2.3E-04
1.4E-04
7.7E-05
4.5E-05
4 0E-05
Th-229
2E-3 Y
13E-03
2E-4
1.2E-03
7.7E-04
5 0E-04
3 7E-04
3.5E-O4
Th-229
2E-3 W
8 0E-04
2E-4
7.1E-04
5.0E-04
3 7'E-O4
3 1E-O4
2.9E-04
Th-230
2E-3 Y
2 0E-04
2E-4
1.7E-04
1.2E-04
7.4E-05
5.5E-05
5.1E-05
Th-230
2E-3 W
1.2E-04
2E-4
1.1E-O4
7.6E-05
5.5E-05
4.6E-05
4.3E-05
Th-231
2E-3 Y
3.5E-09
2E-4
1.8E-09
I.IE-09
6 IE-10
3 4E-10
2 7E-10
Th-231
2E-3 W
3.2E-09
2E-4
1.7E-09
1 0E-09
5 6E-10
3.1E-10
2 SE-10
Th-232
2E-3 Y
4 9E-04
2E-.4
4 4E-04
3.3E..04
2 6E-04
23E-04
2.1E-04
Th-232
2E-3 W
4.0E-04
2E-4
3 7E-04
3.0E-04
2 5E-04
2.3E-04
2.2E-04
Th-234
2E-3 Y
1.3E-07
2E-4
72E..0g
4 4E-0g
2 4E-0g
!.3E-08
1.0E-0g
Th-234
2E-3 W
I.IE-07
ZE-4
6.1E-08
3.TE-0g
2.0E-Og
I IE-0g
8 7E-09
Pa-230
IE-2 Y
4.3E-06
IE-3
2 6E-06
1 6E-06
8 gE-07
4 8E-07
3.9E-07
139
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuchde
fl
_; I
fl
1-2
2-7
'7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Pa-230
IE-2 W
3 0E-06
IE-3
I gE-06
1 IE-06
6 OEO7
3 3E-07
2 6E-07
Pa-231
IE-2 Y
4 4E-04
1E-3
3 9E-04
2 9E-04
2.2E-04
1 8E-04
1 6E-O4
Pa-231
IE-2 W
3.5E-04
1E-3
3.2E-04
2 7E-04
2.2E-04
1 9E-04
1 7E-04
Pa-232
1E-2 Y
4 8E-08
IE-3
4 IE-Og
2 gE-08
1 9E-08
1 5E-08
14E-Og
Pa-2.32
IE-2 W
3 IE-08
1E-3
2 6E-Og
2 0E-Og
1 6E-08
13E-08
1.3E-O8
Pa-233
IE-2 Y
33E-08
1E-3
I 8E-0g
1 IE-Og
63E-09
3 5E-09
2 8E-09
Pa-233
IE-2 W
2 7E-Og
1E-3
1 5E-0g
_4E-09
5 IE-09
2 8E-O9
23E-09
13-230
IE-I D
1 7E-05
5E-2
8 7E-06
5 4E-06
2 9E-06
I 6E-06
13E-06
U-230
IE-I W
52E-05
5E-2
2 8E-05
1 7E-05
9 4E-06
5 IE-06
4 IE-O6
U-230
2E-2 Y
63E-05
2E-3
3 6E-05
22E-05
12E-05
6.5E-06
5.2E-06
U-232
IE-I D
6 0E-06
5E-2
4 7E-06
3 1E-06
2 1E-06
1.7E-O6
16E-06
U-232
IE-I W
3.2E-05
5E-2
2.1E-05
13E-05
73E..06
4 IE-O6
3 4E-06
U-232
2E-2 Y
6 8E-04
2E-3
6.1E-04
4.0E-04
2.5E-04
I 8E-04
1.7E-04
U-233
IE-1 D
2 4E-06
5E-2
1.5E-06
9.8E-07
5 9E-07
4 0E-07
3 7E-07
U-233
1E-] W
2 IE-05
5E-2
13E-05
82E-06
4 5E-06
2 5E-O6
2 0E-06
U-233
2E-2 Y
I 7E-04
2E-3
1.5E-O4
9.5E-05
5 7E-05
3 9E-05
3 6E-05
U-234
IE-I D
23E-06
5E-2
t.5E-06
9 6E-07
5 gE-07
4 0E-07
3 6E-07
U-234
IE-! W
2 IE-O5
5E-2
1.3E-05
g.2E-06
4 4E-06
2 4E-06
2 0E-06
U-234
2E-2 Y
1.7E-04
2E-3
1.5E-04
93E-05
5.6E-05
3 8E-05
3 5E-O5
U-235
IE-1 D
2.2E-O6
5E-2
i 4E-06
8.9E-07
5 4E-07
3 7E-07
3 4E-O7
U-235
1E-I W
1.9E-05
5E-2
1.2E-05
7.5E-06
4.1E-06
23E-06
1.8E-06
U-235
2E-2 Y
1.6E-04
2E-3
1.3E-04
R.6E-05
5.2E-05
3 5E-05
33E-05
U-236
1E-1 D
2.2E-06
5E-2
1 4E-06
9 1E-07
5.5E-07
3 gE-07
3 4E-07
U-236
IE-I W
2 0E-05
5E-2
13E-05
7 7E-06
4.2E-O6
23E-06
1 9E-06
U-236
2E-2 Y
1 6E-04
2E-3
1 4E-04
g gE-05
5.3E-05
3 6E-05
3.3E-05
U-238
1E-I D
2 IE-06
5E-2
13E-06
8 6E-07
5.2E-07
3 6E-07
3.3E-07
U-238
IE-I W
1 9E-05
5E-2
12E-05
72E-06
3 9E-06
2.2E-06
1 8E-06
U-238
2E-2 Y
I..5E-04
2E-3
1.3E-04
83E-05
5 0E-05
3 4E-05
3 1E-05
Np-233
1E-2 W
5.9E-12
IE-3
3.1E-12
2.0E-12
1.2E-12
6 7E-13
5 5E-13
Np-233
5E-3 W
5 9E-12
5E-4
3 IE-12
2 0E-12
1.2E-12
6 7E-13
5.5E-13
Np-234
]E-2 W
6 4E-09
IE-3
3.7E-09
2 4E-09
1 5E-09
90E-10
7 4E-10
Np-234
5E-3 W
6 4E-09
5E-4
3 7E-09
2 4E-09
1 5E-09
9 0E-I 0
7 4E-I 0
N1>-235
IE-2 W
7 0E-09
IE-3
4.9E-09
3 0E-09
1 6E-09
9.1E-10
7 gE-10
Np-235
5E-3 W
6 9E-09
5E-4
4 9E-09
3 0E-09
1.6E-09
9 IE-10
7 gE-10
140
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Nuclide
fl
_ I
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
I2-17
> 17
(Adul0
Np-2361
IE-2 W
2 8E-05
IE-3
2 6E..05
2.2E-05
19E-05
1 7E-05
1 5E.-05
Np-2361
5E-3 W
2 8E-05
5E-.4
2 6E-05
2.2E-05
1 9E-05
1 7E-05
1.5E-05
Np-236s
IE-2 W
4 8E-08
IE-3
3 8E-08
2.6E-08
1 7E-08
13E-08
1.2E-O8
Np-.?.36s
5E-3 W
4 7E-08
5E-4
3.8E-0g
2.6E-0g
1 7E-08
13E-0g
1.2E-08
Np-237
IE-2 W
2.0E-04
IE-3
1.7E-04
13E-04
9 8E-05
8 4E-05
7.8E-05
Np-237
5E-3 W
1 9E-04
5E-4
!.7E-04
13E-04
9 8E-05
8.3E-05
7.7E-05
Np-238
IE-2 W
23E-0g
IE-3
!.6E-O8
I IE-08
7 9E-09
63E-09
5 7E-09
Np-23g
5E-3 W
2.2E-Og
5E-4
1 6E-08
I IE-08
7 9E-09
6.2E-09
5 7E-09
Np-239
IE-2 W
9.6E-09
IE-3
5 0E-09
3 IE-09
17E-O9
9.5E-10
7.5E-10
Np-239
5E-3 W
9 6E-09
5E4
5 0E-09
3 1E-09
1.7E-09
9 5E-10
7.5E-10
Np-240
1E-2 W
29E-I0
IE-3
1 SE-10
9 6E-11
5 4E-I!
3 1E-Il
2.5E-11
Np-240
5E-3 W
2 9E-10
5E-4
1.5E-10
9 6E-11
5 4E-I 1
3.1E-I !
2 5E-Il
Pu-236
1E-,4Y
1 5E-O4
IE-5
13E-04
8.2E-05
4 gE-O5
3.2E-05
2 9E-05
Pu-236
IE-3 W
9.3E-05
IE..4
7 7E-O5
5.1E-05
3 4E-05
2.5E-05
2 4E-05
Pu-236
IE-2 W
9.6E-.05
IE-3
7 7E-05
5 IE-(}5
3 4E-05
2.5E-05
2 4E-05
Pu-238
IE-4 Y
23E-04
IE-5
2 0E-04
13E-04
8 7E-05
6 5E-05
6 1E-05
Pu-238
IE-3 W
1 7E-O4
IE-4
1.5E-04
I 11:-04
7 8E-05
66E-05
6.2E-05
Pu-238
1E-2 W
1 7E-04
IE-3
1.5E-04
1 IE-04
7.8E-05
6 6E-05
6.2E-O5
Pu-239
IE-4 Y
2 3E-04
IE-5
2 0E-04
1 4E-04
9.1E-05
6 9E-05
64E-05
Pu-239
1E-3 W
1 8E-04
IE-4
1 6E-O4
1 1E-04
8 6E-05
73E-O5
6 8E-05
Pu-239
IE-2 W
1 8E-O4
IE-3
1 6E-04
1.1E-04
8 6E-05
73E-05
6 8E-05
Pu-240
IE-4 Y
23E-O4
IE-5
2 0E-04
1 4E-04
9 IE-05
6.9E-05
6 4E-05
Pu-240
IE-3 W
1 8E-04
IE-4
1 6E-04
I 1£-04
8 6E-05
73E-05
6.gE-05
Pu-240
IE~2 W
I 8E-04
1E-3
i.6E-O4
I IE..O4
8 6E-05
73E-05
6 8E-05
Pu-241
IE-.4 Y
1 9E-06
IE-5
1 8E-O6
! 4E-06
12E-06
1 0E-06
93E-07
Pu-241
IE-3 W
2.2E-.06
IE..4
2 IE-06
1 8E-06
!.5E-06
14E-06
1.3E-06
Pu-241
IE-2 W
23E-06
1E-3
2 IE-06
1.8E-06
1.6E-06
1.4E-06
13E-O6
Pu-242
IE..4 Y
2.2E-04
IE-5
19E-04
13E-04
8 6E-05
6.5E-05
6 1E-05
Pu-242
1E-3 W
1 YE.O4
IE-4
1 5E..04
I.IE-04
$.2E-05
6.9E-05
6.5E-05
Pu.242
IE-2 W
1 7E-O4
IE-3
1.5E-04
I.IE-04
8.2E-05
7.0E-05
6 5E.-05
Pu-243
1E_4 Y
53E-10
IE-5
2.8E-10
1.7E-10
9 4E-11
53E-11
4.2E-1 !
