Document 4120

2
Organizers
Babeş-Bolyai University, ClujNapoca, Romania
University of Cantabria,
Santander, Spain
Romanian Society on
Radiological Protection,
Romania
National Agency for
Environment Protection,
Romania
National Institute of Public
Health, Romania
National Commission for
Nuclear Activities Control,
Romania
ANCS National Authority for
Scientific Research, Romania
3
Sponsors
Monarflex
www.monarflex.com
RadoSys Corporate
www.radosys.com
Landauer Nordic
www.landauernordic.se
Nucet (Bihor County) City Hall
www.primarianucet.ro
4
Dear FERAS Participants,
On behalf of the Scientific and Organizing Committees, it is my honor and great
pleasure to welcome you to the First Eastern European Radon Symposium.
The initiative of this symposium emerged from our intent to promote radon
studies in Eastern European countries, as well as from our desire to meet the
specialists in these countries and to get acquainted with their work. We also meant
to convene Romanian organizations and institutions responsible for radioprotection
under the implementation of a national radon program in Romania.
Researchers from almost all the countries included in this initiative responded
promptly, and consequently a significant number of over 100 participants from 16
countries are presents at this symposium. The organization of this scientific event
was possible due to staff members of the Environmental Science and Engineering
Faculty, who have been carrying radon research for over twenty years and have
received international recognition within the last ten years.
We strived to make event participation financially possible by involving various
institutions and sponsors. We equally tried to make this meeting interesting and
attractive by inviting highly experienced researchers from all over Europe, and we
are pleased that a significant number of these scientific personalities were able to
participate to this symposium at the end of such a hot and agitated summer.
We hope that a short application for the comparison of active and passive
detectors, and a field trip to the Baita-Stei region in conjunction with a local
communication session and a visit to the first mitigated houses in Romania (as part
of an ongoing structural funding program in this area) will make the event even
more attractive.
The scientific program includes 80 contributions organized as plenary lectures
of invited speakers (12), oral (24) and poster (44) presentations for scientists
working in the field of the radon and additionally an intercomparison exercise at
medium and high radon exposure.
I thank all who have made possible the organization of this symposium, to the
National Authority for Research and Development, to the sponsors and exibitors for
providing financial support and to the members of Organizing and Scientific
Committees for promoting FERAS symposium. Special thanks to all the people who
submitted excellent abstracts covering many areas of radon field with applications in
geophysics, environment, life science and ecology.
The social program is organized for all participants and it is coupled with a
thematic excursion at the Baita Stei radon prone area. When taking this field trip the
participants will have the opportunity to cross the Western Carpathians and visit one
of Romania‟s most beautiful caves. Fortunately, as the majority of the participants
plan on leaving Thursday, they will still have a few hours to get familiarized with
the city of Cluj, an old Roman settlement (Napoca) that nowadays is an important
multicultural center, maybe one of Europe‟s future cultural capitals.
Once again warmly welcome to the FERAS symposium in ClujNapoca!
Prof. Constantin Cosma
Symposium Chair
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Symposium Chair:
Constantin COSMA - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Scientific Committee:
Peter BOSSEW - German Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin, Germany
Francesco BOCHICCHIO - Italian National Institute of Health, Italy
Michael BUZINNY - Marzeev Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Kiev,
Ukraine
Stanisław CHAŁUPNIK - Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
Clouvas ALEXANDROS- Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Marc DE CORT - European Commission, JRC, Ispra, Italy
Werner HOFMANN - University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Sedat INAN - Earth and Marine Sciences Institute, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
Matej NEZNAL - Radon V.O.S., Prague, Czech Republic
André POFFIJN - Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels, Belgium
Dobromir PRESSYANOV - University of Sofia, Bulgaria
Luis QUINDOS - University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Maria SAHAGIA - IFIN HH, Bucharest, Romania
János SOMLAI - University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
Thomas STREIL - SARAD GmbH, Dresden, Germany
Tore TOLLEFSEN - European Commission, JRC, Ispra, Italy
Laszlo TORO – National Institute of Public Health, Regional Centre Timisoara,
Romania
Janja VAUPOTIŢ - Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Valentina YAKOVLEVA – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Zora ZUNIC - Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd, Serbia
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Organizing Committee:
Constantin COSMA - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Alexandra CUCU - National Institute of Public Health, Bucharest, Romania
Elena SIMION – National Environmental Protection Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Constantin MILU - Romanian Society on Radiological Protection, Bucureşti,
Romania
Alexandra CUCOŞ DINU - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Ion URSULEAN - National Center for Public Health, Chişinău, Republic of
Moldova
Carlos SAINZ - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and Cantabria
University, Spain
Valeria GRUBER - European Commission, JRC, Ispra, Italy
Ildiko MOCSY – Sapientia University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Daniela CIORBĂ - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Alida GABOR - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberius DICU - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Adina TRUŢĂ - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Robert BEGY - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Mircea MOLDOVAN - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Botond PAPP - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Dan Constantin NIŢĂ - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Bety BURGHELE - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Alexandru BĂDĂRĂU - Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
The Secretariat:
Andra-RADA IURIAN, Oana DUMITRU, Monica ZECIU, Raluca DIODIU,
Kinga SZACSVAI, Iuliana CANDREA
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SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME
Sunday, September 2nd
1200 - 1800
Registration for Symposium
Monday, September 3rd
800 - 900
Registration for Symposium
900 - 930
Opening remarks Chair: Constantin Cosma
SESSION 1
Invited lectures
Chair: Maria Sahagia
930 - 1000
IL-1
Radon: Past, Present and Future
James Mc Laughlin, School of Physics, University College,
Dublin, Ireland
1000 – 1030
IL-2
Radon policies: recent developments and Radpar
recommendations
Francesco Bochicchio, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome,
Italy
1030 – 1100
IL-3
Stochastic dependence of Rn-related quantities
Peter Bossew, German Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin,
Germany
1100 – 1120
Coffee break
Oral presentations
Chairs: Tore Tollefsen, Ion Ursulean
1120 – 1140
OP-1
Introductory to the Radosys nuclear track
measurement concept for radon and thoron
Erik Hulber, Radosys, Ltd., Budapest, Hungary
1140 - 1200
OP-2
Dynamics of outdoor radon and thoron progeny
concentrations in some geographical areas of Romania
Elena Simion, Florin Simion, National Environmental Protection
Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Bucharest, Romania
1200 – 1220
OP-3
Radon measurement in schools and kindergartens
(Kremikovtsi district)
Daniel Vuchkov, National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation
Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria
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detector
1220 – 1240
OP-4
Pilot radon survey in Bulgaria
Kremena Ivanova,
National Center of Radiobiology and
Radiation Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria
1240 – 1300
OP-5
Estimation of indoor radon concentrations in the air of
residential houses and mines in the Republic of Moldova
Ion Ursulean, National Centre of Public Health, Chisinau,
Republic of Moldova
1300 - 1500
Lunch
SESSION 2
Invited lectures
Chair: James Mc Laughlin
1500 - 1530
IL-4
Mathematical models describing the behavior of radon in the
environment. an overview
Laszlo Toro, National Institute of Public Health, Regional Centre
Timisoara, Romania
1530 – 1600
IL-5
Application of LSC method for measurements of radon and
thoron progeny concentrations in air –theoretical approach
Stanisław Chałupnik, Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
1600 – 1630
IL-6
Radon emanation from soils of different lithological units
Janja Vaupotič, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
1630 - 1650
Coffee break
Oral presentations
Chairs: Stanisław Chałupnik, Laszlo Toro
1650 - 1710
OP-6
Radon! The problem, the solution, the experience you can
trust
Zsolt Majer, Adam Jankeje, Monarflex s.r.o., Štúrovo, Slovakia
1710 - 1730
OP-7
Radon mapping in Serbia
Sofija Forkapiš, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences,
Novi Sad, Serbia
1730 – 1750
OP-8
Performance of different passive detectors at low-level radon
concentration compared with active instrument
Vladimir Udovičiš, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade,
Serbia
1750 – 1810
OP-9
Weather induced variations in airborn radon concentrations
in wine cellars
István Csige, Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary
9
1810 – 1830
OP-10
The influence of radon on atmospheric ionizing radiation
fields
Maxim Cherepnev, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic
University, Tomsk, Russia
1830 – 1930
Poster session (P-1 – P-44)
Tuesday, September 4th
Field trip to Băiţa-Ştei at around 200 km from Cluj-Napoca, all registred
participants are invited (no extra fee required).
730
Departure from Cluj-Napoca
SESSION 3
Invited lectures
Chairs: Carlos Sainz, Matej Neznal
1030 - 1100
IL-7
Radon diagnostic measurements and remedial measures in
houses with high indoor radon concentration - Czech
experience
Martin Neznal, Matěj Neznal, Radon v.o.s., Prague, Czech
Republic
Oral presentations
1100 – 1120
OP-11
Radon measurements and radon remediation in Băiţa-Ştei
radon prone area
Constantin Cosma,
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of
Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
1120 - 1140
OP-12
Radon mitigation techniques in a house located in Alba county
Lavinia Muntean, Botond Papp, Technical University of ClujNapoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Romania
1140 - 1200
OP-13
Uranium mining activities in the upper basin of Criş Negru
River
Ovidiu Banciu, Uranium National Company (UNC), Băiţa Bihor,
Romania
1200 - 1330
Visit to the Pilot House and two other remediate houses
1330 - 1500
Lunch
1500 - 1730
Sightseeing - Peştera Urşilor (Bears Cave)
1830 – 2200
Symposium dinner at „Dracula Castle‟
2200 - 2300
Return to Cluj-Napoca
10
Wednesday, September 5th
SESSION 4
Invited lectures
Chair: Francesco Bochicchio
930 - 1000
IL-8
The European Indoor Radon map and beyond
Tore Tollefsen, European Commission, DG Joint Research
Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, Italy
1000 – 1030
IL-9
Realization of the metrological traceability chain of radon-222
Maria Sahagia, Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and
Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania
1030 – 1100
IL-10
Indoor thoron measurements in Hungary
Tibor Kovacs, Institute of Radiochemistry and Radieocology,
University of Pannonia, Veszprem, Hungary
1100 – 1120
Coffee break
Oral presentations
Chairs: Dobromir Pressyanov, Tibor Kovacs
1120 - 1140
OP-14
Radon in Spain within European framework
Carlos Sainz, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
1140 - 1200
OP-15
Measurements of radon and thoron decay products in air an
application of LSC and TLD methods
Stanisław Chałupnik, Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
1200 – 1220
OP-16
Relationship of radon concentration of subsurface waters at
and geological formations at Hungarian sites
Ákos Horváth, Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd
University, Budapest, Hungary
1220 – 1240
OP-17
Prediction of indoor radon risk from radium concentration in
soil: Republic of Macedonia case study
Zdenka Stojanovska, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev
University, Stip, Republic of Macedonia
1240 – 1300
OP-18
Monitoring of radon levels in some touristic underground
environments from Romania
Nicoleta Bican-Brişan, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of
Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
1300 - 1500
Lunch
SESSION 5
Invited lectures
11
Chair: Peter Bossew
1500 - 1530
IL-11
Experimental and theoretical study of radon migration in
multilayer soil
Alexander Clouvas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear
Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece
1530 – 1600
IL-12
The use of polycarbonate materials of high radon absorption
ability for measuring radon
Dobromir Pressyanov, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”,
Bulgaria
1600 – 1620
Coffee break
SESSION 6
Oral presentations
Chairs: Janja Vaupotiţ, Alexander Clouvas
1620 - 1640
OP-19
Assessment of geological influence on radon concentration in
the Republic of Moldova
Liuba Coretchi, National Centre of Public Health, Chisinau,
Republic of Moldova
1640 – 1700
OP-20
Effective dose for real population exposed to indoor radon in
former uranium mine area Kalna (eastern Serbia)
Dragoslav Nikeziš, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences,
University of Kragujevac, Serbia
1700 – 1720
OP-21
Radon and thoron measurements in some mofettes and
mineral springs in the Eastern Carpathians
Tamás Néda, Sapientia University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
1720 – 1740
OP-22
Radon migration model for covering U mine and ore
processing tailings
András Várhegyi, MECSEK-ÖKO Environment Protection Co.,
Pécs, Hungary
1740 – 1800
OP-23
Influence of precipitations on radon and ionizing radiations
fields in «soil-atmosphere» system
Artem Vladimirovich Vukolov, Tomsk Polytechnic University,
Tomsk, Russia
1800 – 1820
OP-24
Measurement of radon -222 concentration levels in water
samples in Sudan
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, Department of Physics, University of
Kassala, Kassala, Sudan and Department of Physics, Qassim
University, Oklat Al-Skoor, Saudi Arabia
1820 – 1920
Poster session (P-1 – P-44)
Chairs: Zora Zunic, Janos Somlai
12
1920 - 2000
Closing remarks – EARST initiative (Andre Poffijn, Luis
Quindos)
Poster session (P1-P44)
P-1
Relationship from geology and radon in outdoor air in Massif Ditrău
area, Eastern Carpathians – Romania
Adriana Ion, Geological Institute of Romania, Bucharest, Romania
P-2
Quantitative fluorimetric determination of uranium absorbed on
ceramic materials
Livia Alhafez, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science
and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-3
Contribution of radon dose to the patient exposure in the mofette of
Covasna Sanatorium, Romania
Alexandra Cucoş Dinu, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty
Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-4
of
Influence of concrete characteristics on radon transport
Dan Georgescu, Tehnical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest,
Romania
P-5
Intercomparison between radon passive measurements and active
measurements and problems related to thoron measurements
Bety-Denissa Burghele, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty
Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-6
of
Method of simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron in soil gas
concentrations based on LSC
Michael Buzinny, The Marzeev Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology
of National Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
P-7
ORE based laboratory source for simultaneous testing of radon and
thoron concentration in soil gas
Michael Buzinny, The Marzeev Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology
of National Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
P-8
Monitoring of indoor radon in Campulung Moldovenesc area
Iuliana Candrea, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-9
High let alpha particle irradiation, the same exposure and the different
response of two different cells systems: skin dendritic human cell lines
and green algas Chlamydomonas
Daniela Ciorba, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-10
Further arguments regarding the importance of implementing the
house radon activity map in Romania
13
Sandor Csegzi, “Bolyai Farkas” College, Tirgu Mures, Romania
P-11
State of knowledge for the ongoing indoor radon survey in Serbian
schools: Part 1 Results and first step mapping
Zora Zunic, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Belgrade, Serbia
P-12
State of knowledge for the ongoing indoor radon survey in Serbian
schools: Part 2 Results and mapping
Zora Zunic, Jelena Filipovic,
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Belgrade, Serbia
P-13
Absorbed fractions of electrons and beta particles due to radon
progeny in sensitive regions of human respiratory tract calculated by
MCNP5/X
Dragana Krstic, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Serbia
P-14
Eficiency calibration in gamma spectrometry using 232Th series
radionuclides
Liviu Daraban, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca,
Romania
P-15
Determination of radium in mine waters from the north and northwest of Transylvania, Romania
Ioan Encian, National Commission on Nuclear Activities Control Bucharest, Romania
P-16
Wi-Fi portable detector solution for distributed radon measurements
Silviu Folea, Department of Automation, Technical University of ClujNapoca, Romania
P-17
Flux measurements of 222Rn and CH4 along with soil gas
concentration (222Rn, CO, NO2 and SO2) over a methane reservoir in
Transylvania (Romania)
Nicolae Frunzeti, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-18
Influence of composition factors and strength and durability
characteristics of concretes on radon emission
Dan Georgescu, Tehnical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest,
Romania
P-19
Continual radon concentration measurements in schools of Banja Luka
City, Republic of Srpska
Zoran Šurguz, Zora Žuniš, Predrag Kolarž,
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Belgrade, Serbia
P-20
P-21
Radon measurements in soil gas (urban area)
Bistra Kunovska,
National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria
Indoor radon mapping survey in residential houses over Kosovo and
Metohija
Gordana Milic,
14
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina, Serbia
P-22
Radon concentration in ground waters from Măguri Răcătau area,
Cluj County
Mircea Moldovan, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-23
Integrated measurements by using CR-39 track detectors in Alba
county, Romania
Lavinia Elena Muntean, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of
Civil Engineering, Cluj Napoca, Romania
P-24
Comparison between charcoal adsorption and lucas cell methods (Luk
3C) for radon in carbonated and non carbonated water measurements
Dan Constantin Niţă, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-25
Methods for radon diffusion coefficient measurement through radon
proof membrane
Botond Papp, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science
and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-26
Radon Surveys for mapping radon occurrence
Per Nilsson, Landauer Nordic, Uppsala, Sweden
P-27
Soil radon and thoron activity concentration, along with CO2 flux
measurements in the Neogene volcanic region of the eastern
Carpathians (Romania) and their relation to the field location of fault
zone
Botond Papp, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science
and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-28
Indoor radon concentration measurements in the Greek Province
Sterea Ellada
Konstantinos Potiriadis, Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Attikis,
Greece
P-29
Indoor radon concentration measurements in dwellings of Sorrento
Peninsula (South Italy)
Maria Quarto, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di
Napoli “Federico II”, Italy
P-30
Alpha and Gamma Particle device monitoring for mining underground
water
Mircea Risteiu, “1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba Iulia, Romania
P-31
The novel track recording apparatus from SSNTD for radon
measurements
Giuliano Sciocchetti, Technoradon S.r.l., Roma,Italy
P-32
Estimation and prediction of the outdoor 222Rn and 220Rn progeny
concentrations using statistical modeling
Florin Simion,
15
P-33
National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory,
Bucharest, Romania
Radological survey Hungarian clays and radon emanation and
exhalation influential effect of sample and internal structure conditions
Janos Somlai, Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of
Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
P-34
Indoor radon measurements using solid state track detectors
Sandor Csegzi, Tiberius Staicu, Romano-Catholic College “St.Joseph”,
Bucharest, Romania
P-35
Mobile unit for site characterization in environmental remediation
projects
Thomas Streil, SARAD GmbH, Dresden, Germany
P-36
Indoor radon exposure in Cluj-Napoca city, Romania
Kinga Szacsvai, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty
of Sciences and Arts, Cluj Napoca, Romania
P-37
Health effects attributed to radon from the perspective of linear
threshold hypothesis
Lucia-Adina Truta, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-38
Measurements radon activity concentrations in mineral waters in
Serbian Spas
Biljana Vuckovic, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina,
Serbia
P-39
Indoor radon concentration measurements where the first nuclear
power plants of Vietnam will be built
Dung Bui Dac, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, Hanoi,
Vietnam
P-40
Peculiarity of calibration of soil radon detectors working in counting
regime
Valentina Yakovleva, Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk, Russia
P-41
Design, construct and test of a microcontroller based calibration radon
chamber
Robert Begy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science
and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
P-42
Susceptibility of radon measurement devices to electric fields
Petre Ogruţan, Transilvania University of Braşov, Romania
P-43
Radon equilibrium measurement in the air
Sofija Forkapiš, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Serbia
P-44
Daily variations of gamma-ray background and radon concentration
Radomir Banjanac, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade,
Serbia
16
IMPORTANT
VENUE, REGISTRATION, SYMPOSIUM SESSIONS AND ACCESS
With the car (a) and on foot (b)
A. Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fântânele 30
Street, “Iustinian Petrescu” lecture theatre - REGISTRATION,
SESSIONS
B. Hotel Universitas (10 €/night, breakfast not included)
C. Hotel Premier (37 €/night, breakfast included)
a)
b)
We ask that you notify us in advance about your preference including period
of stay, so that we can make the necessary arrangements.
17
PUBLICATION
Deadline for paper submission is 15th of October.
Acceptance for publication in one of the three ISI journals, Carpathian Journal of
Environmental Sciences, Romanian Journal of Physics and Bioflux is conditioned
upon receipt of the participation fee. Further details will be provided during the
symposium.
ORAL PRESENTATION
The presentation time should not be longer than:
- for invited lectors: 25 minutes + 5 minutes for discussions
- for oral presentations: 15 minutes + 5 minutes for discussions
POSTER PRESENTATION
The maximum poster size is (1000x1000 mm).
GENERAL INFORMATIONS
Currency – RON (1 RON ≈ 4.6 €)
Weather at the beginning of September is mostly calm and sunny with average
temperature during the day between 20-25°C and 10-15°C during the night.
Venues:
 By plane – participants will be picked up from the airport, on request; taxi
fee from the airport to accommodation ought to be around 10€.
 By train – bus 27 until „Petuniei‟ stop for Hotel Premier and tram 1 for
Hotel Universitas.
 The Faculty (Symposium location) holds plenty of free parking spaces, if
needed.
INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISE
During the Symposium, 2 intercomparison exercises for two categories of exposure
will be organized in radon chamber - Medium and High.
The radon activity concentration in the air of radon chamber will be measured at:
1. HIGH Radon Concentration – involving active and passive detectors (excepting
charcoal canisters). Number of required passive detectors: minimum 5 detectors + 2
detectors for background
The exposure in this category: from Monday, 8 AM until Wednesday, at 20.
