How did the Cold War start? Who was to...

How did the Cold War start? Who was to blame?
1945-1949
Mar1
946
Aug
1945
July 1945
(the war in Europe was over but fighting was still taking place
in the Pacific)
Feb 1945 (nations realised the war would soon
be over)
Key
Dates
19411945
USA
USSR
Entered the Second World War fighting against
Germany and Japan.
Entered the Second World War fighting against
Germany and Japan.
Yalta Conference - AGREEMENTS
Germany
~ To be defeated, then disarmed
~ To be split into four zones of occupation (the Big Three plus France)
~ To pay reparations
East Europe
~ Countries to be allowed to hold free elections to choose how they would be governed.
~ In Poland free elections to be held and Eastern frontier to return to 1921 position.
Other
~ UN was set up.
~ USSR to join the war against Japan three months after Germany’s defeat.
Yalta Conference - DISAGREEMENTS
Tensions between USA and USSR began to show.
~ USA was concerned because the USSR wanted
Poland’s western boarder to be moved into Germany
and the German population removed.
Yalta Conference - DISAGREEMENTS
Tensions between USA and USSR began to show.
~ Their understanding of ‘free elections’ was
very different to the USA’s understanding.
Potsdam Conference – AGREEMENTS
Germany
~ Details of occupation zones finalised.
~ The Nazi Party banned and its leaders tried as war criminals.
~ Reparations – each power had to collect industrial equipment from its own zone. Since its zone was
mainly agricultural, the USSR collected additional reparations from other zones.
East Europe
~ In Poland – Western boundary to be along the line created by the Oder and Neisse rivers.
~ Repatriation – Germans living in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia to return to Germany.
Potsdam Conference – DISAGREEMENTS
Potsdam Conference – DISAGREEMENTS
~ The cracks in the USA/USSR alliance were really
~ The cracks in the USA/USSR alliance were
beginning to show.
really beginning to show.
~ The USA wanted to rebuild Germany to prevent
~ Truman did not tell Stalin the USA intended to
repeats of the Second World War.
drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
~ The USA did not want to cripple Germany
~ Stalin wanted a share of Japan after the war
financially.
but Truman refused.
~ The USA was very unhappy about Soviet plans for
~ The USSR wanted to cripple Germany to
eastern Europe but Stalin said this is what they had
protect it against future threats.
agreed at Yalta.
~ The USSR wanted to take massive reparations
~ They wanted democratic elections in Germany but
from Germany for the war as compensation but
Stalin blocked this.
Truman blocked this.
~ Stalin wanted to set up pro-Soviet
governments in eastern Europe to provide the
USSR with a ‘buffer zone’. Britain and the USA
said they wanted a greater say in what
happened.
America dropped the atomic bomb on Japan. Many felt Stalin felt betrayed and even more suspicious
this was a message to Stalin.
since Truman had not told him about his plans
to use the atomic bomb.
IRON CURTAIN speech was made in 1946 by Winston Churchill to describe the relations between the USA
and the USSR.
Policy of Containment
America followed a policy to containment to stop the
spread of Communism into Europe.
Truman Doctrine stated that Truman would support
any country that was under threat by outside forces i.e.
USSR.
Marshall Aid this was economic help to European
countries to prevent them from falling into the hands
of Stalin.
Creation of a ‘Buffer Zone’
Stalin consolidated his power to protect himself
from any future threats from western Europe.
He created a ‘buffer zone’ of friendly countries to
protect the USSR. He did this by rigging
elections and using his red army to apply
pressure of Eastern European governments.
Eventually by 1949 Stalin was in control on most
of eastern Europe.
The COLD WAR had begun
1. Despite being allies during WW2 there was a longlong-standing MISTRUST between the
two countries because….
a. The fact that they believed in two very different political systems – Capitalism
(USA) and Communism (USSR). Both nations feared and despised the other’s
system.
b. The West supported opponents of the Communists in the Russian Revolution of
1917.
c. The East were very suspicious of the West’s policy of appeasement towards Hitler
in the lead up to WW2. The USSR believed the West was encouraging Hitler to
invade the USSR.
d. During the war the two nations disagreed. For example the date of the D-Day
invasions caused tensions because Stalin wanted it in 1943 but it was delayed
until 1944.