Pu-243
1E-3 W
4.gE-10
IE-4
2.5E-10
1 6E-10
87E-11
4 9E-11
4 0E.I 1
Pu-243
1E-2 W
4.gE-lO
IE-3
2 5E-10
1 6E-10
8 7E-Il
4 9E-11
4 0E-Il
Pu-244
IE4
2.2E-04
1E-5
1 9E-04
1.3E-04
8 6E-05
6 5E-05
6 0E-05
.w,
'
Y
141
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Nachde
fl
< I
fl
1-2
2-7
%12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Pu-244
IE-3 W
1 7E-04
IE-4
1.5E.04
1.IE.04
8 IE.05
6 9E-05
6 4E.05
Pu-244
IE-2 W
1 7E.04
IE-3
I 5E-04
!.IE-04
8 IE-05
6 9E-05
64E-05
Am-241
IE-2 W
1.9E.04
IE-3
1 6E-04
1.2E-O4
8 9E.05
7 5E-05
7 0E.05
Am-241
5E-3 W
1.9E.04
5E-4
1 6E-04
1.2E-04
8 9E.05
7 5E-05
7 0E.05
Am-242
1E-2 W
I.IE-07
IE-3
7 5E-08
4 6E-08
2 6E.08
14E-O8
1.2E.08
Am-242
5E-3 W
I IE-07
5E-4
7 5E-08
4 6E-O8
2 5E.08
14E-08
1.2E.08
Am-242m
1E-2 W
1 5E-04
IE-3
1 4E-04
1 0E.04
8.2E.05
7 1E.05
6 7E.05
Am-242m
5E-3 W
1.5E-04
5E4
!.4E.04
1 0E.04
8 1E-05
7 IE-O5
6 7E-O5
Am-243
1E-2 W
19E.04
IE-3
1.6E.04
1.2E-O4
8 gE-05
7 5E-05
7 0E-05
Am-243
5E-3 W
1.8E-04
5E-4
1 6E-04
12E.04
8 8E-05
7.5E-05
7 0E-05
Cm-242
1E-2 W
3 4E-05
1E-3
2.2E-05
1 4E.05
7 5E.06
4.2E.06
3 5E.06
Cm-242
5E-3 W
33E-05
5E-4
2.2E-05
l 4E-05
7 5E.06
4.2E.06
3.5E.06
Cm-243
1E-2 W
1 5E.04
IE-3
13E.04
8.9E-05
63E.05
5.2E.05
4 9E.05
Cm-243
5E-3 W
1.5E-04
5E-4
] 3E.04
8.9E-05
6 3E-05
5.2E-05
4 9E.05
Cm-244
IE-2 W
14E-04
IE-3
1 IE.04
7.7E.05
5.2E-05
4.2E.05
4 0E-05
Cm-244
5E-3 W
1 4E.04
5E-4
1 1E.04
7 7E.05
5.2E.05
4.2E.05
4 0E-05
Cm-245
1E-2 W
1 9E.04
IE-3
1 6E.04
1.2E-04
9 1E.05
7 8E-05
7.2E.05
Cm-245
5E-3 W
1 9E-04
5E-4
1 6E.04
1.2E.04
9 1E-05
7 7E.05
7.2E.05
Cm-246
IE-2 W
1 9E-04
IE-3
1 6E.04
1.2E.04
9 1E-05
7 TE.05
7_.E.05
Cm-246
5E-3 W
19E-04
5E-4
1 6E.04
1.2E.04
9.1E.05
7 7E.05
7.2E-05
Cm-247
IE-2 W
l 7E-04
IE-3
1.5E.04
I IE.04
83E.05
7 IE.05
6.6E-05
Cm-247
5E-3 W
17E.04
5E-4
1.5E.04
I IE.04
8JE-05
7 IE.05
6.6E-O5
Cm-248
1E-2 W
7 0E-04
IE-3
6 0E.04
4 4E.04
3.3E-04
2 8E.04
2 6E.04
Cm-248
5E-3 W
6 8E.04
5E-4
6 0E.04
4 4E.04
33E.04
2 8E-04
2 6E.04
Bk-245
5E-3 W
12E.08
5E-4
6 9E.09
4.3E.09
2 4E.09
! 4E.09
I.IE-09
Bk-246
5E-3 W
3 0E.09
5E-4
1.8E.09
12.E.09
74E-10
4.8E-I0
4 0E-10
Bk-247
5E-3 W
2.2E.04
5E-.4
!.9E.04
1 4E.04
1 IE.04
9 IE.05
8 51-O5
Bk-249
5E-3 W
4 5E-07
5E-4
4.1E-07
3 1E-07
2 5E-07
2.2E.07
2 0E-07
Cf-246
5E-3 Y
1.9E-06
5E-4
1.IE-06
6.6E.07
3 6E.07
2 0E.07
1 6E.07
Cf-246
5E-3 W
! 8E-O6
5E-4
9 5E.07
5.8E-07
3.2E-07
1 7E-O7
1 4E-07
Cf-248
5E-3 Y
9.4E-05
5E-4
73E.05
4 5E-O5
2.5E.05
14E-05
13E-05
Cf-24g
5E-3 W
5.4E-05
5E-4
3 9E-05
2 4E-O5
! 4E-05
g.SE-06
7.5E-06
Cf-249
5E-3 Y
2.7E-04
5E.4
23E.04
1 6E.04
I IE-04
lg0E-05
7 5E.05
Cf-249
5E-3 W
2.2E-04
5E-4
19E.04
1 4E.04
I IE-O4
9 IE.05
8 5E-05
142
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAl.: ENGLISH
Nuchde
fl
_ I
fj
1-2
2-7
7-12
12-17
> 17
(Adult)
Cf-250
5E-3 Y
2.2E-04
5E-4
1 8E-04
1.2E-04
6 9E-05
4 ?E-05
4 4E-05
Cf-250
5E-3 W
1 4E-04
5E=4
1.2E-04
7 9E-05
5.2E-05
4 IE-05
4.0E-05
Cf-251
5E-3 Y
2 7E-04
5E-4
23E-04
16E-04
I IE-04
8.1E-05
7.6E-05
Cf-251
5E-3 W
2.2E-04
5E-4
1 9E-O4
1 4E-04
I.IE-O4
93E-05
g 7E-05
Cf-252
5E-3 Y
2 7E-04
5E-4
2.2E-04
13E-04
7.4E-05
43E-05
3 9E-05
Cf-252
5E-3 W
I 5E-O4
5E-4
1.2E-O4
7 IE-05
4.0E-05
2 4E-05
2.2E--05
Cf-253
5E-3 Y
9.2E-06
5E=4
5 6E-06
3 4E-06
!.9E-06
1 0E=06
82E-07
Cf-253
5E-3 W
7.2E-06
5E-4
43E-06
2 6E-06
1 4E-06
7 9E-07
63E-07
Cf-254
5E-3 Y
8 4E-04
5E-4
5 3E-04
33E-64
1 8E-04
9 7E-05
7.8E-05
Cf-254
5E-3 W
6 4E-04
5E-4
3 8E-04
2 4E-04
13E-04
7 0E-05
5 6E-05
Es-250
5E-3 W
2 7E-09
5E-4
2.2E-09
1 5E-09
9 6E-10
7 6E-10
7.3E-I0
Es-251
5E-3 W
8 9E-09
5E-4
49E-09
3 IE-09
!.8E-O9
I IE-09
9.5E-10
Es-253
5E-3 W
1.2E-05
5E-4
63E-06
3 9E-06
2.1E-06
12E-06
92E-07
Es-254
5E-3 W
5 1E-05
5E-4
3 7E-05
23E-05
13E-05
7 9E-06
7 0E-06
Es-254m
5E-3 W
1 7E-06
5E-4
g gE-07
5 4E-07
3.0E--07
1 7E-07
1.3E-07
Fm-252
5E-3 W
12E-06
5E-4
6 4E-07
3 9E-07
2.1E-07
1.2E-07
9 6E-08
Fm-253
5E-3 W
1 7E-06
5E-4
9.2E-07
5.7E-07
3.1E-07
1 7E-07
13E-07
Fm-254
5E-3 W
1 9E-07
5E-4
9 6E-0g
5.9E-08
3.2E-08
I 8E-08
1 4E-08
Fm-255
5E-3 W
93E-07
5E=4
4 7E-07
2.9E-07
1 6E-07
8 6E-0g
6 8E-08
Fm-257
5E-3 W
4 7E-05
5E-4
3 IE-05
i.9E-05
1 0E-05
5 6E-06
4 6E-06
Md-257
NOTES
5E-3 W
13E-07
5E=4
g 1E-Og
4 9E-0g
2.7E-08
1.5E-Og
1.2E-08
e
·
Or-3
C
Cx
Cy
Cc
Hi
Hg
m
v
Y
W
Orgamcally bound lnottm
Carbon (orgam¢ compounds)
Carbon d_oxlde
Carbon monoxide
Cyanocobalamme
Mercury (morgamc)
Mercury (orgam¢)
Metaslable slate
Vapour
Lung class, years
Lung class, w_:ks
D
I
s
Lung class, dnys
Long=r of two m_'tastabl= states
Shorter of two metastable states
143
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
TABLE
ll-m.
LIMITS
OF INTAKE AND EXPOSURE
Quan_y
FOR RADON AND THORON
Umt
PROGENY
Radon
progeny '
Thoron
progen) b
Annual average over $ years
Potenl_l a-energy intake
J
0 017
0 051
Potential a-energy cxposm'c
J h m '_d
0 014
0 042
F..xposum
WLIvP _
40
12
Maximum
m a single year
Potentml a-energy retake
J
0 042
0 127
Pot_tiaJ a-energy exposure
J h m '_4
0 035
0 105
Exposure
WI.aM
!0 0
30
·
Radon
prollemy
b
Tboron
progeny
c
Workinglevdmonth(WLM)
Amtof_po_torKlonorlhoronprogmy
combmlmon
of radon or thoron pmlg_y m one hue of mr that vall _ult
eqmv,le_!
d
tho'tt hved decay products of mR.G :mPo(RxA), auBl 0RaC) a_Pb(RAB) and _'_Po {RaC')
short hv_l
de_ay l:_'_luo-q of aa*Pm :aPo(ThA),
to 2 lxlO '_ $ m ) (see foomote
The converston
co-.emctcms
Z_oCfh.B),
mBJ('l'hC)
ed
aa}Po {ThC'_md
2_TICThC")
Onewodoaglevclmonth_3._mJ
hm_or
170WL keqmvalmtto
sm)
m the almmue erosion
of I 3x 10 _MeV of alpha energy
In SI umL% the WL ts
d)
arc as follows
Quanaty
Exposure
Umt
ired radon _
coaver_mas
(equdabnum factor 04)
Annual
es_osm_
per uml radon
m hame
(ml h m')
I_ wOrE
m hom_
(ad h m_ _
(Bq In _)
_
per (]_q m*)
oonve_on,
3 54
2.22x 104
6.28x lO"
co_mmon*
at work
Do_e _onvemon
_posure
(mT h m )) per WLM
(ml b m _) pet ('gq h m _)
W'L.M per 0aq h tn _)
Value
_
per (Bq m ))
p_' (Bq m ))
t 56x 10:
445x
440x
l03
10 _
126x
lO _
effecuvg dote per unn
3U home
may l_r (raj h In _)
I !
rework
mSvper
14
Doze oonver_ton _onv4_on,
(raj bm _)
et_e_avedo_ per ual_
ecpm,urt
*
144
la hoa_
mSv per WLM
4
wodt
mSv per WLM
._
A._umm 8 7000bouts
_
yClt indoors or 2000hOUrS per year la work and an e_uiJtbnum tacto_ of 04
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGI. JSH
ANNEX III
GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR MEDICAL EXPOSURE
145
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR. ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
ANNEX III
A.
GUIDANCE
LEVELS
FOR
DIAGNOSTIC
RADIOLOGICAL
PROCEDURES FOR A TYPICAL ADULT PATIEN_r
Radiography
Examination
Entrance
Surface
per radiograph
(roSy)
AP
Lumbar
Abdomen,
spine
intravenous
urography
& cholecys
t ography
Dose
'_
10
LAT
30
LSJ
40
AP
10
Pelvis
AP
10
Hip Joint
AP
10
PA
0.4
LAT
1.5
Chest
Thoracic
AP
7
LAT
20
Spine
Dental
Periapical
Skul
1
7
AP
5
PA
5
LAT
3
PA
LAT
LSJ
AP
Posterxor
- anterior
projec_on
Lateral proj ectlon
Lumbo
- sacral
- joint
projection
Anterior
- posterior
pro]ectxon.
a)
In a,r w_h backscatter These values are for conventional film-screen comb;natron in the relative speed of
200 For high speed film-screen combinations (400-600),the values should be reduced by a {actor of from
2to3
146
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTEDDISTR.,ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
Computed
Tomography
Examination
Multiple
scan average
(mGy)
Head
Lumbar
dose bj
50
spine
35
Abdomen
25
_-_gxaphy
Average
glandular
dose
per
cranio-caudal
projection
c_
I mGy (wmthout grzd)
3 mGy (with grid)
Fluoroscopy
Mode
of operation
Normal
High
level e;
Entrance
surface dose
(mGy/mln)
rate ®
25
100
='
Derivedfrom measurementson the ams of rotation m waterequivalentphantoms, 15 cmm length and 16
crn (head} and 30 cm (lumbar sp,ne and abdomen) in diameter.
¢1
Determined in a 4.5 cm compressed breastconsisting of 50% glandular and 50% adiposetmsue, for film
screen systemsw_ dedicated Mo-targetMo-filter mammography unrts.
e)
In mr with backscatter.
'_
For fluoroscopes that have an opaonal 'htgh level' operationalmode, such as those frequenfiy used in
mtervermonalradiology.
147
AT'rACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTEDDISTR.,ORIGINAL:ENGUSH
B.
GUIDANCE
LEVELS
FOR DIAGNOSTIC
NUCLEAR
PROCEDURES
FOR A TYPICAL ADULT PATIENT
Test
Rad/onuclide
Ch_
ca1 Form '_
MEDICINE
Maximum usual
activity
per
test _
(]_q)
Bone
imaging
S_Tc
phosphonate
and
phosphate
compounds
600
Bone imaging
(SPECT)
9_Tc
phosponate
and
phosphatecompounds
800
Bone marrow
imaging
'_Tc
labelled
400
9_Tc
TcO 4'
9_c
DTPA, gluconate
glucoheptonate
_Tc
Tc04'
9_Tc
DTPA, gluconate
glucoheptonate
9_Tc
exametazlme
500
X33Xe
mn _sotonic sodium
chloridesolution
400
_Tc
hexamethyl propylene
amine ox[me (HM-PAO)
500
Cisternography
_In
DTPA
40
Lacrimal
drainage
_Tc
Tc04_
4
9_Tc
labelled
9_Tc
Tc0_'
200
x23I
I'
20
Thyroid metastases (after
ablation)
z3_I
I'
400
Parathyroid
imaging
2°_T1
Ti', chloride
Bone
colloid
Brain
Brain imaging
(static)
Brain imaging
(SPECT)
Cerebral
flow
blood
500
and
500
800
colloid
and
800
4
Thyroid
Thyroid
148
imaging
80
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTEDDISTR.,ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
Lung
Lung ventilatson
_maging
Lung ventilation
study
,
Lung perfusion
'_maging
8Z'Kr
gas
6000
9_Tc
DTPA- aerosol
=33Xe
gas
4 00
'=Txe
gas
200
S_Kr
aqueous
'_Tc
human albumin
(macroaggregates
microspheres
)
or
human albumin
(macroaggregates
microspheres
)
or
B0
solution
6000
100
Lung perfus_on
·maging
(with
venography)
9_Tc
Lung perfusion
studies
"_Xe
isotonzc
solution
200
'27Xe
isotonic
chloride
solution)
200
9_Tc
MAA
2 00
9_Tc
labelled
Functional
blliary
system
imaging
9_Tc
iminodiacetates and
equivalent
agents
Spleen imaging
9_Tc
Liverimaging
(S PE CT )
9_Tc
Lung imaging
(SPECT)
Laver and
Liver and
imaging
160
spleen
spleen
colloid
labelled
denaturated
red blood cells
labelled
B0
150
100
colloid
200
149
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTEDDISTR., ORIGINAL:ENGUSH
Cardiovascular
First pass blood
flow studies
9_Tc
Tc04'
800
g_Tc
DTPA
800
MAG3
9_Tc
400
Blood pool
imaging
9_Tc
human albumin
complex
Cardiacand
vascular
imaging/probe
studxes
9_Tc
human albumin
complex
_Tc
labelled normal
bloodcells
Myocardial
imaging/probe
studies
9_Tc
phosphonate
and
phosphate compounds
Myocardial
imaging
9_Tc
40
800
red
800
600
isonitriles
300
TI' chloride
=°_T1
Myocardial
imaging
(SPECT)
9_Tc
10 0
phosphonate
and
phosphate
compounds
800
isonitriles
9_Tc
600
Stomach,
gastrointestinal
tract
40
Stomach/salivary
gland imaging
9_Tc
TcOj
400
Meckel 's
diverticulum
imagmn9
9_Tc
Tc04'
400
Gastrointestinal
bleedmng
Oesophageal
transit
and
reflux
9_Tc
labelled
9_Tc
labelled normal red
bloodcells
_9_Tc
emptying
9_Tc
x_aIn
xx_mIn
150
400
40
labelled colloid
40
9_Tc
Gastric
collomd
non absorbable
compounds
12
non absorbable
compounds
12
non absorbable
compounds
12
non absorbable
compounds
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTEDDISTR., ORIGINAL:ENGUSH
Kidney, urinary
system and
adrenals
Renalimaging
9_Tc
DMSA
160
Renal imaging/
renography
9_Tc
DTPA, gluconate
and
clucoheptonate
350
9_Tc
MAG3
100
_2,I
0- iodohippurate
20
7SSe
selenorcholesterol
Adrenal
imaging
8
Miscellaneous
Tumour or
abscess _maging
6_Ga
2o,Ti
citrate
chloride
300
100
Tumourimaging
9_Tc
DMSA
400
Neuroectodermal
tumour _maging
_23I
meta- _odo-benzyl
guanidine (MIBG}
400
_3_I
MIBG
20
Lymph node
_maging
9_Tc
labelled
Abscess
9_Tc
exametazime
white cells
_=In
labelled white cells
20
s_In
labelled platelets
20
imaging
Thrombus imaging
')
In some
_
In some
indicated
countries
some
countries
the
in the table.