2. MEDIUM Radon Concentration – involving only active detectors + charcoal
canisters
The exposure in this category: from Monday, 8 AM until Wednesday, at 16.
18
Book of Abstracts
Content
IL (Invited speakers)
OP (Oral Presentations)
P (Posters)
19
IL-1 – IL 12
OP-1 – OP-24
P-1 – P-44
IL-1
RADON : PAST , PRESENT and FUTURE.
James Mc Laughlin
School of Physics, University College Dublin, Ireland
Corresponding author: [email protected]
For over a century since its discovery in 1900, studies of radon and its progeny have
contributed to many and quite diverse scientific fields such as radiotherapy,
meteorology, geophysics, mineral exploration and radiation health effects. Here an
overview is given of a selection of these radon studies and their applications. It is
,however, for its causal role in the elevated incidence of lung cancer in some
underground miners that radon became best and most justifiably known. This
negative health effect of radon can be traced back ,with some confidence, to the
occurrence of fatal lung disease in silver miners in Bohemia and Saxony in the 16 th
century. In the 20th and in the present century extensive radon epidemiological
studies both of underground miners and of the general public in their homes have
quantified the lung cancer risks from radon exposure to both groups. Based on
some of these studies radon was classified by the UN International Agency for
Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1988 as a Group 1 human carcinogen and the World
Health Organisation in 2009 identified radon as the second cause of lung cancer
globally after smoking. Many governments are developing national strategies aimed
at reducing radon exposures. Recent initiatives such as the WHO International
Radon Project and the European Commission RADPAR Project have produced
recommendations to assist governments to control and reduce the risk to public
health from radon (For details of these recommendations see the presentation by
Bochicchio at this Radon Symposium). It is of some interest to note that , starting
with NASA‟s Apollo missions in the 1970s , studies of radon and progeny
behaviour have been taking place both on the Moon and more recently on Mars. .
These studies have the potential to assist in achieving a better understanding in the
future of geological and others properties of these extraterrestrial bodies.
20
IL-2
Radon policies: recent developments and RADPAR recommendations
Francesco Bochicchio
Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Rome, Italy
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Recent results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in
dwellings and mines have been produced significant revision of recommendations
and regulations of international organizations, such as WHO, IAEA, European
Commission. In this framework, scientists from several European countries worked
together for three years (2009–2012) within the European project RADPAR
(RADon Prevention And Remediation) in order to prepare a comprehensive set of
detailed recommendations which could be useful for both countries with a well
developed radon program and countries with lower experience on radon issues. In
this presentation, a short summary will be reported of the main developments on
radon policies included in the forthcoming International and European Basic Safety
Standards. Moreover, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon policies will
be presented and discussed.
21
IL-3
STOCHASTIC DEPENDENCE OF RN-RELATED QUANTITIES
P. Bossew
German Office for Radiation Protection, Köpenicker Allee 120-130, 10318 Berlin,
Germany,
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The risk related to radon exposure may be expressed by the probability of exceeding
a threshold of a quantity which is radiologically relevant with respect to radon, such
as indoor concentration. Thresholds have been established as reference values for
instance by the WHO, UNSCEAR or the recent draft Basic Safety Standards of the
EU. Estimation of this risk is based on observed quantities which may be different
ones from the target quantities relevant to risk assessment. Therefore it is necessary
to assess the dependence of target and observed input quantities. Several “transfer
models” have been proposed in the literature. However the most complete
description of dependence requires multivariate probabilistic modelling of these
quantities. In this presentation the approach of copula modelling is introduced for
this purpose. The method is demonstrated on the example of indoor and soil Rn
concentrations, as observed in Germany. It is shown that a bivariate Gumbel copula
appears appropriate to model upper tail (high risk) dependence reasonably. Several
technical issues are addressed which are typical for spatial data, such as data
declustering and dealing with the collocation problem. As one result an indoor risk
map of Germany is shown, predicted by soil Rn.
22
IL-4
MATHEMATICAL MODELS DESCRIBING THE BEHAVIOR OF RADON
IN THE ENVIRONMENT. AN OVERVIEW.
L. Toro
National Institute of Public Health, Regional Centre Timisoara, Romania
Corresponding author: torolaszlo[email protected]
The mathematical description of the behavior of radon in a porous medium (soil and/or
building material) or in the air of a room is particularly important considering its
contribution to the dose from natural sources. Knowledge on the gas movement in the
environment, the possibilities of accumulation lead to valuable information on actions to
reduce concentration and hence the radiation dose. Mathematical models describing the
behavior of radon go to savings experimental effort in understanding the behavior of
radon and in the design of countermeasures to reduce irradiation.
The evolution of the mathematical modeling of migration of radon in the environment
had a relatively slow development due to difficulties in solving complex differential
equations with partial derivatives On the other hand complex condition in nature, spatial
and temporal variations in physical and chemical conditions influencing the behavior of
radon lead to differential equations, sometimes non-linear, solvable only numerically
with a great computational effort.
In terms of physical behavior of radon (or the radon - soil – building - system) can be
divided into several components:
 Radon generation in the solid material and emanation in the pore space - depends on
the content and distribution of radium in the solid material, grain size, porosity of the
solid, degree of water saturation, etc;
 Migration in the source environment (soil and/or building material) due to the
concentration gradient (diffusion) and gas (air) flow according to the pressure gradient
(advection) - depends on features of the environment in which the migration occurs
listed above;
 Infiltration into the building (migration through the "shell" of the building) depends on concentration and pressure gradients and the features of the interface
between the source and the room (existence, nature and characteristics of the ground
floor for the soil and the plaster or other coating materials for walls );
 Accumulation in a room - depends on pressure and concentration gradients, inside
and outside temperature, openings in walls, how to use the room, etc.
The radon-soil-building (room) system is very complex with many parameters. This
paper first will review the 'partial' models, which focuses on different parts of the system
described above. We will present a series of models that describe some of the behavior
of radon: those focusing on radon emanation from the solid (Semkow, Fleischer, Bossus,
Morawski and Phillis, Ozgumus et.al), radon dynamics in soil (Csige et al, Washington
and Rose, Toro and George, Rogers and Nielson), infiltration of radon in the
building/room (Andersen, Nielson et al., Revzan et al), the role of building materials
(Rogers et al., Bossus, Morawski) behavior of radon in the room (Hubbard et al, Stoop et
al, Peter et al.).
Then will be presented "global" models developed to describe radon behavior
considering the building or radon-soil-building system as a whole (Font et al., CONTAM
package).
23
IL-5
APPLICATION OF LSC METHOD FOR MEASUREMENTS
OF RADON AND THORON PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR –
THEORETICAL APPROACH
Stanisław Chałupnik
Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
Corresponding author: [email protected]
A liquid scintillation counting is a measuring technique, broadly applied in
environmental monitoring of different radionuclides. One of the possible applications of
liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of radon and thoron progeny. There are
certain advantages of this method, especially high counting efficiency for alpha and beta
particles emitted by radon and thoron progeny. This advantage has been pointed out
several years ago, when such methods were applied to calibration of portable monitors
for radon progeny, especially due to the fact that in the case of radon progeny no
standard atmosphere exists. Radon and thoron progeny might be collected on a filter,
which after immersion in the liquid scintillator became transparent and could be counted
without significant quenching. Therefore such a method can be stated as an absolute one
and used very widely for radon progeny monitoring. The main drawback for a long time
was the lack of the portable LS counters, however in the last several years such counters
have become available.
The following approach is proposed for application of liquid scintillation technique for
radon and thoron measurements. For radon progeny measurements, the best method
seems to be Thomas one. It requires three consecutive measurements, done after
sampling. First period is between 2nd and 5th minutes, second between 6th and 20th and the
last one – between 21st and 30th minutes after sampling. Two additional counting periods
should be added to allow calculations of thoron progeny also. Out of these two periods,
first (fourth) counting period should be established rather quickly after periods
mentioned earlier, but should last relatively long (for instance 30 minutes). It is a
demand due to problems with an assessment of 212Bi concentration. After 120 minutes
after the end of sampling, this radionuclide is almost (90%) in equilibrium with its parent
radionuclide, 212Pb. On the other hand, in the sample radon progeny is still present,
decreasing the precision of the evaluation of the activity of this nuclide. Taking into
considerations all mentioned circumstances, the best threshold for the fourth counting
period would be between 40 – 70 minutes after sampling. The last counting must be
performed for a longer time also (30-60 minutes) but after the decay of radon progeny in
the sample. It means that the last period should start not earlier as 180 minutes after the
end of sampling. The delay can be even longer, as the half life of 212Pb is long enough to
allow it. Therefore the fifth period can be set as 30-60 minutes counting window
between, for instance 240 – 300 minutes after sampling.
In the paper theoretical calculations are presented as well as ready formulas for the
assessment of the radon and thoron progeny concentrations and potential alpha energy
concentrations, too.
In this way, we would be able to calculate concentrations of particular nuclides of radon and
thoron progeny as well as potential alpha energy concentrations for both series on the basis
of five consecutive measurements of the same filter in LSC spectrometer. For this purpose a
portable LS spectrometer can be used - Triathler.
24
IL-6
RADON EMANATION FROM SOILS OF DIFFERENT LITHOLOGICAL
UNITS
J. Vaupotič1, A. Gregorič1, R. Kardos2, M. Horváth2, T. Bujtor2, T. Kovács2,3
1
Jožef Stefan Institute, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Istitute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, P.O.B. 158,
Veszprém, Hungary
3
Social Organisation for Radioecological Cleanliness, P.O.B. 158, 8201 Veszprém,
Hungary
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In soil samples collected from 70 points of 7 different lithological units all over
Slovenia, at which radon in outdoor air and in soil gas had been measured in previous
surveys, emanation fraction of 222Rn, 226Ra content, porosity and specific surface area
have been determined. The number of samples for a unit differed and was the highest
for carbonates which cover more than two thirds of the country. Emanation fraction
differed significantly from unit to unit, as well as from sample to sample within the
same unit. The following ranges and averages were obtained: 0.015–0.079, 0.014–
0.306, 0.027–0.084, 0.016–0.114, 0.010–0.547, 0.016–0.041, 0.262–0.418 and
0.035±0.016, 0.089±0.085, 0.056±0.040, 0.053±0.037, 0.186±0.178, 0.029±0.018,
0.340±0.110 for alluvial and glacial deposits, clastic sediments containing clay, coarse
clastic sediments, flysch, carbonates, metamorphic rocks and sea and lake deposits,
respectively. Correlation of the emanation fraction with the radon concentration in
both outdoor air and soil gas was minor, with correlation coefficients not reaching 0.3.
Based on the measured data, radon concentration in soil gas was calculated applying
UNSCEAR methodology taking into account radium concentration in soil, and
compared with the measured values.
25
IL-7
RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS AND REMEDIAL MEASURES
IN HOUSES WITH HIGH INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION - CZECH
EXPERIENCE
Martin Neznal, Matěj Neznal
Radon v.o.s., Novakovych 6, 180 00 Praha 8, Czech Republic
Corresponding author: [email protected]
An overview of Czech experience with radon diagnostics measurements and
remedial measures in houses with high indoor radon concentration will be presented.
Results of radon diagnostic measurements represent the input for the design of
appropriate remedial measures in a house. A set of methods is available for this
purpose:
• Study of available documents, visual inspection of the building (history of the
building, building materials and their origin, spatial arrangement, quality of different
parts of the construction, mainly of the construction at the contact between the subsoil and the building, tightness of windows and doors, inspection of visible cracks
and leakages).• Radon sources identification and quantification (subsoil, building
materials, water supply).• Determination of radon potential of the building site (soilgas radon concentration and soil permeability measurements).
• Air sampling from selected locations suspected as potential radon entry pathways
(leakages, concrete slab cracks, joints, technological penetrations throught the
building structure elements).
• Qualitative and quantitative analysis of radon entry pathways (simultaneous
continual radon monitoring, radon blower door test).
• Analysis of indoor radon transport and distribution for different parts of the
building.
• Air infiltration, exfiltration evaluation.
In almost all cases, the most important source of indoor radon is the soil-gas
penetrating from the ground. The choise of remedial measures depends generally on
indoor radon levels. If the indoor radon concentrations are not too high (not higher
than 1000 Bq/m3), relatively cheap and not complicated measures are usually
recommended as the first step: sealing of all visible cracks and leakages;
reconstruction of old floors. When the indoor radon concentrations are higher, more
complicated remedial measures are applied. Under long-term experience, the most
effective system is the sub-slab ventilation. Principles of designing and application
of various ventilation systems are published in CSN 730601 Protection of houses
against radon from the soil.
26
IL-8
THE EUROPEAN INDOOR RADON MAP AND BEYOND
Tore Tollefsen, Valeria Gruber, Marc De Cort
European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre,
Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, Italy
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Under the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission (EC) is obliged to collect,
validate and provide information on radioactivity levels in the environment. This is
the main task of the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) group of the
Joint Research Centre (JRC), which develops and operates various systems for doing
this on a continuous basis for routine and emergency conditions.
After the EC published the “Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the
Chernobyl accident” in 1998, the JRC decided to embark on a European Atlas of
Natural Radiation, intended to provide the public with a more balanced view of the
annual dose that it may receive from environmental radioactivity.
Since indoor radon is the most important contributor to population dose and thus a
number of European countries have already carried out surveys, the JRC started by
creating a European Indoor Radon Map. During the radon workshop in Prague in
2006, most participating countries agreed to send statistics (mean, median, min, max
and number of measurements), based on annual means of indoor radon
concentration on ground floor of dwellings, to the JRC. These estimates would be
calculated on a 10 km x 10 km common grid across Europe. As the original
measurements remain with the national authorities, data privacy is respected. Since
the first data were submitted five years ago, by now 25 European countries have
contributed such statistics; the map currently contains more than 18,000 non-empty
grid cells, based on more than 800,000 individual measurements. Still, there are a
number of countries for which data exist but have not been made available, or are
stored in a format which does not allow easy integration into the European grid. At
the radon workshop in Ispra last year, invited experts from mainly Eastern European
countries agreed to participate, or continue to participate, to this mapping effort.
Moreover, since indoor radon concentration is always influenced by natural
(geological) and anthropogenic factors such as construction types, building materials
and living habits and is temporally variable and characteristic for each house, the
JRC has undertaken to map a variable which measures “what earth delivers”,
independent from anthropogenic factors and temporally constant over a geological
timescale. This variable is called the geogenic radon potential; together with
European experts, the JRC is cataloguing existing knowledge in the field and
developing a methodology for creating a European Geogenic Radon Map. The first
approach is a multivariate classification of a set of input quantities based on relevant
geological units, and a first version of the map is foreseen by the end of this year.
At this conference, we will present the current state of the European Indoor Radon
Map, describe some outstanding issues and plans for further improvement. We will
also outline development of the geogenic radon map and some other map
components of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation.
27
IL-9
REALIZATION OF THE METROLOGICAL TRACEABILITY CHAIN OF
RADON-222
Maria Sahagia, Aurelian Luca, Andrei Antohe, Constantin Ivan, Razvan Ioan,
Beatris Neacsu
Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, 30
Reactorului Str. 077125 Magurele, Ilfov.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The complete metrological traceability chain of radon-222, from the International System (SI)
up to the end users contains several steps to be covered: (i) Realization of a primary radon
activity standard; (ii) Transfer of the activity unit from the primary standard to the secondary
calibration installations; (iii) Realization of the standard receptacles; (iv) Realization of a
calibration facility, known as a radon calibration chamber, based on the use of standard
receptacles, allowing for the certification of the radon concentration, in Bq m-3, to be used for
the calibration of the equipment used for in field measurements; (v) Participation at key or
supplementary CIPM or bilateral comparisons with other primary laboratories. This paper
presents each of the above steps.
The steps (i) to (iii) were covered by the activities deployed within the project SEPRAD:
“Realization of the primary Romanian radon standard for the assurance of the national and
international traceability of measurements”. The main results are: setting up of an installation
for obtaining, circulation and recovery of radon, in collaboration with the colleagues from
ICSI-Rm.Valcea; absolute (primary) standardization of the radon-222 decay chain by the
method of liquid scintillation counting; calibration of the secondary installations – HPGe
spectrometer and Ionization chamber; realization of a traceability scheme for the transfer of
the activity unit from the primary level to the radon receptacles, based on an original
combination of primary and secondary methods. The collaborator INSP-CRSP Timisoara
performed the following activities: outline of the national and international norms regarding
radon measurement/reporting and of the concentration recommended levels; realization of
computer programs for the calculation of radon circulation in various matrices. These results
were already published.
The steps (iv) and (v) will be covered within the project CARSTEAM ”Realization of a radon
chamber–calibration stand for the equipment used in the measurement of radon daughter
products concentration in air”. The coordinator is IFIN-HH, who will collaborate with ICSIRm. Valcea and Bucharest University, Physics Faculty. It has to accomplish the following
objectives:
1. Design of the Radon chamber, with the optimal shape and dimensions, proper choice of
construction materials, assurance of perfect air tightness and monitoring of the atmospheric
conditions; solutions for introduction and placement of equipment to be calibrated inside the
chamber and solutions for feeding of the chamber with radon gas;
2. Construction of the chamber with all necessary monitoring gauges, according to the design.
Testing of the parameters of the chamber;
3. Use of the chamber for the calibration of equipments and reporting of results;
4. Validation of the Romanian radon system by participation in a key comparison, within the
frame of the CIPM-MRA;
5. Drawing of Manual and operational procedures;
6. Dissemination of the results by publication of papers and one patent for original technical
solutions.
Key words: radon-222, metrological traceability chain, radon calibration chamber.
28
IL-10
INDOOR THORON MEASUREMENTS IN HUNGARY
Tibor Kovács1, Anita Csordás2, János Somlai1
1
Institute of Radiochemistry and Radieocology, University of Pannonia H-8200,
Veszprem Egyetem str 10
2.
Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, H-8200, Veszprem Egyetem
str 10
Corresponding author:[email protected]
Nowadays more attention is drawn on the measurement and survey of thoron, an
isotope with a short decay period of radon. However, related to radon surveys
several technical and measurement technology issues arise due to the short life
period of thoron.
Thoron has previously been surveyed, mainly in Asia; however, recent surveys in
some European locations have found significant thoron concentrations also need to
be considered.
During the past year a survey with a large number of samples was organized, mainly
based on the CR-39 based RADUET detector manufactured by Radosy company.
Besides, other available devices capable of measuring radon, thoron and progenies
of radon and thoron were applied for the comparison of results. The detectors were
calibrated in a thoron chamber designed on the NIRS pattern, and they were
intercompared. The survey was performed in 5 Hungarian counties, in 180
residential houses with 3 month exposition periods, on the basis of a harmonized
protocol elaborated with the co-operation of several research groups. According to
the protocol the distance of the detector sets was fixed at 15-20 cm from the walls.
In dwellings the presence of thoron was detected almost in all cases, but in the
majority of the cases it did not reach 100 Bq m-3, however, in cellars of these
buildings, a value around 200 Bq m-3 was typical.
29
IL-11
EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF RADON MIGRATION
IN MULTILAYER SOIL
A Clouvas1, S Xanthos1,2, M Antonopoulos-Domis1
1
Nuclear Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
2
Department of Automation, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of
Thessaloniki, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon concentration as function of the soil depth (0- 2.6 m) was measured during
the years (2002-2003), (2003-2004), (2010-2011), (2011-2012) in a location of the
Aristotle University campus. Radium distribution in soil was found constant. On the
contrary, as expected, radon concentration increases with soil depth. However, radon
concentration does not follow the well known monotonous increase, which levels off
to a saturation value. Radon concentration increases up to a soil depth of about 80
cm, seems to remain constant at depths of 80-130 cm and then increases again. The
experimental distribution was reproduced by solving the general transport equation
(diffusion and advection). The main finding of the numerical investigation is that the
aforementioned, experimentally observed, profile of radon concentration can be
explained theoretically by the existence of two soil layers with different diffusionadvection characteristics. Soil sample analysis verified the existence of two different
soil layers. Different boundary conditions of the radon concentration at the soil
surface were used for the solution of the diffusion-advection equation. It was found
that the calculated radon concentration in the soil is, away from the soil surface, the
same for the two boundary conditions used. However, from the (frequently used)
boundary condition of zero radon concentration at the soil surface, the experimental
profile of the radon concentration at the soil surface cannot be deduced. On the
contrary, with more appropriate boundary condition the radon concentration at the
soil surface could be deduced from the experimental profile. The equivalent
diffusion coefficient could be uncovered from the experimental profile, which can
then be used to estimate the radon current on the surface of the soil (radon
exhalation). The radon exhalation was directly measured during the years 20102011 and 2011-2012. About 40 measurements in each time period were performed.
The mean value of radon exhalation was 18 Bq m-2 h-1 and 23 Bq m-2 h-1
respectively .The direct measurement of mean radon exhalation : 18 Bq m-2 h-1
(year 2010-2011) is in reasonable agreement with the one deduced indirectly from
the experimental profile (radon concentration as function of the soil depth for the
first soil layer) : 24 Bq m-2 h-1 .
