Second Bi-Ennual NARO Scientific Conference, Connecting Agricultural Research to Society

Second Bi-Ennual
NARO Scientific Conference,
3rd – 7th November 2014
Connecting Agricultural Research to Society
Program and Book of Abstracts
Venue
Speke Resort Munyonyo
P.O. 3673 Kampala, Uganda,
Tel: +256 414 227 111/417 716 000
E-mail: [email protected]
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WELCOME MESSAGE FROM DIRECTOR GENERAL, NARO ................................ 4
CONFERENCE PROGRAM AT A GLANCE ......................................................... 7
SUMMARY PROGRAM.................................................................................... 8
Day 1:
Sunday; 2nd November 2014 ............................................................................................... 8
Day 2:
Monday; 3rd November 2014 .............................................................................................. 8
Day 3:
Tuesday; 4th November 2014 .............................................................................................. 9
Day 4:
Wednesday; 5th November 2014 ...................................................................................... 10
Day 5:
Thursday; 6th November 2014 .......................................................................................... 11
Day 6:
Friday; 7th November 2014 ............................................................................................... 12
DETAILED CONFERENCE PROGRAM .......................................................... 13
Day 2:
Monday; 3rd November 2014 ............................................................................................ 13
Day 3:
Tuesday; 4th November 2014 ............................................................................................ 15
Day 4:
Wednesday; 5th November 2014 ...................................................................................... 20
Day 6:
Friday; 7th November 2014 ............................................................................................... 25
ABSTRACTS .............................................................................................. 28
SUB-THEME 1: TECHNOLOGY GENERATION ............................................... 29
SUB-THEME 1.1: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE......................................................................................... 29
SUB-THEME 1.2: PLANT BREEDING ................................................................................................... 34
SUB-THEME 1.3: AGRONOMY ........................................................................................................... 42
SUB-THEME 1.4: PLANT PATHOLOGY ............................................................................................... 46
SUB-THEME 1.5: ENTOMOLOGY ....................................................................................................... 53
SUB-THEME 1.6: FOOD BIO-SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING .............................................................. 57
SUB-THEME 1.7: LIVESTOCK SCIENCES ............................................................................................. 65
SUB-THEME 1.8: FORESTRY............................................................................................................... 73
SUB-THEME 1.9: FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE ............................................................................. 76
SUB-THEME 2: PARTNERSHIPS AND OUTREACH ........................................ 79
SUB-THEME 2.1: FARMERS’ KNOWLEDGE ..................................................................... 79
SUB-THEME 2.2: AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND FINANCING ............................... 86
SUB-THEME 2.3 FARMERS’ LIVELIHOODS ..................................................................... 88
SUB-THEME 4: CROSS AND EMERGING ISSUES .......................................... 92
2
SUB-THEME 4.1: SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ................................ 92
SUB-THEME 4.2: CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT .......................................................... 95
NARO AT A GLANCE................................................................................. 103
CONFERENCE SPONSORS ........................................................................ 100
UGANDA JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES (UJAS) . Error! Bookmark not
defined.
CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE ................................................. 101
3
WELCOME MESSAGE FROM DIRECTOR GENERAL, NARO
4
WELCOME MESSAGE FROM CHAIR ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
The theme for the 2014 conference is “Connecting Agricultural Research to Society”.
Conference Sub-themes
Sub-theme 1: Technology generation:
Sub-theme 2: Partnerships and outreach:
Sub-theme 3: New paradigms to strengthen agricultural research for development:
Sub-theme 4: Cross cutting and emerging issues:
Sub-theme 5: Leadership and stewardship
Table: Old sub-theme
Sub-themes
Sub-theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 2: Patnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 3: New paradigms to strengthen agricultural research for
development
Sub-theme 4: Cross-cutting and emerging issues
Sub-theme 5: Leadership and stewardship
Total:
Number of Oral
Papers
76
25
0
Percentage
of
total oral papers
69.1
21.8
0
10
0
9.1
0
111
100
Number of Oral
Papers
76
25
10
Percentage
of
total oral papers
69.1
21.8
9.1
111
100
Revised sub-themes
Sub-themes
Sub-theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 2: Patnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 3: Cross-cutting and emerging issues
Total:
Two special papers from farmers
The papers are coming from four countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria
Country
Uganda
Kenya
Nigeria
Tanzania
Number of papers (Does not include papers from farmers and
keynote papers)
97
8
2
1
5
MAP OF THE VENUE
The map is available in MS Excel.
6
CONFERENCE PROGRAM AT A GLANCE
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
11:00 – 11:30 a.m.
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
4:30 – 5:00 p.m.
5:00 – 6:00 p.m.
6:00 – 7:30 p.m.
Registration and Receiving Conference Kit
8:00 – 9:00 a.m.
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Registration
Arrival
Arrival
Arrival
Arrival
Departure
Plenary Debate 3
Plenary Debate 1
and
Opening Ceremony
Mini Conference 2
Mini Conference 5
Saturday
Key note paper 4
Key note paper 5
Tea/Coffee Break
Plenary Debate 2
Mini Conference 3
Mini Conference 6
Lunch Break
Mini Conference 1
Mini Conference 4
Mini Conference 7
Tea/Coffee Break
Viewing Posters
Viewing Posters and Viewing Posters and Net Social
Net
Working
Working
Welcome Dinner by DG, Net Working
NARO
Mini Conference 8
Departure
Sunday
FIELD DAY
Time
Closing
Departure
7
SUMMARY PROGRAM
Day 1:
Sunday; 2nd November 2014
Time
Event
Venue
3:00 – 6:00 p.m.
Registration and receiving of Conference kit
Sapphire
End of Day 1
Day 2:
Monday; 3rd November 2014
Plenary Debate 1 and Opening Ceremony
Time
Event
Venue
8:00 – 9:00 a.m.
Registration and receiving of Conference kit
Sapphire
9:00 – 10:30 a.m.
Key Note Paper 1: Agricultural Financing
Victoria Ball Room
10:30 – 11:00 a.m.
Official Opening of the Conference
Victoria Ball Room
11:00 – 11:30 a.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Plenary Debate 2
11:30
–
12:30 Key Note Paper 2: Research Net Working
Victoria Ball Room
p.m.
12:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Key Note Paper 3: Seed Systems
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Lunch Break
Victoria Ball Room
Mini Conference 1: Three Parallel Sessions
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.1: Plant Tissue Culture
Sheema
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 1
Albert
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.9: Fisheries and Aquaculture
Meera
4:30 – 5:00 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Social Net Working
5:00 – 6:00 p.m.
6:00 – 7:30 p.m.
Viewing Posters and Net Working
Welcome Dinner by DG, NARO
Swimming pool, Lake side
End of Day 2
8
Day 3:
Tuesday; 4th November 2014
Mini Conference 2: Three Parallel Sessions
Time
Event
Venue
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 1
Albert
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 1.8: Forestry
Sheema
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 2
Meera
11:00 – 11:30 a.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Mini Conference 3: Three Parallel Sessions
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 2
Albert
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.7: Livestock Sciences 1
Sheema
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 2.1: Peoples’ knowledge and Perspectives
Meera
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Lunch Break
Mini Conference 4: Three Parallel Sessions
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.3: Agronomy 1
Albert
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 2.2: Agricultural Markets and Financing
Sheema
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 3.2: Climate and Environment
Meera
4:30 – 5:00 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Net Working and Viewing of Posters
5:00 – 6:00 p.m.
End of Day 3
9
Day 4:
Wednesday; 5th November 2014
Mini Conference 5: Three Parallel Sessions
Time
Event
Venue
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 1.4: Plant Pathology 1
Albert
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 2.3 Farmers’ Livelihoods 1
Sheema
9:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Sub-theme 3.1: Soils and Soil fertility management
Meera
11:00 – 11:30 a.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Mini Conference 6: Three Parallel Sessions
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.5: Entomology
Albert
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 3
Meera
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 2.3: Farmers’ Livelihoods 2
Sheema
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Lunch Break
Mini Conference 7: Three Parallel Sessions
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 3
Albert
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.3: Agronomy 2
Sheema
2:30 – 4:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.4: Plant Pathology 2
Meera
4:30 – 5:00 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Net Working and Viewing of Posters
5:00 – 6:00 p.m.
End of Day 4
10
Day 5:
Thursday; 6th November 2014
Field Day
Time
Event
Venue
9:00 – 12:00 p.m.
9:00 – 12:00 p.m.
Route 1: Visit at AGT-Tissue laboratories
Route 2: Visit to Biotechnology and Bio-diversity
Facilities
Route 3: Visit to Livestock and Fish Feed Processing
Factory and Modern Poultry farm
Route 4: Visit to Aquaculture Farm and Hatchery Plant
Buloba
NARO - Kawanda
9:00 – 12:00 p.m.
9:00 – 12:00 p.m.
12:00 – 1:00 p.m.
1:00 – 2:00 p.m.
2:00 – 5:00 p.m.
Travel to NaCRRI
Lunch
Tour of NaCRRI Research Facilities:
Cereals Program
Root Crops Program
Legumes Program
Horticulture Program
UGACHICK, Magigie
Aquaculture
Research
Center – NARO Kajjansi
Namulonge
Namulonge
Namulonge
Social Net Working
5:00 – 7:30 p.m.
Dinner
Namulonge
End of Day 5
11
Day 6:
Friday; 7th November 2014
Plenary Debate 3
Time
Event
Venue
9:00 – 9:45 a.m.
Victoria Ball Room
9:45 – 10:30 a.m.
Key Note Paper 4: Biotechnology and Genetics for
Improving Livestock Productivity
Key Note Paper 5: Research Product Incubation
10:30 – 11:00 a.m.
Special Papers from two farmers
Victoria Ball Room
11:00 – 11:30 a.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Victoria Ball Room
Mini Conference 8: Three Parallel Sessions
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.7: Livestock Sciences 2
Sheema
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 4
Albert
11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Sub-themes 1.1 and 1.4 : Tissue Culture 2 and Plant
Pathology 3
Lunch Break
Meera
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Conference Closing
2:30 – 4:30p.m.
Closing and Awards
4:30 – 5:30 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Victoria Ball Room
Departures
12
DETAILED CONFERENCE PROGRAM
Day 2:
Monday; 3rd November 2014
PLENARY DEBATE 1 AND OPENING CEREMONY (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
1
Rapporteurs: Alphonse Candia Simon, Alibu and
Ollen Wanda
Key Note Paper 1: Agricultural Financing
Speaker: Dr. Fred Muhumuza
Discussants: Dr. Frank Muhumuza and Dr. Ambrose Agona
MC: Dr. Imelda N. Kashaija
2
Official Opening of the Conference
Welcome Remarks by Dr. Ambrose Agona, Director General NARO
Welcome Remarks by Professor Joseph Obua, Chairperson NARO Council
Guest of Honour: Hon. Ruhakana Ruganda, Prime Minister of the Republic of
Uganda/Dr. Tress Buchanayandi, Hon. Minister of MAAIF
3
Group Photograph
11:00 a.m.
Victoria Ball Room
Chair: Dr. Yona Baguma, Ag. DDGR
Tea/Coffee Break
PLENARY DEBATE 2 (11:300 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Professor Justus Rutaisire
Rapporteurs: Alphonse Candia, Simon Alibu and
Ollen Wanda
1
2
Key Note Paper 2: Agricultural Research Net Working
Speaker: Dr. Fina Opio
Discussants: Dr. Imelda N. Kashaijja and Mr. Erostus Nsubuga
Key Note Paper 3: Seed Systems: today and tomorrow
Speaker: Professor Richard Edema
Discussants: Mr. Okasai Opolot and Mr. Richard Kaijuka
Special Papers from Stakeholders (SPS): 20 minutes
SPS 1
1:30 a.m.
Victoria Ball Room
Each paper 50 minutes
Uganda Agricultural Advisory Service Delivery: Prospects from UPDF
Presenter: General Katumba Wamala, Chief of Defence Forces
Lunch Break
13
MINI CONFERENCE 1 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.1: Plant Tissue Culture 1 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Professor Patrick Rubaihayo
Rapporteurs: Dr. Michael Otim and Dr. John Adriko
P006
P084
P139
P156
4:30 a.m.
Production of friable embryogenic callus and regeneration of Ugandan farmer
preferred cassava genotypes - Apio et al
Determination of hormonal combination for rapid multiplication of tissue culture
potato plantlets - Nuwagira et al
Exploring use of irradiated pollen in cassava (Manihot escuent crantz)
improvement - Buttibwa et al
Regeneration and transformation of potato varieties for resistance to potato late
blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans - Arinaitwe et al
Sheema
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 1 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Eng. Wilfred R. Odogola
Rapporteurs: Dr. Jimmy Lamo and Eng. Ronald Walozi
P191
P193
P194
P198
4:30 p.m.
Adaptation of improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice varieties
under Ugandan weather conditions: the case of Kaiso variety. Candia et., al
Physio-chemical properties of rice varieties in Uganda: precursor for health and
nutrition. - Masette al
Thermo-chemical and physical properties of rice husks from main local rice
varieties in Uganda. Olupot et.,al
Evaluation of power tiller in improving labour productivity of smallholder rice
farmers for ploughing, seeding and weeding. Okurut et., al
Albert
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
14
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.9: Fisheries and Aquaculture (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Anne Akol
Rapporteurs: Dr. Dismas Mbabazi and Dr. Anthony
Taabu
P036
P061
P062
P081
P024
Sustainable strategy for controlling fish disease conditions using banana (musa sp.)
leaf extracts in Uganda: preliminary findings - Walakira et al
Culturing African Lungfish (Protopterus sp) in Uganda: Prospects, Performance in
tanks, potential pathogens, and toxicity of salt and formalin - Walakira et al
Aquatic pathogens affecting aquacultural farms in Uganda - Walakira et al
The decline of Alestes baremose and Hydrocynus forskahlii (Pisces) stocks in Lake
Albert: Implications for sustainable management of their fisheries - Nakiyende et al
The morphology and Histology of the digestive tract of Barbus altianals (Boulenger
1900). Aruho et al
4:30 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
5:00 p.m.
6:00 p.m.
Viewing Posters and Net Working
Welcome Dinner by Director General, NARO
End of Day 2
Day 3:
Tuesday; 4th November 2014
Meera
Each paper 25mins
MINI CONFERENCE 2 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 1 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Robert Mwanga
Rapporteurs: Dr. William Ezuma and Dr. Pamela
Paparu
P004
P009
P010
P039
11:00 a.m.
Multilocational Evaluation of Elite Cotton Lines for Yield and Fibre Quality
Attributes in Uganda - Amoding et al
The genetic diversity of Ugandan cultivated coffea canephora l as measured by
simple sequence repeats molecular markers - Aluka et al
Determining the genotypic variation for maize weevil and foliar diseases resistance
in eastern and southern Africa maize germ-plasm lines - Kasozi et al
Identification, diagnosis and management of plant diseases by smallholder farmers
in Tanzania: The case of sweet potato virus diseases - Okello et al.
Tea/Coffee Break
Albert
Each paper 30mins
15
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.8: Forestry (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. George Maiteki
Rapporteurs: Dr. Hillary Agaba and Dr. Paul Okullo
P122
P125
P132
P204
P205
11:00 a.m.
Impact of fuel wood scarcity on livelihoods of rural communities of Nyarubuye
sub-county in Kisoro district, Uganda - Abigaba et al
Suitability of clonal eucalypts growing in Uganda for fuel wood - Turinawe et al
Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista givoides in controlling
Gonometa podorcarpi in conifer plantations in Uganda - Kiwuso et al
Anthropogenic pressure in Mountain Elgon Ecosystem: Detecting Land cover
changes during 1973-2014 by means of Landsat satellite data - Wasige et., al.
When is a stakeholder a stakeholder? A case of forest, soil and water management
around Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda – Stone et al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 2 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Ananias Bagumire
Rapporteurs: Eng. Alphonse Candia and Mr. Samuel
Tinyiro E.
P032
P015
P086
P131
11:00 a.m.
The effect of artisanal preservation methods on nutritional value of mukene
Rastrineobola argentea caught from L. Victoria, Uganda - Masette et al
Acceptability nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of solar-dried and
conventionally dried leafy vegetables processed in Ngora district, Uganda –
Natabirwa et. al.
Drivers of production and utilisation of grain amaranth in Kamuli district – Namazzi
et al
The effect of grain splitting on biology and development of Cellosobruchis
maculatees (coleoptera: Bruchidea) in storage. – Muyinza et. al
Meera
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
16
MINI CONFERENCE 3 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 2 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Godfrey Asea
Rapporteurs: Dr. William Ezuma and Dr. Pamela Paparu
P051
P092
P103
P118
1:30 p.m.