colloid
labelled
of the compounds
typical
80
values
400
are considered
are
lower
obsolete.
than
those
151
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
C.
MAXIMUM ACTIVITY
FROM HOSPITAL
IN THERAPY PATIENI'S AT TIME OF DISCHARGE
Activity
(MBq)
Radionuclide
Iodine-131
a;
152
In some
practice.
countries
a
level
1100a)
of
400
MBq
is
used
as
an
example
of
good
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
ANNEX IV
DOSE LEVELS AT WHICH INTERVENTION
IS EXPECTED TO BE UNDERTAKEN
UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES
153
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TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
ANNEX IV
DOSE LEVELS AT WHICH INTERVENTION
IS EXPECTED TO BE UNDERTAKEN
UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES
Acute exposures
Organ or tissue
Projected absorbed dose to the organ
or tissue in less than 2 days
(Gy)
Wholebody(bonemarrow)
1
Lung
6
Skin
3
Thyroid
5
Lens
oftheeye
2
Gonads
3
The possibility of deterministic effects for doses greater than about 0.1 Oy (delivered
over less than 2 days) to the foetus should be taken into account in considering the
justification and optimization of actual interventionlevels for immediate protective action.
Chronic exposures
Organ or tissue
Equivalentdose rate (Sv y-l)
Gonads
0.2
Lens of the eye
0.1
Bone
marrow
0.4
154
,
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/27'15, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
ANNEX V
GUIDELINES FOR INTERVENTION LEVELS
IN EMERGENCY EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
155
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DIS'IR., ORIGINAL: ENGUSH
ANNEX V
GUIDELINES FOR INTERVENTION LEVELS
IN EMERGENCY EXPOSUR_ SITUATIONS
(V.1) Imervention levels are expressed in terms of avertable dose, i.e. the protective
action is indicated if the dose that can be averted, taking into account the loss of
effectiveness due to any delays or for other practical reasons, is greater than the
intervention level.
(V.2) The values of avertable dose specified in intervention levels refer to the average
over suitably chosen samples of the population, not to the most exposed (i.e., critical
groups of) individuals. However, projected doses to critical groups of individuals should
be kept within the dose levels specified in Annex IV.
(¥.3) General principles governing the selection of intervention levels for radiological
emergencies have been recommended by the ICRP 54 that also indicate the broad range
of values within which such levels can be expected to fall.
(V.4) The IAEA has developed values resulting from the generic application of these
principles to the more common forms of protective actions,ss
(V.5) Site specific intervention levels may be higher or in some cases lower than these
generic optimized values owing to consideration of site or situation-specific factors.
These may include, among others, the presence of special populations (e.g. hospital
patients, residents of old-age homes or prisoners), the existence of hazardous weather
conditions or compounding ha?arts (e.g. earthquakes or hazardous chemicals), and
special problems associated with transport or due to high density populations and other
unique characteristics of the site or the accidental release.
(V.6) With these factors taken into consideration, the values specified hereinafter can
be taken as starting points for the judgements required for decisions to select
intervention levels for emergency exposure situations:
A. URGENT PROTECTIVE
PROPHYLAXIS
ACTIONS:
SHELTERING,
EVACUATION,
IODINE
(V.7.) The generic optimized intervention level for sheltering is 10mSvofavertable dose,
for a period of no more than 2 days. Authorities may wish to advise sheltering at lower
.54
International Cornrn,ss_on on Radmlog_cal Protec-bon, Pnnc_ples for Intervention for Protection of the Pubhc m a
Radlolog]cal Emergency, ICRP Publication No 63, Annals of the ICRP 22 4, Pergamon Press, Ox-ford (1993)
55
Internatsonal Atomic Energy Agency, Interverrbon Cntena m a Nuclear or Rachatlon Emergency- A Safety Guide,
Safety Series No. 109, IAEA, Vienna (currenfiy m pnnt)
]56
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intervention levels for shorter periods or so as to facilitate further countermeasures,
evacuation.
,
e.g.
(V.8.) The generic opfirniTed intervention value for temporary evacuation is 50mSv of
avertable doseSs,for a period of no more than 1 week. Authorities may wish to initiate
evacuation at lower intervention levels, for shorter periods and also where evacuation can
be carried out quickly and easily, e.g. for small groups of people. Higher interventzon
levels may be appropriate in situations where evacuation would be difficult, e.g. for large
population groups or if there is inadequate transport.
(V.9) The generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis is 100 mGy of
avertable committed absorbed dose to the thyroid due to radioiodine.
B. WITltD_W_
AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOODSTUFFS
(V.10)
Generic action levels for the withdrawal and substitution of foodstuffs are
given in the Table. For practical reasons, the criteria for separate radionuclide groups
shall be applied independently to the sum of the activities of the radionuclides in each
group.
Radmnuchdes
Foods destined for general eonsumpuon
(ld3q/kg)
Milk, mfam foods and drinking
waterOd3q_:g)
i
i
l_,mC,' m 106Ru
' 19S,
ml
0i
9°Sr
0.1
_lAm, _'__Pu
0 01
0 001
(V.1I)
Section 3.3 in Appendix V provides additional conditions that pertain to
the use of these values in interventionsituations.
C. TEMPORARY
,
.
RELOCATION
AND PERMANENT RESETTLEMENT
(V.12)
The generic optimized intervention levels for initiating and terminating
temporary relocation are 30 mSv in a month and 10 mSvin a month, respectively. If the
dose accumulated in a month is not expected to fall below thi._ level within a year or two,
permanent resettlement with no expectation of return to homes should be considered.
Permanent resettlement should also be considered if the lifetime dose is projected to
exceed 1 Sv.
56
In some countries a value of 100 mSv of avertable close is conmderedto be 1bemore reahs'aclevelfor temporary
evacuation.
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('V.13)
The dosesto be compared with these intervention levels are the total doses
from all routes of exposurethat can be avoided by taking the countermeasurebut usually
this will exclude food and water.
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ANNEX VI
GUIDELINES FOR ACTION LEVELS
IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
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ANNEX VI
GUIDELINES FOR ACTION LEVELS
IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
d,
CVI.1) Although the concept of action levels for chronic exposure situations is of more
general application, so far an international consensus on numerical values only exists in
respect of radon. Guidelines are therefore only given for chronic exposure to radon.
Radon
in dwellings
0/1.2) Optimized action levels relating to chronic exposure involving radon in dwellings
should, in most situations, fall within a yearly average concentration of 200 to 600 Bqm '3
of turn in air.
Radon in workplaces
(VI.3) The action level for remedial action relating to chronic exposure situations involving
radon in workplaces is a yearly average concentration
of 1000 Bq of _Rn per cubic
metre of air _7.
57
160
The Intematlonai Commission on Radlolog_cai Protection has recommended that the ac_on levels for occupational
exposure to radon can fall ,n the range 500-1500 Bq m'=. (See Intemahonal Commission on RadmtJon Protection,
ICRP PubhcatJon No 65, Protec-bon agmnst Radon -222 at Home and at Work, Annals of the ICRP, Vol 23, No 2,
Pergamon Press (1993))
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GLOSSARY
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GLOSSARY
The following definitions apply for the purposes of the Standards:
Absorbed dose:
The fundamental dosimetric quantity, defined as:
de
D=
dm
where D is the absorbed dose, dc is the mean energy imparted by ionizing radiation to
matter in a volume element, and dm is the mass of the matter in this volume element.
The energy can be averaged over any defined volume, the average dose being equal to
the total energy imparted in the volume divided by the mass of the volume. The SI unit
of absorbed dose is joule per kilogram (J kg-1)and its special name is gray (Gy).
Accident:
Any unintended event, including an operating error, equipment failure or other mishap,
the consequences or potential consequences of which cannot be ignored from the point
of view ofprotection or safety, and which could lead to potential exposure or to abnormal
exposure conditions.
Action level:
The level of dose rate or activity concentration above which remedial or protective
actions should be carried out in chronic or emergency exposure situations.
Activation:
The producing of radionuclides
by irradiation.
Activity
For an amount of radionuclide in a particular energy state at a given time the activity A,
is:
,4=
.
dN
dt
where dN is the expectation value of the number of spontaneous nuclear transformations
from that energy state in the time interval dr. The SI unit of activity is the reciprocal
second, s4, with the special name becquerel (Bq).
Agricultural countermeasures:
Actions taken to reduce contamination of food or agricultural or forestry products before
they reach consumers.
Ambient dose equivalent:
H*(d), at a point in a radiation field, is the dose equivalent that would be produced
by the corresponding aligned and expanded field in the ICRU sphere at a depth d on
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the radius opposing the direction of the aligned field. A depth d =
recommended for strongly penetrating radiation.
10 mm is
Annual dose limits:
Values of effective or equivalent dose to individuals from controlled practices, which shall
not be exceeded in a year.
Annual limit of intake (ALI):
The intake by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin of a given radionuclide in a year
by the reference man which would result in a committed dose equal to the relevant dose
limit.
Applicant:
Any legal person who applies to the Regulatory Authority for authorization to undertake
any of the actions described in the General Obligations of the Standards.
Approved:
Approved by the Regulatory Authority.
Authorization:
A permission granted in a document by the Regulatory Authority to a legal person who
has submitted an application to carry out a practice or any other action described in the
General Obligations of the Standards.
The authorization can take the form of a
regtstration or a licence.
Authorized:
Granted an authorization by the Regulatory Authority.
Average glandular dose:
Average glandular dose, Da, in mammography can be computed from:
Dg = Dgn X_
where Dgs is the average glandular absorbed dose resulting from an incident exposure in
air of 2.58 x 10'4 C kg '_ and X_ is the incident exposure in air.
For X ray tubes with molybdenum targets and molybdenum filters operating at 0.3 mm
A1 half value layer, for a tissue composition of 50% adipose tissue and 50% gland, D_s
can be inferred from the following:
Breast thickness
3.0
D_
2.2
3.5
1.95
4.0
1.75
4.5
1.55
5.0
1.4
5.5
1.25
6.0
1.15
6.5
7.0
1.05 0.9
5
where the breast thickness is expressed in cm and Dg_ in mGy per 2.58 x 10'4 C kg '_ (D_ will
therefore result in mGy).
Avertable dose:
The dose to be saved by aprotective action; that is, the difference between the
doses expected with and without the protective action.
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Chronic exposure:
Exposure persisting in time.
Clearance:
Removal of radioactive materials or objects within authorized practices from any
further control from the RegulatoryAuthority?8
,
Clearance levels:
Values, established by the Regulatory Authori_and expressed in terms of activ/ty
concentrations and/or total act/v/ty, at or below which sources of radiation can be
released from regulatory control.
Cleared:
Radioactive material or objects subject to clearance.
Collective dose:
An expression of the total radiation exposure in a population del'reed as the product
of number of individuals exposed to a source and their average radiation dose. (See
collective effective dose).
Collective effective dose:
The total effective dose to a population, defined as:
S = _ E,.
i
N,
where E, is the average effective dose in the population subgroup i and N, is the
number of individuals in the subgroup. It can also be defined by the integral:
aD
0
where
dN dE
dE
'
is the number of individuals receiving an effective dose between E and E+dE.
The collective effective dose committed by an event, a decision or a f'mite portion of
a practice k, Sk, is given by:
58
Authonzed rad_oacbve d_scharges are not covered by clearance
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SK = fs
(Odt
o
where Sk(t) is the collective effective dose rate at time t, mused by lc.
Committed effective dose:
After an elapsed time T following an intakeof radioactive substances, the committed
effective dose is defined as:
= f,o.Tt (0 at
d to
where to is the time of intake and t_(t)dtis the effectivedose rate at the time t. When T is
not specified it will be taken to be 50 years for adults and to age 70 years for intakes by
children.
Committed equivalent dose:
After an elapsed time T following an intake of radioactive substances, the committed
equivalent dose is defined as:
Zo.T
=f ttT(t)at
to
where to is the time of intake and
nT(t)
is the equivalent dose rate at time t in an organ or tissue T. When T is not specified it will
be taken to be 50 years for adults and to age 70 years for intakes by children.