30
IL-12
THE USE OF POLYCARBONATE MATERIALS OF HIGH RADON
ABSORPTION ABILITY FOR MEASURING RADON
Dobromir Pressyanov
Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
One decade of research and practical experience in the use of the polycarbonate
method is outlined. The emphasis is on the use of CDs/DVDs as retrospective radon
detectors. The methodology and calibration procedures are summarized. Practical
applications are demonstrated, including for identifying buildings with high radon.
Recent developments toward measuring thoron are presented. The potential
application and performance of the method for radon measurements in water and
soil-gas is discussed.
31
OP-1
INTRODUCTORY TO THE RADOSYS NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTOR
MEASUREMENT CONCEPT FOR RADON AND THORON
E. Hulber
Radosys, Ltd., Vegyesz u. 17-25., Budapest, 1116, Hungary
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In radon mapping projects variety of radon measurement techniques are utilized.
One of them is the popular one by nuclear track detectors. Beside that in the
everyday routine of indoor radon tests its use in Europe is overwhelming. The
Radosys is dedicated to this measurement concept with availability of full range of
instrumentation and radon detectors, including standard and special types for
instance thoron combination measurements. This presentation provides brief
introductory to the Radosys product line.
32
OP-2
DYNAMICS OF OUTDOOR RADON AND THORON PROGENY
CONCENTRATIONS
IN SOME GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS OF ROMANIA
Elena Simion1,2, Ion Mihalcea2, Vasile Cuculeanu3, Florin Simion1,3
1 National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul
Independentei 294, RO-060031, Bucharest, Romania
2 Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Av.,
030017-Bucharest, Romania
3 Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest,
Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The variation of outdoor 222Rn and 220Rn progeny concentrations were investigated
for 5 years (2002 - 2006). The results presented in this paper were obtained within
the framework of the monitoring program performed by the Environmental
Radioactivity Monitoring Stations (ERMS) situated in Toaca, Iași, Cluj, Craiova,
Bucharest and Constanța, part of the National Environmental Radioactivity Survey
Network (NERSN), coordinated by National Environmental Protection Agency
(NEPA). The measuring method is based on the total beta measurements of
atmospheric aerosols filters, using a low background total beta counter and ( 90Sr/Y)
reference standard. Analysis of the time series of progeny concentrations in the low
atmosphere makes evident different patterns of variation of these concentrations:
diurnal, seasonal and annual variations.
Key words: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, patterns of variations
33
OP-3
RADON MEASUREMENT IN SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS
(KREMIKOVTSI DISTRICT)
Daniel Vuchkov, Kremena Ivanova, Bistra Kunovska, Viktor Badulin
National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection
3, Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str. Sofia, Bulgaria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Aim: Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. It originates from the decay of
uranium present in soil and rock. Radon is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Radon
is a known human carcinogen. Prolonged exposure to elevated radon concentrations
causes an increased risk of lung cancer. Children have been reported to have greater
risk than adults for certain types of cancer from radiation, but there are currently no
conclusive data on whether children are at greater risk than adults from radon. For
most school children and staff, the second largest contributor to their radon exposure
is likely to be their school. The study presents a strategy of radon survey in schools
and kindergartens in Kremikovtsi district in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Methods: Levels of radon in schools could be varying significantly from room to
room. All frequently occupied rooms in contact with the ground were measurement.
The strategy follows two general ways to test for radon: A short-term test for a
period of 10 days during the holiday on close conditions and follow-up
measurements - long-term test in locations with high radon level. The cumulative
(passive) method was used for the study. The measurements are carried out by EPERM® system.
Results: The results of short-term test show that in 9 of 16 schools and
kindergartens in Kremikovtsi area the radon concentration ware above the
recommended level in existing buildings of 300 Bq/m3, determined on the basis of
the new draft Euratom Directive on basic safety standards. In 5 of the buildings
measured levels are between 300 and 500 Bq/m3, and in 4 the indoor radon
concentration is above 500 Bq/m3. In these 9 schools and kindergartens were held
long-term measurements for the period from September 2011 to April 2012, in order
to confirm the initial short-term measurement.
Conclusion: The results of short-term measurements of two weeks under close
conditions are comparable with the results of long-term measurement. There are no
losses of detectors during the short-term measurements, as occurs in long-term
measurements. Short-term measurements can be used as a screening method for
deciding on long-term measurements or urgent measures to reduce the high indoor
radon concentration. This approach developed for a study of radon concentrations in
schools and kindergartens is applicable for investigation of other public buildings.
Key words: Radon concentration, long-term measurement, short-term test, schools,
kindergartens.
34
OP-4
PILOT RADON SURVEY IN BULGARIA
Kremena Ivanova, Bistra Kunovska, Daniel Vuchkov, Viktor Badulin
National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection
3, Sv. Georgi Sofiyski Str. Sofia - Bulgaria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Aim: Exposure to terrestrial sources and particularly to radon 222Rn is considered to
be the most important. The National Radon Survey provides an estimation of the
national distribution of annual average radon concentrations in occupied residences.
Pilot radon survey was carried out during 2011 and 2012 to verify organization,
protocols and methodology of the distribution of detectors on conduction of national
radon survey in Bulgaria.
Methods: The survey was designed, promoted and coordinated by National Centre
of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection - Ministry of Health and carried out in
collaboration with the Regional Health Inspectorates for detectors positioning and
questionnaire filling, and with the "GAMADATA” company for radon
measurements by alpha track detectors. Bulgaria is divided into 28 districts. The
pilot radon survey was conducted in four districts (Sofia-city, Sofia-district, Plovdiv
and Varna). In each districts 100 detectors were distributed, taking into account the
percentage of the population, for 6 month of exposition from October 2011 to May
2012.
Results: The distribution of annual radon concentration was derived from
measurements in 100 dwellings per district. The average values for Sofia-city; Sofiadistrict; Plovdiv and Varna are 90 Bq m-3; 150 Bq m-3; 270 Bq m-3; 110 Bq m-3. The
fractions of dwellings above the reference levels of 300 Bq m-3 is 3%, 9%, 5%, and
14%, respectively. Maximum value of 3560 Bq/m3 was measured in Plovdiv district.
Conclusion: The results of pilot survey indicate that there may be a problem in
Bulgaria with high radon concentrations and a national survey of the entire country
should be made. Organization, protocols and methodology of the distribution of
detectors could be used for conducting the national radon survey. To optimize the
quality of the measurements, two dosimeters per dwelling should be placed. The
pilot survey was not designed to find radon-prone areas, however some areas with
high radon concentration have been identified.
Key words: Annual Radon concentration, national radon survey, alpha track
detectors
35
OP-5
ESTIMATION OF INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATIONS IN THE AIR OF
RESIDENTIAL HOUSES AND MINES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Ion Ursulean, Liuba Coretchi, Iurie Chirută, Sergiu Virlan
Naţional Centre of Public Health
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Natural sources contribute significant quantities of radiation toward the total radiation
exposure that humans receive. The majority of this natural radiation is harmless to humans in
the ambient environment. Radon as a large component of the natural radiation that human are
exposed to can pose a threat to the public health when radon gas accumulates in poorly
ventilated residential and occupational settings. In the Republic of Moldova Radon survey
measurements was performed in living houses constructed from different type of building
materials according to planned activities of the State Public Health Supervision Service. The
measurements are performed predominantly in the capital city-Chisinau and mines for
extraction of building materials on the territory of the country. In accordance with the
provisions of national radiation protection norms the high indoor radon concentration for
dwellings is considered the level which exceed 150 Bq/m3 for a new buildings and 200
Bq/m3 for existing and old buildings.
Materials and methods
For the measurements the SARAD instruments were used (Radon Scout, Radon Scout
Plus, Dose Man Pro, Myriam). For comparison the SAS-R-2 instrument was used
simultaneously. Together with the concentration measurements, the parameters of
humidity and temperature were noted. The values found, are expressed in Bq/m 3 and
equivalent in pCi/l is presented together with the estimated quantity of effective dose for
occupationally exposed workers.
Results
During the period 1991-2011 years in different dwellings are performed
1591investigations of radon concentration. The registered radon concentration in living
houses below 100Bq/m3 was detected in 1583cases and in 8cases are detected
concentrations above 100Bq/m3. The average concentrations of radon-222 in indoor air
of houses from different types of building materials (arithmetic mean) during1991-2011
years was: -for the stone houses-42Bq/m3,-brick houses-29Bq/m3,-big panel houses
43Bq/m3 ,-monolitihic buildings-35Bq/m3 ,-airbrick houses- 23Bq/m3,-houses with
industrial wastes components from industry which are used during their preparationashes,slags,etc-52Bq/m3. Beginning from 2006 year a number of selective measurements
of Radon concentrations together with representative of SARAD Instruments Company
have been made in four mines “Mileştii Mici”, “Cricova”, “Branişte” and “Chisinău”
chosen from nearest capital Chisinau. They are 2 mines with extraction of calcium
bricks, and 2 mines that are used in the winery storage and industry. The radon
concentrations at some points were higher than 1000 Bq/m3.
Conclusions
The implementation of the extended national programme for radon monitoring in
dwellings and the estimation of the public exposure from radon in different types of
houses and building materials needs to be more developed.
The national programme for radon monitoring in mines for the extraction of building
materials in the Republic of Moldova is suggested together with the extension of the
areas of measurement, evaluation of the radon concentrations and estimation of the level
of workers exposure from radon.
36
OP-6
RADON! THE PROBLEM, THE SOLUTION, THE EXPERIENCE YOU
CAN TRUST
Zsolt Majer, Adam Jankeje
Monarflex s.r.o., Štúrovo, Slovakia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Monarflex is a company member of Icopal Group. The company was founded in
Denmark with it's main activity in the field of plastic membranes like: radon and geo
membranes, scaffold sheeting and under roof materials.
Monarflex is leader in radon solutions, providing since more than 30 years special
membranes for different applications for building industry.
37
OP-7
RADON MAPPING IN SERBIA
Sofija Forkapiš, Ištvan Bikit, Miroslav Veskoviš, Nataša Todoroviš, Dušan Mrđa,
Kristina Bikit, Jovana Nikolov
Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In this paper results of the first radon mapping in Serbia were presented. Indoor
radon concentrations were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 1000
locations in Northern province Vojvodina each year (2003-2005) during the winter.
The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for
radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which
identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis
for the future radon campaigns. Upgrading the system of environmental
radioactivity monitoring in Serbia – modernization of detection system and
interconnecting of detection points into network are discussed.
38
OP-8
PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT PASSIVE DETECTORS AT LOWLEVEL RADON CONCENTRATION COMPARED WITH ACTIVE
INSTRUMENT
Vladimir Udovičiš1, Radomir Banjanac1, Tetsuo Ishikawa3, Yasutaka Omori3,
Rosaline Mishra4, Carmela Carpentieri5 , Francesco Boichicchio5, Aleksandar
Dragiš1, Jelena Filipoviš2, Y.S. Mayya4, Predrag Kolarž1, Zora S. Žuniš2
1
Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
Institute of Nuclear Sciences "Vinča", ECE LAB, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
3
Regulatory Science Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences,4-9-1
Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555, Japan
4
Radiological Physics & Advisory Division (RPAD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400 085, India
5
Italian National Institute of Health, Via Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Corresponding author: [email protected]
For several experiment it is important to have the indoor space with the almost
constant low-level radon concentration with the minimum daily and seasonally
variations, i.e., low-level radon calibration chamber. The underground low-level
laboratory at the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia, has the special designed
system for radon reduction which provides average indoor radon concentration of
about 13(5) Bqm-3 [1]. Also, the radon time-series analysis in the laboratory shows
relative small diurnal and seasonal variability [2]. The indoor radon measurements
have several standard procedures world-wide. The uncertainty in the all radon
measurements increases when the indoor radon concentrations decreases. In the case
of the low-level radon concentration (below 20 Bq m-3) there are many radon
detectors with the detection limit in that range. This work deals with the results of
the simultaneous indoor radon measurements both by active method, i.e., short-term
measurment and by passive method and SSNTDs i.e., long-term measurements in
the underground low-level laboratory. In addition the aim of this work is to compare
sensitivity of several passive devices (TASTRAK-CR 39 detectors, supplied by
Italian National Institute of Health, RADUET passive discriminative detector for
radon and thoron from National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan
and Direct Radon and Thoron progeny sensors. The short-term measurements were
performed by continuous radon monitor device Sun Nuclear, Model 1029. The
measurements by both methods (active and passive) were conducted over one year,
from October 2010 to October 2011. SSNTDs were deployed in two consecutive
six-month periods, whereas the radon monitor device has been performed with a
discrete sampling time (T=4 h) within the same measuring period as passive devices.
[1] A. Dragiš, V. Udovičiš, R. Banjanac, D. Jokoviš, D. Maletiš, N. Veselinoviš, M. Saviš, J.
Puzoviš, I.V. Aničin. The new set-up in the Belgrade low-level and cosmic-ray laboratory.
Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection Vol. XXVI, No. 3, 181-192, (2011)
[2] V. Udovičiš, I. Aničin, D. Jokoviš, A. Dragiš, R. Banjanac, B. Grabež, N. Veselinoviš:
Radon Time-Series Analysis in the Underground Low-Level Laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry 145 (2-3), 155-158, (2011)
39
OP-9
WEATHER INDUCED VARIATIONS IN AIRBORN RADON
CONCENTRATIONS IN WINE CELLARS
István Csige and Eszter Bíborka Búzás
University of Debrecen - Institute of Nuclear Research, Department of
Environmental Physics, 4026 Debrecen Bem tér 18/c
Corresponding author: [email protected]
We have measured radon (222Rn) activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars in
the Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region of Hungary. A small scale survey showed that the
annual average 222Rn activity concentration in the wine cellars of the region varies
between a few hundreds and a few thousands of Bqm-3. That is about an order of
magnitude smaller than the annual average 222Rn activity concentrations found in
Hungarian caves (Hakl, Hunyadi, & Várhegyi, 1997). Based on this survey we have
estimated in about 30 % of wine cellars the annual average 222Rn activity
concentration to be higher than 1000 Bqm-3 which is the currently accepted action
level for underground workplaces in Hungary. However, because only a very few of
these cellars can be considered as regular workplaces we conclude that radon in
most cellars does not pose a significant radon risk for people that visit occasionally
the cellars. In addition to the annual average we also have measured the spatial and
temporal variations of radon activity concentrations in the air of some selected wine
cellars in order to study the effects of weather on the microclimate of wineries. We
have found that in the majority of the cellars 222Rn activity concentration has a
maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. This effect can easily be explained
by the difference in the magnitude of the natural ventilation through the entrance of
the cellar which is driven by the bouncy forces due to temperature difference
between indoor and outdoor air. With continuous monitoring of airborne 222Rn
activity concentration with an ionization chamber radon monitor (AlphaGUARD
PQ2000) we have also shown diurnal variations due to this effect. On the other hand
fluctuation of atmospheric pressure also induces gas flow in the walls of the cellars.
This has an asymmetric effect on radon transport. Pressure drops sucks radon rich
gases into the atmosphere while pressure increases push back relatively fresh air
containing significantly less radon. That is, pressure variation has a pumping effect
on radon. In this work we have found that in some circumstances this effect is the
dominant factor that determines the 222Rn activity concentration in the air of wine
cellars. Comparison with model calculations done by using COMSOL Multiphysics
we have found that it is most profound in case of fractured porous embedded
medium.
Reference
Hakl, J., Hunyadi, I., & Várhegyi, A. (1997). Radon monitoring in caves. In S.A.Durrani, &
R.Ilic. (Eds.), Radon measurements by etched track detectors. Applications in radiation
protection, Earth sciences and the environmental (pp. 261-280.). Singapore: World Scientific.
The work was supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2/B-10/1-2010-0024 project. The
project is co-financed by the European Union and the European Social Fund.
40
OP-10
THE INFLUENCE OF RADON ON ATMOSPHERIC IONIZING
RADIATION FIELDS
M.S. Cherepnev, V.S. Yakovleva
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The influence of atmospheric and soil radon on the state and dynamics of
atmospheric fields of alpha, beta and gamma radiations. Atmospheric radon (its
isotopes and daughter decay products) affects the atmospheric ionizing radiation
field and is a source of "variable" component of radiation fields. According to
popular belief, soil radionuclides are the source of "permanent" component of the
atmospheric radiation fields. Analysis of the modeling results of transport of
ionizing radiation, formed by atmospheric radon and soil radionuclides, under
radioactive equilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series, showed that: 1)
atmospheric gamma-ray background are formed mainly by soil radionuclides, the
contribution of atmospheric radon is, on average, 0.1%; and 2) under certain
meteorological conditions the contribution of atmospheric radon in the gamma-ray
background can reach 10% only at altitudes of up to 1 m; 3) atmospheric radon
noticeable impact on the beta radiation field of surface atmosphere, and the
contributions of atmospheric radon and soil radionuclides comparable and their ratio
is highly dependent on weather conditions and height above the earth surface.
Influence of soil radon to the atmospheric radiation field are discussed in detail in
the report.
41
OP-11
RADON MEASUREMENTS AND RADON REMEDIATION IN BĂIŢA-ŞTEI
RADON PRONE AREA
C. Cosma, A. Cucos, B. Papp, M. Moldovan, R. Begy, T. Dicu, D. Nita, D.
Burghele, D. Fulea, C. Cindea, L. Suciu, Gh. Banciu, C. Sainz
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,
400294 Cluj-Napoca, Fântânele No. 30, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Băiţa-Stei was the largest uranium reserve in Romania with estimated reserves of
450,000 tons of high grade metal. It was a large open pit mine in the northwest of
Romania (West Carpathian Mountains), situated at 123 km south-east of Oradea, the
capital of Bihor County. The transport during the time of sediment by Crisul Baita
water course increased the uranium and radium content in the river meadow. The
building material from Crisulul Baita river bed (stone, gravel, sand) was used as
construction material for the houses. In addition, some people living on this valley
and surroundings after the opening exploitation used as building material the
uranium waste from this mine.
Preliminary indoor radon measurement (grab samples) in the villages situated on the
route of ore transport (Baita Plai – Stei) shown high radon concentrations. A double
log normal distribution of the results was put in evidence in direct connection with
using of uranium waste at the built of the houses. Recent measurements of indoor,
soil and water proves the assumption that this zone can be considered as a radon
prone area in Romania and now one European program for radon mitigation was
started. The average annual additional effective dose in this area due to radon
exposure is 6.75 ± 5.59 mSv, value higher than the action level recommended by
International Commission on Radiological Protection.
The work presents a very attentive survey of indoor radon (about 3000 of etched
CR-39 track detectors) in this area followed by a selection of 20 houses proposed for
remediation where a systematic investigation regarding radon sources (soil, water,
building material) was performed. The measured indoor radon concentration in the
surveyed buildings ranged from 40 to 4000 Bq m−3. A representative pilot house
was chosen for experimental search and here were tested the first remedial measures
especially based on pressurization and depressurization tests. Also this work
presents the implemented measures for mitigation and the first results regarding
some remediated houses.
42
OP-12
RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUES IN A HOUSE LOCATED IN ALBA
COUNTY
Lavinia Elena Muntean1, Daniela Lucia Manea1, Botond Papp2, Mircea Moldovan2,
Constantin Cosma2,
1
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 28,
Memorandumului St., 400114, Cluj Napoca, Romania
2
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, 30,
Fântânele St., 400294, Cluj Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author:[email protected]
Remedial actions based on diminishing the radon access to buildings, such as
sealing off, soil depressurisation and natural ventilation of the indoor space, were
applied in the basement of a dwelling house from the Alba County. The purpose of
the present study was to investigate whether the methods applied are efficient with
respect to the reduction factor (over 50%) and the costs, while not producing adverse
effects upon the building structure and indoor environment. The average of indoor
radon values was about 1000 Bq/m3. The value obtained by correcting this average
with seasonal factors is 785 Bq/m3. After remediation the value have fallen sharply
below 150 Bq/m3. Results have shown that the efficiency of soil sealing (anti-radon
membrane) and passive soil depressurisation is 0%, relative to system activation
which is 85%. By using natural ventilation of indoor space in addition to the first
and second methods, the reduction factors were 90% and 93%, respectively. We
concluded that the most efficient techniques for indoor radon reduction are those
that result by combining this three principles: sealing, depressurisation and natural
ventilation.
43
OP-13
URANIUM MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE UPPER BASIN OF CRIŞ
NEGRU RIVER
Banciu Ovidiu, Banciu Gheorghe
Uranium National Company (UNC), Băiţa Bihor, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The underground of this region provided along the years: gold, silver, iron, cupper,
led, zinc, molybdenum, bismuth, tungsten, nickel, cobalt, pyrite, wollastonite,
limestone, uranium, marble, building stone, and so on. In the literature, the subsoil
of the region is known as “The Baita-Bihor metalo-genetic District”. It was for many
centuries considered the greatness of mining in the country and in Central Europe.