Variability and trait relationships among finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.)
Gaertn] accessions - Owere et al
Inheritance of resistance to (NGR1) pathogen isolate of pyricularia grisea in GULUE finger millet blast resistant variety of Uganda - Aru et al
Developing lowland rice varieties with resistance to multiple biotic stresses
through crossing Asian mega variety Milyang 23 with African rice genotype Oryza
glaberima - Lamo et al
Growth performance of five-year Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Barr. and Golf.)
in selected agro-ecological zones of Uganda - Kalanzi et al.
Albert
Each paper 30mins
Lunch Break
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.7: Livestock Sciences 1 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. John Balirwa
Rapporteurs: Dr. Robert Sande and Ms Suzan Kerfua
P013
P034
P048
P072
P158
1:30 p.m.
Factors influencing acaricide resistance by ticks on cattle in Uganda. – Kirunda et.,
al
In vitro dry matter digestibility using rumen liquor from slaughtered or fistulated
cattle as the inoculum source - Beyihayo et al
Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed on Aflatoxin contaminated feed ration
with calcium bentonite and activated charcoal on aflatoxin M1 concentration,
excretion and carryover in milk - Mugerwa et al
Factors affecting conception rates of recipient cows following embryo transfer Ongubo et al
Potential role of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling fleas (Echinophaga spp) in freerange poultry in Uganda - Isabirye et al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
17
Sub-Theme 2: Partnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 2.1: Peoples’ knowledge and Perspectives (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Mr. Peter Lusembo
Rapporteurs: Ms Damalie Akwango and Dr. Vincent
Ekiyar
P085
P096
P109
P160
P196
1:30 p.m.
Challenges and Opportunities for quality seed potato availability and production in
Uganda - Aheisibwe et al
Using farmer-prioritized management options of vertisols for enhanced crop
production in central Kenya - Onyango et al
Farmers’ Knowledge and Management of Rice Diseases under Lowland Ecology in
Uganda – Adur et., al
An assessment of farmers’ knowledge of, and preferences for, planting materials
to fill gaps in banana plantations in south western Uganda - Lwandasa et al
Household Wealth Status and Determinants of Use of Fungicides for Control of
Late Blight among Potato Farmers in Uganda. A Heckman Selection Procedure –
Wanda et., al
Meera
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
MINI CONFERENCE 4 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.3: Agronomy 1 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Michael Ugen
Rapporteurs: Mr. Simon Alibu and Mr. David
Nanfumba
P003
P012
P163
P165
P197
4:30 p.m.
Advances in Cassava Agronomy Research in Uganda in the last two decades (1990
– 2010) - Kawooya et al
Hand weeding frequency and herbicide application on sunflower yields and
income - Elobu et al
Evaluation of plant spacing and variety effects on the growth and yield of orangefleshed sweet potato (ipomoea batatas (l.)) in humid agro-ecological zone of
Nigeria – Ogbologwung et al
Optimizing fertilizer recommendations in Uganda - Kaizi et., al
Analysis of cassava seed production and marketing in Uganda: Baseline report
Ekiyar et., al.
Albert
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
18
Sub-Theme 2: Partnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 2.2: Agricultural Markets and Financing (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Anton Bua
Rapporteurs: Ms Damalie Akwango and Mr. Ollen
Wanda
P005
P064
P074
P097
P143
4:30 p.m.
Markets and Alternative Utilization of Agricultural Commodities; Emerging Insights
from Sorghum, Cowpea and Green Gram Value Chains in Uganda. – Opie et al
Assessment of the Socio- Economic Value of Aquaculture in the West-Nile Agro
Ecological Zone of Uganda - Kasozi et al
Effects of Financing Mechanisms in Enhancing Commercialization: The Case of
Banana Marketing in Kenya. – Tabby et., al
Analysing consumer preferences for the quality attributes of sorghum grain in
eastern Uganda. a choice experiment approach - Kakuru et al
The socio-economic status of livestock production in the West Nile agro-ecological
zone - Opie et al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Sub-Theme 4: Cross cutting and emerging issues:
Sub-theme 4.2: Climate and Environment (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo
Rapporteurs: Dr. Robert Sande and Mr. Choice Agaba
P059
P080
P093
P091
P177
4:30 p.m.
Trends and variability of Rainfall and Temperature in the cattle corridor of Uganda:
Implications for adaptation to climate change - Owoyesigire et al
Effects of fish cage culture practices on water quality, algae and invertebrate
communities in northern Lake Victoria Uganda - Mwebaza-Ndawula et al
Drought mitigating technologies: lessons learnt from sorghum productivity in
drought prones areas of eastern Kenya - Njeru et al
Climate smart forage technologies for improved food and fodder security and
household income in smallholder dairy systems - Kabirizi et al
Bridging gaps in historical weather data of Uganda. - Komutunga, et., al.
Meera
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Net Working and Viewing of Posters
End of Day 3
19
Day 4:
Wednesday; 5th November 2014
MINI CONFERENCE 5 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.4: Plant Pathology 1 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Titus Alicai
Rapporteurs: Dr. Jimmy Lamo and Dr. Geoffrey
Arinaitwe
P049
P111
P115
P120
P203
11:00 a.m.
Aspergillus Resistance And Aflatoxin Accumulation in Tropical Maize - Serumaga
et. al
Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases, and their impact on the yield of
common beans in central Uganda - Paparu et al
Citrus Huanglongbing: Detection and Identification of Etiological Agents
(Liberibacter spp) associated with Citrus disease in Uganda - Kalyebi A.
Use of a fungus to manage destructive termites on Grevillea trees on farms in
Namutumba district - Ongodia G.
Multi-Pronged Approach for Bacteria Identification and Characterisation. – Adriko
et., al
Albert
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Sub-Theme 2: Partnership and Outreach
Sub-theme 2.3: Farmers’ Livelihoods 1 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Paul Kibwika
Rapporteurs: Dr. Thelma Akongo and Dr. Vincent
Ekiyar
P078
P101
P119
P157
P186
11:00 a.m.
Analysing impact of tissue culture banana on farmers’ welfare in western Kenya Wanyama et al
Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications of coffee leaf
rust disease in Uganda - Luzinda et al
Contribution of mangoes and oranges to the household incomes and food security
in the eastern lowlands of Uganda - Opolot V.
Tackling the spread of HIV infections among hard-to-reach fishing communities Ajok et al
Scaling out control of banana Xanthomonas wilt from community to regional level.
- Kubiriba et., al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Tea/Coffee Break
20
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 4.1: Soils and Soil fertility management (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Magunda Mathias
Rapporteurs: Dr. Hillary Agaba and Mr. Choice Agaba
P011
P083
P129
P162
11:00 a.m.
Use of Mucuna puriens to improve soil fertility for cotton production in Uganda Elobu et al
Land use dynamics and their impacts on agrarian livelihoods in the western
highlands of Kenya - Mutoko et al
Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of bentonite:
preliminary findings - Semalulu et al
Integrated Nutrient Management for Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea
batatas, Lam) in South eastern Nigeria - Akpaninyang et., al.
Meera
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
MINI CONFERENCE 6 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.5: Entomology (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Imelda N. Kashaija
Rapporteurs: Dr. Michael Otim and Dr. Harriet Muyinja
P019
P088
P098
P172
P195
1:30 p.m.
Effect of Temperature on the Development, Survival and Reproduction of Cylas
brunneus (Coleoptera: Apionidae), an important pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea
batatas (L.)) - Musana et al
Characterization of Pests and Farmers’ Coping Strategies for Food Security in
Lower Midlands (LM4 & LM5) in Semi-Arid Kenya - Mwangi et al
Black Coffee Twig Borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) on cocoa (Theobroma
cacao L.) in Uganda: A first report and its implications Kagezi et., al
Influence of cassava varieties on abundance of Bemisia tabaci and parasitoids
species complex with emphasis on biological control - Aool et. al
The Incidence of African Rice Gall Midge Orseolia oryzivora and its Parasitoids in
lowland rice growing areas. - Ekobu et., al
Albert
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
21
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.6: Food bio-sciences and Engineering 3 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Professor Archileo Kaaya
Rapporteurs: Mr. Edgar S.Tinyiro and Eng. Samuel
Okurut
P033
P174
P176
P192
1:30 p.m.
The exploitable potential of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) fruit for improved
incomes among farmers in North and Eastern Uganda - Masette et al
Efficiency of the different processing methods for reduction of cyanide content in
cassava products: A case study of bitter cassava varieties in western Uganda and
West Nile - Nuwamanya et. al
Application of low pressure water scrubbing technique for increasing Methane
level in Bio-gas – Walozi et al
Evaluation of the application of Digital Elevation Modelling (DEM) for mapping
areas where hydraulic ram pumps can be used in Uganda. Oker et., al
Meera
Each paper 30mins
Lunch Break
Sub-Theme 2: Partnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 2.3 Farmers’ Livelihoods 2 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Julius Mukalazi
Rapporteurs: Dr. Thelma Akongo and Ms Stella Adur
P082
P167
P169
P175
P181
1:30 p.m.
Improving Food Security in the Marginal Areas of Kenya through Enhanced
Cowpea Production - Wangari et al
Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region, Uganda Byaruhanga et. al
Structure and dynamics of Uganda’s cassava markets - Ekiyar et al
An analysis of technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Uganda – Hamba et. al
Farmers’ knowledge, practices and associated perceptions in managing pest and
disease pressures on phaseolus vulgaris in Uganda. – Mulumba et., al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
22
MINI CONFERENCE 7 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 3 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Andrew Kiggundu
Rapporteurs: Dr. Robert Kawuki and Dr. Anthony
Pariyo
P138
P145
P170
P173
4:30 p.m.
Evaluation and delivery of disease-resistant and micronutrient-dense sweet-potato
varieties to farmers in Uganda - Semakula et al
Heading response of African upland rice genotypes under different photoperiods
and temperature. - Ecaat et al
Application of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for genotyping provitamin A SNP in PSY2-Y2 locus in cassava - Esuma et. al
Cassava germplasm collection and in-vitro conservation in Uganda - Nakabonge et.
al
Albert
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.3: Agronomy 2 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Beatrice Akello
Rapporteurs: Mr. David Nanfumba and Mr. Pius Elobu
P020
P022
P035
P151
4:30 p.m.
Soybean residue optimization with n-fertilizer for increased maize productivity in
eastern Uganda - Sabina et al
Responses of East African highland banana (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to drought stress
- Kayongo et al
Effect of intercropping sunflower with soybean at different inter-row and intrarow spacing on land use efficiency – Obong et al
Performance evaluation of elite sorghum varieties under prevailing conditions in
the west Nile Agro-ecological Zones – Awori et al
Sheema
Each paper 30mins
Tea/Coffee Break
23
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.4: Plant Pathology 2 (2:30 – 4:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Wilberforce K. Tushemereirwe
Rapporteurs: Dr. Jimmy Lamo and Dr. Geoffrey
Arinaitwe
P149
P159
P168
P178
4:30 p.m.
Evaluation of Selected NERICA Rice Varieties for Leaf Blast Resistance. - Odongo
et., al
Spread of cassava brown streak disease in Uganda as influenced by host tolerance
and prevailing disease pressure - Katono et al
Recent changes in incidence of cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak
disease in Uganda - Abidrabo et al
Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on rice insect pests and their management in
Uganda – Alibu et. al
Meera
Each paper 30 mins
Tea/Coffee Break
Net Working and Viewing of Posters
End of Day 4
24
Day 6:
Friday; 7th November 2014
PLENARY DEBATE 3 (9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)
Chair: Dr. Loyce Okedi
Rapporteurs: Dr. Dismas Mbabazi and Dr. Robert
Sande
Each paper 45 mins
Key Note Paper 4: Biotechnology and Genetics for Improving Livestock
Productivity
Speaker: Dr. Scott C. Fahrenkrug, CEO and Chairman Recombinetics, USA
Discussant: Dr. Andrew Kiggundu and Prof David Kabasa
Key Note Paper 5: Incubation of Research Products and Services
2
Speaker: Prof. Charles Kwesiga
Discussants: Dr. Wilberforce K. Tushemereirwe and Dr. Julius Ecuru
Special papers from stakeholders
Victoria Ball Room
1
Each paper 15 mins
SPS2
SPS3
11:00 a.m.
Paper on successiful story on Coffee Production – Hon. Mathias Kisamba
Paper on successiful story on Livestock Farming – Mr. Anthony Kanyike
Tea/Coffee Break
25
MINI CONFERENCE 8 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.7: Livestock Sciences 2 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Cyprian Ebong
Rapporteurs: Dr. Sande Robert and Ms Kerfua Suzan
P014
P199
P200
P201
P202
1:30 p.m.
Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in cattle of different host
factors in Eastern and Northern Uganda in 2008 and 2013. - Kirunda et., al
Sero-prevalence and risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Uganda.
- Kirunda et., al
Investigation of Polymorphisms of Selected Antigen Genes of TheileriaParva
Circulating in Cattle in South Western Uganda. - Kasaija et., al
Prevalence of bovine trypanosome species and farmers’ trypanosomiasis control
methods in South-western Uganda. - Alingu et., al
Drivers and risk factors for circulating African swine fever virus in Uganda, 2012–
2013. - Kabuuka et., al
Sheema
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding 4 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Yona Baguma
Rapporteurs: Dr. Robert Kawuki and Dr. Anthony
Pariyo
P116
P182
P183
P184
1:30 p.m.
Use of molecular markers to enhance quality assurance and control in the maize
seed value chain. - Asea et., al.
Response of some banana hybrids to the banana weevil (cosmopolites sordidus
germar) (coleoptera: curculionidae) in Uganda. - Arinaitwe. et., al
Characterizing an F2 banana diploid population for weevil resistance. Arinaitwe et.,
al
Carbon Sequestration Potential of EAHB Cultivars in selected Agro-ecological zones
in Uganda. - Kamusingize D.
Albert
Each paper 30mins
Lunch Break
26
Sub-Theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.1 and 1.4: Tissue Culture 2 and Plant Pathology 3 (11:30 – 1:30 p.m.)
Chair: Dr. Alex Barekye
Rapporteurs: Dr. John Adriko and Dr. Michael Otim
P179
P180
P188
P185
P190
1:30 p.m.
Transgenic banana over expressing the APETALA 1 gene showed increased leaf
growth rate at early growth stage. - Lamwaka et., al
In-vitro regeneration of Ugandan passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) from leaf discs. Tuhaise et., al
Expression of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) hypersensitive
response and pathogenicity (hrpF) gene during host colonization in Banana.
Mudonyi et., al
Comparative pathogenicity studies of the Xanthomonas vasicola pathovars on
maize, sugarcane and banana. - Karamura et., al
Influence of banana genome background on variety susceptibility to bacterial wilt
disease. - Simeon et., al
Meera
Each paper 25mins
Lunch Break
MC: Dr. Dr. Imelda Kashaija
Rapporteurs: Mr. Alibu Simon and Mr. Wanda Ollen
Official Closing of the Conference
Remarks by Dr. Ambrose Agona, Director General NARO
Awards by Guest of Honour
Closing remarks by Guest of Honour
4:00 p.m.
Tea/Coffee Break
Victoria Ball Room
CLOSING CEREMONY (2:30 – 4:00 p.m.)
27
ABSTRACTS
Summary of the Oral Papers
nd
The 2 Bi-annual NARO Scientific Conference of 2014 had three sub-themes namely: Sub-theme 1; Technology
Generation; Sub-theme 2; Patnerships and Outreach, and Sub-theme 3; Cross cutting and emerging issues. There
are a total of 111 oral papers presented in this scientific conference including two special papers from farmers. The
sub-theme on Technology Generation accounts for 68.4% of these papers, while the cross cutting and emerging
sub-theme has the least papers (9%). Among all the sub-disciplines, plant breeding has highest number of papers
accounting for 13.6% of the total papers presented. This was followed by food bio-sciences and engineering
presenting 10.8% of the papers. The details are shown in the table below
Table: Number of papers presented by sub-theme
Sub-themes
Number of Oral Papers
Percentage of total oral
papers
Sub-theme 1: Technology Generation
Sub-theme 1.1: Plant Tissure Culture
Sub-theme 1.2: Plant Breeding
Sub-theme 1.3: Agronomy
Sub-theme 1.4: Plant Pathology
Sub-theme 1.5: Entomology
Sub-theme 1.6: Food Bio-sciences and Engineering
Sub-theme 1.7: Livestock Sciences
Sub-theme 1.8: Forestry
Sub-theme 1.9: Fisheries and Aquaculture
Sub-total:
7
15
8
10
5
12
10
4
5
76
6.3
13.6
7.2
9.0
4.5
10.8
9.0
3.6
4.5
68.4
Sub-theme 2: Patnerships and Outreach
Sub-theme 2.1: Peoples’ Knowledge and Perspectives
Sub-theme 2.2: Agricultural Markets and Financing
Sub-theme 2.3: Farmers’ Livelihoods
Sub-total:
9
5
11
25
8.1
4.5
9.9
22.5
Sub-theme 3: Cross-cutting and emerging issues
Sub-theme 3.1: Soils and Soil fertility Management
Sub-theme 3.2: Climate and Environment
Sub total:
4
6
10
3.6
5.4
9.0
Total:
111
100
28
SUB-THEME 1: TECHNOLOGY GENERATION
SUB-THEME 1.1: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
P006
Production of Friable Embryogenic Callus and Regeneration of Ugandan Farmer Preferred Cassava Genotypes
1,2
1
1
2
1
3
Hellen Apio , Titus Alicai , Yona Baguma , Settumba B. Mukasa , Anton Bua , Nigel Taylor
2
National Crops Resources Research Institute, P. O. Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda; College of Agricultural and
3
Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda; Donald Danforth Plant Science
Center, 975 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132.