Constraint:
See Dose constraint
Consumer products:
Devices such as smoke detectors, luminous dials or ion generating tubes that contain
small mounts of radioactive substances.
Containment:
Methods or physical structures that prevent the dispersion of radioactive substances.
Contamination:
The presence of radioactive substances in or on a material or the human body or other
place where they are undesirable or could be harmful.
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Controlled area:
A controlled area is any area in which specific protection measures and safety
provisions are or could be required for:
(a)
controlling normalexposures or preventing the spread of contaminationduring
normal working conditions; and
(b)
preventing or limiting the extent of potential exposures.
CHtical group:
A group of membersof the public whose exposure for a given radiation source and
given exposure pathway is reasonably homogeneous and is typical of individuals
receiving the highest effective dose or equivalent dose (as relevant) by the given
exposurepathway from the given source.
Countermeasure:
An action aimed at alleviating the consequences of an accident.
Decontamination:
The removal of radioactive substances musing contamination with the objective of
reducing the residual amount of radioactive substances in or on materials, persons or
the environment.
Defence in depth:
The application of more than a single protective measure for a given safety objective
such that the objective is achieved even if one of the protective measures fails
Determiniqic effect:
A radiation effect for which generally a threshold dose exists above which the
severity of the effect is greater for a higher dose.
Directional dose equivalent:
H'(d,9), at a point in a radiation field, is the dose equivalent that would be produced
by the corresponding expanded field in the ICRU sphere at depth d, on a radius in a
specified direction, 12.A depth d = 0.07 mm is recommended for weakly penetrating
radiation.
Dose:
Absorbed dose, organ dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, committed equivalent
dose, or committedeffective dose, depending on the context. The modifying terms
are often omitted when they are not necessary for defining the quantity of interest.
'
Dose constraint:
A prospective upper bound on the individual dose which is used in the optimiTation
of protection and safety for sources. For occupational exposures, dose constraint is
a source related value of individual dose used to limit the range of options considered
in the process of optimization. For public exposure, the dose constraint is an upper
bound on the annual doses that membersof thepublic should receive from the planned
operation of any controlled source. The exposureto which the dose constraint applies
is the annual dose to any critical group, smnmed over all exposurepathways, arising
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from the predicted operation of the controlled source. The constraint for each source
should ensure that the sum of doses to the critical group from all controlled sources
remains within the dose limit. For medical exposurethe dose constraintlevels should
be interpreted as guidance levels, except when used in optimizing the protection of
persons exposed for medical research purposes or of persons, other than workers, who
assist in the care, support or comfort of exposed patients.
Dose-area product:
The product of the area of a radiation beam and the average dose delivered, which
is used in diagnostic radiology as a measure of energy imparted.
Effective dose:
A s-ruination of the tissue equivalent doses, each multiplied by the appropriate tissue
weightingfactor:
E = I; WT · HT
T
where H, is the equivalent dose in tissue T and W,r is the tissue weightingfactor for
tissue T.
From the definition of equivalentdose, it follows that:
E=
l_W r.
r. WR. DT.R= _WR.
FWT.
T
R
T
R
DT,R
where WR is the radiation weighting factor for radiation R, and Dr. R the
average absorbed dose in the organ or tissue T.
The unit of effective dose is J.kg 4, termed sievert (Sv).
Emergency exposure:
Exposure arising as a result of an accident requiring immediate protective actions.
Emergency plan:
A set of procedures to be implemented immediately in the event of an accident.
Employer:
A legal person with recognized responsibility, commitment and duties towards a
worker in his or her employment by virtue of a mutually agreed relationship. (A
self-employed person is regarded as being an employer.)59
Entrance
59
168
surface dose
Absorbed dose in the centre of the field at the entry of radiation for a patient
undergoing a radiodiagnostic examination, expressed in air and with backscatter.
Seedefm_on of Worker.
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Equivalent dose:
The absorbed dose in an organ or tissue multiplied by the relevant ra&atton
weighting factor Wu:
Hv.R= Wu · DT,R
where DT.Ris the average absorbed dose in the organ or tissue T and Wu is the
radiation weighting factor for radiation R.
When the radiation field is composed of radiationswith different values of Wu, the
equivalent dose is:
HT = I; WR
DT.R
R
The unit of equivalent dose is J.kg'_, termed sievert (Sv).
Ethical review committee:
A committee of independent persons to advise on the conditions of exposure and the
dose constraints to be applied to the medical exposure of individuals exposed for
biomedical research purposes when there is no direct benefit to the exposed
individual.
Excluded:
Not subject to the requirements of the Standards.
Exempted:
Being granted exemption.
Exemption:
Automatic or conditional permission to carry out some practice or use sources
within practices without obligation to comply with the requirements of the
Standards, including the requirements of notification and authorization.
Exposure:
Exposure of people to radiation or radioactive substances, which can either be
external exposure from sources outside the body or internal exposure from sources
inside the body. The exposure can be classified as either normal or potential
exposure; either occupational, medical or public exposure; and, in intervention
situations, either emergency or chronic exposure.
·
Exposure
pathways:
The routes by which radioactive material can reach or irradiate humans.
Guidance
level:
A level of a specified quantity above which appropriate actions should
be considered.
In some circumstances, actions may need to be
considered when the specified quantity is substantially below the guidance
level.
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Guidance
Health
levels for medical exposure:
Values of dose, dose rate or activity selected by professional bodies in consultation
with the Regulatory Authority to indicate levels above which there should be a
review by medical practitioners in order to determine whether or not they are
excessive, taking into account the particular circumstances and applying sound
clinical judgement.
professional:
An individual who has been accredited through appropriate national procedures to
practice a profession related to health (e.g. medicine, dentistry, ckiropracfice,
paediatry, nursing, medical physics, radiation and nuclear medical technology,
radiopharmacy, occupational health).
Health surveillance:
Medical supervision intended to ensure the initial and continuous fitness of workers
for their intended task.
High energy radiotherapy
equipment:
X ray equipment and other types of radiation generators capable of operating at
generating potentials above 300 kV, and radionuclide teletherapy equipment.
Imaging
devices:
Electronic equipment used for imaging in diagnostic radiology and nuclear
medicine (e.g. image convertors, gamma cameras).
Installation processing radioactive substances:
Any installation processing radioactive substances for which the yearly throughput
is higher than 10 000 times the exemption concentration levels presented in Table
I-I.
Intake:
The process of taking radionuclides
through the skin.
into the body by inhalation
or ingestion
Intervening Organization:
An organi?ation designated or otherwise recognized by a Government
being responsible
for
managing or implementing any aspect
interventions.
or
as
of
Intervention:
Any action intended to reduce or avert exposure or the likelihood of exposure to
sources which are not part of a controlled practice or which are out of control as
a consequence of an accident.
Intervention
level:
The level of avertable dose at which a specific protective or remedial acnon is taken
in a chronic or emergency exposure situation.
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Investigation level:
The value of a quantity such as equivalent dose, intake, or contamination per unit
area or volume at and above which an investigation should be conducted.
,,
Irradiation installations:
Structures and installations which house panicle accelerators, X ray apparatus or
large radioactive sources and which can produce high radiation fields. Properly
designed structures provide shielding and other protection and axe equipped with
safety devices such as interlocks which prevent inadvertent entry into the high
radiation field. Irradiation installations include installations for external beam
radiation therapy, installations for sterilization or preservation of commercial
products and some installations for industrial radiography.
Kerma:
The quotient of dE_ by dm, where dE_ is the sum of the initial kinetic energies of
all the charged ionizing panicles liberated by uncharged ionizing panicles in a
material of mass dm.
K= dE_
dm
The unit of kerma is J kg-_with the special name of gray (Gy).
1Gy1Jkg '1
Legal person:
Any organi:,ation, corporation, partnership, fin'm, association, trust, estate, public
or private institution, group, political or administrative entity or other persons
designated in accordance with national legislation, who or which has responsibility
and authority for any action taken under these Standards.
Licence:
An authorization granted by the Regulatory Authority on the basis of a safety
assessment and accompanied by specific requirements and conditions to be
complied with by the licensee.
Licensee:
The holder of a current licence granted for a practice or source who has
recognized rights and duties for the practice or source, particularly in relation to
protection and safety.
·-
.
Limit:
The value of a quantity used in certain
must not be exceeded.
s_cif'led
activities or circumstances that
Medical exposure:
Exposure incurred by patients as pan of their own medical or dental diagnosis or
treatment; by persons, other than those occupationally exposed, knowingly while
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voluntarily helping in the support and comfort of patients; and by volunteers
programme of biomedical research involving their exposure.
in a
Medical
practitioner:
An individual who:
(a)
has been accredited through appropriate national procedures as a health
professional;
Co) fulfils the national requirements on training and experience for prescribing
procedures involving medical exposure; and
(c)
is a registrant or a licensee as defined by the Standards, or a worker who has
been designated by a registered or licensed employer for the purpose of
prescribing procedures involving medical exposure.
Member
of the public:
In a general sense, any individual in the whole population, excluding, for the
purposes of the Standards, those occupationally or medically exposed. For the
purpose of verifying compliance with the annual dose limit for public exposure, the
average individual in the relevant critical group.
Mines and mills processing radioactive ores:
Installations for mining, milling or processing ores containing uranium series or
thorium series radionuclides.
(a)
A mine processing radioactive ores is any mine that yields ores containing
uranium series or thorium series radionuclides, either in sufficiem quantities
or concentrations to warrant exploitation or, when present in conjunction with
other substances being mined, in quantities or concentrations that require
radiation protection measures to be taken as determined by the Regulatory
Authority.
Co) A mill processing radioactive ores is any facility for processing radioactive
ores from mines as defined in (a) to produce a physical or chemical
concentrate.
Monitoring:
The measurement of exposure, dose or contamination for reasons related to the
assessment or control of exposure to radiation or radioactive substances, and the
interpretation of the results.
Multiple
scan average dose:
Multiple scan average dose (MSAD) is a term used in computed tomography
1
MSAD = -_ ., -,aa
O(z)&
where n is the total number of scans in a clinical series, I is the distance increment
that separates scan_ and D(z) is the dose at position z, parallel to the z (rotational)
axis.
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Natural exposures:
Exposures delivered by natural sources.
Natural sources:
Naturally occurring sources of radiation, including cosmic radiation which affects
people in high altitude flight and terrestrial radiation sources in dwellings, mines,
'
spas,
etc.
Normal exposures:
Exposures which are expected to be received under normal operating conditions of
an installation or source, including possible minor mi._hapsthat can be kept under
control.
Notification:
A document submitted to the Regulatory Authority by a legal person to notify an
intention to carry out a practice or any other action described in the General
Obligations of the Standards, provided that the normal exposures associated with
the practice or action are unlikely to exceed a small fraction, specified by the
Regulatory Authority, of the relevant limits, and the likelihood and expected amount
of potential exposure and any other detrimental consequences are insignificant.
Nuclear fuel cycle:
All operations associated with the production of nuclear energy, including mining,
milling, processing and enrichment of uranium or thorium; manufacture of nuclear
fuel; operation of nuclear reactors; reprocessing of nuclear fuel; decommissioning;
and any activity for radioactive waste management and disposal and any research
or development activity related to any of the foregoing.
Nuclear installations:
Nuclear fuel fabrication plants, nuclear reactors including critical and subcritical
assemblies, research reactors, nuclear power plants, spent fuel storage facilities,
enrichment plants or reprocessing facilities.
Occupational exposure:
All exposures of workers incurred in the course of their work with the exception
of exposures excluded from the Standards and exposures from practices or sources
exempted by the Standards.
_v
Organ dose:
The mean close Dr in a specified tissue or organ T of the human body given by:
Or=(1/mr)f Dam,
where mr is the mass of the tissue or organ and D is the absorbed dose in the mass
element dm.
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Person: (See Legal Person)
Personal dose equivalent:
Hp(d) is defined for both strongly and weakly penetrating radiations.
Hp(d) is the dose equivalent in soft tissue below a specified point on the
body at an appropriate depth d. Depths of d = 10 mm for strongly
penetrating radtationand d = 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating ra&ation
are recommended.
Planning target volume:
A geometrical concept used in radiotherapy for planning treatment with
consideration of the net effect of movements of the patient and of the tissues to be
irradiated, variations in size and shape of the tissue, and variations in beam
geometry such as beam size and beam direction.
Potential exposure:
Exposure that is not expected to be delivered with certainty but that may result
from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a
probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors.
Practice:
Any human activity that introduces additional sources of exposure or exposure
pathways or extends exposure to additional people or modifies the network of
exposure pathways from existing sources, so as to increase the exposure or the
likelihood of exposure of people or the number of people exposed.
Projected dose:
The close to be expected if no protective or remedial action is taken.
Protection
and safety:
The protection of people against undue exposure to ionizing radiation and
radioactive substances and the safety of radiation sources, including the means for
achieving such protection and safety, such as the various procedures and devices for
keeping people's doses and risks as Iow as can reasonably be achieved and below
prescribed constraints, as well as the means for preventing accidents and for
mitigating the consequences of accidents should they occur.
Protective action:
An intervention intended to avoid or reduce doses to members of the
public in chronic or emergency exposure situations.
Public exposure:
Exposure incurred by membersof the public from radiation sources, excluding any
occupational or medical exposureand the normal local natural background radiation
but including exposure from
authorized sources and practices and from
intervention situations.
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Qualified expert:
An individual who, by virtue of (1) certification by appropriate boards or societies,
(2) professional licences or (3) academic qualifications and experience, is duly
recognized as having expertise in a relevant field of specialization, e.g., medical
physics, radiation protection, occupational health, fLresafety, quatity assurance or
any relevant engineering or safety specialty.
Radiation:
Ionizing radiation.
Radiation generators:
Devices capable of generating radiation, such as X rays, neutrons, electrons or
other charged particles, which may be used for scientific, industrial or medical
purposes.