The Baita Bihor uranium deposit was located along the Cris Baita Valley, at the
springs of the Valea Plaiului brook and was fully extracted by the Romano-Soviet
Society „Sovrom-Kvartit” between 1952 and 1965. The ore‟s high quality, the
geological reservoir, the shape and shallow depth where it could be found have
made this uranium mining to become, between 1957 and 1958, the biggest in the
world. The Avram Iancu deposit, located in the interfluve between Crisul Negru,
Ariesul Mic and Leucii Valley was exploited almost completely through
underground mining during 1962-1998. Besides the useful mineral substances which
were transported to processing plants, from the extracting process resulted also
millions of tones of sterile rocks or slightly radioactive materials, those were
deposited as waste, sometimes hastily on the water banks of Crisul Baita branches.
A small fraction of these were driven by rainfall into the bed of these streams from
where locals have gathered and used them as building material for household. After
1995 the mining production dropped considerably. Some areas have been restored
naturally through afforestation and grassing.
The intense work within this perimeter has modified the landscape aspect of the area
and also partially the quality of some environmental factors on a distance up to 3 to
5 km from the mine. Their supervision was done by the specialised laboratories of
the mining unit. Rehabilitation, however, was neglected until the Environmental
Law foundation, this rising particular issues among specialists in this field. In 1998
were initiated the works to preserve and close some of the mining sectors and the
environmental reconstruction was started in 1999 in Poiana-Izvorul Bihorului,
Avram Iancu Mine and Baita pit. It is imperative to continue and complete them in
all affected areas.
44
OP-14
RADON IN SPAIN WITHIN EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK
Sainz C., Fuente I., Gutierrez J.L., Fernandez A., Quindos L, S
RADON GROUP, University of Cantabria, SPAIN
Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011, Santander, Cantabria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Since more than thirty years ago, the interest in radon exposure of the general
population have promoted the development of national surveys in order to evaluate
the average radon levels in houses and locate the areas with a potential risk derived
from radon and radon progeny inhalation. Nationwide and regional surveys have
been conducted to evaluate natural radiation exposure of the Spanish population.
Recently the Radon Group in collaboration with two research groups from the
University of Santiago de Compostela and University Autonoma de Barcelona has
finished the Radon 10x10 project which is based on radon integrated measurements
using track-etched detectors using grid 10x10 km2. In addition to that measuring
campaign, an important step concerning the quality of the measurements have been
given with the creation of a new laboratory of natural radioactivity (LRN). The
installation is available since 2010 and provides the possibility to any national and
international laboratory of performing verification measurements under realistic
field conditions.
Finally, the tentative to create an association of the radon professionals in Europe
will be presented. The European Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists
(EARST) would be an excellent platform to afford key aspects about radon issue,
like risk communication to the public, quality insurance of radon measurements and
remediation strategies, and effective collaboration between radon professionals and
other interested public and private organizations.
45
OP-15
MEASUREMENTS OF RADON AND THORON DECAY PRODUCTS IN
AIR AN APPLICATION OF LSC AND TLD METHODS
Stanisław Chałupnik1, Oliver Meisenberg2, Lei Bi2, Jin Wang2, Krystian Skubacz1
and Jochen Tschiersch2
1
Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland,
Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, Germany
2
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is a measuring technique, broadly applied in
environmental monitoring of different radionuclides. One of the possible applications of
LSC is the measurement of radon and thoron progeny. There are certain advantages of
this method, especially high counting efficiency for alpha and beta particles emitted by
radon and thoron progeny. This advantage has been pointed out several years ago, when
such methods were applied to calibration of portable monitors for radon progeny,
especially due to the fact that in the case of radon progeny no standard atmosphere
exists. Radon and thoron progeny might be collected on a filter, which after immersion
in the liquid scintillator becomes transparent and can be counted without significant
quenching. Therefore such a method can be stated as an absolute one and can be widely
used for radon progeny monitoring.
The following approach is proposed for application of LSC for radon and thoron
measurements. For radon progeny measurements, the best method seems to be the
Thomas algorithm. It requires three consecutive measurements done after sampling. The
first period is between 2 and 5 minutes, the second one between 6 and 20 and the last one
between 21 and 30 minutes after sampling. Two additional counting periods must be
added to allow calculations of the two relevant thoron progeny also. Out of these two
periods, first (fourth) counting period should be established rather quickly after the
periods mentioned earlier to measure sampled 212Bi, but should last relatively long (for
instance 30 minutes).The last counting must be performed for a longer time also (30-60
minutes) but after the decay of radon progeny in the sample and with 212Bi being in
equilibrium with 212Pb. Therefore the fifth period can be set for instance as 240 to 300
minutes after sampling.
In the paper theoretical calculations are presented as well as ready formulas for the
assessment of the radon and thoron progeny concentrations and potential alpha energy
concentrations.
For long term measurements a different technique can be applied – monitors of potential
alpha energy concentration (PAEC) with thermo luminescent detectors (TLD). In these
devices, called ALFA-2000 sampling probe, TL detectors (CaSO4:Dy) are applied for
alpha particles counting. Three independent heads are placed over the membrane filter in
a dust sampler‟s microcyclone. Such solution enables simultaneous measurements of
PAEC and dust content. Moreover, the information which is stored in TLD chips is the
energy of alpha particles, not the number of counted particles. Therefore the readout of
TL detector shows directly potential alpha energy, with no dependence on equilibrium
factor etc. This technique, which had been used only for radon progeny measurements,
was modified to allow simultaneous measurements of radon and thoron PAEC.
Both methods, LSC and TLD, can be used for calibration of decay product monitors. The
LSC method has the advantage to be an absolute one, the TLD method to measure
directly the (dose relevant) deposited energy.
46
OP-16
RELATIONSHIP OF RADON CONCENTRATION OF SUBSURFACE
WATERS AT AND GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS AT HUNGARIAN SITES
Á. Horváth1, K. Zs. Szabó2, A. Erőss3, T. Ádány1, A. Bene4, V. Boráros4, I. Erhardt3,
Á. Freiler1, I. Orbán4, V. Ötvös3, H. É. Nagy2,
1
Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
Litosphere Fluid Research Lab, Department of Petrology and Geochemistry,
Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
3
Department of Physical and Applied Geology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest,
Hungary
4
Center for Environmental Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
Corresponding author: [email protected]
2
The radon risk of an area mainly depends on its geological and pedological properties. These
properties determine the radon concentration of the soil gas and the subsurface waters, as
well. Therefore both can be a good candidate for characterization of the radon risk of the area.
The geogenic radon sources fill up the subsurface water besides the soil gas by radon. The
high radon potential areas will result in advanced level of subsurface water radon
concentration. Although quantitative correlation between water radon concentration and radon
potential or indoor radon for large areas has not been investigated yet, but there are numerous
underground water bodies examined and found to provide useful information about geogenic
radon potential.
There are two natural ways of sampling underground water bodies and there is a costly
drilling method, as well. The cheep ways are to sample natural cold or thermal springs or
garden wells. The disadvantage of getting information from are the easily occurring radon
loss at sampling and the uncertainties of the corresponding area. But on the other hand it
shows steady concentration and cheep sampling is available.
In this study we investigated the time dependence of the radon concentration of natural
springs at several geological formations. The sites cover 5 areas: Sopron Hills, Balaton
Highland, Budai Hills and two villages one in Pest County (Isaszeg) and one in Békés County
(Kondoros), South-eastern part of Hungary. Besides the springs we investigated garden wells,
for more possibilities of sampling sites. Averages and distributions of many measurements at
a given geological formation give the describing value that can be proportional to the radon
risk of the formation. We also made laboratory measurements on soil samples that included
radium content and radon exhalation, since the specific radon exhalation in soil is the property
that the main issue for the radon potential.
Our results show that the time dependence of the radon content of the natural springs is
generally less than 20%, therefore it is usable for the site characterization at those areas,
where there are enough number of springs. This time dependence is due to slow
hydrogeological changes (over many months). The radon in the garden well water varies more
since the higher possibility of interaction with the open air.
At the Sopron Hills site we made a detailed investigation of the source of the radon in the
spring water. We analyzed the radon exhalation properties of soil and rock samples. Our
results showed that however the soil itself can be a source only for less than the half of the
measured radon concentration (about 220 Bq/l) of the spring it is a significant source. But the
deformed gneiss rock samples collected at surface level of this site have surprising high
exhalation coefficient and since the smaller porosity can produce the radon of the spring.
Another interesting source of high radon concentration (about 600 Bq/l) was determined in a
thermal water of Buda Karst System, where the high radon concentration has bacterial origin.
47
OP-17
PREDICTION OF INDOOR RADON RISK FROM RADIUM
CONCENTRATION IN SOIL: REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA CASE STUDY
Peter Bossew 1, Zdenka Stojanovska 2, Zora S. Zunic 3, Mimoza Ristova 4
1
German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Köpenicker Allee 120-130, 10318
Berlin, Germany.
2
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, Republic of Macedonia
3
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Electro Chemical Etching Laboratory –
ECE LAB, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, P.O Box 522,
11000, University of Belgrade, Serbia
4
Institute of Physic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University in
Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Geo-referenced datasets of indoor radon concentrations and radium concentrations
in soil are available for the Republic of Macedonia. However, the indoor 222Rn data
are spatially strongly clustered as the measurements were essentially confined to
major towns and cities. Hence, the estimation of the geographical distribution of
222
Rn concentration based only on the 222Rn data is difficult to be made. On the other
hand, geochemical measurements (226Ra) are quite well distributed over the country.
Since 226Ra is the source of 222Rn, one may think on using 226Ra as a predictor for
222
Rn. In this paper we present a method of modelling the stochastic dependency of
indoor 222Rn of soil 226Ra. The method is new in the area of 222Rn assessment and
still needs to be validated by more case studies. It must be bared in mind that the
indoor 222Rn depends, in some cases more strongly, on other controlling factors than
the 226Ra in soil, so that its estimation from 226Ra alone is inevitably imperfect. The
results must therefore be understood as estimates in absence of other information,
and as a motivation to carry out measurements in regions where the model predicts
higher 222Rn levels, but for which no measurements are available so far.
Keywords: Republic of Macedonia, indoor radon, radium in soil, probabilistic
prediction
48
OP-18
MONITORING OF RADON LEVELS IN SOME TOURISTIC
UNDERGROUND ENVIRONMENTS FROM ROMANIA
Nicoleta Bican-Brişan1, Alexandra Cucoş-Dinu1, Cosma Constantin1, Ovidiu Mera2
1
“Babeş-Bolyai” University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, 33
Fântânele Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Turda Salt Mine, 54/B Salinelor Street, Turda, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon is continually generated from rocks and soils, all over the world, and can
diffuse for several meters before decaying into its short-lived decay products 214Po,
218
Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi. It has been accumulated in underground environments (caves
and mines) and while, posing no risk to members of the public viewing the caves
and other types of underground spaces, may present a potential long-term health risk
for the full-time staff (guides) spending extended periods conducting tours or
carrying out maintenance within these underground environments.
While, in the outdoors, air currents reduce the concentration of radon, ensuring
thereby the quickly dissipation of radon, in underground environments, due to the
lower level of ventilation, radon accumulates and so radon levels has been
concentrated.
The aim of this study is to provide the distribution of radon levels in three
underground environments of tourist interest from Romania (“Ursilor” Cave,
“Muierilor” Cave and Turda Salt Mine,), in order to evaluate the level of radon
concentration in underground air. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by
using solid state CR-39 type RSKS nuclear track-etch detectors that were exposed
for 3 to 6 months.
The results reveals low radon levels in salt mine with the annual average
concentration around 8 Bq/m3, which sustain the development of the speleotheraphy
and spa tourism in this place. On the other hand, the two investigated touristic caves
present high values of indoor radon concentrations varying between 1400 and 1700
Bq/m3.
49
OP-19
ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON RADON
CONCENTRATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Coretchi L.1, Bahnarel I.1, Virlan S.1, Furtuna D.1, Cornescu A.1, Ursulean I.1,
Thomas STREIL2
1
National Centre of Public Health, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
2
SARAD GmbH Wiesbadener
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas. It is formed by the natural radioactive
decay of uranium in rock, soil, and water. Naturally existing, low levels of uranium
occur widely in Earth's crust. Radon is responsible for the majority of the mean
public exposure to natural ionizing radiations. Constant exposure to high
concentration of radon gas may cause lung cancer. Radon gas from natural sources
can be accumulated in buildings, especially in confined areas such as basements.
The radon concentrations in a building are dependent on the concentration of radium
in subjacent ground and surrounding soil, the geological bed rock, the radioactivity
of building materials, the ventilation conditions, the meteorological conditions and
human activities, also. The results of radon concentrations monitoring in the air
samples which have been collected in different buildings placed on the territory of
the Republic of Moldova during the period of time since 1991 till 2012 years are
given in the paper. Investigations have related, that the 222Rn concentrations (92,0179,1 Bq/m3) in most cases do not exceed a maximum permissible level, with the
exception in 1998 year when a level of about 1800 Bq/m3 have been detected. The
measurements of 222Rn concentrations in some mines of stone extraction from
Cricova village and underground galleries located on the territory of Chisinau and
Milestii Mici village were performed. The air samples were taken from some mines
of different depths: 50-85 m. The study demonstrated that values of the 222Rn
concentrations were classified as acceptable limits, ranging from 92.0-179.1 Bq/m3
in the majority cases. The overtaking (211.6 Bq/m3) was registered on 02.12.1998 in
underground gallery Milestii mici village at a depth of 70 m. The measurements of
Radon concentrations made in underground galleries of Chisinau and Milestii Mici
village, in some mines of the Orhei town, showed values exceeding the maximum
allowable concentrations, in all the samples of underground galleries and these values
consisted: 200 - 1800 Bq/m3. The study of radioactivity in 331 soil samples adjacent to
different types of the rocks at the different depths: 0,5-0,8 m, showed the variation of
222
Rn concentrations depending on the soil type. The increased concentrations were
found in Cantemir - 2276 - 2705 Bq/m3 and in Comrat - 813 - 980 Bq/m3. For the
planning of the protective measures and the evaluation of the risk assessment action of
222
Rn on the public health is necessary to achieve a national program for the monitoring
of the concentrations of 222Rn, including the territories for construction.
The results require the need of radon concentrations monitoring carrying out in
dynamics, with the subsequent elaboration of the radon concentrations maps. It is
necessary in developing of the maps to use 5 indicators: the indoor radon measurements,
geology, and radioactivity in air, soil permeability and foundation type. The radon
genesis is based on specific conditions, definite locality, to form the principle witch are
used in mapping of radon concentration.
50
OP-20
EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR REAL POPULATION EXPOSED TO INDOOR
RADON IN FORMER URANIUM MINE AREA KALNA (EASTERN
SERBIA)
D. A. Vučiš 1, J.Vaupotic2, Z.Stojanovska 3, D. Nikeziš 4, D.Krstic 4,
Z.S. Žuniš5
1
Institute of Occupational Health, Vojislava Ilica bb, 18000 Nis, Serbia
2
Institute “Jozef Stefan” , Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana ,Slovenia
3
Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Radoja Domanovica 12, 34000
Kragujevac, Serbia,
4
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, FYR of Macedonia,
5
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Electro Chemical Etching Laboratory –
ECE LAB, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, P.O Box 522,
11000,University of Belgrade, Serbia,
Corresponding author: [email protected]
This paper deals with calculated effective doses that members of real population
received from radon gas and its short lived progeny during air inhalation in their
dwellings at field site Kalna in Eastern Serbia. There are two crucial parameters in
effective dose calculation: Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) for particular subjects
(including real gender, age and physical activity level) and indoor concentration of
radon and its short lived progeny in field area. According to the results of indoor
radon measurements in the area of former uranium mine, Kalna, the effective dose
for this real population was estimated by using the dosimetric lung model,
developed by authors according ICRP Publication 66 [1]. Authentic software was
developed for determination of effective dose per unit inhaled activity of radon
progeny, DCF expressed in unit [mSv/WLM]. The results, obtained according to
ICRP66 dosimeter lung model [1], were compared with results calculated according
to ICRP Publication 65 [2]. The dosimetric results were, also, compared and
discussed with epidemiological approach data, according to UNSCEAR [3].
Key words: dosimetry, lung model, radon, effective dose, real population
[1] International Commission on Radiological Protection, "Human Respiratory Tract
Model for Radiological Protection", ICRP Publication 66. Annals of the ICRP 24
(1/4), Oxford: Pergamon Press (1994)
[2] International Commission on Radiological Protection, "Protection Against
Radon-222 at Home and Work", ICRP Publication 65. Annals of the ICRP 23(2).
(1993)
[3] United Nations Scientific Committee On the Effects of Atomic Radiation
(UNSCEAR), "Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation", New York (1982)
51
OP-21
RADON AND THORON MEASUREMENTS IN SOME MOFETTES AND
MINERAL SPRINGS IN THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS
Tamás Néda, Kinga Szacsvai, Sándor Szakács, Ildikó Mócsy
Sapientia University, Str. Matei Corvin nr. 4
Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In the Harghita volcanic range (Romania) there are many occurrences of dry CO(2)
emanations called mofettes and wet emanations, mineral water springs. The
emanating gas and water also contains important quantities of radon and thoron.
The mofettes are used in curative purposes in several illnesses. The aim of the study
was to calculate the effective dose received by the patients who used the mofettes,
from radon inhaling. Tectonic faults facilitate the upward migration of these gases.
We also proposed to identify the tectonic faults which the mofettes are located using
soil radon and thoron measurements.
There were also determined the radon concentration of a few mineral water from the
studied area.
52
OP-22
RADON MIGRATION MODEL FOR COVERING U MINE AND ORE
PROCESSING TAILINGS
András Várhegyi1, János Somlai2
1
MECSEK-ÖKO Environment Protection Co. H-7633 Pécs, Esztergár L. u. 19.
Hungary
2
Pannonia University, Radiochemical Faculty, H-8200 Veszprém, Egyetem u. 10.
Hungary
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Several radioactive and radiation dose limit values should be kept for the
remediation of waste rock piles and tailings ponds of former uranium mining. Using
some 1m order of magnitude thick inactive cover on the tailings, the requirements
for ambient gamma dose rate and for radioactive aerosol generation are fulfilled
automatically. Keeping the limits for radon concentration in air and for radon
exhalation rate from soil surface is more difficult task due to the high mobility of
radon. Construction of suitable radon barrier on the emission sources (first of all:
tailings ponds) is one of the basic points of remediation planning. A radon transport
model has been developed to study the cover options and the acceptable versions of
the available cover layer materials were experimentally surveyed in practice. In the
present state the model deals one-dimensional, stationary and single cover layer
situations only. The basic soil-physical parameters are involved into the model and
their role in radon exhalation rate is particularly analyzed. Both the model
calculations and the field experiments supported that the official requirements for
radon exhalation rate are fulfilled well in the case of applied versions of cover.
Moreover, a radon monitoring system has been worked out for indication of
temporal changes and for maintenance the long term safety. In our presentation the
scope is set on the theoretical modeling, however the measured field data and
monitoring results are also mentioned.
53
OP-23
INFLUENCE OF PRECIPITATIONS ON RADON AND IONIZING
RADIATIONS FIELDS IN «SOIL-ATMOSPHERE» SYSTEM
A.V. Vukolov1, V.S. Yakovleva1, I.I. Ippolitov2, M.S.Kabanov2, P.M. Nagorskiy2,
S.V. Smirnov2, M.S. Cherepnev1
1
Tomsk polytechnic university, Tomsk, RF
Institute of monitoring of the climatic and ecological systems SB RAS, Tomsk, RF
Corresponding author: [email protected]
2
Control of the atmospheric fields of ionizing radiations (IR) of different kinds
realized with the purpose of study of atmospheric processes dynamics and
litosphere-atmosphere connections. The different types of radiations provide us with
information about objects-sources of IR located at different distances. That is related
to their penetrating ability. Therefore, simultaneous registration of temporal and
spatial changes of characteristics of the fields of different radiations types in the
«soil-atmosphere» system presents a good basis for a comprehensive analysis and
interpretation of observation data.
Precipitations (rain and snow) play the main role [1–3] in variations of atmospheric
γ-background and result in brief saltatory increases (splashes) in the registered
characteristics of γ-radiation fields of on 125% [1] and even to 7 times [3]. It
explained by “radon-washout effect”. However, undeniable proofs of the pulled out
version are still do not adduced.
Until now nobody was study the reaction of other kinds (β and α) of ionizing
radiations and also reaction of the whole «soil-atmosphere» system on the
precipitations.
The results of investigation of influence of precipitations on radon and IR fields in
soil and background atmosphere are presented in the report and their analysis.
Different versions of explanations of this influence are examined with considering
of meteorological conditions and other factors.
The work was fulfilled with financial support of FTP, grant № 02.740.11.0738.
References:
1. J L Burnett, I W Croudace and P E Warwick Short-lived variations in the
background gamma-radiation dose // Journal of Radiological Protection. - P. 525532.