1
Abstract
Generation of embryogenic callus is a key step in genetic engineering of cassava. Protocols for generation of friable
embryogenic callus (FEC) have never been optimized for Ugandan cassava genotypes delaying their improvement
for agronomic and other desirable traits through genetic engineering. The objective of this study was to determine
conditions suitable for production and regeneration of FEC in the local cassava genotypes; Aladu and
Ebwanateraka, and control cultivar 60444. Immature leaf lobe explants were established on Murashige and Skoog
(MS) based media for initiation of organized embryogenic callus (OES). To produce FEC, resulting OES were
established on Gresshoff and Doy based callus induction media with varying levels of sucrose, maltose, tyrosine,
tryptophan, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) under light conditions. Subsequently, FEC was sub-cultured to MSbased embryo maturation and embryo regeneration media. The amino acid tyrosine favoured production of FEC in
Aladu and Ebwanatereka, but not in 60444, while 20 g/L of sucrose triggered production of FEC in Aladu and
60444, but 40 g/L of sucrose was superior for Ebwanatereka. Media supplemented with 1 ml/L naphthalene acetic
acid NAA facilitated embryo regeneration in Ebwanatereka and 60444, while Aladu responded better to 5 ml/L
NAA. Light, tyrosine and sucrose were essential for FEC production in Ugandan genotypes while NAA was required
for regeneration of somatic embryos. Ability to produce FEC in these genotypes lays a foundation for their
improvement through genetic transformation for the desired and agronomic traits.
Key words: Cassava genotypes, Somatic embryogenesis, amino acids, carbon sources, plant growth regulators.
P084
Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication of tissue culture potato plantlets
12
1
2
3
3
Nuwagira Francis , Settumba B. Mukasa , Wagoire W. William , Namugga Prossy , Imelda N. Kashaija and
3
Barekye Alex
Abstract
The use of plant growth hormones either singly or in combination is vital for rapid multiplication of virus-free invitro potato plantlets for the production of clean seed potato. This study was carried out to find a suitable
hormonal combination and optimum concentrations for production of a high number of in-vitro plantlets for three
farmer preferred varieties Kachpot-1, Kinigi, and Victoria. Eight hormonal combinations were formulated and
tested using a completely randomized design with three replicates in the tissue culture laboratory at Kachwekano
Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Kabale district. Ten shoot tips from in-vitro raised plantlets
were excised and transferred to each of these hormonal combinations. The effect of hormonal combinations was
29
variety dependant. N3, N1 and N2 should be used for rapid in-vitro propagation of Kinigi, Kachpot 1 and Victoria
respectively.
Key words: Solanum tuberosum, hormonal combinations, Victoria, Kinigi, Kachpot 1
P139
Exploring the Use of Irradiated Pollen in Cassava (Manihot escuenta Crantz)
1,2
1
2
1
1
1
Mary, Buttibwa ; Robert, S., Kawuki ; Arthur, K. Tugume Jancinta Akol ; Stephen Magambo ; Hellen Apio ; Erwin
3
4
5
5
1
Heberle-Bors ; Maria Wedzony Hernán Ceballos , Clair Hershey ., and Yona, Baguma *;
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
2
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. BOX 7062, Kampala,
3
Institute fur Mikrobiologie und Genetik, University of Vienna, Austria
4
Institute of Plant Physiology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominjek, Krakow, Poland
5
International Center for Tropical Agriculture – CIAT
*Author for Correspondence: Yona Baguma National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Namulonge
Email:[email protected]
Abstract
Use of heterozygous parents has been a challenging process for cassava breeders. In response to this challenge, we
explored the possibilities of inducing cassava haploids through use of irradiated pollen. This study, for the first
time, provides insights into the use of irradiated pollen. Irradiation dosages 50 to 250 gray (Gy) were studied
across five pollination events (494 to 596 pollinations), while dosages 300 Gy and 500 Gy were studied in one
pollination event (less than 150 pollinations). Pollen from one elite variety Nase14 was used for both irradiation
and pollination (thus selfing was done). Overall, the irradiation doses employed did not prevent pollen
germination; non irradiated pollen had the lowest reduction in pollen germination (24%), while the irradiated
pollen registered reductions of up to 67%. By 15 days after pollination (DAP), 84% of the pollinated flowers had
aborted in irradiated treatments. By the time of embryo rescue (42 DAP), significant differences were observed in
number of fruits, seeds, and embryos generated, with the non-irradiated pollen treatments having significantly
higher numbers. Based on molecular marker and ploidy analysis of the rescued 66 plantlets, none was considered
haploid. However, plantlets (S1inbreds) resulting from pollination with non-irradiated pollen had 56% loci
homozygous, while progeny derived from irradiated treatments had average homozygous loci ranging between
28% (for 100 Gy and 200 Gy) to 55% (50 Gy), a finding that could suggest that the new genetic variability resulted
from irradiation. Implications of these findings towards development in haploids and for general cassava
improvements are discussed.
Key words: Irradiated pollen, Cassava (Manihot escuenta Crantz), double haploid, embryo rescue
P156
Regeneration and transformation of potato varieties for resistance to potato late blight disease caused by
Phytophthorainfestans
1
2
2
3
Arinaitwe Abel Byarugaba , Eric Magembe , Marc Ghislain , Rob Skilton
1
KachwekanoZonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (KAZARDI)
2
International Potato Centre (CIP)
3
Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa (BecA-Hub)
Abstract
Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthorainfestans,is one of the most devastating diseases of potato
(SolanumtuberosumL.) in Uganda and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. Control strategies through traditional
breeding techniques have had limited success due to the absence of durable resistance genes in the crop’s own
germplasm. The discovery and cloning of new R genes (RB, Rpi-blb2 and Rpi-vnt1.1) from Solanumbulbocastanum
and S. venturii has renewed the interest to use R genes for resistance to late blight. Unfortunately introgression
30
through conventional breeding of 2 or 3 R genes from different wild species would take several decades of crossing
and selection due to the genetic drag from wild species which is difficult to eliminate in an out-breeding tetraploid
crop. Genetic transformation provides a solution to incorporate 2 or 3 genes without affecting the other traits.
Despite of this, regeneration ability of potato varieties may vary among them and needs to be determined before
any genetic manipulation is carried out. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the regeneration ability of
two potato varieties and to incorporate 3R genes (RB, Rpi-blb2 and Rpi-vnt1.1) in to four potato varieties through
genetic transformation. Regeneration experiments were designed at BecA Tissue culture laboratory during June November of 2013 using two Uganda commercial potato cultivars ‘Victoria’ and ‘Rutuku’ with internodes and leaf
segments as explants. Different phyto-hormones were applied at varying concentration and response to callus
induction and shoot regeneration was measured. Genetic transformation experiments were conducted using four
potato varieties ‘Rutuku’, ‘Cruza 148’, ‘Victoria’ and ‘Desiree’ through organogenesis from internodes and leaf
segments as explants via callus phase. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 containing the 3R genes was
used following a standard Agrobacterium mediated transformation protocol. Molecular assays were performed on
regenerating plantlets from the callus using PCR with gene specific primers targeting the overlapping regions
between the three genes (Rb-Blb2 and Rb-Vnt1.1). Results of the regeneration study showed that hormonal
combination M2 (MS + 2-4,D (3 mg/L) + NAA (3 mg/L) + KIN (3 mg/L) was the most effective for callus induction in
Rutuku while M1 (MS + 2-4,D (2 mg/L) + NAA (2 mg/L) + KIN (2 mg/L) was most effective for variety ‘Victoria’. All
the explants formed good friable callus within 40 days of initiation. However, callusing rate varied for different
phyto-hormone combinations and ranged from 85-100% for Rutuku internodes and leaf segments (9-73%) while
for Victoria internode callusing rate ranged from 5-30% and leaves 3-55% respectively. Application of M12 (MS+
KIN (2 mg/L) + Zeatin(2 mg/L) gave highest % shoot regeneration of 50.0% and 62.7% from calli of ‘Rutuku’ and
‘Victoria’ respectively compared to other media combination. The results of genetic transformation showed that
only ‘Desiree’ was transformed with transformation efficiency of 1.3% and four transgenic events were generated.
There was no successful transformation of ‘Victoria’, ‘Rutuku’ and ‘Cruza 148’ cultivars; hence, there is a need to
continue to explore alternative ways of generating transformed plants of these three potato varieties like use of
cell suspension to improve on transformation efficiency.
Key words: Regeneration, transformation, late blight resistance, Phytophthorainfestans
P179
Transgenic banana over expressing the APETALA 1 gene showed increased leaf growth rate at early growth
stage.
1
1
2
1
3
1
Lamwaka Pamela, Arinaitwe. G, Edema. R, Talengera. D, Dale. J and Tushemereire. W.
National Banana Research Programme; National Agriculture Research Organization, P. O. Box 7065, Kampala,
Uganda.
2
Department of Crop Science, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala Uganda.
3
Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
1
Abstract
Ugandan banana have very tall pseudo stems (2 to 9 meters). This results into doubling or even lengthening of the
vegetative phase. In this study, the flowering gene, APETALA1 (AP1), which is reported to reduce height in several
plant species, was introduced into the banana cultivar ‘Sukali Ndizi’ through standard transformation techniques.
Polymerase chain reaction analysis of 17 lines showed the presence of the AP1 in all the lines including nontransformed controls, and positive results with the plant selectable marker genes for 10 lines. Southern blot
analysis revealed two loci integration patterns; one and two. Phenotypic evaluation of 4 transgenic lines at the
greenhouse showed significant height reduction and increase in pseudo stem girth in three transgenic lines. There
was significantly faster leaf growth rate in all the transgenic lines. Since AP1 gene controls flowering, a field
evaluation is recommended to study the effect of AP1 gene at later developmental stages.
Keywords: - Pseudostem height; APETALA 1 gene; Girth; Leaf growth rate
31
P180
In-vitro regeneration of Ugandan passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) from leaf discs
Tuhaise Samuel
1&2
1
, Kiggundu Andrew and Nakavuma Lukanga Jesca
2
National Agricultural Biotechnology Centre, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda P. O. Box 7065,
Kampala, Uganda
Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences School of Biosecurity, Biotechnical & Laboratory
Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box , P.O. Box 7062, Kampala
Abstract:
Crop improvement efforts by conventional breeding techniques have had little success necessitating for research
into other alternative approaches for Passiflora (Passion fruit) improvement such as plant tissue culture. However,
currently there is lack of a reliable, efficient and reproducible regeneration method for the successful
transformation of Passiflora varieties in Uganda owing to the high heterogeneity of this genus. The study aimed at
establishing an efficient and reproducible regeneration system for Uganda’s Passiflora edulis (yellow and purple
passion fruit) for routine utilization with an ultimate goal of improving its agronomic value. For passion fruit
regeneration, Leaf disc explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts with doubled vitamin
concentrations at four different Benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations namely 6.9µM, 7.9 µM, 8.9 µM and 9.9
μM were used. Initiated shoots were then cultured on elongation media supplemented with one of these three
supplements namely 2.9 μM GA3 ,10% Coconut water or BAP 0.44 μM before finally being cultured on rooting
media supplemented with either 10.74 µM or 5.37 µM NAA to induce rooting. There was successful regeneration
of shoots from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) leaf discs by both direct and indirect
organogenesis via callus phase however no shoots or callus were initiated for the purple passion fruit variety. BAP
concentration of 8.9 μM had the highest shoot regeneration success producing thirteen shoots translating in 65%
of the total plantlets regenerated while BAP 7.9 μM had the least success rate with 0% shoot induction; optimal
shoot elongation was induced on BAP 0.44 μM and rooting on 5.37 µM NAA. A protocol for regeneration of
Ugandas yellow passion fruit directly from leaf discs using tissue culture technology was established although it
was not very efficient while the purple variety proved to be recalcitrant to tissue culture.
P187
Regeneration of Banana Plants from Scalps of Musa AAA-Ea Cv ‘Mbwazirume’
1
1
2
1
Lamwaka P , P. Namanya and G. Mutumba D. Gahakwa and W. Tushemereirwe
Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute, P. O Box 7065, Kampala.
2
Department of Botany, Makerere University, P. O Box 7062, Kampala.
1
1
Abstract
Highly proliferating meristematic parts of banana shoot-tip cultures (scalps) of cv ‘Mbwazirume’, maintained on
scalp induction medium, p4, were used as explant source. Scalp containing 5-7 meristems were selected and
soaked for 1, 2 and 3 days in distilled water and 0.01M NaOH after which they were cultured onto MS shoot-tip
culture medium. Cultures were transferred to fresh medium every three weeks for three months. Normal and
robust buds were obtained from scalps soaked in water. All the cultures soaked in 0.01M NaOH were destroyed.
Shoot regeneration and root development was achieved on MS hormone free medium after three weeks. Plantlets
derived were weaned into the nursery and after one month observations were taken for stem height, stem girth,
number of leaves, leaf length and leaf breadth in cm. Comparison was made with data collected from one-monthold potted plants derived from Mbwazirume shoot-tips culture on MS shoot-tip culture medium. All plants derived
from scalps were morphologically normal with higher number of leaves, but inferior to the control plants in height,
girth and leaf breadth.
Key words: regeneration, scalps, shoot tip
32
P188
Expression of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrpF)
gene during host colonization in Banana.
1
2
1
B Mudonyi , G. Tusiime and C. Changa :
National Agricultural Research Laboratories PO Box 7065 Kampala
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University PO Box 7062, Kampala
1
Abstract
Hrp gene cluster which spans 23kb chromosomal region of bacterial pathogens expresses a number of hrp genes
including hrpA, hrpB, hrpC, hrpD, hrpE and hrpF. Expression of plant pathogenic bacteria hrp genes is normally
determined in minimal medium. In this study, hrpF gene expression by Xcm was determined in minimal medium
and in minimal medium amended with banana extracts and in banana host plants. Gram-negative bacterial
pathogens during interaction with host plants to cause infection initially express hrp genes, which encode the type
three secretion system (TTSS). These are responsible for construction of pilus (needle) that is used to introduce
virulence factors into host plant cells. It has been established that in nutrient poor growth medium like minimal
medium bacteria expresses hrp genes. Minimal medium mimics plant apoplast and, therefore, it is a hrp inducing
medium thus widely used to study plant bacterial interactions as a positive control. The systems minimal medium,
minimal medium amended with banana extracts and banana plants were used to study hrpF gene expression
following total RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR using hrpF forward and reverse gene specific primers.
HrpF gene which is indinspensible for type three expression was expressed in both minimal medium, minimal
medium amended with banana extracts and banana host plants except in minimal medium amended with M.
balbisiana extract and M. balbisiana plants. This confirmed that the mechanism of Xcm infection of banana is
through hrpF gene and other members of the hrp cluster. It was recommended that RNA interference (RNAi)
technology should be used to disable Xcm infection of banana.
33
SUB-THEME 1.2: PLANT BREEDING
P004
Tittle: Multi-locational Evaluation of Elite Cotton Lines for Yield and Fibre Quality Attributes in Uganda.
1
1
1
Amoding G.L. , Ogwang G.R. and C Aru
National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI), P.O Soroti-Uganda
1
Abstract
The performance of sixteen cotton lines was evaluated at three sites in Northern and Eastern parts of Uganda
during the 2012/13 season. The experiment was 4x4 lattice design with 5 replicates. Each entry consisted of three
row plots replicated 5 times. Plot size was 12.9mx2.25 m at spacing of 70X30 cm. there were no significant
differences within and among the lines tested for the various traits. Line EZAM (02 ) 14 showed the highest seed
cotton yield (2626kg/ha) while line BPMAR6(05)MO.7, which is a line mixture showed the lowest seed cotton yield
but gave the finest fibre (3.8mic) and the highest staple length (29.1mm). BHGTAMH (02)1 Exhibited the strongest
fibre (31.5g/tex). These studies indicate that the lines are fairly stable over the test environments and give an
insight of lines that can be released as single line varieties or blended together and released as mixed line
mixtures. The study also gives an insight on the selection of testing sites for future evaluation of cotton genotypes.