2. Immediately after the war both sides began to MISTRUST each other’s motives
motives
because….
a. Both sides appeared from WW2 as the dominant world superpowers. They were
bound to compete with each other.
b. Disagreements at Yalta (Feb 1945) and especially Potsdam (July 1945) over
German reparations, the government of Poland, the presence of the Red Army in
Eastern Europe.
c. USA dropping the atomic bomb on Japan without informing Stalin. Stalin feared
the USA would use this superiority to blackmail the USSR.
d. Both sides disagreed over Germany. The USSR wanted Germany to be crushed
with massive reparations but the USA wanted to rebuild German economy as
quickly as possible.
e. Soviet expansionism in Eastern Europe to create a ‘buffer zone’ to protect the
USSR. The West saw this as the first stages of Stalin’s plans to take over the
whole of Europe.
f. USA’s Policy of Containment introduced by the Truman Doctrine and put into
action by the Marshall Plan were meant to contain the spread of Communism.
This frightened Stalin as he saw it as a threat to Communism in the East.
BY 1946 THERE WAS CLEARLY AN ‘IRON CURTAIN’ DESCENDING OVER EUROPE, DIVIDING WEST
AND EAST EUROPE BETWEEN CAPITALISM AND COMMUNISM. THE COLD WAR HAD DEFINITELY
STARTED. This led to three key events….
Berlin Blockade
In 1947 the Western Allies
merged their parts of Germany
making TRIZONIA. They did
the same in Berlin. They did
this without warning Stalin.
USSR blockaded West Berlin in
the hope that the West would
simply hand it over to the USSR.
They did not an the result was
the Berlin airlift.
NATO
Due to the perceived
threat from the East,
western nations formed
NATO – The NORTH
ATLANTIC TREATY
ORGANISATION – a
military alliance.
Warsaw Pact
In response to NATO the USSR set up the
Warsaw Pact – a military alliance between
the USSR and Eastern European ‘puppet
nations’.
Signing of
of the
Military
Alliances –
NATO and
Warsaw Pact
The Steps to the Cold War – How did it start?
Berlin Blockade
and Airlift
US Policy of
Containment –
Truman
Doctrine and
Marshall Plan
Soviet control
in Eastern
Europe
Yalta and
Potsdam
Conferences
Differences of
ideology
Differences
over the past
COLD
WAR
What
What is the message of this cartoon?
cartoon? (6) MEB
The poster SUGGESTS that….
I can tell this because the artist has….
The situation in Europe at this time was…..
Explain how the Soviet Union gained control over eastern Europe after 1945?
1945?
(9) 3 reasons
One way the USSR gained control was…
Another method….
Finally….
What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?
Conference? (4)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why did Stalin blockade Berlin in 1948?
1948? (6)
Reason 1
Explanation
Reason 2
Explanation
The following were equally important causes of the Cold War: Russian Aggression,
American policy, Ideologies.
Ideologies. How far do you agree with the statement?
statement? (10)
Ideologies caused the Cold War because…
These differences led to what was seen by the Americans as Soviet aggression….
In response to these actions the Americans followed a policy of…..
Therefore I completely agree/partly agree/disagree with the statement because……..
Causes of the Cold War Revision flashcards
1 Different Ideologies: Capitalism
2 Different Ideologies: Communism
3 Grudges from the past
4 Yalta Conference
5 Potsdam Conference
6 Buffer Zone
7 US Policy of Containment
8 Truman Doctrine
9 Marshall Aid
10 Berlin Blockade
11 NATO and Warsaw Pact
12 Who was to blame?
Background
1. In 1959 a revolution led by Fidel Castro overthrew the corrupt Cuban dictator Batistia who
was popular with the US government.
2. The USA was worried about this and feared Castro would turn Cuba Communist.
3. US fears were confirmed when Castro signed a trade treaty with USSR.
USSR
4. As a punishment the USA banned all trade with the island and in 1961 cut off all diplomatic
relations with the aim of forcing Castro out of the USSR’s influence.
5. It had the opposite effect and relations between Cuba and the USSR became even closer.
6. In April 1961 the new US President JFK,
JFK supported an attempted invasion of Cuba by Cuban
exiles. It had already been planned before JFK came to power and he decided to continue
with the plan.
7. The plan was flawed as it totally underestimated the strength of the Cuban army.
8. The invasion force of 1,400 landed at the Bay of Pigs,
Pigs but was met by a stronger force of
20,000 Cuban soldiers supplied and trained by the USSR.