2. J.-F. Mercier, B.L. Tracy, R. d'Amours, F. Chagnon, I. Hoffman, E.P. Korpach,
S. Johnson, R.K. Ungar Increased environmental gamma-ray dose rate during
precipitation: a strong correlation with contributing air mass // Journal of
Environmental Radioactivity Volume 100, Issue 7, July 2009, Pages 527–533
3. Radiation
protection
106.
EURADOS
report,
1999.
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/nuclear/radiation_protection/doc/publication/rp106.pdf
54
OP-24
MEASUREMENT OF RADON -222 CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN
WATER SAMPLES IN SUDAN
Abd-Elmoniem A. ELZAIN1,2
1
2
Department of Physics, University of Kassala, Kassala, P.O.Box: 266, Sudan.
Department of Physics, College of Science & Art, Qassim University, Oklat AlSkoor, P.O.Box: 111, Saudi Arabia.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In the present research, number of (248) water samples were collected from various
places and locations in Sudan, the samples are taken from: dug wells and Swagi
water (used as drinking water and for irrigation), Totiel water(as drinking water),
Gash river water, Hafeir water, Nahr Atbara water, Kalhout irrigation channel water,
main channel water and Halfa Aljadida irrigation channel water. Then radon
concentration has been measured by using passive integrated solid-state nuclear
track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. Results show that
the minimum average value of radon concentration was found in the main channel
water samples to be (6.93±1.68)Bq/L, while the maximum average value was
measured in Sagia (2) water samples to be (22.74±4.89) Bq/L. From our study it was
found that there are no any remarkable variations seen in radon concentration for
water samples taken from Hafeirs and Rivers. The overall average radon
concentration for all water samples is found to be (14.24 ± 3.62) Bq/L. Which is
lower than the maximum allowable concentration in water as recommended by US
Environmental Protection Agency EPA.
Keywords: allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors; Radon -222 concentration
levels; irrigation channel.
55
P-1
RELATIONSHIP FROM GEOLOGY AND RADON IN OUTDOOR AIR IN
MASSIF DITRĂU AREA, EASTERN CARPATHIANS – ROMANIA
Adriana Ion1
1
Geological Institute of Romania, Bucharest, 012270, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon activity concentration in outdoor air was measured using alpha radon
monitors (Pylon AB-5 portable with Continuous Passive Radon Detector). Radon in
outdoor air was measured in situ, in 5 points, for each lithological unit from the
study area. The radon concentration were measured at a height of 15 cm above
ground level. The radon exhalation rate was continuously measured for 24 hours
with a counting time of 20 minute/interval in each site. The data recorded in the first
3 hours were not taken into account because this time is necessary for the system to
reach its equilibrium point. Each measurement point was set environmental
conditions (altitude and average for temperature, barometric pressure, humidity,
wind speed). The range is considerable: from 2.6 - 52 Bq m3. Radon, a natural
radioactive gas produced by the radioactive decay of radium ( 226Ra), which in turn is
derived from the radioactivity decay of uranium- 238 238U. Variations in these
measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in
soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks.
Geology is the most important factor controlling the source and distribution of
radon. The alkaline massif of Ditrău, unique in Romania by size and petrographical
variety, is emplaced with-in metamorphic basement rocks at the interior of the East
Carpathians. The main petrographic types present in the massif Ditrău area are
hornblendite, diorite, syenite, nepheline syenite, monzonite, monzodiorite, apllite,
lamprophyre, granitoide. Natural radioactivity in Ditrău massif is given by the
naturally occurring radioactive elements in the mineral's composition. The degree of
radioactivity is dependent on the concentration and isotope present in the mineral.
The Ditrău Alkaline Intrusive Complex is the locus typicus of several radioactive
minerals from Romania. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th) are concentration in
zircon, monazite, sphen, allanite, apatite, xenotime, rutile and potassium ( 40K) is
present in alkali-feldspathic syenites. The release of radon from rocks and soil is
controlled largely by the types of minerals in which uranium and radium occur. In
magmas, the large, highly charged U4+ ion becomes concentrated in late–stage
differentiates, often in accessory minerals such as those above mentioned. The
highest radon concentrations were measured in the center of the massif, were are
present the syenitc rocks (sienite and nephelin syenite). This are rocks with the
highest uranium content of the massif. For all types of rocks the radon
measurements confirm that radon activity increases from basic to acid rocks.
56
P-2
QUANTITATIVE FLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF URANIUM
ABSORBED ON CERAMIC MATERIALS
Livia Alhafez1, Simina Dreve2, D. Ristoiu1, R. Begy1
1
Babes -Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 30 Fantanele,
400294 Cluj Napoca, Romania
2
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular
Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Corresponding
author: [email protected]
Quantitative measurements of uranium in environment was explored lately, scientific
literature describing different effective methods in the field. Laser based technologies,
ion chromatography, microsample X-ray analysis method followed by energy dispersive
X-ray fluorescence technique (MXA–EDXRF), sensors for electrochemical detection
followed by cyclic voltammogram and alpha liquid scintillation counting techniques are
the most promising techniques. In particular, among these techniques, laser fluorimetry
and/or spectrofluorimetry, is the technique of choice because of its high performance
qualification (PQ), inherent sensitivity, simplicity, cost effectiveness, minimum
generation of analytical waste, rapidity, easy calibration and operation. In environment
uranium is mostly speciated as U(VI) in uranyl ions dissolved in natural waters and can
absorbed by autofiltration in anorganic (sands, zeolites, muds, ceramics, etc.) or organic
(plants and animals) samples [1]. Spectrofluorimetry is suitable for direct determination
of uranium combined with amino-acids [2] in natural water systems within the μg/l and
mg/l range, while differential technique in laser fluorimetry (DT-LIF) is suitable for
mineralized rocks and concentrates independent of matrix effects (uranium in samples
containing >0.01% uranium).
In this work we describe a spectrofluorimetric method for detection and quantification of
U(VI) absorbed in ceramics from aqueous samples contaminated with uranyl nitrate
hexahydrate. In a first step of the experiment quantitative analysis was performed by
fluorimetric measurements performed using suitable aliquots prepared from a uranyl
stock solution (uranyl nitrate hexahydrate p. a. from Sigma - Aldrich) diluted at different
concentrations covering between 10-3 – 10-13 g/l. Equal quantities of 0,3 g from the
homogene ceramic material, grinded and sieved below 0,3 mm granulation, were kept
for 72 hours in 50 ml calibrated uranium solutions each. All fluorescence spectra were
recorded using an ABLE & Jasco V 6500 spectrofluorimeter with xenon lamp as the
source, applying an excitation wavelength of 415 nm and monitoring the emission
wavelength over the 460–700 nm range. The results confirm the efficacy of the method
in the range of 10-3 – 10-6 gU/l, for uranium IV adsorbed/absorbed from aqueous solution
in ceramic materials.
Keywords: spectrofluorimetry, uranium, quantitative determination, ceramics.
References:
1.Simina Dreve-„POLUAREA APELOR DIN DELTA DUNÃRII SI A UNOR MEDII
ETEROGENE CU URANIU” Ed. „Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă” Cluj-Napoca, ISBN 978-9731335230
2. Oana A. Dumitru (Rusu), S. Dreve, C. Cosma – „Determination of uranium from aqueous
samples by spectrofluorimetry”, Simpozionul naţional „Contribuţii Ştiinţifice in Tehnologii si
Echipamente pentru Evaluarea si Protecţia Mediului”, Ediţia a VII-a 23 -25 septembrie 2011,
Arcalia (Bistriţa-Năsăud).
57
P-3
CONTRIBUTION OF RADON DOSE TO THE PATIENT EXPOSURE IN
THE MOFETTE OF COVASNA SANATORIUM, ROMANIA
Alexandra Cucoş Dinu, Ş. Vasiliniuc, C. Cosma
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,
400294 Cluj-Napoca, Fântânele No. 30, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The paper presents the results of the in situ radiation dose measurements for patients
treated in the mofette of Covasna Sanatorium, Romania. The vertical distribution of
the radon activity concentration was monitored indoor, in the treatment‟s room and
in the staff room. The effective dose that may be received by the patients during one
cure is situated in the interval of 0.023-0.127 mSv. The radiation dose on patients
under these conditions is below the reference level.
P-4
INFLUENCE OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTICS ON RADON
TRANSPORT
Dan Georgescu
Tehnical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Lacul Tei Bvd., no. 124, RO
020396, sector 2, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In order to achieve a fair description of radon transport through concrete certain
information is needed on the concrete structure, porosity and permeability, on
processes causing the transport of radon, on radon‟s interaction with environment,
factors favouring the generation of radon, etc. The concrete characteristics (that
depend on its composition and especially on the W/C ratio) which influencing the
transport of radon through concrete are, mainly, porosity, permeability, diffusion,
humidity and density. This paper presents the influence of W/C ratio and concrete
density on apparent and overall porosity of concrete, permeability coefficient,
diffusion coefficient. Also, we present influence of concrete permeability on the
diffusion coefficient for many types of concrete prepared with different blended
cements. We observed that the radon diffusion coefficient decreases with the
increase of concrete density and respectively with the reduction of water / cement
ratio. The diffusion coefficient increases linearly with the permeability coefficient,
disregarding the concrete‟s age. Using the results achieved experimentally, the
apparent and overall porosity values are shown in paper. The concrete samples used
in these experiments were prepared as per the norms in force upon research date.
58
The overall porosity values decrease slower with the reduction of W/C ratio than
those of concrete apparent porosity. The ratio between the concrete apparent
porosity determined experimentally and the overall porosity decreases with the
reduction of the W/C ratio. A comparison shall be made below between values
acquired experimentally and values achieved by calculation for the permeability
coefficient using values determined experimentally for the concrete density and W/C
ratio. Compared to concretes prepared with blended cements, those prepared with
addition-free cements show higher permeability coefficient values. Concretes
prepared with admixtures have experimentally determined permeability coefficients
lower than the coefficients calculated using Rogers‟s formula, disregarding the W/C
ratio or the cement type used in the preparation thereof. The diffusion coefficient
decreases with the increase of cement dosage and implicitly with the reduction of
W/C ratio. The results achieved confirm the quality of concretes prepared with
cements with slag, even if results achieved for slag in radioactive contents did not
anticipate this. Concretes prepared with cement with slag addition are less
permeable to air and water, display a lower porosity compared to other concrete
types surveyed. A highly important parameter in the relation concrete - radon is the
water / cement ratio, a ratio that influences the concrete characteristics and
implicitly the radon concentration within buildings.
P-5
INTERCOMPARISON BETWEEN RADON PASSIVE MEASUREMENTS
AND ACTIVE MEASUREMENTS AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO
THORON MEASUREMENTS
Burghele Bety-Denissa, Cosma Constantin
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University of
Cluj, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Researcher around the world had already established that radon and thoron are a
hazard to the human health. Different techniques and methods are applied in order to
measure them as accurately as possible. In Romania, most measurements earlier
conducted were focused on using active measurements to establish the two gasses
activity concentration; however, recently, there have been an increased interest in
using passive devices together with active measurements. In order to get more
accurate knowledge about the real radon and thoron indoor concentration in
dwellings as well as in public buildings and work places, a new survey was carried
out in 30 locations within and surrounding Bârlad Town, Vaslui County. For this
survey were used passive methods including two types of discriminative detectors
based on CR39 as well as active measurements, using RAD7. During this survey, it
was also pointed out the continuous difficulty in measuring thoron, due to its short
half-life and faults in the measuring system.
59
P-6
METHOD OF SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF RADON AND
THORON IN SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS BASED ON LSC
Michael Buzinny, Ljubov Mikhailova, Maxim Romanchenko, Victor Sakhno
Radiation Monitoring Laboratory, SE “The Marzeev Institute of Hygiene and
Medical Ecology of National Academy of Medical Sciences” 04094, Kiev, Ukraine.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
We have developed a radiometric method of measurement of radon and thoron
concentration in soil gas. It is based on our liquid-scintillation approach [1] for
radon in soil gas measurement. It inclu-des a radon trap-glass bubbler filled with a
20-mL portion of a toluene-based LS cocktail. Three portions syringe volume of the
air (150 mL each) are blown through the bubbler making the method more sensitive
and reproducible. After sampling, the LS cocktail is transferred into conventional vials for LS counting. Modern LSC measurement equipment with alpha/beta
separation is applicable. The method was tested on Quantulus 1220 TM, PerkinElmer
Inc. and Triathler, Hidex Oy LS spectro-meters, last one is on mind when thinking
about field measurement.
Measurement scenario introduced for simultaneous measurement of radon and
thoron includes one minute pause after a sampling and three following one by one
total alpha counting intervals (A,B,C) lasting three minute each.
We performed calculations of dependencies and constructed their graphical
correspondence - a nomogram i.e. for known 220Rn/222Rn activity ratio and
corresponding ratios of total alpha activities for counting intervals A/C and B/C in
accordance to three mentioned measurement intervals: A, B, C and known decay
data for radon and thoron chains.
Method was tested for estimation of 220Rn/222Rn activity ratio for soil around
institution territory. Precise radon in soil gas concentration was calculated on base of
separate measurement carried out at least three hours after a sampling.
REFERENCES
[1] Buzinny M., Sakhno V., Romanchenko M.LSC-Based Approach for Radon in
Soil Gas Measurement. LSC 2008: proc. of the Int. Conf. on Advances in Liquid
Scintillation Spectrometry, Davos, Switzerland, May 25-30, 2008. [Eds.
J.Eikenberg, M. Jagi, and H. Beer]. 2010. - Tucson: Radiocarbon. - P. 7-11.
60
P-7
ORE BASED LABORATORY SOURCE FOR SIMULTANEOUS TESTING
OF RADON AND THORONCONCENTRATION IN SOIL GAS
Michael Buzinny, Ljubov Mikhailova, Maxim Romanchenko, Victor Sakhno
Radiation Monitoring Laboratory, SE “The Marzeev Institute of Hygiene and Medical
Ecology of National Academy of Medical Sciences” 04094, Kiev, Ukraine,
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Practice of measuring of radon in soil gas concentration requires testing and comparison of
measu-ring approaches, methods and corresponding equipment. Field sites used for radon in
soil gas com-parative measurement are well tested [1, 2]. They have limited radon
concentration range and 220Rn/222Rnratio range. They have seasonal and weather dependent
properties and limitation.
Laboratory sources for simultaneous testing of radon and thoron concentration in soil gas
were developed on the base of natural ore materials with different U and Th composition. We
had introduced air sampling approach widely used in Czech Republic when 12 mm probe tube
is used to collect a 150 cm3 air portion per sample [1, 2, 3].
As a closure of the source was used galvanized iron riveted tube ᴓ=150 mm and h=1000 mm.
Top and bottom ends of the tube was covered by two corresponding metal caps. Fine-milled
ore material was placed in middle between two 100 mm layers of soil (mixture of sand with
clay) used to isolate ore. Bottom part of probe tube placed in middle of ore layer was
preliminary covered by 2 layer of felt, each 5 mm thick. Upper part of tube (h=100 mm) was
filled with cement material to fix and hold probe tube. We had scanned variety of working
regimes of source by its equilibration and by blowing of air through source (40 liter per
minute). We make 3 sources with different U to Th com-position. We had investigated radon
concentration and thoron to radon concentration ratio in the sources using the method of
simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron gas based on LSC [4].
As a result we had found:
- filter material covering probe tube inside of source prevents blowing of ore material during
sampling and stabilizes air permeability of sources;
- we had achieved upper level of source radon concentration after 3 daysequilibration and
scannedwide range down using controlled air pumping of source (1-10 min);
-high radon lab source allows to coverradonconcentration range 3÷1000 kBq∙m3 and thoron to
radonconcentration ratio range 0,01÷2,0;
- low radon lab source allows to cover radon concentration range 1÷100 kBq∙m3and thoron to
radon concentration ratio range 0,01÷10,0 (20,0);
- high thoron to radon concentration ratio i.e. above 1,0 was obtained in high radon source for
10÷20 min, when in lowradon source for up to 60÷100 min, both after deep pumping;
- use of 2-3 sources allows covering wide radon range of 1÷1000 kBq∙m3; and wide thoron to
radon concentration ratio range of 0,01÷20.
References:
[1] Neznal M., Neznal M., New Method for the Determination of Radon Index of Building Sites. In:
Book of Abstracts from the 4th European Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work.
Prague, 64 (2004)
[2] Buzynnyy M., Didenko P., Makarenko M., Romanchenko M. Radon in soil gas variation on Pechersk
polygon in Kiev. 6thConference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work. Book of Abstracts.
13-17 October 2010. Praha, 2010. p.71.
[3] Buzinny M., Sakhno V., RomanchenkoM.LSC-Based Approach for Radon in Soil Gas Measu-rement.
LSC 2008: proc. of the Int. Conf. on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry, Davos, Switzerland,
May 25-30, 2008. [Eds. J.Eikenberg, M. Jagi, and H. Beer]. 2010. - Tucson: Radiocarbon. - P. 7-11.
[4] Buzinny M., Mikhailova L., Romanchenko M., Sakhno V. Substantiation of radiometric appro-ach for
simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron in soil air. Hygiene of settlements. Collection of scientific
papers. - Kiev., 2011. - Issue. 57. – PP. 271–275. (In Ukrainian)
61
P-8
MONITORING OF INDOOR RADON IN CAMPULUNG
MOLDOVENESC AREA
Candrea Iuliana, Cucoş Alexandra
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University of
Cluj, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Research in radon field in the uranium mines area are of great national and
international interest. It is showed that from the total annual radioactive dose
received by the population over 40 % is due to inhalation and ingestion of radon
222
Rn and its decay products. Exposure to radon true inhalation in enclosed spaces is
the cause of over 10% of lung cancer deaths.
In this context, in Romania aims to organize a national program monitoring the
level of radon in inside buildings (public institutions and residential houses),
especially in hazardous areas.
This article presents the distribution of radon in indoor air of homes in the area
Cîmpulung Moldovenesc – Fundu Moldovei – Iacobeni – Crucea, located near the
uranium mine Crucea, Suceava.
For indoor radon detection was used the solid trace detectors (CR-39) method. The
measurements were made by placing detectors traces in 10 locations in the risk zone
during March-May 2011.
Results for 4 schools shows that the values of radon concentrations are above the
action level of 200 Bq/m3, considered by authorities as recommended limit for
exposure to radon. Maximum values were measured in the school Dimitrie Gusti,
commune Fundu Moldovei situated closest to the former uranium mine of all
locations studied. For those 4 schools is recommended the use of methods to reduce
radon concentrations.
The study area remains for future research who will provide a more detailed view of
environmental issues in the area.
Keywords: radon, lung cancer, exposure risk
62
P-9
HIGH LET ALPHA PARTICLE IRRADIATION, THE SAME EXPOSURE
AND THE DIFFERENT RESPONSE OF TWO DIFFERENT CELLS
SYSTEMS: SKIN DENDRITIC HUMAN CELL LINES AND GREEN
ALGAS CHLAMYDOMONAS
Daniela Ciorba1, Adina Truta1, Barbara Krammer2
Werner Hoffmann2
1
Environmental Science and Engineering Faculty, Babes-Bolyai University, ClujNapoca, Romania
2
Biophysics Institute, Salzburg University, Salzburg, Austria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Assesing the risk for human exposure in low dose, environmental ionizing radiation,
means overlapping the environmental risk measured physical with biological risk,
assesed through biodosimetric methods. Not all dosimetry issues are yet solved and
improving the dosimetric quantification and characterisation can significantly
decrease the uncertainty on the dose effect relationship, [HLEG, 2009].
This study of biocells Chlamydomonas compared with skin dendritic human cell
lines was conduct for the same exposure senarious, using the in vitro irradiation
method from Biophysics Institute of Salzburg University, in order to construct dose–
response curves for alpha exposures, required for risk estimation in radiation
protection. Different response has been observed, which are presented in this paper.
Key word: alpha particle, cell surviving, biodosimetric tools
63
P-10
FURTHER ARGUMENTS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF
IMPLEMENTING THE HOUSES RADON-ACTIVITY MAP IN ROMANIA
S.Csegzi
“Bolyai Farkas” College, Tirgu Mures, P-ta Victoriei,nr.3, E-mail
address:[email protected]
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Adherence to the European Union (EU) means also that Romania must take into
consideration the requirements which were established by scientific institutes of the
UE. For the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) these
requirements refer to the unification of: a. the experimental methods; b. the
Certified Reference Materials in the relative methods ; c. the processing of obtained
experimental data. These requirements are in conformity with those enforced by the
International Quality Assurance Programmes. Also, these requirements ensure both
the quality of the obtained results and the possibility that these results to be
included in the continental and global database.
The work continues a process of implementing the radon map in the Carpathians
Curvature area (both internal and external) initiated in 1999 in cooperation with
several institutions: “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear
Engineering, Debrecen Laboratory for Radon Measurement,
The measurements are based on the method used by Debrecen Laboratory for Radon
Measurements, with solid state detectors CR-39.
The results carry forth high values in the researched area and, consequently, we
draw your attention on the necessity of taking appropriate protection measures.
[1]System for calibration of thrack detectors used in gaseous and solid alpha
radionulides monitoring A. Danis, M. Oncescu, M. Ciubotariu. Radiation
Measurments 34 (2001) 155-159.