Radiation protection officer:
An individual technically competent in radiation protection matters relevant for a
given type of practice who is designated by the registrant or licensee to oversee the
application of the requirements of these Standards.
Radiation weighting factor:
A factor by which the absorbed close is multiplied in order to account for
the relative health hazard of different types of radiation. The values of
radiation weighting factor used for radiation protection purposes are as
follows:
Type and energy range of radiation
Photons,
allenergies
1
Electronsandmuons,ail energies6o
1
Neutrons, energy
..
Radiation weightingfactor WR
< 10 kev
10 kev to 100 kev
> 100 kev to 2 MeV
> 2 MeV to 20 MeV
> 20MeV
5
10
20
10
5
Protons, other than recoil protons, energy > 2 MeV
5
Alpha particles, fission fragments, heavy nuclei
20
6O
Excluding Auger electrons emrtted from nuclei to DNA, for which spe_al mlcrodosKmetfic considerations are
needed
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If calculation of the radiation weightingfactor for neutrons requires a continuous
function, the following approximation can be used:
WR=5+17 . e -0n(2E))2/6
where E is the neutron energy in MeV.
For radia_tiontypes and energies not included in the table, WRcan be taken to be
equal to Q at 10 mm depth in the ICRU sphere and can be obtained as follows:
where D is the absorbed dose, QtZ) is the quality factor in terms of the unrestricted
linear energy transfer L in water, specified in ICRP Publication No. 60, and DL is
the distribution of D in L.
1
for L_<10
Q(L) =
0.32L-2.2 for 10<L<100
300/x/L
for L_>100
where L is expressed in keV.t_m'_.
Radioactive discharges (or radioactive effluents):
Radioactive substances arising from a source within a practtce which are
discharged as gases, aerosols, liquids or solids to the environment, generally with
the purpose of dilution and dispersion.
Radioactive waste:
Those radioactive materials arising from a source within apractice that are retained
with the intention of restricting the rates of release to the biosphere, regardless of
the physical state of those materials. For legal and regulatory purposes, radioactive
waste is material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides of
concentrations or activities greater than the exemption levels, and for which no use
is foreseen.
Radioactive waste management Installations:
Installations specifically designed to handle, treat, condition, temporarily store or
permanently dispose of radioactive wastes.
Radon:
The name for any isotope of atomic number 86, including '"Pm, =°Ra; however,
the term 'radon' is often used to mean radon plus radon progeny.
Radon progeny:
The short lived radioactive decay products of radon.
176
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Recording level:
A level of dose, exposure or intake specified by the Regulatory Authorityat and
above which values of dose, exposure or intake received by workers are to be
entered in their individual exposure records.
,
Reference air kerma rate:
The reference air kerma rate of a source is the kerrnarate to air, in air, at a
reference distance of one metre, corrected for air attenuation and scattering. This
quantity is expressed in/_Gy.h 4 at 1 m.
n
Reference
level
Generic term for action, intervention, investigation and recording levels. Such
levels may be established for any of the quantifies determined in the practice of
radiation protection.
Reference
man:
An idealized caucasian person defined by the ICRP for the purpose of radiation
protection assessments.6_
Registrant:
An applicant who is granted registration of a practice or source and has recognized
rights and duties for such a practice or source, particularly in relation to protection
and safety.
Registration:
A form of authorization for practices of low or moderate r/s/cswhereby the person
responsible for the practice has, as appropriate, prepared and submitted a safety
assessment of the facilities and equipment to the RegulatoryAuthority. The practice
or use is authorizedwith conditions or limitations as appropriate. The requirements
for safety assessment and the conditions or limitations applied to the practice
should be less severe than for licensing.
Regulatory Authority:
An authority or authorities designated or otherwise recognized by a government for
regulatory purposes in connection with protection and safety.
P
Remedial action:
Action taken when a specified action level is exceeded to reduce radiation
doses that might otherwise be received, in an intervention situation
involving chronic exposure.
61
Intematmnal Commtssion on Rad_olog_cal Protectmon, Reference Man- Anatomical, Physlologzcal and Metabohc
Charactensacs,
ICRP Publication 23, Pergamon Press, ISSN 0 08 017024 2
177
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Risk:
A multiattribute quantity expressing ba?_rd, danger or chance of harmful or
injurious consequences associated with actual or potential exposures. It relates to
quantities such as the probability that specific deleterious consequences may arise
and the magnitude and character of such consequences.
Safety:
(See protection and safety.)
Safety assessment:
A review of the aspects of design and operation of a source which are relevant to
the protection of persons or the safety of the source, including the analysis of the
provisions for safety and protection established in the design and operation of the
source and the analysis of risks associated with normal conditions and accident
situations.
Safety culture:
The assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organi?ations and
individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, protection and
safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.
Sealed source:
Radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in a capsule or (b)
closely bounded, and in a solid form. The capsule or material of a sealed
source shall be strong enough to maintain leaktighmess under the
conditions of use and wear for which the source was designed, also under
foreseeable mishaps.
Source:
Anything that may cause radiation exposure, such as by emitting ionizing radiation
or releasing radioactive substances or materials. For example, materials emitting
radon are sources in the environment, a sterilization gamma irradiation unit is a
source for the practice of radiation preservation of food, an X ray unit may be a
source for the practice of radiodiagnosis, and a nuclear power plant is a source for
the practice of generating electricity by nuclear power. A complex or multiple
installation situated at the same location or site is considered a single source for the
purposes of application of the Standards.
Sponsoring organizations:
The Food and Agriculture Organi?ztion of the United Nations (FAO), the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organisation
(ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organi._ation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Orga,iT_ation (WHO).
178
"
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Standards dosimetry laboratory:
A laboratory designated by the relevant national authority for the purpose of
developing, ma_g
or improving primary or secondary standards for radiation
dosimetry.
·
Stochastic effects of radiation:
Ra&'_on effects, generally occurring without a threshold level of dose, whose
probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the
dose.
Supervised area:
Any area not designated as a controlled area but for which occupational exposure
conditions are kept under review even though specific protective measures and safety
provisions are not normally needed.
Supplier:
Any legal person to whom a registrant or licensee delegates duties, totally or
partially, in relation to the design, manufacture, production or construction of a source.
(An importer of a source is considered a supplier of the source.)
179
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Tissue weighting factors:
A factor by which the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue is multiphed in order to
account for the different sensitivities of different organs and tissues to the induction of
stochastic effects of radiation. The tissue weighting factors used for radiation
protection purposes are as follows.
Tissue or organ
Tissue weighting factor Wx
Gonads
0.20
Bone
marrow
(red)
0.12
Colon
a
0.12
Lung
0.12
Stomach
0.12
Bladder
0.05
Breast
0.05
Liver
0.05
Oesophagus
0.05
Thyroid
0.05
Skin
0.01
Bone
surface
0.01
Remainder
_
0.05
a
Lower large intestine.
b
For the purposes of calculation, the remainder is composed of adrenal glands, brain, upper large intestine,
small intestine, kaclney, muscle, pancreas, spleen, thymus and uterus
In those excepuonal cases m which
a single one of the remainder ussues or organs receives an equivalent close in excess of the lmghest dose m
any of tlte twelve tissues or organs for which a weighung factor is specified, a we_ghung factor of 0 025 shall
be apphed to that assue or organ and a weighting factor of 0 025 to the average dose m the rest of the
remainder as defined here.
Unsealed sources:
Sources that do not meet the definition of a sealed source.
Worker:
Any person who works, whether full time, part time or temporarily, for an employer
and who has recognized rights and duties in relation to occupational ra&ation
protection. (A self-employed person is regarded as having the duties of a worker.)62
62
180
See definition of Employer.
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STEERING, DRAFTING AND REVIEW
Meetings and Contributors
181
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182
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MEETINGS
Meetings of the Interagency Committee on Radiation Safety
WHO, Geneva: 4-5 February 1991
CEC, Brussels: 19-20 October 1992
PAHO, Washington DC: 19 April 1993
'
Meetings of the Joint Secretariat
OECD/NEA, Paris: 9-12 April 1991
IAEA, Vienna: 9-13 December 1991
OECD/NEA, Paris: 21-23 October 1992
PAHO, Washington DC: 20-23 April 1993
Technical Committee Meetings
IAEA, Vienna: 14-18 December 1992
IAEA, Vienna: 13-17 December 1993
Senior Experts Meeting
Vienna: 24-28 February 1992
Consultants Meetings
London: 24-28 June 1991; Ottawa: 23-27 September 1991;
Vienna: 6-10 January 1992, 20-24 January 1992,
23-27 March 1992, 9-13 November 1992
7-19 November 1993
Ad Hoc Working Group on Dose Limitation in Specific Occupations
ILO, Geneva: 29 March-1 April 1993
Ad Hoc Working
Group on Potential Exposures
OECD/NEA, Paris: 8-10 March 1993
183
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184
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CONTRIBUTORS
·
Ahm_,J.
lmeraa_om]
Ahmed, M.
Inmmte
Al,_._aer,
*l[_Vy_
R.E.
A.
blm=rshad,
·
A.
TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW
Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
of Atomic Energy Research, Rotadh, Saudl Ar_la
Alexander
Corporation,
Fairfax, Umu_ States of Amcnca
/nt_maQo
n_l
Comml_¢tOn
01_ _d,=rlon
Um_
In._mtr
of Atomic Energy Research, R_ya_,
al_
Mea.gu_nts,
Saud] Ara/om
As van, D.
Awmlc Energy Corporauon
Agsar, M.
Pakistan
Bakir, Y.
Atonuc Energy Commmee,
Beaver, P.F.
Health and Safely F.xecmavc, London, Umted Kingdom
B_i,w. on, D.
Conmldn Nacional de Energh A_mlca,
Becker, K.
Dcutsch¢ In.mt
B_bings,
Intereadonal
R.
A{omlc
'l_-n¢l'g7
of Sou& Afnca l._,
Comm!_<aOll,
Sevres
Pretom,
Sou& Afnca
!slnrn:_hl_,
Kuwait
Buenos Aires. Argennr_
flu' Normung, Berlin, Germany
Labour Or_n,,_-on.
London
Bodlan, R.
Energy Resources of Austraha Iai.,
Bond, J.
Atonuc
Borras, C.
Pan American
Boutrif, E.
Food and Agncukure
Bush, W.R.
Internauonal
F. llel'gy
of
C _n_dn
Lid.,
Sydney, Aumaha
Ontaflo,
Health Org_-,r_uon,
Or_n,,_uon
Callada
W_hmotOn,
DC
of the United Nanons, Rome
Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
Chauerjee,
R.
Atomic Energy Comrol Board, Ottawa, Canada
Christova,
M.
Nanonal Cen_r of Radiology and Rad_anon Protecnom Sofia, Bulgaria
Clarke, R.
Nanonal Radlologw.al Protecuon Board, Chilton, Umted Kingdom
Coates, R.
Bnush Nuclear Fuels plc, R_ley. U_I
Colhn, W.
Bundesam[
Cool, D.
Nuclear
Copp/e,
G.H.
f_r Swahlenschu_z, Salzgn_er, C_rl_ta_y
Regulatory
In_manonal
Creswell, S.
Nuclear _ons
Crick, M.
Imemauonal
Commt_lon,
lnspec_ra_,
Radmlogw. a] Protecuon
C,,,m_oh_m,
R.
Nuclear
Debauche, M.
Demetriades,
R_glll_l:Ol'y
In_manoml
l'Inmmt
P.
DC,
United
S_teS
Of A._¢rica
London, United Kingdom
Atomic Energy Agency, V_enm
J.
K.
W_chmo_n,
Labour Office, Geneva
Cunningham,
Cur_,
Kingdom
Insnmte
Comm,<<lOI_
of Ireland, Dublin, Irela_
W_'IIDglon,DC,
Labour Org_n,_on,
UmtEd Sm_s of Amenca
Geneva
Nauonal des Rad_oilimen_
Mum'wy of Labour and Socml lnmrancc, N_cosm, Cyprus
185
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Despr_,
A.
Insurer de Protecaon et Sfimti Nuclta.u'c, Fonteuay-aux-Roses,
Don2nL K.
Insumte of Nuclear Physlcs. Tu'-a_, Albama
Dufi.v'hmld,
D,,,,_,,_
K.
R.M.
Ausman Research Centre Se_bcrsdoff, Ausma
Atomic Energy Control Board, Ouawa, Canada
Dunker, J.
London, England
F.,ch_varri, L.
Consqo
]Erlskat, H.
Commlqslon of file European Commumues,
Ferruz, P.
CommOn Chfiem
Fa.om.vi, L.
Centre d'Emdes Fuel/aires,
Forastien,
Fortuna,
V.
R.
Fntelh,
L.
de Seguridad Nuclear, Madnd. Spare
Intemauonal
Luxembourg
de Energ/a Nuclear, Santiago, Chile
Gff-sur-Yvellc,
Labour Orgamsauon,
Iusumte of Occupauonal
France
Geneva,
Safety, Ljubljana, Sloverua
Ente per le Nuove Tecnolog,e, L'Energia · I'Amblente, Rome, Italy
Fry, R.
Office of tbe Supervising Sclenust, Canberra. Auswaha
Fuga, P.
Alb2m2n Awmic Energy Amhonty.
Tu'ana. Albama
Garnyk, N.
Ministry of the Russmn Fedemuon
for Am,nc
Gerber, G.
Comnnsslon
G_bson,
ABA Technology, Harwell, Dldcot, Umted Kingdom
GOn?ilP.
J.A
Z, A.J.
of the European Commumues,
lnt_'l'llallormI Awmic Energy Agency,
Energy.Moscow,
Vienna
Colorado, Umted States of Amenca
Govaerts, P.
Centre d'Emde de l'Energle Nuclealm, Mol-Donk,
Gunn, S.
lnternauonal
H2n_on, G.
World Health O_2n,_,auon,
Hefner, A.
Forschungszcntrum
Selbersdoff, Ausma
Hock, R.