Key words: cotton, seed-cotton yield, fineness, staple length, fibre strength
P009
Genetic Diversity of Ugandan Cultivated Coffea Canephora P as Measured by Simple Sequence Repeats
Molecular Markers
Pauline Aluka, Kahiu Ngugi, Thierry Leroy, Magali Dufour, Fabien De Bellis, Pinard Fabrice, Dan Kiambi.
Abstract
Biotic, abiotic and population increase pressures are rapidly eroding Robusta coffee, Coffea canephora Pierre
genetic resources that constitute 80% of Ugandan cultivated coffee and 60% foreign earnings making lives of
Ugandans insecure. This study established existing genetic variability among institute collections and cultivated
Robusta coffee to enable identify genotypes that can be conserved and used to improve productivity and quality
that will improve peasant farmer earnings and livelihoods. The 265 Robusta coffee accessions from diverse agroecologies and germplasm collection were evaluated using 18 Simple Sequence Repeats markers that represented
most Coffea canephora linkage groups. The results revealed populations mean allele range of 7 to 35. Population
genetic diversity over loci range was 0.53-0.78 with significantly different value range of 0.26-0.44. The genotypes
clustered into three groups with a genetic distance of 0.60. Analysis of molecular variance revealed high variability
within populations (81.87%) and within individuals (54.05%) with minimal differences among individuals within
populations (28.92%) and among populations (17.03%). The less than 50% population inbreeding index value
implied that C. canephora was dominantly out crossing. Differentiation values of 0.18-0.19 implied that the
populations were still evolving. The genetically variable cultivars sustain the species from complete wiping out
from disastrous pests and enable farmers harvest during adverse conditions. Genetically diverse genotypes
provide breeders’ parental combinations to generate highly segregating progeny for selection, gene mapping and
marker assisted breeding.
Key words: allele numbers, allele frequencies, polymorphism, Robusta coffee, SSR markers
34
P010
Determining the genotypic variation for maize weevil and foliar diseases resistance in eastern and Southern
Africa maize germplasm lines
Kasozi N. et al
Abstract
The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is the most destructive storage insect pest of maize (Zea mays
L.) in tropical Africa and worldwide, especially when susceptible varieties are grown. Grain resistance against
weevils should be part of a major component of an integrated weevil management strategy. A total of 180 inbred
lines from three different geographical areas were screened for maize weevil and foliar disease resistance.
3
Screening was executed by infesting 32 newly emerged adult weevils into maize grain of 50 g, placed in 250 cm
glass jars in a “no-choice” laboratory test. The experiment was laid out in the laboratory in a randomized complete
block design, with three replications. The grain susceptibility parameters used were F1 weevil progeny emergence,
percent grain damage, median development period, Dobie’s index of susceptibility, and parental weevil mortality.
New sources of weevil resistance for maize breeding were identified. Eight inbred lines (MV21, MV23, MV75,
MV102, MV142, MV154, MV157, and MV170) were consistently grouped in the resistant class, and therefore
selected as potential donors for weevil resistance in the maize improvement programs. There was significant and
large genetic variation, and high levels of heritability (89 – 96%) for weevil resistance that suggested the high
potential for germplasm improvement through selection. Results revealed that there was no significant association
between maize weevil resistance and grain yield. Therefore, breeding for maize weevil resistance can be achieved
without compromising grain yield.
Key words: Grain yield, maize, maize weevil, screening, weevil resistance.
P051
Variability and trait relationships among finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn] accessions
Lawrence Owere
1, 2*
1
1
, Pangirayi Tongoona , John Derera and Nelson Wanyera
3
Abstract.
Finger millet is a vital component in the farming systems of many parts of Uganda but there is limited information
on variability, heritability and trait association on finger millet in the country. The objectives of this study were to
assess the variability, heritability and traitassociation of finger millet to determine the genetic potential for future
use in a breeding programme. A total of accessions were evaluated for morpho-agronomic characters in a 10 x 10
lattice design with three replications at NaSARRI and Ikulwe for two seasons. Analysis of variance revealed mean
squares of the genotypes were significant for all the traits studied with days to 50% flowering showing the least
coefficient of variation and leaf blast severity the highest. Heritability estimates ranged from 7.39% for threshing
percentage to 68.4% head blast severity whereas values of expected genetic advance varied from 2.00 to 79.9% for
threshing percentage and head blast severity respectively. High heritability and genetic advance estimates were
-1
exhibited for head blast severity, head blast incidence, productive tillers plant and grain yield. When the
significant correlations were decomposed by path analysis, it revealed that, in determining yield, the most
-1
important traits were grain mass head , tillering ability and reaction to head blast disease. Overall the result
revealed existence of high variability for the traits studied in the finger millet accessions which can be utilised in
genetic improvement.
Key words: Eleusine coracana, genetic advance, germplasm, heritability, landrace, variability
35
P092
Inheritance of Resistance to (NGR1) Pathogen Isolates of Pyricularia grisea in GULU-E Finger millet Blast
Resistant Variety of Uganda
1
1
2
Aru.J.C, Wanyera.N, Okori.P
1. National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute, Serere P.O. Soroti.
2. ICRISAT- Malawi
Abstract
Gene action and heritability of blast resistance in Gulu-e was determined from crosses between GULU-E as female
parent mated to four susceptible genotypes using North Carolina 1 crossing design to determine nature of
resistance. Inoculation was done using one potentially most virulent local pathogen isolate (NGR1) identified from
Ngora, one of the pathogen hotspots of eastern agro-ecology of Uganda. It was identified following isolate
screening trial for virulence in Makerere university during 2012B.The F1, F2 and backcrosses were evaluated under
controlled conditions and disease reaction indicated that resistance is partially dominant and additive based on
mid parent values from crosses. Segregating ratios and chi-square tests of F2 populations fitted 13R:3S genetic
model, indicating presence of duplicate dominant epistasis at probability level of 0.05. Broad-sense heritability
estimated by variance components method was high at about 88.8% on entry mean basis. Selection for resistant
progeny derived from crosses between GULU-E and DR21 would be most effective in early generations followed by
modified backcrossing at F3 to the adapted recurrent resistant parent leading to diversification of a population and
derivation of materials for selection for disease resistance. From the study it is possible to accumulate genes for
race specific resistance in host cultivars that might reduce development of disease epidemics in some areas. The
genetic control of components of resistance and mechanisms of resistance in the host which affect the rate of
development of a disease epidemic need to be determined, since they are important variables for durable
resistance.
Key words: Gene action, broad sense heritability, virulence, durable resistance, modified backcrossing
P103
Developing lowland rice varieties with resistance to multiple biotic stresses
1
2
3
4
1
1
Lamo Jimmy , Kyung-Hoo Kang , Jane Ininda , Dartey Paul Kofi Ayirebi , Ekebu James , Ekobu Moses , Alibu
1
1
1
1
Simon , Okanya Stephen , Oloka Bonny, Otim Michael and Asea Godfrey
Abstract
The lowland rice genotypes grown in Uganda were introduced in the 1970s. These genotypes (now landraces) are
threatened by multiple biotic stresses namely; Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) disease, Bacterial Leaf Blight (
BLB), Rice Blast (BL) and African Rice Gall Midge (AfRGM). There are currently no rice lines with multiple resistance
to these stresses although attempts have been made to develop them through hybridization involving cultivated,
local and introduced lines and four varieties with tolerance to RYMV have been released. An alternative approach
involving crossing an African cultivated rice (Oryzaglaberrima from Niger Delta) and Milyang 23, a Korean rice
variety developed for resistance to multiple abiotic stresses; was initiated in 2011 by the National Agricultural
Research Organization (NARO) in collaboration with Korean rice breeding program. The Milyang 23 variety was
back crossed 4 times with O. glaberrimaand fixed through anther culture technique. An evaluation of 50 genotypes
generated showed that up to 98%, 92%, 88% and 88% of the test plants did not show any of the RYMV, BLS, BLB
and BL diseases symptoms, respectively. There was no symptom of the four diseases in 74% of the genotypes
tested. The plants that showed symptoms of the three diseases had scores of not more that 3 on a 1 to 9 scale.
This preliminary finding demonstrates that these generations of rice lines could help solve the current problem of
susceptibility to multiple diseases. Testing of these best genotypes under different agro-ecologies including AfRGM
hotspots is recommended in order to identify the most suitable varieties for production in the country.
Key words: Anther culture, Rice Yellow Mottle Virus disease, Bacterial Leaf Blight, Rice Blast, African Rice Gall
Midge
36
P116
Use of Molecular Markers to Enhance Quality Assurance and Control in the Maize Seed Value Chain
1
1
1
2
2
G. Asea , J. Serumaga , D.B. Kwemoi , M.G. Kevin and J.A.Scott
National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala
2
Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, 111 Riverbend Road, Athens, Georgia 30602
Corresponding author: [email protected], Tel: +256 782031285
1
Abstract
A vibrant seed system is critical for increased production and productivity of any agricultural system. However, low
quality and counterfeit seed is still a challenge to seed system in Uganda. We assessed feasibility of using single
nucleotide polymorphic markers (SNPs), to determine seed quality along seed value chain. Our goal was determine
feasibility of molecular marker technology for seed quality assurance. The specific objectives were to 1) Develop
technology and approaches for seed quality assurance that is economically and logistically feasible for seed firms
and will complement existing quality control mechanisms, and 2) identify subset of highly of informative SNP
markers for routine quality control genotyping. Five popular commercial maize hybrids were sampled along seed
value chain and genotyped with their parental inbred lines with high density (>200) SNP markers. Our results
showed that proportion of alleles that differed between sources of the same inbred line varied from 0 to 41.2%
indicating some inbred lines are well maintained and others were contaminated. We considered a cut-off for
percent purity of less than 6% for a inbred lines, indicating those with levels beyond were considered
contaminated and recommended for inbred line purification or seed source renewal. While genetic homogeneity
varied from 59.9 to 96.4% among inbred lines considered being homogenous and 60.1 to 93.1% among hybrids
from same parental inbred lines. There was significant difference among inbred lines for genetic homogeneity
indicating potential of genetic drift from reference sources. We considered good quality hybrids and inbred lines to
have percentage homogeneity of greater than 80% and 90%, respectively. These results indicate that the
molecular markers can be used as a more rapid, practical and efficient tool in seed quality control and tracking
varietal movement.
Key words: Seed systems, quality assurance and control, molecular makers
P138
Evaluation and Delivery of Disease-Resistant and Micronutrient-Dense Sweetpotato Varieties to Farmers in
Uganda
G. Ssemakula, C. Niringiye, M. Otema, G. Kyalo J. Namakulaand R.O.M. Mwanga
National Crops Resources Research Institute.P.O.Box 7084, Kampala
International Potato Center (CIP), Box 22274, Kampala, Uganda
Abstract
Uganda is among the African countries reported by to be at high risk of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD); the prevalence
of VAD among children and women is at 28% and 23%,respectively. Promoting orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP)
rich in Vitamin A will play a significant role in combating VAD resulting in more healthy children, pregnant and lactating
mothers, and reduced deaths, and will save foreign exchange spent on purchase of Vitamin A capsules for the country.
However, sweetpotato virus disease is a major constraint to OFSP. The National Crops resources Research Institute
(NaCRRI) undertook to improvement, evaluation and delivery of promising OFSP to farmers. Selected parents with
complimentary traits are planted to a crossing block annually and true seed is harvested and used to establish nurseries
the plants of which are individually screened for reaction to SPVD, Alternaria blight, and depth of the orange color in
the root flesh. Promising selections are evaluated through a series of verification multi-locational trials on-station.
Selections are subsequently advanced on-farm to test their performance under farmer managed conditions and for
their acceptability by farmers and consumers for both food and other uses. To date nine OFSP varieties have been
released and disseminated to farmers.Generally, most of the released OFSP varieties are susceptible to weevils (Cylas
37
spp.), but moderately resistant to both SPVD and Alternaria blight. In Uganda, as well as other Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
countries, food security relies heavily on seed systems dominated by an informal sector supplying between 85 and 90
percent of the required seed, with a low availability of clean, healthy planting material. OFSP delivery has depended on
the three existent seed systems for sweetpotato in Uganda; the limited formal seed system, the project-based system
that involves a few private-enterprise multipliers being funded to supply NGOs with vines, which are then distributed
freely to relatively few needy households, and; the self-sustaining informal seed system involving moderate numbers of
small-scale multipliers who sell small bundles of vines to many smallholders over large areas.
P145
Heading response of African upland rice genotypes to different photoperiods and temperature
1
1
1
2
Stephen Justin ECAAT , Kenji IRIE , Hironobu SHIWACHI and Hidehiko KIKUNO
Department of International Agricultural Development- Tokyo University of Agriculture,
1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya, Tokyo, 156-8502, JAPAN.
2
Miyako Tropical Farm- Tokyo University of Agriculture, 72-2 Miyakojima city, 906-0103 JAPAN.
Correspondence should be addressed to Stephen Justin Ecaat. [email protected]
1
Abstract
Heading response in rice (O. sativa) is chiefly controlled by photoperiod and temperature. Sixty (60) upland rice
genotypes with diverse origins, mainly from Africa (36), (18) genetically stable inter-specific (O.glaberrima x O.
sativa) progenies (NERICA’s) and (6-checks) were planted in a factorial experiments at Tokyo university of
agriculture- Setagaya-campus, Miyakojima farm and Uganda to assess the variation of heading time by
characterizing their days to heading (DH), photoperiodic sensitivity (PS) and basic vegetative growth (BVG) in these
locations. The investigations showed a wider variation in days to heading in all the long day treatments.
Temperature also affected the genotypes variedly especially in Miyakojima December sowing where CG14
(O.glaberrima) displayed low thermo sensitivity. The BVG was larger in most African genotypes in comparison with
NERICA and check varieties while photosensitivity among genotypes varied depending on their genetic constitution
and place of origin, NERICA’s- 1, 6, 11, 13, 18 and African genotypes- Bori Bakav (Gambia), Mbagoe (Sierra Leone),
C.V. Chama-dwarf (Zambia) and Naric 2 (Uganda) were among the photosensitive genotypes. All the genotypes
headed early in Uganda while in Miyakojima heading delayed in April, December sowing due to temperature
effects. All the sowings had significantly positive correlations and most genotypes from Uganda (Abilony, Sindano,
Supa V-88, K-38 and Le’kendu) did not head in the natural (Long day) treatment at Setagaya. Early heading in
Uganda could be associated with warmer and shorter daylength near equator. The results therefore demonstrate
that prolonged daylength and low temperature delayed heading in most of the genotypes and their
photosensitivity depended on the place of origin which proves that heading time was closely associated with
regional adaptability of rice cultivars.
Key Words: Photoperiod, Heading response, photoperiodic sensitivity, Basic vegetative growth, African upland rice
genotypes, day length.
38
P170
Application of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for genotyping provitamin A SNP in PSY2-Y-2 locus in cassava
1, 2
2
1
3
3*
Esuma , W., M.T. Labuschagne , R.S. Kawuki , I. Rabbi and G. Melaku
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
2
Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa
3
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected])
1
Abstract
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are most reliable high throughput genotyping tool for genetic studies; but
the associated high expenditure limits their utilization in developing world. We optimized the tetra-primer ARMSPCR as a simple technique for genotyping provitamin A SNP in PSY2-Y-2 locus in cassava. 90% of the amplifications
showed positive correlation with the provitamin A phenotype, indicating reliability of this technique for markerassisted selection of cassava for provitamin A carotenoid.
Key words: Single nucleotide polymorphism, marker-assisted selection, provitamin A carotenoids
P173
Cassava germplasm collection and in-vitro conservation in Uganda.
Nakabonge G., Samukoya C., Teko J., and Baguma Y
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256782356607)
1
Abstract
Conservation of Ugandan cassava genetic resources is critical for meeting current and future human needs.