[2] L. Grigorescu, A. Luca, C.Razdolescu 1997 Radon sources. Centre of
Radioisotope production, IFIN-HH Bucharest
64
P-11
STATE OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE ONGOING INDOOR RADON
SURVEY IN SERBIAN SCHOOLS: PART 1 RESULTS AND FIRST-STEP
MAPPING
Z. S. Zunic1, C. Carpentieri2, N. Veselinovic1, V. Carelli3, C. Cordedda3, O. Cuknic4,
P. Bossew5, T. Tollefsen6, F. Bochicchio2
1
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Electro Chemical Etching Laboratory –
ECE LAB, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, P.O Box 522,
11000, University of Belgrade, Serbia
2
Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina
Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
3
Safety and Environment Department, Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Rome, Italy
4
Public Company “Nuclear Facilities of Serbia”, Vinca, Mike Petrovica Alasa 1214, Belgrade, Serbia
5
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (German Federal Office for Radiation Protection),
Köpenicker Allee 120-130, 10318 Berlin,
Germany
6
European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium
Elements, Ispra, Italy
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The goals of the previous research project (2006-2010) and current one (2011-2014),
funded by the Serbian Ministry of Science, now Ministry of Education and Science,
is the systematic indoor radon survey in elementary schools of Serbia. This survey
has been under way since 2008 through an international collaboration, involving so
far 340 schools in 13 communities within two districts of South Serbia. The field
activities were divided into two phases: Part 1 (encompassing 6 communities with
124 elementary schools) and Part 2 (encompassing another 206 elementary schools).
In this paper the results of radon concentration measurement for 124 schools in 6
communities (Part 1) are provided. The number of rooms monitored per school,
depending on school size, ranged from 1 to 10, with an average of 1.8 rooms. In
each monitored room, two CR-39 detectors were exposed side-by-side for two
consecutive six-month periods. For each school, the annual radon concentration
average of the monitored rooms was calculated. The arithmetic mean of the 124
annual averages is 128 Bq/m3 with a standard error of 8 Bq/m3. The minimum radon
concentration is 39 Bq/m3, and the maximum 635 Bq/m3. The median is 98 Bq/m3,
with the first and third quartiles being 73 Bq/m3 and 140 Bq/m3, respectively. The
lognormal parameters are the following: geometric mean = 105 Bq/m3, geometric
standard deviation = 1.7.
This paper also shortly describes the design of the survey, its implementation and
the current state of realization. Moreover, a first spatial estimate of the radon
concentration is also reported.
Keywords: Indoor radon, Serbian schools, CR-39 detectors, mapping.
65
P-12
STATE OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE ONGOING INDOOR RADON
SURVEY IN SERBIAN SCHOOLS: PART 2 RESULTS AND MAPPING
Z. S. Zunic1, C. Carpentieri2, Z. Stojanovska7, S.Antigani2, N. Veselinovic1, V.
Carelli3, C. Cordedda3, O. Cuknic4, P. Bossew5, T. Tollefsen6, J.Filipovic1, L.
Nadjdjerdj1, F. Bochicchio2
1
Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Electro Chemical Etching Laboratory –
ECE LAB, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, P.O Box 522,
11000, University of Belgrade, Serbia
2
Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina
Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
3
Safety and Environment Department, Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Rome, Italy
4
Public Company “Nuclear Facilities of Serbia”, Vinca, Mike Petrovica Alasa 1214, Belgrade, Serbia
5
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (German Federal Office for Radiation Protection),
Köpenicker Allee 120-130, 10318 Berlin,Germany
6
European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium
Elements, Ispra, Italy
7
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, FYR of Macedonia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The goals of the previous research project (2006-2010) and current one (2011-2014),
funded by the Serbian Ministry of Science, now Ministry of Education and Science,
is the systematic indoor radon survey in elementary schools of Serbia. This survey
has been under way since 2008 through an international collaboration, involving so
far 340 schools in 13 communities within two districts of South Serbia. The field
activities were divided into two phases: Part 1 (encompassing 6 communities with
124 elementary schools) and Part 2 (encompassing another 206 elementary schools).
In this paper the results of radon concentration measurement for 206 schools in 7
communities (Part 2) are provided. The number of rooms monitored per school,
depending on school size, ranged from 1 to 10, with an average of 1.8 rooms. In
each monitored room, two CR-39 detectors were exposed side-by-side for two
consecutive six-month periods. For each school, the annual radon concentration
average of the monitored rooms was calculated. The arithmetic mean of the 206
annual averages is 118 Bq/m3 with a standard deviation of 78 Bq/m3. The minimum
radon concentration is 17 Bq/m3, and the maximum 428 Bq/m3. The median is 96
Bq/m3, with the first and third quartiles being 62 Bq/m3 and 152 Bq/m3,
respectively. The lognormal parameters are the following: geometric mean = 97
Bq/m3, geometric standard deviation = 1.89. A short comparison with the part 1
results of of the indoor radon concentration in 124 schools is reported. Moreover, a
spatial estimate of the radon concentration in investigated schools is also reported.
Keywords: indoor radon, Serbian schools, CR-39 detectors , mapping.
66
P-13
ABSORBED FRACTIONS OF ELECTRONS AND BETA PARTICLES DUE
TO RADON PROGENY IN SENSITIVE REGIONS OF HUMAN
RESPIRATORY TRACT CALCULATED BY MCNP5/X
D. Krstic1, D. Nikezic1, V. Markovic1, D. Vucic2
1
Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac
34000, Serbia
2
Institute of Occupational Health Protection “NIŠ”, Vojislava Ilica bb, 18000 Niš,
Serbia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon, 222Rn, is radioactive noble gas which decays by alpha emission with halflife of 3.825 d. Its short-lived progeny, 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi (214Po), are alpha
and beta radioactive and they emit gamma radiation, as well. Radon progeny can be
inhaled by humans where they deposit on the inner layers of bronchi, and
bronchioles. Particles (alpha, beta and gamma) emitted in radioactive decay damage
surrounding tissue which can lead to development of lung cancer. The absorbed
fractions (AF) of electrons and beta particles in sensitive layers of human respiratory
tract were calculated in this paper. For this purpose the MCNP5/X simulation
software [1], based on Monte Carlo method, was used. The human respiratory tract
was modeled according to ICRP66 publication [2].
References:
[1] X-5 Monte Carlo Team, MCNP–a General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport
Code, Version 5 Vol. I: Overview and Theory, Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos
National Laboratory; LA- UR- 03- 1987, 2003.
[2] ICRP Human respiratory model for radiological protection. A report of a task
group the International Commission on radiological protection, ICRP Publication
66, Pergamon, Oxford, 1994.
67
P-14
EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION IN GAMMA SPECTROMETRY USING 232Th
SERIES RADIONUCLIDES
L. Daraban1, D. Iancu2, Laura Daraban3
1
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, 1 Kogălniceanu str., 400084 ClujNapoca, Romania
2
CNCAN Bucharest
3
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Engineering and Environmental Science, ClujNapoca, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
We describe a new method for preparation any shape radioactive sources with a
desired activity using ThO2 in secular equilibrium for calibration in efficiency GeHp
γ- spectrometers. Known the absolute specific activity of ThO 2 and the
desintegration probability of the v- emitters from 232Th-series we determined the
curve of efficiency of the spectrometer with a good approach for different shape of
samples.
We use also this method for preparation a callibraton samples in Marinelli backers
by mixing a determined quantity of ThO2 with artificial soil for environmental
radioactivity measurements in diffferent types of soils from forest and the uranium
mines zone, where radionuclides from the uranium family were identified and the
total -activity of the samples was determined.
Keywords: 232Th-series, gamma spectrometry, calibration, efficiency curve,
Marinelli beaker, soil gamma-activity.
68
P-15
DETERMINATION OF RADIUM IN MINE WATERS FROM THE NORTH
AND NORTH - WEST OF TRANSYLVANIA, ROMANIA
Ioan Encian 1, Mircea Moldovan 2, Dan Fulea 3
1
National Commission on Nuclear Activities Control - Bucharest, Romania
“Babeş-Bolyai” University, Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Cluj
Napoca, Romania
3
“Prof Dr Iuliu Moldovan” Institut of Public Health, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
2
In this work we aimed to determine the concentration of radium present in
groundwater naturally cleared from the galleries of mines. The area were samples
collected is the Gutâi Mountains, Maramures Mountains and Rodna Mountains,
mountain formations located in the north and north - west of Transylvania, Romania.
The method used from radium determination is based on secular equilibrium
between of radium and radon present in water samples taken. The radon was
measurement using Lucas scintillation cells. Values obtained by this method are in
the range 0.08 to 1.2 Bq / l.
P-16
WI-FI PORTABLE DETECTOR SOLUTION FOR DISTRIBUTED RADON
MEASUREMENTS
Silviu Folea, Mihai Hulea, Victor Cosma
Department of Automation, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 28
Memorandumului street, 400114, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In this paper a new Wi-Fi radon measurement solution is proposed in order to
monitor radon level and environment conditions in remote locations. Using the WiFi communication capabilities of the monitoring device, this has been paired with a
smartphone in order to process and visualize measured data. A radon meter is
obtained in this way. Collected data can be instantly transmitted over the Internet to
a processing server using the phone 3G connection, the phone application playing
the role of the Internet gateway for the sensors deployed in the field. Using the
presented solution a network of sensors can easily be created in order to monitor a
large area. Using the coordination‟s read from the smartphone integrated GPS sensor
and a mapping service a radon distribution map can be generated.
Since weather plays a key role in the distribution and measurement of the radon gas
it is also possible to attach specialized sensors to the monitoring device in order to
obtain forecast data as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and
direction in the closed area of measurements.
69
P-17
FLUX MEASUREMENTS OF 222RN AND CH4 ALONG WITH SOIL GAS
CONCENTRATIONS (222RN, CO, NO2 AND SO2) OVER A METHANE
RESERVOIR IN TRANSYLVANIA (ROMANIA)
Nicolae Frunzeti1*, Mircea Moldovan1, Artur Ionescu1, Bety Burghele1, Calin
Baciu1, Constantin Cosma1, Gabriela Popita1, Laurentiu Cristian Stoian2
1
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,
Fantanele street, 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, Clinicilor street, 5-7, 400006,
Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The Transylvanian Basin is well known for its large and good quality methane
deposits. In many sites, these accumulations are not completely sealed and methane
leaks into the atmosphere through faults or fractures [Etiope and Martinelli, 2002].
A soil gas survey was carried out after a rainy season at Sarmasel, the largest
methane seepage in Transylvania, [Spulber et al., 2010]. This study presents the first
results in attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of soil gas
concentrations and migration toward the surface. During the measuring time, the
study area was divided in two main seeps with high methane emissions and
everlasting fires. The measurements were divided in two groups, every set of
measurements corresponding for one seep. The first group of measurements were
distributed at a 35 meters transect with respect to seep 1. The gas concentration
(222Rn, CO, NO2 and SO2) in soil was measured at 80 cm depth along with CH4 and
CO2 fluxes. Anomalous soil 222Rn concentration was found up to 17.52 kBq/m3 and
also quite high concentrations for other gases like: CO 19 ppm, SO 2 1 ppm and NO2
0.7 ppm. The results show that concentrations of CO, NO 2 and SO2 correlates with
CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Radon concentration in soil seems to be more dependent of soil
permeability than to the CH4 flux. For the second group of measurements the CH 4
and 222Rn fluxes were measured at seep 2. The measurements were randomly
distributed around the main vent. It was observed a quite high 222Rn flux with a
maximum value of 119.3 mBq/m2/s with an average of 58.4 mBq/m2/s over an area
with high CH4 emission. It seems that CH4 flux correlates with the 222Rn flux but not
with the 222Rn concentration in the soil.
References:
Etiope, G., Martinelli, G., 2002, Migration of carrier and trace gases in the
geosphere: an overview . Phys. Earth Planet. In. 129, 185-204
Spulber, L., Etiope, G., Baciu, C., Malos, C., Vlad, S., N., 2010, Methane emission
from natural gas seeps and mud volcanoes in Transylvania (Romania), Geofluids,
10, 463-475
70
P-18
INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITION FACTORS AND STRENGTH AND
DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETES ON RADON
EMISSION
Dan Georgescu
Tehnical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Lacul Tei Bvd., no. 124, RO 020396,
sector 2, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
This paper presents the research program with consisted in the determination of
concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides in concretes prepared with
some cement types with additions. The results achieved in the determination of
concentrations of the main radioactive elements (Ra-226, Th-232, K-40) and of the
radioactivity index are presented for various additions used in cements, blended cements
and concretes prepared therewith. For the same type of component, results achieved vary
based on the different generating sources. Also, paper presents the high values of
radionuclides for slag and fly-ash compared to those obtained for limestone. The
contribution of tested additions was assessed by adding them in the manufacturing
process of different cement types. Thus, tests were performed on no-addition cements
and cements with additions of slag, fly-ash, limestone, slag + limestone, puzzolana +
limestone, fly-ash + slag. Cements with fly-ash additions display radium concentration
values closed to the maximum value permitted in Romania. In case of slag cements,
values achieved are observed to be dependent on the slag source and respectively on the
percentage used in cement manufacturing processes. In the preparation of concretes,
aggregates with sorts of 0-4 mm, 4-8 mm, 8-16 mm and 16-32 mm were used. Values
achieved for Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides are observed to be far inferior to
the maximum values permitted in Romania. Also, the research program consisted in the
determination of certain strength and durability characteristics (compressive strength,
porosity, water and air permeability, etc.) of concretes prepared with cements with
various additions and admixtures, in order to cross-reference results achieved with the
radon exhalation rates and respectively the values acquired for the indoor radon
concentration. During the research program, the strength characteristics, the air and
water permeability were determined on concretes having various compositions, in order
to enable cross-reference with radon exhalation rates. For the same concrete class,
concerts prepared with cements added with slag are noted to have a higher compressive
strength compared to other concretes, disregarding the presence / absence of admixtures.
Lower compressive strengths were revealed for concretes prepared with cements added
with limestone and fly-ash. Certainly, a crucial factor is the cement strength value. The
permeability coefficient follows the same trend with the air flow depth, with lower
values for concretes with cements added with slag, for the same cement dosage and
respectively for a W / C ratio, disregarding the presence / absence of admixtures. The
exhalation rate values increase in time, as the values achieved at 28 days after pouring
range between (1,29-2,44) mBq/m2s, and 1 year after pouring the same values range
between (2,33-3,79) mBq/m2s. Using the values achieved for cements and aggregates
and respectively the percentages of aggregates used in concrete preparation and the
cement quantity used for each concrete type tested the concentration of radionuclides
activity due to concrete may be assessed using the concrete design. We may note that the
exhalation rate is dependent on the concrete characteristics, on environmental factors and
on concrete ingredients.
71
P-19
CONTINUAL RADON CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS IN
SCHOOLS OF BANJA LUKA CITY, REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA
1
Zoran Šurguz, 2Zora S. Žuniš, 3Branko Predojeviš, 4Predrag Kolarž
1
2
Faculty of transport Doboj, University in East Sarajevo, Republic of Srpska
ECE Lab, Institute o f Nuclear Sciences „Vinča“, University of Belgrade 3Faculty
of Science, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska,
4
Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Continual radon concentration measurements in 20 elementary schools in Banja
Luka city was performed during the year 2011/12. Measurements lasted 7 days in
each school while data sampling was set to be every 2 hours using RAD7 - continual
radon measuring instrument. Sampling unit was placed mostly in teacher`s rooms.
Geographical data for every school was obtained using GPS. Regarding each school,
average and temporal variations of radon concentrations are analysed taking into
consideration local geology, building material and meteorological conditions.
Influence of forced ventilation caused by frequently door and window opening
during working hours with typical dawn and weekend peaks is evident in most but
not all schools. Elevated levels of radon concentration (>400 Bq) were found in a
few schools which indicates the need for further long term monitoring using both,
passive and active methods.
Key words: Indoor radon, elementary schools, RAD 7, Banja Luka city, Republic of
Srpska
72
P-20
RADON MEASUREMENT IN SOIL GAS (URBAN AREAS)
Bistra Kunovska, Daniel Vuchkov, Kremena Ivanova, Nadia Zaneva
National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection
3, Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str. Sofia, Bulgaria
Corresponding author:[email protected]
Aim: Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from the radioactive decay of 226 Ra, the
daughter of 238 U. Radon emanations depends mainly on 226Ra content and mineral
grain size. Radon transport in the earth is governed by geophysical and geochemical
parameters, while exhalation is controlled by hydrometeorological conditions. The
study presents a survey of radon in soil gas on urban areas in different regions in
Bulgaria.
Methods: Approach used in this study is measuring in a minimum 5 sample points
per 1,000 square meters to obtain representative information. The radon
measurements in air were carried out with the AlphaGuard equipment, and Gamma
detector was applied for gamma dose rate measurements. The measu rement set-up
to analyse radon concentration in soil gas consists of an AlphaGuard PQ 2000 radon
monitor, a soil-gas probe and an Alpha-Pump Real sampling depths ranged from 0.5
to 0.8 m.
Results: Measurements were carried out in 13 towns in Bulgaria in different time
periods from 2009 to 2012. The ranges of the obtained results are as follows: 10–40
kBqm−3 for radon concentration in soil gas; 14 – 60 Bqm−3 for outdoor radon
concentration and 0,07 – 0,20 µSv/h gamma dose rate.
Conclusion: The results of average radon activity concentration in soil gas, outdoor
radon concentration and gamma dose rate in the different towns in Bulgaria are
presented. This approach developed for a study of radon concentrations in soil gas is
applicable for investigation of building areas. More precise identification of physical
characteristics of the ground as well as determination of radium 226Ra in soil would
be needed to give a detailed interpretation. The study is planned to be continued
with measurements of a number of additional cities and correlation with a indoor
radon concentration.
Key words: Soil-gas radon concentration, outdoor radon measurement, AlphaGuard
73
P-21
INDOOR RADON MAPPING: SURVEY IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSES OVER
KOSOVO AND METOHIJA
Gordana Milic1, Ljiljana Gulan1, Zora S. Zunic2, Peter Bossew3 and Biljana
Vuckovic1
1
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 38200
Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia,
2 Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, Electro Chemical Etching Laboratory –
ECELAB, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, P.O Box 522,
11000 Beograd, Serbia
3
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (German Federal Office for Radiation Protection),
Köpenicker Allee 120-130, 10318 Berlin, Germany
Corresponding author:[email protected]
This first step mapping of indoor radon was done due to 153 measurements carried
out in the residential houses. About 21% territory of Kosovo and Metohija was
covered by mapping. For the measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration was used
solid state nuclear track detectors and they all were deployed on the ground floor of
typical houses. The data for mapping are arranged according to the recommendation
of group Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) in 2005.
The arithmetic mean (AM) value of the measurements is 201.84 Bqm-3 and
geometric mean (GM) is 148.06Bqm-3. This paper presents the status of the survey
natural radioactivity in Kosovo and Metohija.
74
P-22
RADON CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATERS FROM MĂGURI
RĂCĂTAU AREA, CLUJ COUNTY
Mircea Moldovan, Dan Costin, Alexandra Cucoş-Dinu, Dan Constantin Niţă
“Babeş-Bolyai” University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,
Fântânele 33, Cluj-Napoca
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in
soil, air and in different types of water: surface, well and spring. It is worth to carry
out surveys in order to identify radon in ground waters for radiation protection as
well as for geological considerations.
The results present here, for radon concentrations in ground waters, are from
Muntele Mare granitoid, the largest intrusive body in the Apuseni Mountains, with
an N-S elongated shape covering approximately 300 km2.
The measurements were made using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas
measurement with Lucas cell. The results show a radon concentration within the
range of 1.6 – 419.5 Bq/l. The average of radon concentration is 80 BqL-1, this value
is higher than the average obtained in waters from Transylvania, 15.4 BqL -1 and it
can be conclude that this area represents a high radon area in Romania.
P-23
INTEGRATED MEASUREMENTS BY USING CR-39 TRACK DETECTORS
IN ALBA COUNTY, ROMANIA
Lavinia Elena Muntean1, Alexandra Cucoș (Dinu)2), Daniela Lucia Manea1)
1
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 28,
Memorandumului St., 400114, Cluj Napoca, Romania
2
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, 30,
Fântânele St., 400294, Cluj Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author:[email protected]
Indoor radon measurements were performed in 19 buildings (blocks of flats and
residential houses) located in 3 areas of Alba County, by using CR-39 alpha track
detectors. The annual mean value obtained for indoor radon concentrations is 131
Bq/m3. This value corresponds to an annual effective dose of 3.02 mSv/y. The result
fits within the range of 3-10 mSv/y action level recomanded by ICRP (International
Commision on Radiological Protection), but is two times higher than the national
mean value.