9. The invasion was a complete failure
failure and a total embarrassment for JFK.
10. Castro now became even closer to the USSR. Khrushchev announced he would give arms
to Cuba and Castro announced that Cuba was Communist – a Communist country deep into
USA’s sphere of influence.
The Crisis
1. On 14 October
October 1962 US spy planes took photos showing missiles bases being built in Cuba. If
these became operational, much of the USA would be brought in range of a Soviet missiles
attack.
2. The Americans then discovered that Soviet ships were on their way to Cuba. On board were
missiles for the new bases.
3. JFK decided to prevent the Soviet ships from reaching Cuba. He placed a naval blockade
around the island.
4. For over a week the world was on the brink of a nuclear war.
war Nobody knew what would
happen when the Soviet ships reached the blockade, the US navy had been given the order to
fire if the ships continued.
5. Finally Khrushchev backed down and ordered the ships to turn back.
6. On 26 October 1962 Khrushchev wrote to Kennedy offering to remove missiles from Cuba as
long as the USA promised not to invade. This was a good offer for JFK.
7. However the next day he received another letter demanding that the USA removed its missiles
from Turkey.
Turkey To accept this would make JFK look weak.
8. JFK decided to ignore the second letter and replied to the first. This seemed to work. On 28
October Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile bases.
9. However, in secret the USA also removed its missiles from Turkey.
The Consequences
1. The world was never so close to a nuclear war again.
2. A telephone ‘Hotline’ was set up between Washington and Moscow so that direct
communication between the countries’ leaders would be possible.
3. In 1963 a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed
Kennedy
- Khrsuhchev backed down
and was overthrown in 1964
- JFK became a hero
- USSR missiles removed from
Cuba
Who won?
Khrushchev
- Cuba remained Communist
and still is today
- US missiles removed from
Turkey (in secret)
Both
- World a safer place
- Test ban Treaty
- ‘Hotline’ set up
What
What is the message of this cartoon?
cartoon? (6) MEB
This cartoon SUGGESTS that….
I can tell this because the artist has….
The situation in Cuba at this time was…..
Explain why the USA attacked Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. (9) 3 reasons
One reason the USA attacked Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in 1961…
Another reason….
A final reason….
What happened at the Bay of Pigs incident in April 1961?
1961? (4)
1
2
3
4
1962?? (6)
Why did Kennedy decide to blockade the island of Cuba in October 1962
Reason 1
Explanation
Reason 2
Explanation
“The Cuban Missiles Crisis was a disaster for the Soviet Union
Union.”
on.” How far do you agree
with this statement? (10)
On the one hand the Cuban Missiles Crisis could be seen as a failure for the USSR
because…..
However on the other hand you could see the Crisis as a success for the USSR………
Therefore I completely agree/partly agree/disagree with the statement because……..
The Background
1. After French rule was overthrown in 1954, Vietnam was divided into two: communist North
Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh and anti-communist South Vietnam led by Diem.
2. Up to 1963 the US supported Diem’s government and gave it aid. The US was worried about
the spread of communism in Asia. They based their policy on the Domino Theory: if they did
not stop South Vietnam being taken over by communists, other nations in the area would fall to
communism like a row of dominoes.
3. The Vietcong, with support from North Vietnam, were fighting to win South Vietnam for
communism.
4. From 1961 US military advisers were sent to help the South Vietnamese combat the Vietcong.
5. However, by 1963 Diem had become too corrupt and unpopular in South Vietnam and was
assassinated. By this time the Vietcong controlled 40% of South Vietnam.
Increased US involvement
1. In 1964 President Johnson used the ‘Tonkin Incident’ – when North Vietnamese allegedly attacked
US destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin – as an excuse to take direct military action in Vietnam.
2. Soon half a million US troops were in South Vietnam.
3. At the same time ‘Operation Rolling Thunder’ was underway in North Vietnam – a massive
bombing campaign.
4. Although US troops were much stronger than the Vietcong they found them difficult to defeat.
Why were the Vietcong so difficult to defeat?
US Weakneses
- US troops found it impossible to distinguish between
Vietcong soldiers and civilians – made them very
unpopular with Vietnamese e.g. My Lai Massacre,
March 1968
- Not used to fighting an army using guerrilla tactics.