However, viral diseases notably cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak (CBSD), have, and
continue to be a major factor limiting cassava including causing significant genetic erosion in cassava wherever
they occur. Accordingly, this loss of germplasm reduces genetic variability and hence genetic gains that can be
achieved through breeding. Thus, this study was responding to this challenge and sought to: 1) to establish an invitro collection of cassava genotypes including landraces, wild relatives and the breeding populations; and 2) to
conduct country wide surveys of farmer’s indigenous knowledge and collect genotypes for in-vitro conservation. A
survey tool was developed for collection of both cassava germplasm and farmer’s knowledge. This was used to
interview smallholder farmers and collect germplasm including the wild relatives from west Nile and midwestern
Uganda. Of the collected accessions, 67 samples were indexed for cassava mosaic virus using PCR specific primers
for African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) (AL1/F and ARO/R) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda variant
(EACMV-UG) (AL1/F1 and ACMV-CP/R3). A total of 180 farmer varieties (accessions) have been collected from
Midwestern Uganda (Kiryandongo, Masindi, Buliisa and Hoima) and west Nile (Arua, Nebbi, Koboko). Of these, 115
have been initiated into tissue culture via the meristerm tip technique and a further 65 are being sprouted in the
screen house for initiation. Out of 67 samples indexed only 16 were positive to cassava mosaic geminiviruses
(Cmgs), 11 were positive to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and five tested positive to East African cassava
mosaic virus Ugandan variant (EACMV-Ug).This initiative is the first of its kind to collect cassava germplasm and
have immediate plans for in-vitro conservation and document farmer’s knowledge on cassava genetic resources in
Uganda. The germplasm that has been collected harbors useful alleles and/or gene combinations that could
potentially be exploited by the breeding community as well as research and education. Farmers will also be
assured of a backup collection that can be reverted to when need arises and modalities for this can be done
through community conservation initiatives.
Key words: cassava, in-vitro, conservation, germplasm, Uganda
39
P182
Response of some banana hybrids to the banana weevil (cosmopolites sordidus germar) (coleoptera:
curculionidae) in Uganda
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
Arinaitwe.I.k , E. Hilman , R. Ssali , A. Barekye , J Kubiriba , G Kagezi , H. Talwana , C. Nankinga , P.E. Ragama ,
2
W.K. Tushemereirwe
1. National Agricutural Research Organisation(NARO), National banana research programme, Kawanda, P.O.Box
7065, Kampala, Uganada.
2. Makerere University, School of agricultural and environmental Sciences P.O.Box 7062, Kampala Uganda
Abstract
A field screening trial was undertaken at Kawanda to determine the response of 18 hybrids developed by the
NARO to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)), one of the major constraints to banana production.
Based on total cross-sectional damage, results indicated that there is improved resistance to banana weevil in the
hybrids tested. Damage scores for all tested hybrids were significantly different from the susceptible check
(Atwalira), while all except M4, M5, M6 and M8 showed significant difference from the resistant cultivar
(Yangambi KM 5). Data on mat disappearance show that hybrids are more stable than the susceptible check while
findings from weevil trap catches suggest no relationship between attraction and weevil damage. Data obtained
show that some hybrids have superior agronomic and yield characteristics, however due to high weevil infestation,
the findings of the study are not representative of maximum yield potential that may be achieved under good
management practices.
Key words: Banana hybrids, Cosmopolites sordidus, resistance.
P184
Carbon Sequestration Potential of EAHB Cultivars in Selected Agro-ecological Zones of Uganda
a
a
b
b
b
Kamusingize D. ; Majaliwa J.G.M, ; Komutunga E. ; Kubiriba J. ; Namanya P. ; Nowakunda K.
Department of Environmental Management, Makerere University
P.O Box 7062, Kampala Uganda
b
National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda P.O Box7065 Kampala, Uganda
b
a
Abstract
Despite the global interest to increase the world’s carbon stocks, most carbon sequestration strategies have largely
depended on woody ecosystems whose production is threatened by the continuous shortage of land; hence the
need to explore viable alternatives. The potential of bananas to sequester carbon has been reported but there is
limited knowledge on the performance of various cultivars as specific carbon stocks are often lost in global
assessments. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the variability in carbon stocks of East African Highland
Banana (EAHB) cultivars grown in two agro-ecological zones of Uganda. Plant and soil data were collected using
destructive and non-destructive techniques in 30×30m2sampling plots for 4 cultivars (Kibuzi, Nakitembe, Enyeru
and Nakinyika) in two agro-ecological zones: the L. Victoria crescent and the South-western farmland. Total carbon
and SOC stocks did not differ considerably across cultivars (P>0.05); but plant carbon stock did (P<0.05) being
lowest in Nakinyika (0.37±0.19 Mgha-1) and Nakitembe in the west (0.40±0.19Mgha-1), and highest in Enyeru
(1.64±0.18 Mgha-1). The SOC stock variation difference across depth was more in top soil than sub-soil (2.9-8.5
Mgha-1). The proportion of banana to SOC stock was very small across all cultivars (0.4-2%).
40
P189
Kiwangaazi (KABANA 6H), the recently released black Sigatoka, nematode and banana weevil tolerant ‘matooke’
hybrid in Uganda
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
Nowakunda, K . ; Barekye, A ., Ssali R.T , Karamura, D .; Namaganda, J . Tushemereirwe, W.K , Nabulya, G ., Batte
1
2
2
M , Erima R2, Akankwasa K and Hilman E .
1
. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Uganda) P.O.BOX 7878 Kampala Uganda
2
. National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda, P.O.BOX 7065, Kampala, Uganda 7
3
. Bioversity International-Uganda, Katalima Road, Plot 106 Naguru P.O. Box 24384, 8
Kampala, Uganda.
Abstract
This paper presents the attributes of the first East African highland banana hybrid, ‘Kiwangaazi’ (Fig.1), which was
recently selected, released and added to the national cultivar list in Uganda. The matooke hybrid ‘Kiwangaazi’ was
conventionally bred at Kawanda by crossing the tetraploid hybrid ‘1201k-1’(Nakawere AAA X Calcutta4 AA) with
the improved diploid ‘SH3217’ AA. The main target was Black Sigatoka resistance, a disease ranked as the most
important constraint to the production of the East African Highland bananas, especially in the low lands (covering
most of central and eastern Uganda). ‘Kiwangaazi’, together with other hybrids was evaluated for black Sigatoka
response, nematode and weevil damage, yield and consumer acceptability. The cultivar was evaluated under the
code ‘M9’, and released by the national variety release committee as KABANA 6H. The name ‘Kiwangaazi’, was
coined by farmers who participated in the on-farm evaluation studies. In the local language (Luganda) ‘Kiwangaazi’
means ‘long lasting’. Due to high pest and disease pressure, banana plantain last between 3-5 years. However, due
to its pests and disease tolerance, farmers observed that ‘M9’ plants remain vigorous after five years hence the
name ‘Kiwangaazi’
41
SUB-THEME 1.3: AGRONOMY
P003
ADVANCES IN CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN UGANDA IN THE LAST TWO DECADES (1990 – 2010)
Ronald Kawooya* and Yona Baguma
Root Crops Programme, National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI)
P.O Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding Author*: Ronald Kawooya, Root Crops Programme, NaCRRI E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
This paper reviews the results of past cassava agronomy research conducted from 1990 to 2010 in Uganda.
Physiological research done on dry matter production and partitioning in cassava intercropped with maize or
groundnuts revealed that dry matter accumulation and leaf area development were both substantially greater in
sole cropped than intercropped cassava. Cyanogenic potential research in cassava tubers revealed that plant age
at harvest has little effect on the potential tuber toxicity. Source sink relationship research involving effects of
stripping frequency and time of initiation of defoliation revealed that, frequency of defoliation appeared not to
have affected growth significantly until 140 days after planting. Cassava/maize intercropping research showed that
root biomass and Harvest Index were stable indices for identifying cassava clones for intercropping cassava with
maize, while Competitive Ratio and Land Equivalent Ratio were better measurements of competition levels. Weeds
management study revealed that taller, bushy and spreading varieties planted at optimal plant density (1m×1m)
can offer better weed suppression abilities. Fertilizer research studies revealed that average yields under farmer
-1
-1
management were 8.6tons ha , but these were more than doubled to 20.8tons ha by using improved crop
establishment, improved genotypes and 100-22-83 kg ha-1 of single-nutrient N-P-K fertilizers. Future perspective
of cassava agronomy research will focus on development of technology packages for cassava and individual
management strategies such as weed control, drought avoidance strategies, Integrated Soil Fertility Management,
all need to be evaluated alone, and in combination with others, to identify best-fit options. However, evaluation of
technology packages for cassava should be done in the heterogeneous conditions of smallholder farmers and
across sites, years and soil types to take the existing variability in production factors into account.
Key words: Agronomy, Physiological studies, Intercropping, Soil fertility, Future perspective.
P012
Effects of hand weeding frequencies and herbicide application on sunflower yields and incomes in Uganda
Elobu, P., J.R. Ocan, J. Olinga, H. Akurut, L.Arigo and C. Aliao
National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI), P.O. Soroti - Uganda
Abstract
Weed management trials in sunflower were conducted at the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute
(NaSARRI) in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Hand weeding started at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting (dap) and the
weeding frequencies were once, twice or thrice. A herbicide called Select of the cloheaxanedione family and with
clethodim as the active ingredient was also applied to some plots at 100 mls/15 litres of water once at 15 dap, and
twice at 15 and 30 dap. Numbers of weed species and their counts were taken regularly before and one week after
treatment applications. Data was recorded on sunflower growth parameters such as height, stem and head
diameters. Sunflower was harvested from the four middle rows, threshed, dried winnowed, weighed and yields
calculated. Costs involved in the various weed management treatments were recorded and weed control margins
42
calculated. Data from this study emphasize that sunflower must be weeded, and weeding should start at, or
around 15 dap but not exceed 45 dap. The earlier one starts to weed, the better the performance and more delays
lead to reductions in yields. Starting to weed at 15, 30 and 45 dap increased yields by 58.8, 42.9 and 40.4 % over
the non-weeded controls, while application of Select once or twice increased yields by only 10.9 and 10.6 %
respectively. To maximize incomes and weeding margins in sunflower, weeding should be done once. The
herbicide (Select) significantly reduced counts of grass weeds but had insignificant effects on broad leafed weeds.
Yields, incomes and costs associated with its use whether once or twice do not justify its recommendation for sole
use on sunflower in Uganda.
P020
Soybean Residue Optimization with N- Fertilizer for increased Maize Productivity in Eastern Uganda
1
1
1
B. Sadina, P. Ebanyat and A. Amoding
Makerere University College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
School of Agricultural production,
P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda.
Email of Corresponding author; [email protected]
1
Abstract
The contribution of soybean residues to improve soil and crop productivity is unknown. While the grains of the
-1
crop are mainly fed to babies and animals as protein sources, approximately 1.32tha soybean residues are
generated and have been underutilized for soil fertility replenishment. Researcher managed experiments were
conducted in 2011B and 2012A in two varying AEZs of L.Victoria crescent and South-eastern L. Kyoga basin where,
Namayingo and Tororo districts are situated. The study design was an RCBD with a 3×4 factorial treatment, to
determine the potential of soybean residues to improve maize yields. Optimization of soybean residues with N
-1
fertilizer to increase maize yield formed the general hypothesis. Soybean residue at 0, 2 and 4tha were combined
-1
with N fertilizer at 0, 30, 60 and120kgha N in form of urea, with four and three replications in Namayingo and
Tororo districts respectively. Average maize yields were higher in Namayingo than in Tororo although initial soil
results indicated low soil fertility at both sites. Highest maize grain yields above control were obtained from
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
combinations of 2tha with 120kgha N (1.3tha ) and 4tha with 120kgha N (1.5tha ) in Namayingo and Tororo
districts respectively, reducing the attainable yield gap by 18% and 20% and 18% and 22% in the two sites
-1
-1
-1
-1
respectively. Combinations of 2tha with 120kgha N and 4tha with 120kgha N have been found paramount in
closing the attainable yield gap of DH04 maize variety in low input farming system of eastern Uganda
Key words: soybean residue, maize productivity, low input farming system
P022
Responses of East African Highland Banana (EAHB-AAA) Cultivars to Drought Stress
1
2
3
**S.N. Kayongo , *J.M.Sebuliba , K.Nyombi
Nabuin Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (NabuZARDI) P.O. Box 132 Moroto, Uganda
1,2,3
Makerere University, P.O. Box 6072 Kampala, Uganda
Emails: [email protected] [email protected]
1
Abstract
The need to understand effects of drought stress on banana crop growth and its yield than continued research advances in
solving biotic stresses with persistent yield decline instigated the necessity to conduct this study. Actual banana yields are
-1 -1
-1 -1
estimated at 5-30 T ha yr lower than the potential 60 T ha yr under free moisture drainage with cause being drought
stress. Much evidence among production stakeholders showed little understanding about banana cultivar sensitivity,
escape and avoidance mechanisms to drought due to un-attempted measures of retaining plant growth during escalating
dry spell. Thus this study aimed to determine cultivar expression to biomass development, leaf orientation behaviour,
43
chlorophyll breakdown and transpiration under characterized soil moisture regimes as ways of assessing mechanisms for
plant response to drought. Triploid cooking cultivars of mpologoma and kisansa (AAA) in comparison of considered drought
tolerant cultivars of kayinja (ABB), sukali Ndiizi (AAB) and a low land cultivar yangambi Km5 (AAA) were grown under semimicro environment with controlled soil evapo-transpiration. Cultivars were grown on three sandy loam soil water regimes
10
under pF- curves of log matrix head of Wet: 2.0-2.1 (0.1 - 0.13 bar) eqv. to 90% moisture availability (M.A.); Semi-moist:
2.5-2.7 (0.32 - 0.51 bars) eqv. to 60% M.A. and Dry: 2.8-2.9 (0.64 - 0.8 bars) for 30% M.A. respectively. Results showed that
an increase in soil moisture deficit from moist to dry condition caused a proportional loss in fresh biomass weight of up to
50% among cooking cultivars and less than 40% to dessert cultivars, with root sizes of less than 1.0 cm in diameter. Leaf
0
orientation was only significant to leaf folding with cooking variety type opening leaves widely (up to 100 ) enhancing
excessive leaf plant dehydration even during stressful conditions. Soil evapo-transpiration analyses showed cvs. kisansa and
-1
mpologoma transpired up to 1.125L 48hrs exhibiting a trait for water spending compared to other cultivars water saving.
Contrary, at 30% M.A. there were no stable transpiration interactions across genotypes. Transpiration predicting models
per unit change in plant development were also determined with a stepwise regression and correlation coefficient.
Thus, cultivars comprising of genome (B) expressed crucial mechanisms of avoiding excessive effect of drought stress.
Therefore in the environment of high moisture deficits cultivars (Kayinja and sukali ndiizi) expresses drought avoidance
mechanisms through leaf folding to reduce the dehydration hence water saving. But, the cooking type of cultivars; Kisansa
and Mpologoma (AAA) were found to develop extensive rooting system important in search for moisture and large leaf
surface characterized with high rate of transpiration for water spending. Therefore in areas where bananas are grown there
is need to practice moisture conservation methods for cooking banana survival in order realize high yields.
Key words: Drought stress, soil moisture, transpiration and leaf folding
P035
Effect of Intercropping Sunflower with Soybean at Different Inter-Row and Intra-Row Spacing on Land use
Efficiency
Yuventino Obong and Cirino Opio Ogwang
Abstract
Many smallholder farmers in the Mid-Northern Agro-ecological Zone plant sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and
soybean (Glycine max) as sources of household. Smallholder farmers planted sunflower and soybean together
using different planting patterns since most of them have small piece of land leading to different yields depending
on the pattern used. This study was set out to evaluate the effect of inter-row and intra-row spacing on yields of
sunflower and soybean intercrop. The study was conducted at Ngetta and Acwec Omio farmer group in 2007 and
2008. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was used to determine performance of
sunflower and soybean under four different inter-row spacings (75, 90, 105 and 120 cm) and four intra-row
spacings (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm) and sole sunflower and sole soyabean, giving 18 treatments. Under intercrop one
row of soybean was planted between two rows of sunflower at an intra-row spacing of 25 cm. Sole sunflower was
planted at 90 cm between the rows and 30 cm within row while sole soybean crops were planted at 50 cm
between the rows and 25 cm within the row. Average yields of sunflower under intercrop were 2517 kg/ha and
1219 kg/ha, compared to average yields of 3241 and 1655 kg/ha obtained from sole sunflower at Acwec Omio and
Ngetta, respectively. Average yield of soybean under intercrop was 1100 kg/ha and it was 2978 kg/ha (p<0.01)
from sole soybean. The highest land equivalent ratios were 1.29 at inter-row spacing of 90 cm between rows and
1.25 at intra-row spacing of 40 cm within rows. Lowest LER of 0.8 was from 120 x 60 cm spacing. An intercrop
between sunflower and soybean at a spacing of 90 cm-wide between rows and 40 cm within rows, was the most
appropriate since LER were above 1.2 an indication that land was efficiently utilized. Sunflower can be
intercropped with soybean enabling farmers to raise income by cultivating two crops in same piece of land.