Sxemens AG/KWU,
Offenbach,
Hoegberg, L.
SwedLsh Nuclear Power Inspectorate,
Huyskeus,
Imemauoml
C.
Electrotechmcal
Ra&auon
Comm_swn,
Geneva, $wllzertand
Germany
Protecuon
Stockholm, Sweden
A.ssocmuon, Emdhoven
lVfimsuy of Healdu and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan
ILmri, O.
Nuclear Energy Agency of the Org_-,_uon
les Moulmeaux, France
for Economic Co-operauon
Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development
J2mme[,
Centre al'Etudes Fuel/aims,
Corporauon,
Fontenay-aux-Roses,
Jones, C.
Depatlment
Jovased, L.
Centre for Hygiene and Radmnon Protecuon,
186
and Development,
CIEMAT, ldadnd, Spam
kh,o_aro, H.
H.
Belgmm
Geneva, Switzerland
leyasy, H.
E.
Russ:a
Brussels
Gorson, R.
lmnz_,
Fr,mce
of Energy, Washmgwn,
Tokyo, Japan
France
Umted States of America
Havana, Cuba
Issy
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Kazi, O.A.
Banglade_
Kemi_berg,
4_
J.
Mmsk, Repubhc of Belarus
Fujlla Health University, Tokyo, Japan
Komarov,E.l.
Insmutc of ]_2rl_uon Hygu_n_, St. Petersburg,
Kr'aus, W.
Bundesam! flit Strahlcns_hmz,
Kuhar, B.
Zavod Republikc Slovemje za va_,xtvo pn delu. LJubljana, Slovema
Ktmz, E.
Nauonal Insumte for Pubhc Health. Prague, Czech Rcpubhc
Lan, Z.
Chinese l_sslon
Li, D.
China Insumte for Rad,_,,on Promcuon. Beljing, China
J.
l_ley,
M_lcal
G.
Russia
Berlin, Germany
tn _he IAEA, V_nua
Academy of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Inmrnauonal Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
Lokaa, K.H.
Austr_h_n Rachauon Laboratory, Melbourne.
Lyscov,V.
Mmis_
Mason,
Auswahan Radmuon Laboratory, Melbourne,
G.C.
Uramum _sk_mhewan
MetcalI, P.
Council for Nuclear Satiety, Hennopsmeer,
T.
Somh Afnca
Central Labor'awry for Radwlogical Protecuon,
D.
Insr,mt of Prevenl_ve and Chmcal Medicine,
N_hiwaki,
Y.
UmvcmVof
O'Donnell,
Auswaha
Ass Inc., Saskatoon, Canada
Nikodema,
Novosel, N.
Auswa_
of Ecology iud Natural Resources. Moscow, Russia
Meadley, T.
Musialowicz,
Warsaw, Poland
Bral_slava, Slovak Rcpubhc
Vicnua, Vienna, Ausma
Muustry of Economy, Zagreb, Croaua
P.
Consejo de Segundad Nuclear, Madrid. Spain
Opelz, M.
Intemauonal Atomic Energy Agency Office, Geneva
Oshmo, M.
Japan Atoma¢ Energy Research lnsmute, Tokai-mum, .tapan
Pan, Z.
Ciuna Nanonal Nuclear Corporauon,
Panf'flov, A.
MmLsu'y of the Pus.san F--ederauon for Atonnc Energy, Moscow, Russ_
Parment/er,
_r
Chmc for Radlauon Medicine,
Dhaka, Bagladesh
Koga, S.
l.imeda,
t
Awmic Energy Comm_lon,
N.
Ccnlre d'Emdes Nu¢I/ai_s,
Beljmg, China
Fontenay-aux-Roses,
Pnumferri, J.
Commdn Nacwnal de Ea¢_h
Placer, A.
Consejo de Scguridad Nuclelr, Mad_nd, Spain
Queaiart, D.
Cenm: d'Emdcs
Quevedo, J.
Eslmlm] dc ,_gurldad P.adlol6glca, Cuba
Randell,
Food and Agnculaire
A.W.
Nuclialres,
France
At6mlca, Buenos An_s, Argcnuna
Fonu_my-aux-Roses,
Organ_uon
France
of file United Nauon.s, Rome
lR.nn,'Id:,% S.
Fmm_h Centre for Radmtion and Nuclear Safety, Helsmla, Finland
Re/acrs, C.
Umverslry of Essen, Essen, Germany
Riabotdthme,
G.I.
World Health Org_m72non, Geneva
187
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Richardson,
A.
Envn'onmenm]
Umte.d States of America
Protocuon Agency, Washington,
Rose, H.
General Mmm!, Metals and Minerals Lu/., Marsha!lrtowu, South Africa
Sanchez, G.
Conusl6n Nac{onal de Energia Atdmica, Buenos Au-es, Argcnuna
Sandr'u, P.
Insuu.lte for Atonuc Physics, Bucharest. Rommm_
SaLter, W.
lnternauona_ Confederauon
Scheffenegger,
R.
Federal _
of Free Trade Uranus, Vienna
for Heal,h, Sport3 and Consumer Protccuon,
Vienna, Ausma
Schlesmger, T.
Soreq Nuclear Research Cenu-e, Yavnch, Israel
Selby, 3.
l_chards Bay Minerals, Richards Bay, South Africa
Seitz, G.
Imemanoual
_daw, K.
Nauonal Rad,olog,ca] Protecnon Board, Chilton, Umted Iiangdom
Skvarca, J.
Mum-w/ of Heal,h. Buenos Aires, Argenuna
._ffh_ H.
Nauonal Radioioglcal Protecnon Board, Chilton, Umted Kingdom
Snihs, J.
Sweduh Rachauon Pwtecuon
SOrnnn; S.D.
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Bombay, ladm
Sonneck, M.
Ausmau
Sor&, G.
Insurer- for Nuclear Energy and Research, San Paulo, Brazil
Sou/i, 1.
Centre Nanonal de l'Energle, des Sciences et des Techmques
St,,mh,_usler, F.
Insumtc of Physics and Blophys,cs, Salzburg, Austria
Suess, M.
World Health Org_-,,_-on
Sug/er, A.
lnsutut de Protecuon
Sundell-BerEm_ _n, S.
Interuauoual
Susanna,
Entt per le Nuove Tecnologle. L'Energla - l'Amb{ente Rome, I_aly
A.
Socm] Security Assocmuon, Cologne, Germany
Research Cen_
Insutute, Stockholm,
Se,bersdorf, Ausma
e£ de Sfiret/ Nucl/a_ru, Fonteuay-aux-Roses,
Comnmsion
on Occupauom]
Rabat. Morocco
Szepesi, T.
Umverslt/L_Jmfic
Sztanyik, L.B.
Nauona] Research Insumte for Ra&obioiogy
Tatah, B.
MmL_n:
flu' Strahlen_eraple
und Sn'abJenblologlc, Vienna, Ausma
and Radwhyglene,
D_legu/ i h Recherche et i la Technolgtc,
Comm,mm_onof the European Commumues,
Tscholakoff,
D.
K.,ankemnstah
Rudolfssufmng,
T._h,,,'lovas,
M.
Atomm':_aJt der Ostormlcluschen
France
Health, Solm
NatlonaJ Atonuc Energy Agency, Jakarta, lndonesm
Budapest.
Luxembourg
Umverst, aten, V_nna,
Depamnent
Vanol, C.
Federaue Elccmclmt
Vssilev, G.
Nauonal Centre of Radiology and Radnuon
Vekic, B.
Zagreb. Cmaua
Velez, G.
Univer3Jdad Namonal de C6rdoba, C6rdoba, A_ennna
Hungary
Alg,ers. Algeria
'_
Vienna, Ausma
Uzunov, I.
188
Nucl/au'es,
Regwnal Office for Europe, Copenhagen
Suyu&, S.
Telmen, D.
Sweden
Au.sma
of Atonuc Physics, Sofia. Bulgaria
en Gas, World Confederanon of Labour. Brussels
Pmtecuon, Sofia. Bulgaria
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¢
Vereyrlr,,%H.
Dr Da,mci den Hoed Cancer Cenue, Ronerdam,
¥olodm,
World He.alga Orgamzauon,
Geneva
Wnloht, p.
World Health Org_mT_on,
Geneva
Webb, G.
IntemanonaJ
Wrixon, T.
National Radlologlcal P_w.cuon
Wymer,D.
Chamber of Mines, Auckland Park, 5omh Afnca
Yano, S.
Sctcnce and Technology
Yo_hi-_wa, Y.
Nuclear Safety Research Assoclauon, Tokyo, Japan
V.
Nethert=,Ytq
Awmlc Energy Agency, Vienna
Board, Chilton, Unned Kingdom
Agency, Chiyoda-ku, Japan
189
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ENDORSEMENT
The Standards
were
December
1993.
endorsed
by a Techmcal
Committee
Meeting
held
a_ the
IAEA,
Vlenua,
on
13-17
191
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192
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PARTICIPANTS
OF THE TECHNICALCOMMYITEE
MF..ETING (TCM) ENDORSING
IAEA,Vimm,
13-17 December 1993
THE STANDARDS,
JOINT _KET_T
I'
CO-ORDINATOR
(moderator of the TCM)
A.J. GONT__I._-7.;International
Atomic Energy Agency, Vzeana, Austria
FAO
E. BOUTRIF, Food Quality and Standards Service, Food Pohcy and Nutrmon
Division, Food and Agriadtm'e Orguni--_aon, Rome, Italy
IAEA
G.A.M.WEBB, and W.BUSH,Radmhon
Safety Sechon, Ihvision
Safety, lnIernatmnal Atomic Energy Agency,V_mn% &ustrza
ILO
G.H. COPPEE and Val-_
FORAb-l'_,Occupefional
Safety and Health
Branch, lntemauonal Labour Organnmtion, Geneva, Switzerland
OF.,CDINF.,A
O. ILARI, Ra&ahon Protectmn and Waste Management,
Safety D/vmon_ Issy-les-Moul/nea_,
France
PAHO
C. BORRAS, Rad/ological H_-Jl_h; Pan AmericanH_th
Wmchln_ton DC, USA
WHO
G.P. HANSON,Radiation
$w/tzerb,,d
of Nuclear
OECD]NEA,
Nuclear
Orggn,-_txon,
Mechcme, World Health Organ/safaon, Geneva
LIAISON OFFICERS
ICRP
D.J. BENINSON, Member of the Mare Commiecloll,
R.H. CLARKE,_
of the Main Co_-;_,_on
J. DUNSTER, Member of the Main Commi¢_oB
H. JAMMEr, Member of the Mare Comm,_on
CEC
D. TEUNEN
Commrt;tee 4
OFFICERS OF 'L'ti_ MEETING
WORKING GROUP 1
CHAIRMAN. D. J. BEN]_SON, ComiMon
Naaonal de Energia Atomic, Buenos Aires,
RAPPORTEUR:R.M. CHATTERJEE,Atormc
Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Canada
Argpm_ln_
WORKING
GROUP 2
CHAIRMAN:ILM.
Amtraha
WORKING
GROUP 3
CHAIRMAN:A.
M.TGIER, C.E.N.
de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire,
Fontemy-aux-Roses,
France
_RTEUR:W.
Strahl_,
WORKING
GROUP 4
CHAIRMA_:R.GORSON,
_RTEUR:J.
L_,
Academy of Lodz, Poland
WORKING
GROUP 5
CHAIRMAN:L.E.
ff
FRY, Glebe, NSW,
RAPPORTEI2RS:R.E.
BIBBINGS, Trade
Unions Congress, london
P. FOSTER, International Confedeerat/on of
Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), Harwdl Dld¢ot
Oxon
Colorado, USA
ECHAVA.RRI,Comejo
de
Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid, _
WORKING
GROUP 6
_r
CHAIRMAN:A.C.B.RICHA.RDSON,
iromn,nt_!
USA
TASK GROUP ON
THE RADIATION
SAFETY
FUNDAMENTALS
RAPPORTEi_:D.
KRAUS, Bimdesamt
Berlin, Germ2ny
fin.
Medical
A. COOL, Radiation
Protection and H,._h Effects Btam'b; US
Nuclear Regulatory Comm,_'ion, W_e-_n
DC, USA
U.S. Env-
Protectmn Agency,W_¢hm_on
CHAIRMAN:R.H.
CLARKE,National
Radmlogical Protection Board, Chilton, UK
DC,
RAPPORTEUR:
S.L. _
Safety Divmon,Heatth
and _fety
Baymrds House, London, IrK
.I -,Nuclear
Execu_ve
RAPPORTEUR:R.
CUNNENGHAM, Divmon
of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety,
Office of Nuclear Material Safety and
Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory
Comm,_on,
Wachm_on
DC, USA
193
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NOMINEF._ FROM MEMBER
_FATES
ALGERIA
DJEFFAL, 2_, Centre de Radmprotectmn et de $urete (CPS), Alger
ARGENTINA
BENINSON, D., Comismn Nactonal de Enogta Amnuc_ Buenos Awes
h
SKVARCA, J., !_,t,,,,_n
F_lr_
AUSTRALIA
Protection, Mtnis_ of Health, Buenos Au,es
G., Sociedad Argentina de F_sica M_
Haspttal San Roque, Cordoba
BODKIN, R., Energy Resources of AustrahaLtd.,Sydney
FRY, R.M., Glebe, NSF/
LOKAN, I_H., Attsa,alian l_,,,t,,,_n
Laboratory, Melbourne
MASON, G. _, Au.v_alian R_,t,m, nn Laboratory, Melbourne
AUSTRIA.