- US use of napalm and ‘Agent Orange’ also made them
very unpopular and it failed to work.
- Were young and inexperienced – draft soldiers only
served for one year so constantly being replaced.
- Were not used to the conditions and terrain.
- Lacked in moral – did not fully understand or support
the cause.
Vietcong Strengths
- Guerrilla tactics – No uniform, ambushes,
hide and attack, no headquarters, booby traps
etc.
- Built huge underground hideouts and
networks of tunnels to protect themselves
- Constant supply of new soldiers.
- Were used to conditions and terrain.
- Supplied soldiers via the Ho Chi Minh trail
from North Vietnam.
- Supplied by China and USSR.
- Had the support of the local peasants
Support
Support for the war back at home
1. Too costly in terms of human life – 58,000 soldiers died and thousands more injured. The average
age of the soldiers was 19 – “hey, hey LBJ, how many kids will you kill today?”
2. Too costly financially – costing $30 billion a year.
3. Immoral – media sent footage into the living rooms of every US citizen showing terrible things
happening to the innocent Vietnamese civilians.
4. Tet Offensive in 1968 proved that the US were not and could not win the war.
How did the US get out of Vietnam?
Vietnam?
1. New US President in 1969 – Nixon – promised to end the war in Vietnam.
2. His solution was ‘Vietnamisation’ – to get the South Vietnamese to take back control of the war.
Obviously the US would give help, but its soldiers could be withdrawn.
3. Peace talks began and a ceasefire was arranged in 1973. US troops left Vietnam.
4. However, fighting quickly started again, but this time the US did not get directly involved.
5. In 1975 South Vietnam was overrun by communist troops, and in 1976 it was reunited with North
Vietnam.
6. Vietnam’s neighbours, Laos and Cambodia, also fell into communist hands.
7. The US policy of containment had failed.
Why did the USA find it impossible to defeat the Vietcong?
US weaknesses
Vietcong Strengths
The US tried to use its superior
technology but with disregard
for the effect on the local
population.
US soldiers did not fully
understand the aim of the
Vietnam War.
The tactics of the Vietcong
meant they would attack and
then just melt away into the
jungle.
The US army was well trained
in traditional warfare, but
initially totally unprepared for
guerrilla fighting.
The Vietcong had knowledge
of the terrain, but it was
totally foreign to US soldiers.
Vietcong had a constant
supply of soldiers.
The Vietcong were popular
with the peasants who would
hide them in their villages if
necessary.
US soldiers treated all
Vietnamese with suspicion, as
they couldn’t be sure who the
enemy was. This meant they
lost much support.
US soldiers were young and
inexperienced. Just when they
got used to conditions in
Vietnam they were replaced
since they only served for a
year.
Vietcong were determined to
win. They simply could not
lose.
US army lacked morale –
could not see how they could
defeat the Vietcong. Many
were drafted into army
(forced to fight)
American tactics of using
napalm and agent orange
made they very unpopular
especially since led to
thousands of civilians being
injured or killed.
Vietcong used the Ho Chi
Minh trails to provide soldiers In frustration some US soldiers
with constant supplies. These carried out terrible atrocities
on Vietnamese civilians.
were very difficult for the US
to destroy.
What is the message of this poster? (6) MEB
The message of the poster is….
I can tell this because the artist has….
During the Vietnam War…..
Why did the US army find it so difficult to defeat the Vietcong? (9) 3 reasons
One reason why the US army found it so difficult to defeat the Vietcong was…
Another reason….
Finally….
War?? (4)
What were the tactics used by the Americans to try and win the Vietnam War
1
2
3
4
Explain why the Americans had difficulty winning support from the Vietnamese?
Vietnamese? (6)
Reason 1
Explanation
Reason 2
Explanation
‘The main reasons American troops were withdrawn from Vietnam was the success of
the Vietcong.
Vietcong.’ How far do you agree with the statement?
statement? (10)
The success of the Vietcong was definitely one reason for the US withdrawal…
Another reason was the failure of the US tactics and weakness of the US troops….
A third reason was the anti-war movement back in the USA…..
Therefore I completely agree/partly agree/disagree with the statement because……..
What is the message of this cartoon? (6)
The message of this cartoon is….
The cartoonist has included this in the cartoon by…
The cartoon refers to events in….
Explain why the USA sent troops to Vietnam? (9)
Reason 1
Reason 2
Reason 3
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