44
P151
Performance evaluation of elite sorghum varieties under prevailing conditions in the west Nile Agro-ecological
Zones
E. Awori, M. Kiryowa, A. Basirika, F.Dradiku R. Kahunza, and J. Mukalazi
Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development institute P.O.Box219 Arua, Uganda
Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the most important cereal crop in the West Nile region and the third
most important cereal crop in Uganda. However, sorghum production in the region is still low due to use of local
varieties that have low productivity and long maturity periods ranging from 6 to 9 months. In 2011, 12 improved
pre-release varieties were acquired from the National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI).These
were evaluated on-station at Abi ZARDI for three seasons (2011B, 2012B and 2013B) for adaptability in the region
and for their general agronomic performance. Field performance trials were established on-station using a
randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and under different spacings namely;
60cm×20cm, 45×20cm, 35cm×20cm, 25cm×20cm, 15cm×20cm.The plot size of 3.5m×1.5m was used. Data was
collected from 10 randomly selected plants in the middle of two crop rows of each plot and the parameters
considered were; seedling vigor, plant stand after thinning and at harvest, days to 50% flowering, number of plants
that tillered, mean number of tillers, average plant height at harvest (cm), % seed set at harvest, % lodging, plant
stand at harvest, number of panicle per plot, dry panicle weight (g), 1000-grain weight/g and yield/ha(kg). Data
collected were analyzed using the general linear procedure (PROC GLM) of SAS (2003). Significant differences
among means were determined using Duncan’s method of mean separation.
There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the yields among the varieties and the best performing varieties were
E2 (red) 1,975kg/ha, E12 (brown) 1,637kg, E11 (white) 1,294kg/ha, E1 (red) 1,275 kg/ha, E6 (brown) 1,176kg/ha
and E8 (brown) 917kg/ ha respectively. Red and brown varieties are best for bread while white and some brown
varieties can be used for brewing. Grain yield also significantly (P<0.05) increased with decreasing spacing.
Seedling vigor, days to 50% flowering, average plant height at harvest,% seed set, % lodging scores, plant stand at
harvest, average number of panicles harvested were also significantly (P<0.05) affected by spacing. Seed set and
lodging were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the interaction between spacing and variety. Best agronomic and
yield performance were observed in the spacing of 15cm x 20cm followed by 25cm x 20cm. However considering
convenience in routine management practices like weeding, thinning, harvesting, data collection, a spacing of
35cm x20cm is recommended for it gave equally good grain yield. Therefore the most appropriate spacing for
optimum sorghum production is 35cm x 20 cm.
Keywords: Spacing, Elite Sorghum varieties, agronomic performance, prevailing soil and weather conditions
45
SUB-THEME 1.4: PLANT PATHOLOGY
P049
ASPERGILLUS RESISTANCE AND AFLATOXIN ACCUMULATION IN TROPICAL MAIZE
1
3
4
4
4
2
1
Sserumaga J. P ., Lee S. M ., Njoroge K ., Muthomi, J.W ., Chemining’wa G. N ., Makumbi D ., Asea G ., and
1
Kwemoi D . B
Abstract
In this study, we explored host resistance following artificial inoculation with Aspergillus species. The specific
objectives were to; (i) determine resistance to Aspergillusspp and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation in different
genotypeswith different background and (ii) determine the most aggressiveness and abundance of aflatoxin types
following artificial inoculations. We screened 34 three-ways maize genotypes with parents from diverse
backgrounds for their resistance to A. spp and Aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1 and G2) accumulation levels following artificial
inoculation. At 7 days after mid-silk (50% of the plants in a plot had silks emerged) the top ear of each plant was
inoculated with 10 milliliters of suspension containing A. spp conidia spraying through the silk. Analysis of variation
showed that there was significant genetic variation among the genotypes for aflatoxin accumulation (P<0.001)
ranging from 0 to 142.36μg/kg and types of aflatoxin (P<0.1) ranging from 12.92 0 to 173.96μg/k detected.
Interestingly, more than 50% of the genotypes were highly resistant to A. spp and Aflatoxin accumulation (0 ppb)
and 20.6% were greater than recommended level according to Codex standards of 10 μg/kg. Aflatoxin B1 was the
most abundant (173.96μg/kg total accumulation) followed by Aflatoxin B2 (78.91μg/kg), Aflatoxin G2 (40.43μg/kg)
and Aflatoxin G1 (12.92μg/kg). Host resistance is the cheapest and one of the most important strategies for
managing aflatoxin. Releases and recommendation of aspergillus resistant varieties and with low levels of aflatoxin
should consider artificial inoculation.
Key words: Mycotoxin, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Host resistance
P111
Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases, and their impact on the yield of common beans in central Uganda
Pamela, P*., Mawejje, D. and Ugen M
National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +256 784 240 230/+256 712 889 078. E-mail address: [email protected]
Abstract
Angular leaf spot (ALS) and rust are important diseases of common beans in the tropics. In severely affected fields,
yield losses due to the above diseases may reach 100%. ALS and rust have occurred in farmers’ fields in the tropics
for years, but the current significance of the two diseases is unknown. In 2010, the incidence and severity of ALS in
five bean agro-ecologies within Uganda was between 40-99%, and 21-80%, respectively. In the same year, the
incidence and severity of rust in the same agro-ecologies was 37-69%, and 24-44%, respectively. To determine the
impact of ALS and rust diseases on the yield of common beans, yield loss trials were established in farmers’ fields
in the districts of Wakiso and Mpigi in central Uganda between 2012 and 2013. On each farm the bean varieties
K132 and Kanyebwa were planted. For each variety, two treatments were applied; 1) ALS and rust controlled using
®
the fungicide Orius (Tebuconazole 250 g/L), and 2) no control of the two diseases. Disease severities were
assessed using the CIAT scales of 1-9. Yield parameters recorded were; 1) weight of clean seeds, and 2) weight of
100 seeds per treatment. In Mpigi district, the lowest ALS and rust severities were observed in the treatment
where the popular variety Kanyebwa was sprayed with fungicide and this was significantly different from all the
46
other treatments. In Wakiso, ALS and rust severities for all fungicide treated plots of both Kanyebwa and K132
were significantly lower than that for non-treated plots of both varieties. In both districts, the highest disease
severities were observed for the control treatment of the variety K132. Fungicide application in some instances
resulted in significant yield increments. For example, in Wakiso district, the yield of the variety Kanyebwa
increased by 31% following disease control through fungicide application. Similar, but non-significant yield
increments were observed for all other fungicide treated plots over controls (53% for fungicide treated plots of
K132 in Wakiso, 25% and 24% for fungicide treated plots of Kanyebwa and K132, respectively in Mpigi district). Our
findings show that ALS and rust cause significant yield losses on farm.
Key words: Common beans, disease management, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pseudocercospora griseola, Uromyces
appendiculatus
P115
Citrus Huanglongbing: Detection and Identification of Etiological Agents (Liberibacter spp) associated with Citrus
disease in Uganda.
1
1
1
1
1
2
A. Kalyebi* , G. Aisu , I. Ramathani , S. Musaana , J. Ogwang , N. McOwen and P. Russell
2
Abstract
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), commonly referred to as citrus greening is one of the major disease challenges of
citrus. In Uganda, there was no record on Liberibacter spp, the causal organisms of HLB disease, and its psyllid
vectors. We launched an investigation to identify both the Liberibacter spp and psylla vector species responsible
for HLB in Uganda. Non-citrus hosts for pathogens and vector psyllids were also investigated. Surveys were
conducted in selected citrus growing districts and symptomatic citrus leaf samples collected as well as citrus psyllid
nymphs and adults for isothermal detection of pathogens in the laboratory. Two types of bacteria pathogens
responsible for HLB were detected, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CLaf), known as the African type, and
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), known as the Asian type, were found in Uganda. CLaf was found in
Mukono and Wakiso in Central Uganda and in Mbarara in Western Uganda, while CLas was found in Budaka and
Tororo in Eastern Uganda. Citrus psyllids which are the major known vectors of disease were present in some areas
and absent in others. Psyllid vector identification by morphological means indicated Trioza erytreae, the African
psyllid was the insect vector. Psyllids were common on tangerines (66.7%), sour orange and rough lemon (13.3%
each) and least on Washington navel (6.7%). Three non-citrus plants, Stephania abyssinica (Dill. & A. Rich) walp
var. tomentella (Oliv.) Deils (Menispermaceae), Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Ficus spp (Moraceae)
were found to be alternative host plants for the psyllid. This is the first report on Liberibacter spp. responsible for
HLB in Uganda, and the second on the occurrence of CLas, the Asian pathogen, within Africa outside Mauritius and
Re-Union.
Key words: Citrus, Greening, Liberibacter, psyllids, Uganda.
47
P120
Use of a fungus to manage destructive termites on Grevillea trees on farms in Namutumba district
1
2
3
1
Gerald Ongodia , Philip Nyeko , BenonMuyinza Sekamatte , Hillary Agaba
National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI), P.O Box 1752, Kampala, Uganda
2
Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3
The Uganda Agricultural Productivity Enhancement Programme (APEP), P. O. Box 7856, Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected]
1
Abstract
There is lack of knowledge about optimum amounts of Metarhiziumanisopliae fungus for spot application on farms
to control destructive termites on susceptible tree crops. Grevillearobusta is such a popular tree in agroforestry yet
highly susceptible to termite attack. In this study, arbitrary doses of the granular (0.5g, 1g and 2g) and pure spore
(12.5g/L and 25g/L) formulations of Metarhiziumanisopliae fungus were randomly allocated to plots of 6mx8m,
including a control, planted with Grevillearobusta tree seedlings. These treatments were applied to the root collar
area of the seedlings at planting in a CRBD and the set up replicated six times. The study was conducted between
May 2011 and February 2012 on farmers’ termite infested fields in Namutumba district in eastern Uganda.
Monthly counts of Grevillearobusta seedling mortality due to termite attack were recorded. ANOVA, results
showed that there were statistically significant differences (F(3, 195) = 6.45, P<0.05) and (F(2, 145)=20.33, P<0.05) at
95% C.I. among treatments of the granular and spore formulations ofMetarhiziumanisopliae fungus respectively.
The effect in reducing seedling mortality between the granular doses did not differ (25.9%, 26.4% and 26.9%
respectively) while the effect between the pure spore solutions differed with lower seedling mortality (30.5%)
observed where the concentration was higher compared to the lower concentration (39.3%). However seedling
mortality was lower (20.8%) in the control plots compared to plots treated with both the granular and pure spore
formulations. The study findings show that the higher concentration of the pure spore formulation reduced
seedling mortality to optimal levels. However we recommend that further experiments be carried out with higher
doses of the fungus under on-station strict management conditions.
Key words: Pestiferous, Metarhiziumanisopliae, Grevillearobusta, Root collar, Necromass
P149
Evaluation of Selected NERICA Rice Varieties for Leaf Blast Resistance
1
Odongo P.J., S. Koizumi , T. Fujii
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda
Tsukuba International Center, JICA Tsukuba, 3-6, Koyadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Prefecture 305-0074, Japan
Corresponding author’s email address: [email protected]
1
Abstract
Rice is not native crop in Uganda; however, recently the crop, especially upland rice, has gained popularity and
adoption in many parts of Uganda for improving food security and fighting poverty. With the increased adoption of
rice as crop, the rice farmers are faced with many problems like insect pests and diseases. Rice blast is one of the
common diseases especially in upland rice. Blast disease caused by (Pyricularia oryzae) is one of the most
destructive diseases of rice in the world because of its wide distribution and its destructiveness remains a principle
disease to rice production worldwide. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate and clarify the leaf blast
resistance in nine selected NERICA varieties (NERICA 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11 and 14) using Japanese blast isolates.
The seedlings of all the tested varieties were spray-inoculated with each of the two blast isolates for number of
susceptible-type lesions per plant, and at the tenth leaf stage of the varieties, blast lesion enlargement on the
tenth leaves of their main culms of them was measured after the punch inoculation. Leaf blast severity of total and
48
flag leaves of the NERICA varieties, together with thirty two international differential lines, twelve Japanese
differential varieties holding different complete resistance genes and seventeen Japanese rice varieties with
different levels of partial resistance was also evaluated in upland nurseries. However, the nine NERICA varieties
showed complete resistance to blast in the studies, although NERICA 3, 4, 11 and 14 showed moderate resistance
reaction to the blast isolates Ina86-137 and H05-56-1. The levels of partial resistance to leaf blast in the selected
NERICA varieties were not clarified in the studies. Thus blast isolates virulent to the NERICA varieties should be
found to clarify levels of partial resistance to leaf blast of NERICA varieties in Africa including Uganda.
Key words: Inoculation, Leaf blast, NERICA, Resistance.
P159
Spread of Cassava Brown Streak Disease in Uganda as Influenced by Host Tolerance and Prevailing Disease
Pressure
1, 2*
2
2
1
2
2
K. Katono , T. Alicai , Y. Baguma , R. Edema , A. Bua , and C .A. Omongo
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
2
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda.
Corresponding author: Kasifa Katono, email:[email protected]
1
Abstract
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is a major threat to cassava production in Uganda. The disease is caused by
two ipomovirus species; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), both
transmitted by the whitefly vector (Bemisiatabaci). Since the outbreak of the CBSD epidemic in Uganda in 2004,
knowledge on its spread in the field is still limited. In this study, five cassava genotypes with varying levels of
tolerance to CBSD were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and location (prevailing disease pressure) on CBSD
spread in Uganda. Disease incidences (%), apparent infection rate (r), area under disease progress curves (AUDPC)
were determined and populations of the whitefly vector monitored on a monthly basis. Genotype and location
significantly affected CBSD incidence (P = 0.001), AUDPC and r (P = 0.05). In Lira, where CBSD pressure is low, there
was no noticeable spread, even in the susceptible genotype. On the contrary, in Namulonge and Kamuli where
disease pressure is high and moderate respectively, final disease incidence was maximum (100%) in I92/0067, TME
204and MH 97/2961 while the tolerant variety NASE 3 had significantly low final disease incidence of ≤ 5%. Mean
whitefly populations varied with location (P = 0.001) and there was interaction between whitefly population and
location hence the rapid CBSD spread in Kamuli and Namulonge. There was a high correlation (r = 0.994) between
foliar CBSD incidence and CBSD root incidence hence high CBSD root incidences in Kamuli and Namulonge. These
results clearly showed that high disease pressure in an area, use of susceptible genotypes coupled with high
whitefly numbers significantly enhance CBSD spread and development.
Keywords: Cassava brown streak disease, CBSD, disease pressure zones, whitefly vector, Bemisiatabaci,Uganda.
P168
Recent changes in incidence of cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease in Uganda
Abidrabo P., Omongo C. A., Okao-Okuja G., Alicai T. and Bua A.
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
Abstract
Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) are the most important constraints to
cassava production in Eastern Africa. Monitoring surveys guide the deployment of control interventions of both
CMD and CBSD and their Whitefly vectors. A total of 4289 farmers’ cassava fields in 59 districts in Uganda were
surveyed during 2005-2013 period. The changes of CBSD and CMD incidence and Whitefly population was studied
49
in 10 districts that have been consistently surveyed from 2008-2013. The overall national CBSD prevalence
increased from 3.3% (2005), peaking at 45.2% (2011) and slightly declined to 40.5% (2013) while the incidence
increased from 1% (2005) to 21.8% (2013). CMD prevalence decreased from 59.9 % (2008) to 50.7% (2013). Mean
CBSD incidence and Whitefly population per plant were highest in central Uganda (Nakasongola, Wakiso, Luwero,
Mukono), moderate in Eastern (Kumi and Soroti) and lowest in Northern Uganda. Conversely, CMD incidence was
lowest in Central Uganda, and highest in Western and Northern Uganda (Apac, Pader, and Lira). Farmers grew 95
cassava varieties of which TME14 was the most predominant being observed in 33.7% of the fields surveyed. CBSD
and CMD symptoms were observed in 58 and 54 of the cassava varieties respectively. The increasing CBSD
incidence in Central Uganda coincides with high Whitefly vector population and the dominance of CBSD
susceptible cassava variety TME14 in this region. Plausible is the lower CMD incidence in Central Uganda. The
declining CBSD incidence in Eastern Uganda is attributed to replacement of TME204 and TME14 with NASE3 and
NASE14. This is more evident in Busia district where the NASE14 and NASE3 currently predominate the farmers’
fields unlike Magana, a local CBSD susceptible variety in 2009. This highlights the contribution of efforts to
rehabilitate cassava production in this region. Research should strategize for development of varieties with treble
resistance to CMD, CBSD and the Whiteflies to successfully manage viral diseases of cassava.