HEFNER; /L, Forschungszenttum Selbersdotf
NISHIF/AKI E,
SZEPESl, T., UniversrtatsMmik j_r Straklentherapie und Strahlenbiologte, F'tenna
TSCHURLOVITS, M., Alominsamt der O_terreich_chen
Univ_en,
V'tenna
BANGLADESH
KAZI, 0., Bangladesh Atomtc Energy Comrntssmn, Dhaka
BELARUS
KENIGSBERG, J._,
BELGIUM
DEBAUCHE; AL, Services de S_cur_
indusmelic, Flturus
BRAZIL
$ORDI, G., l_to
BULGARIA
CHRISTOVA, M., National Center of Radmlo_ and R_d,_nnn IVotet_mn, do Comnuttee on
the Use of Atonuc Energy for Ptaceful Purposes
Chnic for Rn_nonn Medicine, Mmsk
GOVAERTS, P., S_N,
de l'Institut Nattonal des Radiodldments Zone
Belgium Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang, Mol-Donk
de Pesquisas Energdacos · Nucltares-lPF. N, $ao Paulo
YANEK Y., 1574 Sofa
CANADA
BOND, J., Atarntc Energy of Canada Lt_ C.balk River Nuclear Labaratones,
CHA_
CItalk Rtver
K, AtomicEnergy Control Boar_ Ottawa
MEADLET, T., Uranium Saskatchewan Asa Ina $askamon
Cimn.g_
FERRUZ CRUZ, P., Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, $anaago
CHINA
LI, D., China institute for g_a*m_nnprotet._mn, Belting
CROATIA
NOVOSEL, IV., M'mirtry of Economy, Zagreb
VEKI_ B;, MmhYry of Industry, Zagreb
CUBA
QUEVEDO GARCIA, J., c/o UNDP ResMent Repr_enta_v_
CYPRUS
DEMETRIADF. S, P., Depot
Ntcosta
CZECFI Rep.
KUNZ, Ir-, National !astitote for Pubic Health, Prague
ECUADOR
BUITRON SAPlETtE.Z, S., CortustonEcuatonana de Energia Atomic& Qutto-Ecuador
194
New York, US
of Labour, Mmffoy of Labour and $ooal lnsurance_
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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FINLAND
RANNIKKO, S;, _r'mmsh Ce.ntre for Rmhm,nn and Ntsc!ea, Safety, Helsinki
FRANCE
EttAPUIS, IPSN, Centre d'Etudes NuvDn,rt_, Fontenay-aux. Roses
¢
DESPRES, A., !nst_t
Fomenay.aux-Roses
de Prote_n
et Surett Nuc_le___r_Centre al'Etudes Nttc!emres
JAMMET, H., C2'PR, Fontenay-aux. Roses
QUENIART, D., _
IPSN, Fontenay. aux. Roses Ctdex
PIECIIOWSKI, MousSe
de ia Sant_, Pans
des Affaires Sociales de la Sant_ et de la Ville Dir·ctwn Gdn_'ale
SUG1ER, A., C._N., !nstttut de Pro__,__'onet de Surete Nucteaire, Fontenay-aux.Roses t_,,d,_
GERMANY
GEORGIA
BURKART, i_, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karisruhe
KRAUS, IE., Bstnd_arnt ft_r _rahlens_t_
Berlin
MANJGAI. ADZI_ G., Radtological inspire
of Georgia
SltAVDIA, N., Chief State Sanitary Phystcian of the Republic
GHANA
JOHNSON, Ghana Atomic Energy Comm_ton,
SE_4NDO_
Legon-Accra
Legon.Accra
C, R"_n"_n Protectton Boara_ Ghana Atomic Energy Commi_ion
GUATEMALA
AL VARF_.Z,F., National Directory of Nuclear Ener&v (DGEN), C.dd_o
HUNGARY
SZTANYIK, L, Natwnal Research lnsl_te
HOLYSEE
HEFNER, A., Forschungszentrum Setbersdo_ Austria
INDIA
!_JSHNAMONY,
INDONESIA
AKHADI, U., CSRSR. NAEA, Jakarta
IR_I.aaND
CUNNINGItAM, J., Radiolagical Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin
for Radwbwlogy and Radtohygtene Budapest
S., Bhabha Atomic Rt_earch Ctntre, Bombay
LITAI, D., Israel Atomic Energy C_mm_ion,
SE_ILESINGER,
ITALY
TebAviv
Z, $oreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavneh
FRULLAN1, S., !satuto Supenore 4e_e $anitd, Roma
SUSANNA, .4., Dirtzione per la Siatrezza, Nucleate · Prott_ne
Roma
Sanitaria, ENF.A.DISP,
4P
q-
195
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TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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JAPAN
ABE, IL, Tola_ Research F.smb_b_
(JAERl),Tola_-nmra, Nala_gun
Japan Alornic Energy Research lnsumze
II. lIMA, T., Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUP£C) Tokyo
ISHIGURO, Il., Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Developm_nl Corpor_on
Tokyo
(PNC)
KOGA, $., Fujrta HeaRh Univer$ff_; School of M,n4,dn_ Aw.hi-ken
K'USAMA, T., Faculty of M_w_e,
Tokyo Umver$ay
MIZUSHITA, S., Japan AtorracEnergy Research lartmtte (JAERI), Tolun-mura
OMOPJ, T., General Affatrs Diviswn, Health Policy Bureau, Ministry of Health and }}tlfare,
Tokyo
YANO, H., Nuclear Safety Bureau, Sctence and TecJmolo_, Agency, Tokyo
KIRGHISTAN
NORUZBAYEV, IL, Btxhkek
KOREA, Rep.of
NA, S., Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taelean
KUWAIT
BAKIR, Y., Mtmrtry of Health, State of Ktovmt, Arabian Gulf
MEXICO
MUNOZ, V., ln.vt_uto Naatonal de lnvertigaciont_ Nucleates, Cemro de Metrologta de
Rod, or,ones !omzantes, Mexico, D.F.
ORTIZ MAGANA, R., Cmntston Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Satvaguardtas (CNSN$)
Mexico, D.F.
NIGERIA
ORF__EGUN, Federal R,,d,__'on Protectton Service, (FRPS) Untverstty of ibadan
NORWAY
SAXEBOL, G., Nor_vegtan R_,t,_nn
PAKI.qTAN
AFSAR, M., Pakzrtan Atomic Energy Comng_ion, l$1amabad
POLAND
LINIECKI, J., Department of Nuclear Medu_ne, Medw.al Academy of Lo_, Lodz
Prote___'onAuthor_y, Oxteras
MERTA, A., Natwnal Atomtc Enetl_ Agency, W_a
MU$1ALOWICM, T., Central Laboratory for Radiologtc_ Protetmon, War_aw
ROMANIA
GHILEA, S., National Conmu_ion for Nuclear Acnvmes Cono'ol, Bucurerti
RUSSIA
BULDAKOV, L, Institute of Btophysws, M'mirtry of Henlth, Moscow
ILYIN, L, U$$R MmnOy of Public Health, lnrtttute of B_ophysics, Moscow
KU7710V, E, Rupiah R,,,1,,,S_n Prot_._on Buar_ Moscow
LP31_OV,
Il., Mmirtry of Enwronmen_ Moscow
PANFILOV, A., Committee of Safety, Mm=wy of _e Ru._ian Federaaon for Atonuc Energy,
Moscow
RAMZAEV, P., State Comnuttee on Sanitary Contro_ S_ Petersburg
SAUDI ARABIA
AL-MARSHAD, A., !nstttute of Atomtc Eno'gy Research, Kmg Abdltlaziz ff----ay
for $ctence and
Technology (KACSI'), PJyadh
BAGtlAZI, A., Inrtitute of Atomic Energy Research, ICingAbdulaT.tz r_gyfor Scwnce and
Technology (KA_T), Payadh
196
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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_LOV,ME]A,Rep.of
GAAI., P., Nuclear Regulatory AuOtority, Brat_dava
JERINA, Nuclear Regulatory Author_y, Brat_iava
¢
NIKODEMOVA, D., Institute of Preventive And Chntcal M,'_ne,
Brat_lava
SENOVSKA, _, Nu,'t_,_, Regulmory Authortty, Brazi.dava
VRABCEK, t'., Nuclear Regul,,_ry Authority, Bramlava
SLOVENIA
ARH, S., Slovenum Nuclear Safety Admim._a_n,
14ubOana
FOR17JNA, T., lt, mmfe of Occupational Saf_y, l.jubbana
KANDUC; M., !n.n_te
of Occupational $aft_y, l..jub_ana
K-t.]HAR,B., Zavod Republtke $lovenOe za varxtvopti delu, 1.4ubOana
MARTINClC, R., Jozef Stefan Insert,re. Ij_b_ana
SOUTH
AFRICA
OLIVIER, H., Depa of National Health, and Populatton Development, Directorate of
Ra_;_nn Contro/, Be//v///e
ROSE, H., GENMIN General Mining, Marshalltown
SELBY, J., General Manager-
Techmcal Rw.hards Bay Minerals, Richards Bay
WYME_ D, Chambzr of Mines of South Africa, Marshalltown
SPAIN
CANCIO, D., M_
de !ndurtria y Energia, Ctn_ de !nvertigaciones Energ_icax
Medwambientales y Tecnologtcas, (C.I.E.M.A.T.), Madrid
CARMENA SERVERT, D., AMYS, Muuxterio de 1_
EC_L4 VARR1,L., Cownet,
Comercio y Turbmo, Madrid
Comejo de $egundad Nuclear, Madrid
IGNAC]O, D., AMOR, Consejo de Seguridad Nuel, n,r, Madrid
O'DONELL, D., Consejo dt $eguridad Nuclear, Madrid
PLA E_.R, A., Comejo de $eguridad Nuclear, Madrid
TORROBA, D., Mmisterio de lndzaftia, Cornercioy Tunsmo, Madrid
SWEDEN
SNIHS, J., Swedbh it_,_,,_n
Protect_n !nttttutt, StoclOtolm
$UNDELL BF_.RGMAN,L, .$_.dah
_
MICI.L4 UD, K, O_'tce#d_'al
R,,,_;,,_n Pn, te_t_/onlrt._tute, Stockholm
dz la santdpublulue., Berne
PONGPAT, F.., Healtk Physits D'_ion,
O_'we of Atomic Energy for Pzace, Bangkok
113R]_Y
OZERDEN, 40., TurMsk Atomic Energy Author_y, Ankara
UK
CJ.4RK_
R., National Radiologtcai Prot_on
_R,q_!
I. $., Nuclear ltt._t'll_innS !nrpe_orate, London
Board, Oxon
COATES, P.., Bri_h Nuclear Fuels I._n_a_ Wan_gton,
Cheshire
gila FY,K, Nwlional Radtological Protection Boar_ Oxon
197
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
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USA
COOL, D., US Nuclear Regulatory Comnu_mn, Washington DC
CUNNINGHAM, P,., Ro,_i_,on and Nuclear Materud Safety, O_..t of Nuclear Mat_"_l._, U.S
Nuclear Regulator), Comr,mmon, Washington DC
)
GORSON, R., Boulder, Colorado
PARSONS, E., Rad_ological Prolectton Prolecl, S_nafic
RABO_K_,
J., U.S. D_varonent of Ener_,, DOE, Washington
TRUJILLO, 1., Caracas
198
F._olo_, Group, P_evii_
ATTACHMENT TO GOV/2715, APRIL 1994
RESTRICTED DISTR., ORIGINA_ ENGLISH
NO_-_
·
FROM ORGANIZATIONS
CF_
7EUNEN, D., !_xembourg
It_lqtJ
FOSTEP_ P., Public Ser_ces International, AEA Tecknolo_5 int_matwnal
Trade Unions OCFTU), Oxon, UK
ICRP
DUNSTER, lt., International Comrm_ion on Radwiogw_l Protectwn, Oxon
ILO
BIBBINGS, R., $ooM ltzmranee and lr,_ue_u_l Deparomr_
Confedera_on of Free
Trade Llnions Congre_, London
PARSONS, 1_, Radwiogic. al Protectton Project, $de. ng'_tcEcology Group, Pla=evil_e
IRPA
METCALF, P., ._andards and _'_,_m_n Protectton DepL, Council for Nuclear Safety, Heenopsmeer,
Republic of South .4frtca
ISO
BE_
L_A
SEIIZ, G., Internattonal Social Securio' A._ociation (ISSA), Bentfsgenossenschafi
ttnd E2e_otechnik, Tech_Referat Strahlenschutz, KOln, Germany
SAGSTRAM
SHAW, If., National Radiological Prote_e_,_on
Boart_ Chilton, DMcot
UN COMMII'I_._
ON OUTER S_'ACE
I.AL& P., VIC !teadquarte_,
URANIUM
TAYLOR, M., The Uranium lnxtttute, london,
WCL
VAN'MOL, C, Federatie Elet_r,_e_
Brussels, Belgium
IL, Secretariat of lSOffC 85, DIN-Deutsches lnstttut flor Normung, Berlin
der Femrnechan_
P'tenna
UK
tn Gas (FEG), World Confederation of Labour OVCA),
VAN PASSEN, Worm Confederatwn of Labour, Brurse_, Belgium
199
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200
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SPONSO]PJ_G ORGANIZ._TIONS
FAO _s
I_f
d_tnbtJbon
coilechon,
au_
_ar
w_h _e
I[_ im_
kjht
Of Ck_
organtzlt,_s
The fillj_
_
The IAF_.Awas establ_ed
INI
In 1957
Anions _
lures S to I_cu_
rm_ov_nen_
m the fE_=_.ncy of the produ_on
techmcaJ-..F.,_unites
II.ncc IJld m*_,'_',',',ce
for the _ igrl_Jltu/'ad
anti Of
Fomd._j
for governments
_
_communt_,
_
_
& q,_nety Of fom'aJ ired mfi_m&l channels, on adl _
of
In 19E2, FAO &nd the WI-lO mltabl_%_ the Codex AJtrnentl_us
end en_.rnng bur princes
m fi_e fc_d _,
_l_
_]_
of _ _
_
_,
_1'Affll11_
I_I_J_$ I1_ mllMl_lng iJJ'KIg_hl_j
the I_lf:4JItx_l
_ _iE1 m
I_Jblmtung these stau_luds
Of FAO tn thea_ St,lmd4&rc_ nitre
throughout the w_ft¢l One Of the Ages
Nahons mm¢lwith the spe_aJ;ed _
d Agncu_uTe
caning
out mitjor
_
on pohcy
ind I_mnmg,
amd '*_'_qce
to I_ me'nber governments, t_h
pcoduds m _
with CuTm_ _
ems o_ _otec_ng the heNth Of c_'d_e_
_:M!_rf_rAIkl
I1_ _mmefitlJ
and w_th the mci Of ikol_opnate
h.dlt_e
FJt._s
maun tosks
Ixr
adwm'tg
_
chscu_ food lull aKjnculturaJ tuues. FAO _
_
product. S, dts_btf0on &nd consump(_n Of food lad Ig_
Comm_mon
la'ldefiJ_n_
·
es_J_hshed m 1B45 to SuDemede the Inamm_on_
d fcK_
ign(:uthJraJ Oft_x:lt_ts
and and
d,me_
_,
Its st_tuto,"y obje_e
ts to .ek
m & Codex _us.