75
P-24
COMPARISON BETWEEN CHARCOAL ADSORPTION AND LUCAS
CELL METHODS (LUK 3C) FOR RADON IN CARBONATED AND NON
CARBONATED WATER MEASUREMENTS
Dan Constantin Niţă, Mircea Moldovan, Cosma Constantin
“Babes-Bolyai” University, Faculty of Environmental Science and
Engineering,Fântânele 33, Cluj-Napoca
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon is an odorless, colorless gas, whose physical and chemical properties allow it
to migrate to considerable distances. Due to the radiation protection and for the
geological considerations the radon measurements are very important, both in soil
and inside homes but also in water.
Several different methods for measuring radon concentration in water have been
developed and widely used such as: liquid scintillation counting, Lucas cell
counting, gamma and alpha spectroscopy. For the radon in carbonated waters
measurements some problems caused by the excess gas, especially CO2, may occur.
The aim of this work was to develop and use a measuring method for radon in
carbonated water measurements. Our idea was to use activated charcoal for radon
adsorption from the carbonated water and then measure it by gamma spectrometry.
To evaluate the charcoal method, we compared the results of this method with the
Lucas cell (Luk3C) method results for non-carbonated water. During experiments
we adapted the Lucas cell (Luk3C) for non-carbonated water method for carbonated
water. The proposed methods were verified by using different non-carbonated and
different carbonated water samples.
This method was successfully used for environmental samples, all carbonated
waters: eleven springs from Borsec and three springs from Bilbor. The results show
a radon concentration within the range of 3,5 – 39,5Bq/l.
76
P-25
METHODS FOR RADON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENT
THROUGH RADON-PROOF MEMBRANES
Botond Papp, Constantin Cosma, Begy Robert
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engeneering,
Fântânele street, no. 30, RO-400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon diffusion constant is a material parameter which is usually used in the radon
mitigation measures technique. There are different methods for radon diffusion
coefficient measurement and assessment. We used two methods by continuous
monitoring of radon gas in the source and receiver containers, also. In the first
method the membrane was placed above the same source and receiver by a known
initial radon concentration. In the second method the membrane was placed between
the source and receiver, by a constant regime of radon source. In the source
container the radon concentration was monitored by the RAD7 radon detector and in
the receiver container by the RADIM EMAN radon monitor.
Based on this model, three samples of radon proof membrane from polyethylene foil
were tested from which one was a HDPE with density 950 kgm-3, a second was a
LDPE with low density 750 kgm-3 widely used for protecting the substructures of
buildings against water and radon, and an LDPE with very low density of 500 kgm3
, widely used for protection against damp. Samples were sent for an International
Comparison Measurement on assessing the diffusion coefficient of radon, which
was jointly organized by National Radiation Protection Institute from Prague in
2009.
Assessment of the measurement results to obtain the value of the diffusion constant
(for membranes of different types and thickness) we used a mathematical model by
solving analytically the one dimensional diffusion equation of Fick‟s law, in
addition with the decay and leakage of 222Rn gas. Results obtained for the three
samples by the first method was: (2.0  0.5)10-12 m2s-1 for HDPE; (1.6  0.1)10-12
m2s-1 for LDPE; (1.4  0.1)10-12 m2s-1 for LDPE very low density, and for the
second method: (1.9  0.2)10-12 m2s-1 for HDPE;
(5.2  0.2)10-12 m2s-1 for
-12
2 -1
LDPE and (6.4  0.2)10 m s for LDPE very low density.
This work was performed in collaboration with Ádám Kiss, Ákos Horváth and
Ferenc Deák, from the Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Science, Department of
Atomic Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
References:
Rovenska, K., Jiranek, M., 2011. 1st International comparison measurement on
assessing the diffusion coefficient of radon. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 145 (2-3), 127-132.
Rovenska, K., Jiranek, M., 2012. Radon diffusion coefficient measurement in waterproofings - a review of methods and an analysis of differences in results, Applied
Radiation and Isotopes, 70 (4), 802–807.
77
P-26
RADON SURVEYS FOR MAPPING RADON OCCURRENCE
Per Nilsson
Landauer Nordic, Uppsala, Sweden
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Before taking decisions regarding radon in a country or a region it is of great interest
to perform a survey, estimating the radon occurrence in the area. Geological maps
can pin point radon prone areas but measurements of indoor air is an important
compliment.
Landauer Nordic has developed a product for radon surveys in geographical areas.
Landauer has the capacity to handle large volumes of radon detectors and the
companies logistics for sending out detectors and summarize the result is high
efficient. By using information letters and other vulnerary channels to gather
dwellings for the measuring could the survey be made in an efficient and a cost
effective way. Landauer Nordic has experience of such mail campaigns and how
they should be tailored for highest efficiency.
78
P-27
SOIL RADON AND THORON ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS, ALONG
WITH CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEOGENE VOLCANIC
REGION OF THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS (ROMANIA) AND THEIR
RELATION TO THE FIELD LOCATION OF FAULT ZONES
Botond Papp 1, Alexandru Szakács 2, Tamás Néda 2, Nicolae Frunzeti 1, Mócsy
Ildiko 2, Kinga Szacsvai 2, Constantin Cosma 1
1
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University,
Fântânele street, no. 30, RO-400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Department of Environmental Science, Sapientia University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania;
Corresponding author: [email protected]
In the aftermath of the post-volcanic activity, dry gases, containing mainly CO2, bring
along radioactive gases such as radon (222Rn; T1/2 = 3.82 days) and thoron (220Rn; T1/2 =
55.6 sec), which migrate together to the surface. The upward migration of these gases is
facilitated by fractures or tectonic faults, which act as preferential pathways for gas
migration toward the surface. Our study is based on soil radon and thoron activity
concentration measurements along with CO2 flux measurements, performed in the area
of the mofettes and mineral springs occurrence in three locations: Harghita-Bai and
Balvanyos (Harghita Mts.), and Sugas-Bai, (Baraolt Mts.) which are part of the Neogene
Volcanic region of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). The aim of the study was to
identify the location and direction of the fault systems, which controls the occurrence of
the mofettes and mineral springs in these three places. During the fieldwork, the
existence of the presumed fault system across the selected profile normal to assumed
fault direction was examined.
The measurements of soil radon and thoron activity-concentrations were performed at
40-60 cm depth with the LUK3C radon and thoron detector (with Lucas cells), and the
CO2 flux measurements were performed on the soil surface by using the closed chamber
technique. Measurement results showed normal distributions for the activity
concentrations of radon and thoron, with a maximum value in both cases, and for the
results of CO2 flux measurements also. The concentrations for radon and thoron were in
the range of several kBqm-3 to tens of kBqm-3. Results of the CO2 flux shows a wide
range of values, from several gm-2day-1 at Sugas-Bai, and up to tens of thousands of
gm-2day-1 at Balvanyos and Harghita-Bai. The distributions of 222Rn, 220Rn and CO2 are
consistent with the hypothesis that the gas migration occurs above the fault system, and
consequently, the maximum values indicate a more or less precise location and direction
of the fault line. From the results it is also clear, that high precision of the thoron
concentration gives a more accurate location of this type of tectonic elements than radon,
because of it shorter life-time and it shorter migration length.
This work was financially support by the Institute of Researcher Programmes (KPI) of
the Hungarian University of Transylvania (Sapientia), through a Project entitled: “Study
of the post volcanic activities in Székely Land, in Transylvania”.
References:
Néda, T., Szakács, A., Mócsy, I., Cosma, C., (2008). Radon concentration levels in dry CO2 emanations
from Harghita Băi, Romania, used for curative purposes. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear
Chemistry, 277 (3), 685-691.
Papp, B., Szakács, A., Néda, T., Papp, Sz., Cosma, C., (2010). Soil radon and thoron studies near the
mofettes at Harghita Bai (Romania) and their relation to the field location of fault zones. Geofluids, 10
(4), 586-593.
79
P-28
INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS IN THE GREEK
PROVINCE STEREA ELLADA
C. Potiriadis, M. Kolovou, K. Kehagia
Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Patriarchou Gregoriou and Neapoleos1, 153 10
Agia Paraskevi Attikis, GREECE
Corresponding author: [email protected]
A nationwide representative indoor radon survey is performed by Greek Atomic
Energy Commission (GAEC). The goal of this survey is to complete the existing
radon map, to determine the distribution of the annual indoor radon concentration in
Greece and to indentify the radon prone areas. In this frame, indoor radon
concentration in dwellings in the Greek province, Sterea Ellada was measured.
Sterea Ellada is the second largest Greek province and covers the 12% of the total
Greek area divided in 25 municipalities. The criteria for the representative spatial
distribution of the indoor radon measurements are formulated taking into account
the local population density, the number of dwellings and the area of each
municipality. Municipality authorities distributed the radon detectors to the
dwellings according to GAEC‟s instructions. Alpha track detectors were used for the
measurements and the duration of each one was 6 months. No prone area has been
identified. The annual indoor radon concentration distribution for the province of
Sterea Ellada was determined and the mean concentration is 35 Bq/m3.
80
P-29
INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS IN
DWELLINGS OF SORRENTO PENINSULA (SOUTH ITALY)
M.Quarto1, R.Buompane3, F. De Cicco3, M.Pugliese1,2, V.Roca1,2, C.Sabbarese3
1
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”,
Italy
2
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli,
Italy
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The α-radioactive noble gas 222Rn, which is present naturally in the environment,
and its progenies represents the major source of ionizing radiation exposure for
population. It is well established that there is a correlation statically significant
between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. Since people spend about 60% of
their time at home, it is important to measure the indoor radon levels and to apply
the mitigation action when they exceed the action levels established by the ICRP.
In this study, an indoor radon survey of a total of 93 dwellings randomly selected in
Sorrento Peninsula (South Italy) is presented. Measurements were carried out using
passive devices employing LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors. The detectors
were placed in the rooms were the inhabitants spent the major of their time,
generally the living room and bedroom. They were exposed for two consecutive
semesters and then etched in NaOH 2.5 N solution at 60° for 110 min. The indoor
radon levels were found to range from 21 Bq/m3 to 722 Bq/m3 and their frequency
distribution looks like log-normal. The dependence of the radon concentrations by
some factors such as building materials, construction and floor of the year is also
discussed. Finally, the annual effective dose for radon inhalation by inhabitants
using UNSCEAR model was estimated.
81
P-30
ALPHA AND GAMMA PARTICLE DEVICE MONITORING FOR MINING
UNDERGROUND WATER
Mircea RISTEIU, Gheorghe MARC, Dorin IANCU, Ioan ILEANA
“1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba Iulia, Gabriel Bethlen Str., No.11, 510009
Alba Iulia, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected],
This paper is focused on researching and developing new electronic device for
investigating Alpha and Gamma particles concentration. The designed device is
required to measure the concentration of Uranium and Radium in underground water
from mining industry areas. The basic method for designing this device is the
photoelectric effect over new PIN diode technology. Two Hamamatsu (high cost)
and Vishay (low cost) PIN diodes have been tested in lab. For long time
measurement, a LabVIEW setup, with statistical block has been used. The obtained
results are similar with some other research activities in the field. Then a
microcontroller-based prototype has been developed, for in site applications. It
contains pulses counter, a statistical macro-function, a local display, with short/long
time displaying option, and an execution part for in site automation.
Keywords: Alpha and Gamma particle measurement, radiation monitoring system,
underground mining water monitoring, microcontroller,
Acknowledgement: The work has been developed in cooperation with EcoMining
NGO, Baita Bihor Uranium Mine. Experimental part has been developed in the local
lab (Interdisciplinary Lab for Modeling, Simulation and Control of Environment)
research unit. Some of the work has been successful tested in two graduating
projects done by Doreftei Alexandra and Adrian Rosian.
82
P-31
THE NOVEL TRACK RECORDING APPARATUS FROM SSNTD
FOR RADON MEASUREMENT
P. De Felice1, G.Cotellessa1, M. Capogni1, F.Cardellini1, M.Pagliari1, G.Sciocchetti2
1
ENEA-INMRI, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00123 Roma,Italy
2
Technoradon S.r.l. Via Pereira n. 205, 00136 Roma,Italy
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The ENEA-INMRI Institute developed an integrated experimental system for radon
measurement and standardization. This system includes also Solid State Nuclear
Track Detectors (SSNTD) applications. The automatic track counting apparatus has
been improved with a digital photo video camera connected to a PC and using the public
domain Java-based ImageJ processing program. An analog photo video camera was
previously embodied in the same apparatus. A track recognition program was
developed with an ad-hoc applet that allows acquisition of track density (cm-2),
exposure (kBq h/m3), and radon concentration (Bq/m3).
SSNTD‟s application is based on the track density analysis and detection for a
number of field of view (FOV) counted per detector. Small FOV, which can record
images of the SSNTD's surface, is more suitable for tracks parameters estimation,
while large FOV is more useful for track counting aimed at exposure estimation
based e.g. on radon measurement with passive dosimeters. An automated technique
for a computer-assisted alpha track counting system is required for a large number
of fields counted per detector. The detection technique based on a single field can
be used when the system's FOV covers a large detector area to provide better
statistical measurement. Generally, this technique is used in track counting for
SSNTD electro-chemically etched.
Experimental tests have been carried out to maximize the FOV value of the novel
apparatus using appropriate optical magnification and digital video camera
resolution for a computer-assisted alpha track counting of a CR-39 SSNTD
chemically etched. An experimental protocol has been set up to optimize the
FOV‟s number in track counting on the surface of CR-39 SSNTD chips. The
measured area of the film depends on chip parameters and exposure geometry
inside the diffusion chamber of passive radon dosimeters.
In this paper we present preliminary experimental results based on the application
of the Piston Radon Exposure Monitor (A-PREM), developed at the ENEA-INMRI
laboratory [1]. The unique feature of the A-PREM‟s holder allows to be used as an
experimental device to test the response of SSNTD‟s films located inside, e.g. CR39 chips of different standard sizes: 25 x 25 mm2, l3 x 37 mm2 and 10 x 10 mm2.
Finally, we present results of comparison of analog and digital video camera
performances based on a reference set of CR-39 SSNTD chips processed with the
ECE etching. Using the same overall magnification it was shown that the track
density ratio measured with two different techniques is not constant in a large range
of radon exposures.
[1] Sciocchetti G., G. Cotellessa, E. Soldano, and M. Pagliari. "A New Technique
for Measuring Radon Exposure at Working Places." Radiation Measurements 36,
nos. 1-6 (September 2003): 199-203.
83
P-32
ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION OF THE OUTDOOR 222RN AND 220RN
PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS USING STATISTICAL MODELING
Florin Simion1,2, Elena Simion1,3, Vasile Cuculeanu2, Ion Mihalcea3
1 National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul
Independentei 294, RO-060031, Bucharest, Romania
2 Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest,
Romania
3 Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Av.,
030017-Bucharest, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The present paper presents the study of the multiple linear regression model for the
estimation and prediction of the time series of radon and thoron progeny
concentrations in atmosphere. Radon and thoron progeny data measured in
Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Station Botoșani, part of the National
Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network are modeled, at different time scales,
by making use of the multiple linear regression with meteorological parameters as
independent variables. The collinearity and multicollinearity of independent
variables have been analyzed. The estimations were checked by using the regression
statistics: multiple correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, F-test values,
level of significance (p-value) and residuals. The predictions performances have
been analyzed by means of the residuals, coefficient of determination and the
relative error specific to each time interval from prediction period.
Key words: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, multiple linear regression,
statistics
84
P-33
RADOLOGICAL SURVEY HUNGARIAN CLAYS AND RADON
EMANATION AND EXHALATION INFLUENTIAL EFFECT OF SAMPLE
AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE CONDITIONS
Z. Sas, J. Somlai. J. Jónás, G. Szeiler, T. Kovács
Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box
158, H-8200Veszprém,Hungary
Corresponding author: [email protected]
More and more attention has been given to improve conditions of the dwellings,
workplaces and other frequently visited places in the last few decades, primarily to
reduce the many different health risks. The Ra-226 which is the parent element of
the radon can be found in the nature and in the building materials, as well. Although
the Ra-226 content determines radon production the amount of the exhaled radon
greatly depends on the features of the containing matrix. One of the most important
factors is the emanation which is determined by so many material structural factors.
From the practical point of view the specific exhalation of the produced building
material is the most important which is also influenced by several factors such as
sample thickness, moisture content, porosity, production method, etc. The aims of
this study are to establish a precise and sensitive exhalation measurement method
and determine the major influencing parameters of radon emanation and exhalation.
The following parameters were modified and investigated: the diffusion inhibition
effect of the sample thickness in case of powdered and wet sample, the moisture
content and the effect of heat-treatment was investigated as well.
The optimal sample thickness was determined in order to ensure the free exhalation
condition of the investigated sample in the case of powdered and wet clays. In case
of powdered samples the conditions of the free exhalation state was occurred up to
15 cm, whilst the free exhalation of wet clay can be measured only under 1.5 cm
sample thickness.
The initial (17 %), dry state emanation coefficient elevated with the increased
moisture content up to 44 %. The applied heat treatment reduced the initial
exhalation capability under 3%.
85
P-34
INDOOR RADON MEASURMENTS USING SOLID STATE TRACK
DETECTORS
S.Csegzi, L.Tisaianu, T.Staicu, O. Bica, D.Balanescu, A.Taciuc
Romano-Catholic College “St.Joseph” Oltenitei Road nr.7, Bucharest
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The students from Romano-Catholic College “St.Joseph” Bucharest, after they were
initiated in the field indoor radon measurements in partnership with “Horia
Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, have
performed indoor radon measurements in their private houses and also in Vintila
Voda village, Buzau, using:
a) solid state track detectors CR-39,Page,England Ltd;
b) the system for the radon calibration of track detectors realized by A. Danis, M.
Oncescu and M. Ciubotariu [1] at NIPNE-Bucharest .This system is based on a Ra226 calibrated source .
c) the Ra-226 source was calibrated at the Centre of Radioisotopes Production –
NIPNE-Bucharest by: L. Grigorescu, A. Luca, C. Razdolescu [2] .
d) after the chemical etching, in order to determine indoor radon concentrations, the
alpha track densities in detectors were studied using an optical microscope at X300
magnification.
The measured values of the indoor radon concentrations are presented in the paper.
[1]System for calibration of thrack detectors used in gaseous and solid alpha
radionulides monitoring A. Danis, M. Oncescu, M. Ciubotariu. Radiation
Measurments 34 (2001) 155-159.
[2] L. Grigorescu, A. Luca, C.Razdolescu 1997 Radon sources. Centre of
Radioisotope production, IFIN-HH Bucharest
86
P-35
MOBILE UNIT FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL
REMEDIATION PROJECTS
Streil, T. and Oeser V.
SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Straße 10, 01159 Dresden, Germany
Corresponding author: [email protected]
As part of an environmental remediation plan to be applied to areas affected by past activities
and accidents, characterization of the site is a mandatory step. This activity will determine the
extent of the contamination, contaminants‟ distribution, etc. Traditionally, this activity
involves the collection of different environmental samples and laboratory analysis of the
relevant radio nuclides (and eventually other contaminants like heavy metals). When the
results are available they are interpreted and then a decision is made. This process is normally
very expensive and time consuming. In recent years many techniques have been made
available for in-situ measurement that can provide reliable information on the contamination
profile in radiologically contaminated land. Such measurements tend to be less expensive,
faster and with the aid of GPS/GIS systems decisions can be made on-site in real time. Mobile
units may also be useful to states who do have laboratory analysis facilities, but are faced with
large, unforeseen characterization challenge, such as following and accident or radiation
emergency. To overcome this situation we developed the DACM (Data Acquisition and
Control Module) technology. Instruments based on this technology can be modified anytime
by the user without special knowledge and the claiming of the manufacturer. The DACM
based offers a set of components which can be configured, parameterized and controlled with
respect to the requirements on site. Typical components are Radon/Thoron modules (soil gas,
water, air, exhalation, contiguous flux measurement in different depths), signal inputs for
sensors like Co2, Methane, So2.., control outputs for instance for pumps, magnetic valves for
exhalation measurements but also complex functional blocks like spectrometers, GPS
receiver, PID regulators etc. A complex sampling schedule can be created within few minutes
by a graphical software interface.
Definition of a local dose, detection of radioactive sources: The handy and robust NaI(TI)
detector is connected to the unit via a 10m long cable, so that it can be positioned flexibly in
relation to the source. Thanks to the big detector volume, even small sources can be detected.
Net activity of free definable nuclides in food and material probes: The NaI(TI) detector
is also used to analyze food and material probes regarding specific nuclides (e.g. Iodine,
Caesium, Americium). By means of the gamma spectrum, the net activity of two user
definable nuclides is automatically calculated.
Measurement of radioactive aerosols in inhaled air: The aerosol sampling head with its
spectroscopy filter and its silicon detector samples continuously and detects even small
quantities of aerosol carried radioactivity. Both alpha and beta radiation are measured. The
spectrometric analysis allows e.g. detecting Plutonium aerosols which cannot be detected by
measuring gamma radiation.
Mop tests, surface contamination (clothes), electrochemical probes: Optionally, the
DACM can be connected to a portable vacuum chamber, to allow on-site analysis of mop
tests and other samples under circumstances similar to those prevailing in a laboratory. The
employed vacuum pumps can be connected to a 12V source (car battery).