P185
Comparative pathogenicity studies of the Xanthomonas vasicola pathovars on maize, sugarcane and banana
1, 2
2
3
3
3
4
G. Karamura , D. J. Studholme , J. Hodgetts , J. Hall , J. Smith , E. Karamura
1
National Agricultural Research Laboratories P.O Box 7064, Uganda
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
3
The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
4
Bioversity International, P.O Box 24384, Katalima road, Plot 106, Naguru, Uganda
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: [email protected]
2
Abstract
Previous biochemical and molecular sequence analyses of Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm),
the etiological agent of Xanthomonas wilt of bananas, suggest that it belongs within the species X. vasicola species
rather than X.campestris. However, a lack of comparative pathogenicity studies on the X.vasicola species
prevented the formal proposal of Xcm as a new pathovar within X. vasicola. Therefore, we compared
pathogenicities of Xcm against those of X.vasicola pathovars on maize, sugarcane, and banana. Strains of Xvv and
Xvh were not only pathogenic on maize and sugarcane but also caused distinct symptoms on maize and sugarcane.
Xcm caused disease in sugarcane and banana but not on maize in this study.
Key words: Xanthomonas wilt of bananas, X.campestris pv musacearum, X vasicola pv holcicola, X.vasicola pv
vasculorum, X.axonopodis pv vasculorum, pathogenicity
P190
Influence of banana genome background on variety susceptibility to bacterial wilt disease
2
2
1
Simeon Mbembo Yulu , Geoffrey Tusiime and Charles Mwesigye Changa
National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL) Kawanda, P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda
2
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University,
Kampala, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
1
Abstract
Banana bacterial wilt (BBW) disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) is a great risk to
food security and income generation for more than 70% of population that depend on banana production in East
and Central Africa. BBW spreads rapidly over a large area in a short period and its pathogen kills plants within a
50
month after infection. Bananas from infected plants are of no value since their fruits will have ripened prematurely
with hardened or rotten pulp also. Recommended cultural practices for controlling BBW are not sustainable for
the approach has often lead to disease resurgence and spread into new areas. All cooking banana types
predominantly grown in the region that have A genome are reportedly susceptible to BBW. The objective of this
investigation was to establish whether banana genotypes with B genome background that are grown on small
scale usually for commercial purposes are resistant to BBW and have potential to be used in breeding
improvement of cooking banana types. Four banana genotypes; Kisansa (AAA), Kayinja (ABB), Saba (ABB) and wild
banana relative, Musa balbisiana (BB) were evaluated for their degree of susceptibility to BBW by artificial
inoculation with Xcm under screenhouse conditions. The banana genotypes showed various levels of susceptibility
to BBW. Banana genotypes Kisansa and Kayinja were highly susceptible to Xcm, Saba showed tolerant reaction and
wild type, M. balbisiana showed a resistant reaction. Noticeably M. balbisiana is a promising potential source of
resistance that is yet to be harnessed for improvement of commercial and popular varieties that are evidently
highly susceptible to BBW.
Key words: Banana Xanthomonas wilt, Banana bacterial wilt, artificial inoculation, Pisang Awak, Xanthomonas
campestris pv. Musacearum
P203
Multi-Pronged Approach for Bacteria Identification and Characterisation
b
c
a
b
b
b
a
J. Adriko , V. Aritua , C. N. Mortensen , W. K. Tushemereirwe , A. Mulondo , J. Kubiriba and O. S. Lund
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences , University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 30 DK-2630
Taastrup, Denmark;
b
National Agricultural Research Laboratories, P. O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda;
c
International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P.O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda
a
Abstract
Generally bacteria characterisation has been based on phenotypic characteristics. In the present study, we report
the isolation and characterisation of gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria from banana
xanthomonas wilt (BXW) symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. We
used Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), X. vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623)
primers in polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing of ITS region in identification and characterisation of the
isolates. Biolog tests revealed a wide range of isolates as xanthomonads, most of which were not amplified by the
Xcm and X. vasicola-specific primers. The X1623 primers amplified more isolates than those amplified by the
pathovar- and species-specific PCR primers. Sequencing of the 16-23 ITS region revealed that Xanthomonas
campestris pv. musacearum was only found in diseased bananas, while other Xanthomonas species than Xcm were
found in both symptomatic and symptomless bananas and these were members of group I xanthomonads. Some
of the isolates identified by Biolog as xanthomonads had 91% ITS sequence homology with Pseudoxanthomonas
suwonensis (a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae) and 90% with members of the genus Xanthomonas.
However none of the developed Xanthomonas PCRs amplified DNA of these isolates. In pathogenicity testing, only
isolates identified as Xcm by PCR were pathogenic on banana. The findings suggest the necessity of a combination
of approaches to identify and characterise plant associated bacteria and also reveals presence of other
xanthomonads and Xanthomonas-like bacteria in bananas.
Keywords: Xanthomonads, Xcm-specific PCR, X. vasicola-specific PCR, genus-specific PCR, Biolog, ITS sequencing.
51
A010
Emerging disease problems: The case of Sclerotium root rot of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
Paparu, P *., Mukankusi, C ., Nkalubo, S ., Acur, A ., Kato, F ., Acam, C ., Nakiibule, J ., Mawejje, D . and Ugen,
1
MA .
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084 Kampala, Uganda
2
Centro Internacional De Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), P.O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +256 784 240 230/+256 712 889 078 E-mail address: [email protected]
Abstract
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root rots cause an estimated yield loss of 221,000 metric tons per year in
sub-Saharan Africa. Pythium spp. and Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli (FSP) are known to cause severe root rots in
high altitude areas characterized by cool temperatures and high relative humidity. However, high incidences of
bean root rots are now observed in low and medium altitude bean agro-ecologies characterized by dry and warm
conditions. Our hypotheses were 1) pathogens other than Pythium spp. and FSP are responsible for the observed
upsurge in bean root rots, and 2) changing climatic conditions and intensified land use have led to changes in
prevalence and distribution of Pythium spp. and FSP. Our studies have now confirmed that a third pathogen,
Sclerotium rolfsii is responsible for the severe root rots observed in several bean agroecologies in Uganda. The
results of a survey in 36 districts in six bean agroecologies revealed that the incidence of S. rolfsii in 18 districts was
above 90%. The highest Sclerotium root rot severity of 84% was observed in Bugiri district in the Lake Victoria
Crescent and Mbale Farmlands agroecology. The agroecology that showed the highest Sclerotium root rot disease
incidence (85%) and severity (53%) was Northern Mixed Farming zone with districts such as (Amuru, Kiryadongo,
Lira and Oyam). This was closely followed by three other agroecologies i.e Lake Victoria Crescent and Mbale
Farmlands, Western Mixed Farming zone and Westnile Mixed Farming zone. Given the current significance of this
disease, the National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) has secured funding from British Biological
Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) to investigate important
aspects of this disease such Virulence and Genetic diversity of the pathogen, Susceptibility/Resistance of
varieties/breeding lines, Development of resistance markers, and Introgression of Sclerotium root rot resistance
into market-class varieties.
Keywords: Distribution, Growth rate, GPS Mapping, Morphological characterization and Sclerotia
52
SUB-THEME 1.5: ENTOMOLOGY
P019
Effect of temperature on the development, reproduction and mortality of Cylas brunneus (Fabricius)
(Coleoptera: Brentidae)
1,2
1
2
3
P. Musana , J.S. Okonya , S. Kyamanywa , and J. Kroschel
1
Global Program of Integrated Crop and Systems Research, International Potato Center (CIP), P.O. Box 22274,
Kampala, Uganda
2
School of Agricultural Sciences, Makerere University, Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3
Global Program of Integrated Crop and Systems Research, International Potato Center (CIP), P.O Box 1558, Lima
12, Peru
Author for correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas brunneus, is a serious insect pest of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in east
and west Africa. Knowledge on the influence of temperature on development, reproduction and mortality of this
pest is important in understanding its potential population growth and geographical distribution; and it is a prerequisite for developing pest control strategies for different agro-ecological zones. The effect of temperature on
the development of immature stages, reproduction and mortality of C. brunneus was studied at six constant (15,
20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and at a fluctuating temperature range of 22.9 ± 8.7 °C. At 15 °C and 40 °C, there was no
development and reproduction of C. brunneus. At 35 °C, only 41.0 ± 4.9 % of eggs hatched after 3.1 ± 0.1 days but
the larvae from these eggs did not pupate. Egg-laying was not possible at 35 °C. The developmental period from
eggs to adults tended to decrease with increasing temperature; at 20 °C the developmental period from egg to
adult was 48.2 ± 12.3 days, while at 30 °C was 30.4 ± 0.97 days. However at fluctuating temperature the
developmental was 50.3 ± 1.9 days. Similar trend was observed for larval and pupal development time. The mean
percentage mortality from egg to adult was 30.0 ± 7.9% at 25 °C and 77.0 ± 7.8 % at 20 °C. After emergence, adults
had a pre-oviposition period that ranged from 5.7 ± 0.1 days at 30 °C to 16.2 ± 0.7 days at 20 °C. The weevil
produced the most eggs (93.7 ± 12.1) at 25 °C and the least (26.3 ± 3.1) at 20 °C. Based on these life table data, the
optimal temperatures for C. brunneus population growth and development were within the range of 20 to 30 °C.
Key words: Weevil, Pest phenology, Life-table studies, Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas
P088
Field Pests of Cereals and Legumes and their Management Options in Arid and Semi-Arid Lowlands in Kenya
1
2
T. N. Mwangi &J. N. Mbugua
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 14733-00800
Nairobi Kenya
T. N. Mwangi ([email protected])& J. N. Mbugua ([email protected])
1&2
Abstract
The mid and lower Eastern Provinces of Kenya lies within the Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) regions of the
country. The region is generally characterised by low erratic rainfall and therefore experiences low food
production. However, even with erratic rainfall, there are some areas of high crop production during periods when
the rainfall is slightly above normal. Many of the new crop production technologies have increased crop yield even
without recourse to frequent use of synthetic chemical crop protection but, more typically, pesticides have been
53
promoted as an integral part of the modernization package. The mass communication media, agricultural
extension and advisory services have played a large part in introducing the new technologies and farming practices
to farmers. However control of field pests in the ASAL areas is still a big challenge since the warm climate is very
conducive to field pests. The fact that use of pesticides as a field pests management option has also not been fully
adopted, results into very high losses in the field. This greatly diminishes the limited harvests and therefore a
challenge to addressing food security. The researchers and Ministry of Agriculture Field Officers therefore need to
develop a pest management system that would build capacity of a few farmers in the ASAL regions to become
experts in decentralized pest management through practical, field-based learning methods. These “experts” would
then be engaged in training others farmers on pest management within their farms. A survey through focused
group discussionson field pests identified that farmers combined conventional methods of pest management and
Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) for pest control. The crops grown in these regions are: cowpeas
(Vignaunguiculata), green grams (Vignaradiata), pigeon peas (Cajanuscajan), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris),
dolicos(Lablab Purpureus), sorghum (Sorghum bicolour), pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum), finger millet
(Eleusinecoracana) cassava (Manihotesculenta), sweet potato (Ipomeabatatas) and pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima).
Training through participatory methods was therefore adopted as the best channel to enabled farmers make
informed decisions.Proper application of conventional pesticides was carried out with farmers in the group’s
demonstration plots. The aim was to train farmers in proper application of pesticides for higher adoption and also
to compare the differences in efficacy between their Indigenous Technical knowledge (ITK) and the conventional
methods.These farmers would then be agents to other farmers in adopting the conventional management options
for field pests. The training over and above increasing adoption of conventional management options for field
pests would enable farmers to choose the most effective and economic management options to use to protect
their crops. Reduction of field losses in these low production regions is critical for sustainable food security.
P098
Black Coffee Twig Borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Uganda: A first
report and its implications
Godfrey H. Kagezi (Corresponding author), Patrick Kucel, James P. Egonyu, Geladius Ahumuza, Lilian Nakibuule,
Judith Kobusinge, William W. Wagoire
National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), National Coffee Research Institute (NaCORI), P.O. Box 185
Mukono. [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract
Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of Uganda’s major cash crops. It is grown by 15,000-18,000 smallholder
households on an estimated 20,000 hectares. Cocoa contributes about US$65 million annually to the country’s
foreign exchange earnings. On account of its perennial nature and robust vegetative growth, cocoa harbors a wide
range of insect pests which affect its production. Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of the Black Coffee
Twig Borer (BCTB) Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on cocoa in Uganda. To determine its spread and
impact, we surveyed 20 households in Bundibugyo, Kibaale and Hoima districts in January 2014. On each
plantation, 10 cocoa trees were examined for BCTB infestation along a transect. Overall, >50% of cocoa
plantations, 13% of trees and 3.8% of primary branches were infested. At district level, Kibaale had the highest
proportions of infested plantations (100%), trees (30%) and primary branches (8.5%). In conclusion, our results
show that BCTB poses a serious threat to cocoa production in Uganda, which calls for immediate mitigation
actions. This is also likely to complicate the current BCTB spray program on coffee in this zone. We therefore
recommend a more comprehensive countrywide survey covering all major cocoa producing agro-ecological zones
to determine the national spread and impact levels.
Key words: Coffee-twig-borer, cocoa-production, cocoa-agroforestry-systems, cocoa-wilting Xylosandrouscompactus,
54
P172
Influence of cassava varieties on abundance of Bemisia tabaci and parasitoids species complex with emphasis on
biological control
1*
1
1
2
Aool Winnifred , R. Molo ,S. Adumo & C. Omongo
National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL), P.O. Box 7065. Kampala. Uganda.
2
National Crops Resource Research Institute, (NaCRRI) P.O.BOX 7084 Kampala Uganda
*
Corresponding author: [email protected]; Mobile phone: +256 777780872
1
Abstract
Cassava is an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. The cassava white
fly is not only a vector of cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases but has gained a pest status on cassava. A
study to determine the pest population on eleven cassava varieties was carried out in Namulonge. A countrywide
survey to determine whitefly populations on farm cultivated varieties was also done in six agro-ecological zones.
Cassava varieties significantly (P<0.05) varied in number of whiteflies they harbored and indigenous whitefly
parasitoids for biological control. Two indigenous parasitoids were recovered from the six agro-ecological zones
surveyed. Cassava varieties 192/0067, TME 14 and NASE 14 supported parasitoid population with parasitism
ranging between 4.7-13.8% and the highest parasitism rate was recorded on TME 14 for E. mundus. All cassava
varieties sustained low population of E. sophiae parasitoids with parasitism rates ranging from 0.4- 2.8 %. The
current parasitism levels by the indigenous white fly parasitoid species alone or in combination were however
quite low. To achieve effective biological control of the cassava white fly on cassava in the region, additional
parasitoids need to be introduced
Key words: Cassava white fly, parasitoids, cassava varieties, biological control
P195
The Incidence of African Rice Gall Midge Orseolia oryzivora and its Parasitoids in lowland rice growing areas
1,2,*
1
1
1
1
2
M.Ekobu , M.Otim , J.Lamo , S.Alibu , S.Adur , and S. Kyamanywa
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI).
2
College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University.
*Corresponding Author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
African rice gall midge (AfRGM), Orseolia oryzivora is one of the most damaging and increasing insect pest problem
of lowland rice production in Uganda. Attack by the pest can result in total crop failure in areas where it is
endemic. Two parasitoids (Platygaster diplosisae, Hym: Platygastridae and Aprostocetus procerae, Hym:
Eulophidae) have been identified with the potential to suppress AfRGM population. In the current study, we
assessed the incidence of AfRGM and related it with abiotic factors (rainfall, relative humidity and temperature)
and biotic factors (P. diplosisae, and A. procerae,) in two eco-sites of Doho Rice Irrigation Scheme and Olweny Rice
Irrigation Scheme for two years. The incidence of AfRGM and efficiency of the parasitoids to suppress the pest
were significantly influenced by abiotic factors (rainfall, relative humidity and temperature). Percentage
infestation increased with increase in rainfall and relative humidity. The trend was similar at both locations with
the highest infestation recorded in August, and decreased in November. At both locations, percentage tiller
infestation was greater in the rainy season of 2012 with more frequent rains than in 2013, with highest infestation
recorded at Olweny in both years. Percentage Parasitism by the two parasitoids was found to have significant
correlation with the abiotic factors. Heavy rains and high humidity significantly reduced the efficiency of the two
parasitoids. In contrast, the population and efficiency of the parasitoids were observed to increase with reducing
rainfall, RH, but increasing temperature thus increasing the efficiency of the parasitoids later in the season with up
to 75% parasitism when combined, with P. diplosisae dominating the field. The results suggest that abiotic factors
55
played significant role on the incidence of AfRGM and the efficiency of these parasitoids and should be considered
in the adoption of these parasitoids as bio-control agents of AfRGM. Identification and management of parasitoid
refugia around rice fields is one of the ways that can be promoted so as to constantly control the AfRGM.