_
to t)_e Codex Ntnlefiltam_
*'- au:=eknte
_[_
_
ifid to the su_
_
_er
Of aKjrr, uEu_
m_l er4mge the =omntx_on
_
_
_
_
_
m_
_
_
_m_
for ibouT c_nd_uons), ind to pmmde for _e ip_K:a_n
Of _.se I_mduds
to _ ClWn opembons as _i _ _ _ _
_
_
of _.
fa_ht_s, and h-d_4aon
made avmlable I_the Agency or at Its request c_ under its control or eu_ervmon, amcl to IXo_le for the a,_pl_tbon
mq'.'est Of the pubes, to o_era[bom under amy bdatemJ or mulblateraJ araAgeme_,
_ _ _ _
_ a _e,
Momm_r. wTth mspecl to amy Agency project, or othe_ _nt
where t_e Agency ,,: requestecl by _ _
_ _
_
_ _
_e'$
_
to _p_
_,
and _r_bdfty,
tothe exterd relevant to the pr_
or i_,
'to rKlu_re the Obi, Mince Of amy helJth e',d safety meesure _
_nto the temtory of the fec_pent State or Stiles mspecto,"s_ to G_ten_me whether them msc_mplm..x=e wtth [such] _
and _
measures'.
Inter adm,to tasdrtate the c[=chugmng Of these fu_,
rights lind _bllfi;es
Of the Agency
jm_e
The ILO _
e_d bet_' I_r_
_
_rot_h
_
Of eom c e_',ergy to ;_u=e. h.trh
_
is 'to esta_nd'] ouIdopt, In coot4J_abon &"',d.where ipprOpr_¢e, m collabo_tJon
-..c.-,c._-ne_, star_axds Of .fe_
for pe=to_xxt Of hea_ amd rrmrm_on
Of _r
_ _
_
_e
m_
_
d
an_ _
_
of _
_
_
Un_
_,
_m
of these staAmu_,
m_
_
of _c
_
l
_
e the
_
_
_
·
_
by the A,_
audi 'to se_l
These Stm-¢a.-c_ aim u'_enOed
as1abhshe_ in 1919 by the Treaty Of Vemulles to bnn 9 government3, employem and tr_le t,rn_ns together for umled a_bon in the mu_e Of So¢_a.I
c_d_ms
ewm_
It ts a lnpaAtte O_,aAtZl_.
_
_r
a,'_ employer m_resefttitfv_
l_ung I_'t m Its work O_ eq_d satu_ witt_ _
of
gc_emments
The_L_vmsinamton_m_us_utdtheLeagueofNab_mau_m1N6_tbecame1he_rsts1x_c_J___Un_
The
prGtect_n Of the worker igoJnst s_c_nee$, d_ease end Injury ans_m:jfrom employ_nent _ one Of the tasks asmgned to the ILO m the*words Of the Preamble Of its Conshtut_n
One Of the rmun features Of the Inte_
L.&bour Ofganmmon,
In addmon to its topL'trte structure. 6 _ mandard-settm9 achv_
Some _cty mlernatmmd _ntmns
&nd Recommendations
corn:em the Fotect_
Of vv_la_m igaunst occupat_aJ
hazards, in 1949 the ILO i_Jbhshed · 0et Of ptacbr, aJ _lemahor_
sW'Jdarcls on raci_hon
pr_e_Jon wh_h _re revved 0Jid c_s_.mbly
_
In 1_7 Ind Mh'e _nttod
_o the ILO M&nuaJ d _
_
_
In 1960. the In_
I.a_x_r _
icloptecl
the Rachabon Prote=t_n
Conver$on
(No 115) arcf Fie(_:mt_
{No 114)
The Convent]on Ipple$
to all _
m.,_hnng exposure
wo_.s
to ,=n_ng rashat_ns tn the =ourse of their work and prov_les tl'_l _1 _:_l_ropn_e _e1:_ id'lJI be taken to ensu_'e effectn_ I_ofecbon Of t_ft_m
ar_uabSe at the tree
The FI4commen¢_mon acids that due regan:l sho_Jcl be ghen to the nl¢orn_
made from t_.ne to brne by the _
Radmolog]¢aJ Protection and _
radmtmn prmecbon of workers
aclopte_ byother c_-npetent orgUl=_ons.
('_ra_m:j radmlmns) wh_h gr,,es prlct_eJ 9u_la_ce
In 1986 the ILO Govermn9 Etoc_yakoprovedthe RubhcadK_ Of a Code Of _
on file m_plement_trc_ Of a radmhon I_=tec_n
I_gfamme
a_ the enteq_se
ta_kesmntoau:count 1he I:_w$on Of the Basic Sofety Ste'_'_'s
f_' Racl_hon PTO_:bon (1682)
prme=t_n Of v,_ke_ Igmnst toning
rad_hons, notably the Oc=upat;o,-_ Cancer Convenbon
end v_ra_on)
Com_m,on
and Re¢ommer_ahon
(1977): _
in the _jl_l Of I_
_
the List of Occ_pat_
of
on
for the
kw$
Some other mlem_omJ
18beur W
Of the ILO are ah_ mtevBm to 1_
and P,ecom_
(1974), W Wor&0ng ErMronment (aur I:_IllJt_n, nolle
D_eases
atopend_
to the Em_,oymem
Injmy Benefit Convent)o_
The objectwe of the OECD/NEA _s to further the developmem of the product_n and uses Of nucleu energy for pe_=oful purposes through
the ;arhc_pst_ng countne_ and the _=_tmn
Of _res
te._n _ the nat_l
level One of the pnn=poJ tasks of the NEA ts 'to contnbute
(1964)
co-opere,on
between
to the I_t_nobon, by
_spo_.ble
nabonN autAorTheS, Of the protechon Of wo_em incl the publrc a0enst the _
Of mnmng nKl_ns
amd Of Ute pr.ervton
Of the ermro_,
as well
as 'to c_ntnbute to the promobon Of the _
Of nu¢leu instaJhlbons and mzrenats by feJ;pon=ble ne_or_ lUthont_s'
These tas_ are cl,._
by the NEA through
the foaomng stand_ng tochn_r.&l committees
Committee on Rad,atbon Pmto_on
_
Public Hea_
_G_-'t'_, Committee on the Safety of Nuckar h',_&lllbofis
(CSNr/,
Commmee
on NucJear Re_ulmory .,f=vites
(CNR/_, Rad_ve
Waste Management
Commlltee
(RWMC)
In iD,a.,tjcuJu the CRJ:;_*I-Ip;'?,Ades iL fC*'_.h_I_Xthe e_
Of _
m Tid_ldj(:m peo_ect]ofi pobcy* .sues. keeps &11Nr=A,&.'b,,qt;es LA,
xler turN,m, fTom t'he poem Of VNM
of rl_u_on
I:x_e_on
and publm health, Fomoles
the ._kb[mhmenl
of mdmtKyn prole_don =
and mla_ed _
pmmo(es la._es
_
F_nt _rl_r_
m wnous fields (:on_em]ng the prCWK:tK)n Of w_W;enl Ir)d member; Of the publ_
IDAHO, founded
m 19_.., rdU/ed
rasIKdog_.aJ _
Of phys_c_ms amd ofher [=rofesux_aJs in rad-._,on med_ne
i Rad_EJon Pn_e_o_
Un_ _s establ_%_l
_ the mg_
I_Uvttm's m the fiEOS, p,mmo_,_
regul&bons arKI to adOl=fi mt_
stu_a.n=ls for rad_t_n
pm_ect_n
I_omole the teaching Of bas_ heaJth phylK_, radlobJo{o_y ind rl_l_bon
the use Df nud]o_Dpes
loc med]c_ dagfx_s,
therapy
arid nu_eu
mechmne, mcludm9 rad_at_n proto=hon
-.c.c_u_e
d_agno_s
te_ng,
mamt_
encl tmaLment; _
publm hmdth aspects Of r&d_rbon and p$,,Ad_ng fello,,ed'up_ t'o,rthe tnumng
As i result of the v&qous I=LMtes =reded by the pelceful apph=mt_on Of nucJeu _
le_-I m 1E60 The 0_
Qtthe urat were 'to encour&ge nll_md _
_
amd ri.mirth.'
_llat_
The racl_
._ _
for
he&lib ictuses Of PAHO cover Idl as,pec_ Of d_nos_
p(annmg ra¢l_og_aJ _
in_u¢l_ng _m9
_Jn,
_
_
1B45
I/_t &m_=e_aJ_¢l
_lNEte_ to _11B48
with
m
Genev8
June 1948,agency
and onbe1Sel_ember
theail_ matte_
to
10 _er
iml_ng,
rad.rbon
_-c_nc_tx_,
eeJecbon,
_
p_tx_pl;t_n
in courses, ,iK),l,_h,._ps _
Of m_rmat_n on tnumng p_grams
_ _ _fi_
_
_
_
In _
bean_ Jot
progr&,_s,
$emlna_,
_
l_e
m
mlatm_
to J1_$Jth
Cofistfiut_On
romeOrgantzabo_
on 7 April 1948,
l_'_efirst
_ oe_msA_l_mb_y
me1
O_4u'_z_hon
t_, The
eJ_tb4=J%-_l
The=amc
_ into
Of the
= =ame¢l
out Wortcl
by throe
_e Wortd
He&lth As_.-ffll:_j, Ihe l_.ll_filnle iuthoffij,
to which idl Meffiber S_Jl_e$lend dekl_tes;,
the F..tectltlve BoluS, the exe_jtr_
Under the Dtm_or_
Thro4.,_h thru C_&n]at_ort,
the heaJth i_k_ofetmonaJ_Of nMtdy 180 _
exc_lr, ge kno_
,Ir
Counmes,
proc_clunes mind
aru:l ml_Ur of rad_4og_aJ equq=ment; mwew of d_gnos_:
and therlpeu_
radx=k)g_&l I_xedure. s. _ntt_
Of fad_bon
and cJh'lraJ ctommetn_, rldK_u:tl,_ waste ckspOaUldtn n'4diG&l hlcdd_,S, (_mto,pment and rrnp,lementatx_
Of query Bsur&n_e
raclSllhon at.dents,
and _on
emel_er_y
_fep4&rKIness.
Edu_l_'&&t
astMt_.s involve the (x'_lmza_n
publ_t_n
and d_.em]nabon
Of rad_t_
mated publ_abons _
_vwu&l
I:_grams, and the exchenge
The WHO, wh_h ts I SpeCkled
agen_
Of the Un,ted N_._-_, I'l_l k_ Origin m the 1_ol_4d _
f
m the _
to _loD
mnnecaKI _/_1_the uee Of X rays ir_ md_otopea
tnd f_ the _
Of _
protec_aofi _ ntedGiJ, defitaJ, vetenna_y i_b[= heaJt h &nd other I_ohNl_oNiJ i._.
or_
Of the _
ij-id experience
_
&nd i Se_retaAal
wf_'t the lure Of ma)=ng _bie
the idlaJnrrenl by ail ctt;ens Of the wodd Of i level Of heidt/t ttal_ vail [_en'ntt them to leld i SOO=idlyind -,,.;o.-,c.-;_tally imxluctr.,e Irfe WHO IKr_3 th_)ugh il de_)nb_-_
o_jantzabon&l stn_¢tum, with Its hel_:luaulers m GemwL au'_ _dxreg_or_ offi(z.s -- Arno&, Amen=u. Eastern Me_litemmelm, Eurol_e, South F.j_ A.t_ m_l the Western Paca_,
plu=fiel_officesm
mlnygQuntne_
In iddib¢,n to the mcpflls_u,
bumtA't_rlt_on,ld Itldfto(-'u_/out
b_,.*_OrK,Wt-K:) _
ul_:)ra cao-operlhve _wflh
other
Intemat,_naJ onjan_abons;, b
which Ire the Inte_naJ
_
PIly_cs
c:ompee_
By m
_1-IO Collaboot2a_9 Centres, Its MneJs Of eXlX_'l adv_ers, end dnous non-9ovemmenUd
oc_entf_c 8ncl I_o_r_
of Radiology, _ Inlen'.l_r_
So_ety of Rid_rl,_te_
au_ Radx_k_K:&l Te_hf_ar_,
aAd the h_ten'tabo_
Of direct techn,ca_ co,.oper_bon w_ its Member _ltes,
_
by $_mu_tmg
heaJth semces, the prevenaon and =onttol Ofd_eases, the _'_pmveme_t of _ment_
end developme_
Of b,_med_&l amd he&lth amn._s
the use Of rad_bon m mechcfr,_ ,IS well Is nld_a_n
rmearch, incf the p4anmn9 ind
hy_ne
_
_h
_
_
_ng
for Med_catJ
GO-opem_n Imong them. WHO I_otn_tes the (:levetol_'tenl of
_t_'_
the development Of he_h mL'koov_ r. the co-on:hnat_n
Of head_ 1_grammes.
m the racl_ogqd
au*ca. WHO's rftems_
c_over
201
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