All detectors can be operated simultaneously. The concept of the system allows an easy
handling and a standardized data basis. The device offers predefined measurement procedures
that can be easily modified by the user. Additional measurement programs can be created
without any problem. The Data transmission and device control can be done by GPRS or
GSM modems, as well as via ZigBee adapter (Wi-Fi), if the device is operated in inaccessible
or contaminated areas.
87
P-36
INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE IN CLUJ-NAPOCA CITY, ROMANIA
Kinga Szacsvai1, Constantin Cosma2, Alexandra Cucoş2
1
Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Sciences and Arts,
Department of Environmental Studies, 16 Deva Street, 400375, Cluj-Napoca,
Romania
2
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, 30
Fantanele Street, 400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Radon and its decay products are the most important sources of natural radiation for
the human exposure (UNSCEAR, 2000). Like a second cause of lung cancer (after
smoking), radon is received indoors, in houses and others dwellings, for the majority
of the population exposures. A statistically significant enhancement of this incidence
for underground mines workers has been observed, but great attention should also be
paid to radon exposure in workplaces and homes where in some cases high radon
concentration values are found. (ICRP, 1993). In the past decades, systematic radon
surveys in dwellings were carried out all over the world (UNSCEAR 2000). Almost
half of the radioactive dose is due to the radon gas. It is well known that the radon in
indoor places come mostly from the soil and building materials.
The objective of the present study was to estimate the lung cancer risk induced by
exposures to radon progeny of people living in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania,
Romania.
Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 254 houses with CR-39 solid track
detectors. The track detectors were exposed for a period of 200-210 days in
bedrooms at a distance to 1-1,5m from the floor.
The development process necessary an etching process with NaOH etching solution,
with a concentration to 6,25mol, at a temperature of 90 0C for 4,5h. After this
process, we have evaluated measurements with RadoSys-2000. The mean measured
radon concentration values were corrected for seasonal variations, depending on the
time when detectors were exposed during the course of a year. The radon average
concentration in the exanimate places was <CRn>=112Bqm-3, CRnmin=9Bqm-3 and
CRnmax=1119Bqm-3. The geometrical mean of radon, GM, in the studied areas were
found to be 160Bq.m-3. Distribution of indoor radon concentration in homes was:
32,7% in CRn[0-40Bqm-3], 31,5% in CRn[41-80Bqm-3], 11% CRn[81-120Bqm-3],
6,3% in CRn[121-160Bqm-3], and 18,1% in CRn[>161Bqm-3].
88
P-37
HEALTH EFFECTS ATTRIBUTED TO RADON FROM THE
PERSPECTIVE OF LINEAR NO-THRESHOLD HYPOTHESIS
Lucia-Adina TRUTA1, Werner HOFMANN2, Constantin COSMA1
1
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Babes –Bolyai University,
Fantanele Street, No. 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and
Physics, University of Salzburg, Helbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg,
Austria
Corresponding author: [email protected]
The linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNT) is a model of the damage caused by
ionizing radiation which presupposes that the response is linear at all dose levels.
Thus, LNT asserts that there is no threshold of exposure below which the response
ceases to be linear. While most authorities agree that the LNT model is most
appropriate, the advances in radiobiology during the past two decades, the
understanding of carcinogenesis, and the discovery of defenses against
carcinogenesis challenge the LNT model, which appears obsolete. These studies
disagree with LNT hypothesis suggesting that low levels of low LET radiation,
below 100 mSv (or below 100 mGy) may actually be positive or at least neutral to
health, and suggest that the present LNT overestimates radiation risks, therefore the
dose-response particularly for low-doses and low dose-rates has to be further
analyzed. The influence of genetics and genetic variation in individuals, as well as
the response to high LET radiation is less clear. The objective of this study was to
update the LNT debate by using the latest radiation biologic and epidemiologic data,
as well as our predictions of Transformation Frequency-Tissue Response (TF-TR)
model. Low, chronic radon exposures are characterized by the occurence of nontargeted effects (e.g. adaptive response, genomic instability) so their effect on the
dose-response curve was simulated with the mechanistic, biologically-based TF-TR
carcinogenic model. Model predictions were in agreement with the linear nothreshold hypothesis at high radon exposures, but dose-response curves for low,
chronic radon exposures (less than 4 cGy) were slightly different.
Keywords: low doses, ionizing radiation, health effects, LNT
89
P-38
MEASUREMENTS RADON ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS IN MINERAL
WATERS IN SERBIAN SPAS
Biljana Vuckovic, Ljiljana Gulan, Gordana Milic, Feriz Adrovic
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 38200 Kosovska
Mitrovica, Serbia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
This paper presents the results of measurements radon activity concentration in
mineral water in eleven spas in Serbia with AlphaGUARD measurement system.
Measurements related to the mineral water used indoors Hydro-bath and indoor
swimming pools. When sampling of mineral water were measured activity
concentrations of radon in the air in a time interval of one hour continuously. The
smallest measured value is in the water (7+1) x103Bq/m3 and the highest
(21+2)x103Bq/m3. The activity concentration of radon in the air had a minimum of
(16+8)xBq/m3 and a maximum of (152+20)xBq/m3. The ratio of radon
concentrations in water and in indoor air, when water is used is determined by the
transfer factor. Values were within the range of 0,09x10-4 to 1,05x10-4.
Key words: radon, AlphaGUARD measuring system, mineral water, indoor air,
transfer factor
P-39
INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS WHERE THE
FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS OF VIETNAM WILL BE BUILT
Bui Dac Dung1, Trinh Van Giap1, Tibor Kovács2, Nguyen Quang Long1, and
Nguyen Huu Quyet1
1Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, 179 Hoang Quoc Viet, Nghia Do - Cau Giay,
Hanoi, Vietnam
2Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, H-8200, Veszprem
Egyetem str 10 Hungary
Corresponding author: [email protected]
More than half of the radiation dose of natural origin comes from radon. Based on
previous Vietnamese surveys of a rather small number considerable radon
concentration is only expected at certain territories of small area with few
inhabitants in Vietnam. Despite of this the survey of radon and thoron is necessary
also in Vietnam. This study covers the indoor radon survey of those living in the
vicinity of the nuclear plants to be built in Ninh Thuan province. The survey was
conducted during the years 2010-2011 in order to have the radioactive background
database of the province established before the nuclear power plant was built and
put into operation.
90
Indoor radon concentration at the location of investigation was measured using solid
state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) LR-115 type II strippable with 3 months
exposure for the dose assessment of the future population. A total of 49 points
(representing 49 most populated of 64 communes in the province) were investigated.
Radon concentration values gained during the survey were rather low in general
related to data of other international surveys. The average was 10±5 Bq/m3 (min. 4
Bq/m3; max. 27 Bq/m3).
From the aspect of dosimetry even the highest estimated effective dose originating
from the radon concentration is negligible. However, later, after the completion of
the power plant knowing the previous background data is rather important for
credible information to be given for the population.
P-40
PECULIARITY OF CALIBRATION OF SOIL RADON DETECTORS
WORKING IN COUNTING REGIME
1
Yakovleva V.S., 1Vukolov A.V., 1Cherepnev M.S.,
2
Ippolitov I.I., 2Nagorsky P.M., 2Smirnov S.V.
1
Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Institute of Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, RF, Tomsk,
Academic Avenue 10/3
Corresponding author: [email protected]
2
Researches of the radioactive soil gas radon dynamics, basically for short-term
forecasts of the earthquakes, are conducted in many countries and during many
decades. Methods of measurements are differing by types of registered ionizing
radiation: alpha-, beta-particles; photons. For continuous soil radon monitoring the
methods of ionizing radiation registration by using detectors operated in counting
regime, which placed straight to boreholes, are more favourable. The more so
because these methods are cheaper by 1-2 times than methods based on alpha
spectrometry, and this fact allows the network of radon monitoring station to be
extend. The other reason is that they allow getting, processes and analyzing data in
quasi-real time scale. In the total in many countries of the world these methods are
used for earthquake forecasting. However, reliability of obtained results and
methods of direct radon measurements in boreholes by the ionizing radiation was
not investigated. Transfer of pulse counting rate into units of radon volumetric
activity is made with multiplication on the correction coefficient, which is
determined by comparison with results of certified radiometer in short and usually
single experiment. The main task of this research was checking of reliability of
radon measurement methods by direct registration of ionizing radiation in soil.
Potential problems in detector calibration procedure and determining of correction
coefficients based on revealed asynchronous behavior of radon and ionizing
radiation time series are discussed. The developed calibration procedure is described
in the paper.
91
P-41
DESIGN, CONSTRUCT AND TEST OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED
CALIBRATION RADON CHAMBER
Begy R.-Cs. and Cosma C.
Bebes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering ClujNapoca ROMANIA
Corresponding author: [email protected]
A calibration radon chamber with possibility of environmental parameter setting was
designed and constructed. In radon measuring protocol especially in the case of
passive devices the calibration process is necessary. Sometimes the active radon
measuring devices needs recalibration or quality analyses and control. For this a
calibration radon chamber is essentially. The chamber is a cylindrical shape made of
painted steel with a volume of 200 liter (0.2 m3). The environmental parameters in
the inside of the chamber, temperature humidity and air velocity are controlled with
a microcontroller. In the boot end of the chamber is placed a set of temperature and
humidity sensors, when the difference in the indicated values between these
detectors sets rich up on one grade Celsius or 5 % in relative humidity the processor
starts two fans for assure the homogeneity. For simulation a moving air atmosphere
another fan is driven by microcontroller with a speed set by the customer. Solid
radium-226 source with high activity was placed outside of the chamber the
generated radon is pumped inside in a closed circuit. Also the soil was used like an
alternative radon source.
.
92
P-42
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RADON MEASUREMENT DEVICES TO
ELECTRIC FIELDS
Petre OGRUTAN, Gheorghe MORARIU, Lia Elena ACIU
Transilvania University of Braşov, Eroilor 29, Braşov, 500036, Romania
Corresponding author:[email protected]
This paper examines the possible occurrence of errors due to electromagnetic interferences
during Radon air concentration measurements [1], [2]. Using SIMULINK, two measurement
methods were simulated and compared in terms of their susceptibility to perturbations. After
analyzing the detection chamber and the analogue input stage, a method for eliminating the
parasitic pulses passing through two measurement channels is described. The subsequent
measurements were performed in areas exposed to high electromagnetic field levels and then
compared with results obtained in areas with lesser exposure to electromagnetic fields. Two
sets of final measurement results were presented by using alternatively an electronic
measuring device as well as track detectors.
In order to determine Radon air concentration, the two measurement methods used, [3]:
a Safety Siren 3 electronic measuring device (short time measurement – 12 days);
b Track detector (measuring interval: 1 month)
It can be noticed that the Radon air concentration obtained when using the electronic
measuring device is above the acceptable level
and higher than the normal value, given the
specific conditions at the measurement location
[4]. This result required the employment of the
Track detectors, which indicated a normal Radon
air concentration in both locations. It may be
hypothesized that the value measured using the
electronic device was affected by errors due to
electromagnetic interferences. In order to avoid
any contradictory results, the measurements
performed using the electronic device were
repeated several times over a longer interval (1
month).
The graph in Figure 1 presents the values,
Fig.1 Radon air concentration measured
measured in two locations, of both the electric
by using two methods and the electric
field (grey)( in the frequency ranges for mobile
field strength in both locations
communications) as well as the Radon air
concentration using the electronic measuring
device(white) and the track detector (black). The difference in Radon air concentration
measured at the location affected by electric field perturbations is remarkable.
References
[1] J. Chen, R. Falcomer, B. Walker, Field Evaluations of Digital Radon Detectors, Health Physics,
November 2007 - Volume 93 - Issue 5 - pp S184-S186,
[2] P Gilligan, S Somerville,J T Ennis, GSM cell phones can interfere with ionizing radiation dose
monitoring equipment, British Journal of Radiology (2000) 73, 994-998
[3] US Environmental Protection Agency/ Air and Radiation, Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay
Product Measurements in Homes, EPA 4021-R-92-003/1993
[4] Cosma, C., Szacsvai, K., Dinu, A., Ciorba, D., Dicu, T., Suciu, L.: Preliminary integrated indoor
radon measurements in Transylvania (Romania, In: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, Vol.
45 (3), 2009, p. 259-268.
93
P-43
RADON EQUILIBRIUM MEASUREMENT IN THE AIR
Sofija Forkapiš, Dušan Mrđa, Miroslav Veskoviš, Nataša Todoroviš, Kristina Bikit,
Jovana Nikolov, Jan HANSMAN
Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia
Corresponding author:[email protected]
This paper presents the exact method of radon equilibrium measuring in the air and
determining the radon progeny concentrations. The method is based on simultaneous
sampling of air through the filter paper and alpha spectrometry measurement of
radon activity concentration in the air. This paper derived a mathematical formula to
calculate the initial concentrations of radon progenies 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi in the air
at the start of sampling based on the detected count rate of postradon gamma lines in
the sample of filter paper. Such a model containing the radioactive decay corrections
during the time of sampling, cooling and measurement can be applied in other
nuclear analysis where the half-life of the source has the same order of magnitude as
the available recording time.
P-44
DAILY VARIATION OF GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND
AND RADON CONCENTRATION
R. Banjanac1, V. Udovičiš1, A. Dragiš1, D. Jokoviš1,
D. Maletiš1, N. Veselinoviš1, J. Puzoviš2
1
2
Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade, Serbia
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Reducing gamma-ray background contributes to the reduction of statistical errors of
low activity measurements, while reducing time variation of gamma-ray background
achieves lower systematic errors. The sources of time variation of gamma-ray
background in a typical measurement of low activity, when the measurement time is
only several days, are daily (periodic) variations of radon concentration and
aperiodic variations of cosmic rays intensity. In this study we investigated the
conditions that contribute to variations of gamma-ray background and radon
concentration, by analyzing of their simultaneously measured time series in a typical
ground level and shallow underground laboratories.
94
Author Index
Aciu Lia Elena, 93
Coretchi Liuba, 36, 50
Hulber Erik, 32
Ádány T., 47
Cornescu A., 50
Hulea Mihai, 69
Adrovic Feriz, 90
Cosma Constantin, 42, 43, 49, 58, 59,
Iancu Dorin, 66, 82
Alhafez Livia, 57
70, 76, 77, 79, 88, 89, 92,
Ildiko Mócsy, 79
Antigani S., 68
Cosma Victor, 69
Ileana Ioan, 82
Antohe Andrei, 28
Costin Dan, 75
Ioan Razvan, 28
Antonopoulos-Domis M, 30
Cotellessa G., 83
Ion Adriana, 56
Baciu Calin, 70
Csegzi Sandor, 64, 86
Ionescu Artur, 70
Badulin Viktor, 34, 35
Csige István, 40
Ippolitov I.I., 54, 91
Bahnarel I., 50
Csordás Anita, 29
Ishikawa Tetsuo, 39
Balanescu D., 86
Cucoș (Dinu) Alexandra, 75, 42, 62, 88,
Ivan Constantin, 28
Banciu Gheorghe, , 42, 44
58, 49, 75
Ivanova Kremena, 34, 35, 73
Banciu Ovidiu, 44
Cuculeanu Vasile, 33, 84
Jankeje Adam, 27
Banjanac Radomir, 94, 39
Cuknic O., 65, 68
Jokoviš D., 94
Barbara Krammer, 63
Daraban Laura, 66
Jónás J., 85
Begy Rorbert, 42, 57, 92, 77
Daraban Liviu, 66
Kabanov M.S., 54
Bene A., 47
De Cicco F., 81
Kardos R., 25
Bi Lei, 46
De Cort Marc, 27
Kehagia K., 80
Bica O., 86
De Felice P., 83
Kolarž Predrag, 39, 72
Bican-Brişan Nicoleta, 49
Dicu Tiberius, 42
Kolovou M., 80
Bikit Ištvan, 38
Dragiš Aleksandar, 39, 94
Kovács Tibor, 25, 85, 29, 90
Bikit Kristina, 38, 94
Dreve Simina, 57
Krstic Dradana, 51, 67
Bochicchio Francesco, 21, 65, 68, 39
Elzain Abd-Elmoniem A., 55
Kunovska Bistra, 34, 35, 73
Boráros V., 47
Encian Ioan, 69
Ljubov Mikhailova, 60, 61
Bossew Peter, 22, 65, 68, 48, 74
Erhardt I., 47
Luca Aurelian, 28
Bui Dung Dac, 90
Erőss A., 47
Majer Zsolt, 37
Bujtor T., 25
Fernandez A., 45
Maletiš D., 94
Buompane R., 81
Filipovic Jelena, 68, 39
Manea Daniela Lucia, 43, 75
Burghele Bety-Denissa, 59, 70, 42
Folea Silviu, 69
Marc Gheorghe, 82
Búzás Eszter Bíborka, 40
Forkapiš Sofija, 38, 94
Markovic V., 67
Buzinny Michael, 60, 61
Freiler Á., 47
Mayya Y.S., 39
Candrea Iuliana, 62
Frunzeti Nicolae, 70, 79
Mc Laughlin James, 20
Capogni M., 83
Fuente I., 45
Meisenberg Oliver, 46
Cardellini F., 83
Fulea Dan, 42, 69
Mihalcea Ion, 33, 84
Carelli V., 65, 68
Furtuna D., 50
Milic Gordana, 74, 90
Carpentieri C., 39, 65, 69,
Georgescu Dan, 58, 71
Mishra Rosaline, 39
Chałupnik Stanisław, 24, 46
Gregorič A., 25
Mócsy Ildikó, 52
Cherepnev Maxim S., 41, 54, 91
Gruber Valeria, 27
Moldovan Mircea, 42, 43, 69, 70, 75, 76
Chirută Iurie, 36
Gulan Ljiljana, 74, 90
Morariu Gheorghe, 93
Cindea Ciprian, 42
Gutierrez J.L., 45
Mrđa Dušan, 38, 94
Ciorba Daniela, 63
Hansman Jan, 94
Muntean Lavinia Elena, 43, 75
Clouvas Alexandros, 30
Hoffmann Werner, 63, 89
Nadjdjerdj L., 68
Cordedda C., 65, 68
Horváth Ákos, 47
Nagorskiy P.M., 54, 91
Horváth M., 25
95
Stojanovska Z., 51, 68, 48
Streil Thomas, 50, 87
Nagy H. É., 47
Suciu Liviu, 42
Szabó K. Zs., 47
Neacsu Beatris, 28
Szacsvai Kinga, 52, 79, 88
Néda Tamás, 52, 79
Szakács Alexandru, 79
Neznal Martin, 26
Szakács Sándor, 52
Neznal Matěj, 26
Szeiler Gabor, 85
Nguyen Quang Long, 90
Taciuc A., 86
Nguyen Huu Quyet, 90
Tisaianu L., 86
Nikeziš D., 51, 67
Todoroviš Nataša, 38, 94
Nikolov Jovana, 38, 94
Tollefsen Tore, 65, 68, 27
Nilsson Per, 78
Toro Laszlo, 23
Nita Dan Constantin, 42, 75, 76
Trinh Van Griap, 90
Oeser V, 87
Truta Adina, 63, 89
Ogrutan Petre, 93
Tschiersch Jochen, 46
Omori Yasutaka, 39
Udovičiš Vladimir, 39, 94
Orbán I., 47
Ursulean Ion, 36, 50
Ötvös V., 47
Várhegyi András, 53
Ovidiu Mera, 49
Vasiliniuc Ştefan, 58
Pagliari M., 83
Vaupotič Janja, 25, 50
Papp Botond, 43, 77, 79, 42
Veselinovic N., 65, 68, 94
Popita Gabriela, 70
Veskoviš Miroslav, 38, 94
Potiriadis Konstantinos, 80
Virlan Sergiu, 36, 50
Predojeviš Branko, 72
Vuchkov Daniel, 34, 35, 73
Pressyanov Dobromir, 31
Vučiš Dusica A., 50, 67
Pugliese M., 81
Vuckovic Biljana, 74, 90
Puzoviš J., 94
Vukolov Artem Vladimirovich, 54, 91
Quarto Maria, 81
Wang Jin, 46
Quindos Luis, 45
Xanthos S, 30
Risteiu Mircea, 82
Yakovleva Valentina S., 41, 54, 91
Ristoiu Dumitru, 57
Zaneva Nadia, 73
Ristova Mimoza, 48
Zoran Šurguz, 72
Roca V., 81
Zunic Zora S., 65, 68, 50, 39, 48, 74, 72.
Romanchenko Maxim, 60, 61
Sabbarese C., 81
Sahagia Maria, 28
Sainz Carlos, 45, 42
Sakhno Victor, 60, 61
Sas Zoltan, 85
Sciocchetti Giuliano, 83
Simion Elena, 33, 84
Simion Florin, 33, 84
Skubacz Krystian, 46
Smirnov S.V., 54, 91
Somlai János, 85, 29, 53
Staicu Tiberius, 86
Stoian Laurentiu Cristian, 70
96
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