Keywords: Orseolia oryzivora, Platygaster diplosisae, Aprostocetus procerae, abiotic factors
56
SUB-THEME 1.6: FOOD BIO-SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING
P015
Acceptability nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of solar-dried and conventionally dried leafy
vegetables processed in Ngora district, Uganda
1
1
2
2
Natabirwa H., Mukiibi J., Zziwa E., and Kabirizi J.,
National Agricultural Research Laboratories
2
National Livestock Resources Research Institute
1
Abstract
Green leafy cowpea vegetables indigenous to northern and eastern parts of Uganda, processed and packaged in
Ngora district Uganda, were assessed for their nutrient content, acceptability and physicochemical changes during
storage. The vegetables either blanched or in raw form, were subjected to open sun drying or solar drying and
packaged in HDPE gauge 200. Proximate analysis of nutrients revealed no significant differences in protein, fat,
carbohydrate, ash, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium contents; except for dietary fibre, zinc
and total carotenoids. Nutrient contents on dry weight basis ranged from 4.38 to 8.62% for moisture, 28.07 to
29.40% for protein, 20.12 to 21.65% for carbohydrates, 1.68 to 2.28% for fat, 19.57 to 29.48 for fibre and 10.60 to
11.00% for ash. Higher dietary fibre and total carotenoid content occurred in blanched solar dried cowpea leaves.
Acceptability scores (p<0.05) were not significantly different for appearance, taste, flavor, and texture, save for the
control. Water activity ranged from 0.34 to 0.54. Positive L values (37.900.58 to 44.95 0.09) indicative of light
green to green, negative a values (-7.28 0.13 to -4.15  0.06) and positive b values (3.450.17 to 9.25 +1.10) for
the raw-dried and blanched green leafy cowpea vegetable, respectively, were obtained. Marked increases in
browning index and total color difference were observed. In conclusion drying blanched-dried cowpea green leafy
vegetables formed more stable and acceptable products than the raw dried vegetables. Blanched solar dried
cowpea leafy vegetables were more acceptable and could be recommended for the market.
Key words: green leafy vegetables, nutrient content, physicochemical properties, drying, acceptability
P032
The effect of artisanal preservation methods on nutritional quality of Mukene Rastrineobola argentea caught
from lakes; Victoria and Kyoga - Uganda
1
2
M.Masette and J.Kwetegyeka
Food Bio-Sciences Research Centre NARO- Kawanda, PO BOX 7065 KAMPALA UGANDA
2
Department of Chemistry, Kyambogo University, PO BOX 1 KYAMBOGO KAMPALA, UGANDA
Corresponding author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
The artisanal fish preservation methods in Uganda are characterized by extreme operating conditions.
Consequently, vital nutritional components diminish in value and quantity which renders fish consumer
nutritionally insecure. To establish the magnitude of nutritional loss, duplicate samples of Mukene Rastrineobola
argentea were collected from Kiyindi landing site on L. Victoria and Moone landing site on L. Kyoga. Each set of
duplicate samples was divided into five portions and kept on ice. For each preservation method a portion was
processed into respective products at Food Bioscience and Agri-Business Laboratories aside from the control
(fresh) sample. Both preserved and control samples were analysed for nutrient loss at Department of Chemistry,
Makerere University using AOAC methods. The composition of fatty acids was determined by methanolysis gas
chromatography and Mass spectrophotometry of the resultant methyl esters. The results indicate that nutrients of
57
all preserved samples did not vary significantly from the control except for some fatty acids. The Eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA) in fresh samples declined from 6.72% to 1.08% in deep-fried samples constituting 83.93% of loss. The
sum ratio ω3:ω6 as well as EPA: DHA (Docosahexaenoic) ratio in fried samples was between 0.043 and 0.040 for L.
Victoria and L. Kyoga Mukene respectively. Compared to other artisanal methods with average EPA: DHA sum ratio
ω3:ω6 of 0.665, the loss caused by deep-frying was significant at p<05. Further research should be undertaken to
ascertain the causative factor, since Mukene frying is being promoted in the Great lakes region as alternative
method to sun-drying. In conclusion, regular consumers of fried Mukene do not benefit much from the nutritional
attributes of Omega 3 and 6.
Key words Omega 3 and 6, Mukene, and nutritional security
P033
Potential of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) fruit for improved incomes among farmers in Northern and Eastern
Uganda
1
2
3
4
Masette M, Candia A, Mwesigwa B. and Aluoch-Achieng G
Food Bio-Sciences Research Centre (FBA), P. O. Box 7065 Kampala, Uganda
2
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre (AEATREC), P. O. Box 7065 Kampala,
Uganda
3
Rwebitaba Agricultural Research and Development Institute (RWEBIZARDI) P. O. Box 96 Fort Portal
4
Hometech Food Processors (U) Limited (HFP) P. O. Box 22853 Kampala
Corresponding author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) is a multi-purpose tree that grows wildly in Uganda. Virtually every part of the tree
is utilised in food preparations or medicines. However, its exploitable potential in Uganda has not been
established. A three year study from July 2010 to June 2013 was conducted to establish the exploitable potential
based on product development in relation to market demands and opportunities. Four products were developed
from sweet and sour provenances of the fruit and organoleptically tasted by controlled taste panel. To test product
acceptability and commercial viability, 437 potential consumers from two regions; North-Eastern and Western
Uganda were engaged in the exercise. Results indicated that 34% of respondents in North-Eastern districts sold
500g fruit bundle at UGX 200/= and 100 Kg at UGX 7,000 before the inception of the study. After promotion of the
developed products, the bundle was sold at UGX 1,500 and 100 Kg at UGX 100,000/=. The change in price was
attributed to the awareness created among farmers about the economic potential of tamarind fruit when valueadded. The number of large scale traders that entered the tamarind trade increased from 10 to 200. Most
consumers (76%) preferred sour provenances for culinary purposes as food enhancers. Of the products developed,
jam and marmalade were most preferred (87%) followed by sauce and tam-chilli at 34% and 23% respectively.
Preference for jam and marmalade was reflected in the average willing price of UGX 5,760/= and 3,900/= for 250gjars respectively. Generally, consumers in the Western region offered higher prices than their counterparts in
North and Eastern region. The male buyers consistently offered 15% higher than the female counterparts. It was
therefore concluded that tamarind fruit can be transformed into commercially value-added products and can be a
source of income for farmers and processors in Uganda.
Key words: Tamarind fruit, value-addition, consumer preference, Uganda.
58
P131
The Effect of Grain Splitting on Biology and Development of Callosobruchus Maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Storage
1
1
1
1
1
H.Muyinza , M. Komurembe , A. Lugoloobi , G. Musitalla And G. Aguti
Food Biosciences and Agribusiness Programme, National Agricultural Research Laboratories Kawanda, P.O. Box
7065 Kampala, Uganda. Corresponding author Email: [email protected]
1
Abstract
Bruchids belonging to Callosobruchus spp. Order Coleoptera, are the main storage loss causative pests on cowpea
grains in East Africa. Losses have been estimated to be as high as 5-15% within a few months of storage at farmers’
level. In this study the effect of grain splitting on the biology of C. maculatus was investigated. The cowpea grain
treatments compared included split grains + no testa, split grains with testa, compared with whole un-split cowpea
grains. Gravid female 4-day old C. maculatus were allowed to oviposit on the cowpea grain which had been preconditioned to 12% moisture content, then removed. Data on oviposition, adult eclosion and weights of emergent
adults were collected over 3 weevil development generations. Mean separations were done using Analysis of
Variance. There was significant reduction (P< 0.05) in oviposition and emergent adults for C. maculatus at F1, F2
and F3 generations on spilt compared to whole grains. Mean oviposition levels on split grain without testa was
with only 1.3 ± 1 eggs compared to 258 ± 14 eggs in the controls at F3. Oviposition levels reduced with generation
time in all the treatments. The control had the highest adult weevil emergence and mean adult weevil weights
(78.8 ± 6.9) with no emergent adults from completely split grains at F3. Mean weevils were highest in the controls
and reduced with generation time with least adult weights from the split grain. In this study we conclude that grain
splitting reduces development of C. maculatus spp. and could be a viable option in the integrated management of
this bruchid pest during storage at farmer level.
Key words: Grain splitting, Callosobruchus maculatus, biology
P150
Proximate composition and mineral contents of Alestes baremoze (Angara) fillets in relation to fish size
N. Kasozi¹, G.I. Degu¹, A. Denis¹, J. Mukalazi¹ and E.kalany²
¹ Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute P. O Box 219, Arua- Uganda
²Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere
University, P O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
Abstract
The proximate and mineral contents of Alestes baremoze from Lake Albert were determined using standard
procedures. The samples were divided into three different size groups; below 1kg (880–990g), 1 to 1.5kg and 1.6 to
2.5kg. On wet weight basis, there were no significant differences (p >0.05) in crude protein and ash content
among the different fish sizes. However, there were significant differences (p <0.05) in crude fat, carbohydrate,
gross energy and vitamin A. The crude fat (0.35%) carbohydrate (0.37%) and gross energy (597.6Kcal/100g) were
significantly higher in medium sized fish (1 to 1.5 kg) compared to larger fish. Vitamin A contents of different fish
sizes were found to be in the range of 55.1– 75.3 μg RAE/100g. The contents of magnesium and iron were highest
in sizes below 1kg (5.34mg/100g) and (3.58mg/100g) respectively. It was observed that potassium content
(339.33mg/100g) and calcium (29.75mg/100g) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish above 1.5kg. These findings
suggest that taste, freshness and other related external appearances should not be the only factors to be
considered in making choice for marketing and consumption of Alestes baremoze.
Key words: Alestes baremoze, Lake Albert, mineral content, proximate composition
59
P171
Postproduction factors affecting the safety of locally processed cassava products in Uganda.
1, 2*
1
2
Khakasa, E. , Nicolaides, L. , and Masette, M.
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, ME4 4TB, Kent
2
National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL), P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda
*Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256712931761)
1
Abstract
Safety of cassava chips and flours on the Ugandan market is still uncertain. We investigated the causative factors
and found that most common postproduction failures were due to unpredictable rains wetting chips, oversized
raw chips, inadequate drying times and storage facilities. In addition, storage pests, and lack of care by laborers
during production exacerbated the safety status of cassava products. Most farmers did not wash their chips (84%);
0.8% used graters; 47.5% dried on bare ground which was unsafe for subsequent products.
Key words: Cassava, Moulds, Aflatoxins, Safety
P174
Efficiency of the different processing methods for reduction of cyanide content in cassava products
1
Nuwamanya E , E. Atwijukire, S. Acheng, G. Einau, C.Omongo
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256-771-881992)
1
Abstract
The relatively high content of cyanogens is some popular cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties justifies the
need for optimal processing technologies. Thus a study was carried out in the bitter cassava growing regions of
western Uganda and West Nile region to assess the type of home based and local processing methods used and
suggest techniques for their improvement. It was found out that over 90% of the households use cyanogenic
varieties such as Kalinga and Rutuga in Western Uganda and Tongolo and PDB in west Nile. Some popular varieties
such as NASE 3 and TME 14 which are known to be cyanogenic were also used. In addition, a number of primary
(peeling and drying of cassava) and secondary (chipping and fermentation followed by drying) processing methods
were used. These methods had the ability of reducing the cyanide content up to between 75-87%. However, with
most of the varieties having high cyanide contents between 1200-1500 ppm in the fresh root, a significant amount
of cyanogenic glucosides (180-300 ppm) were left after processing against the FAO and WHO standards of 10-50
ppm, posing a danger to the consumers. Therefore, improvements on the available primary and secondary
processing were suggested including soaking of the tubers in running water streams and increased processing
times to allow for removal of significant cyanide levels. In addition, a number of tertiary processing methods such
as combined soaking and fermentation, roasting of milled flour and production of cassava composites were tested
and found to reduce the cyanide levels by over 98% leaving residual cyanide between 5-30 ppm. We suggest that
the appropriate methods (tertiary methods and stringent secondary processing) be popularized and used to
substantially reduce the cyanogenic potential of cassava products and improve on related nutritional disorders
arising from cyanide poisoning.
Key words: Cassava, Cyanogenic potential, Processing, Nutritional disorders
60
P176
Application of Low Pressure Water Scrubbing technique for increasing methane level in Biogas
1
2
2
Walozi R ., Nabuuma B . and Sebbit A .
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre P. O. Box 7065 Kampala
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology, Makerere University,
P.O. Box 7062, Kampala-Uganda
Corresponding author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
For many developing nations, biogas has traditionally been used for household cooking and lighting. In an effort to
increase its range of uses and facilitate its storage and transportation, raw biogas has to be upgraded. Upgrading
biogas improves its volumetric energy content by removing incombustible carbon dioxide (CO2) and potentially
corrosive constituents such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and moisture. This study set out to upgrade biogas from
55.8% CH4, 43% CO2, 0.85% oxygen (O2), 75.1 ppm H2Sto >80% methane and non-traceable H2S without enhancing
raw biogas pressure. By using a single scrubber column and varying water scrubbing system operating parameters
of packing material type, packing depth, water and gas flow rates, appropriate parameters for achieving the above
objective were determined. The experiments were carried out at an average digester pressure of 1.0589bar.
Results show that for a column packed with steel-wire mesh to a depth of 0.4m it is possible to increase the
volumetric percentage of CH4 in biogas to >80% for water to gas flow rate ratios 1.9 and above. Increasing the
packed depth to 0.8m increases volumetric percentage of CH4 in upgraded biogas to 80% at a lower ratio of 0.7.
3
This increase in packed depth resulted in an improvement from 1800 liters to 700 liters of water for every m of
raw biogas upgraded. However, to achieve >80% CH4 in marble packed columns of similar depths, the water to gas
flow rate ratio has to be raised above 2.5.
Key words: Biogas upgrading, Methane, Packed column, Renewable energy, Water scrubbing
P191
Adaption of an improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice varieties in Uganda: the case of Kaiso
variety
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
Candia A., Lamo J., Obeti G. L., Yawe J., Adur O. S. E., Saasa A. R., Muzei J., Olupot J., Epiku S, Okiror W. and
Mutinda I
1
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre P. O. Box 7065 Kampala
2
Cereals Program, National Crops Resources Research Institute P.O Box … Kampala
Corresponding author Candia Alphonse E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
1
Abstract:
Kaiso and Supa are the main current local swamp rice varieties of Uganda. These varieties are grown on small
garden sizes (0.5 – 2ha) by smallholder farmers. Due to such small garden size these farmers dry the paddy using
the cheap open-sun drying method either on tarpaulin, cemented floor or bare ground. In most cases the paddy is
badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and
head rice in the milled rice. Compared to other varieties, the mill recovery and head rice levels in the milled rice of
these varieties are ostensibly low. The purpose of this study was therefore to improve the open-sun drying method
being practiced by these farmers under the Ugandan weather conditions with a viewing to increasing the mill
recovery and head rice levels in the milled rice. The pre-dominant Kaiso variety was used as the raw material in the
study. The study started by determining the optimum paddy drying death using open-sun on cemented floor. In
each experiment, the paddy was open-sun dried on cemented floor at ten different depths: control, 30mm, 40mm,
50mm, 60mm, 70mm, 80mm, 90mm, 100mm and 110mm. The results showed the optimum paddy drying depth
61
was between 70-80mm. However at these depths, the paddy takes 7 – 8 days to dry. To reduce on the drying time,
paddy was set to dry at 80mm depth for two days. It was then divided into three different depths: 80mm; 80
reduced to 40mm and 80 reduced to 30mm. The results showed that samples whose drying depths were reduced
to 40mm and 30mm took four days to dry while samples whose depths remained at 80mm took 7-8 days. It was
observed that there no significant differences in mill recovery values (p = 0.2968 >0.05) and head rice levels (p =
0.5890 >0.05). Improvement index in mill recovery was 1.14 and that of head rice was 1.24. Average aflatoxin level
in the samples whose depth was reduced to 40mm was 4.8ppb and that reduced to 30mm was 2.3ppb. From these
results Kaiso variety should therefore be dried at 80mm depth for two days and drying depth should be reduced
between 30 and 40mm. It is also recommended that the method be tested with other swamp varieties before
general conclusion is drawn that it can work for all swamp varieties.
Key words: paddy drying depth, mill recovery, head rice, improvement index
P192
Application of digital elevation modelling for mapping areas where hydraulic ram pumps can be used in Uganda
Oker E. T., Wanyama J., Mutumba C., Candia A., Okurut S., Saasa R., Muzei J., Emapus B.
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre P. O. Box 7065 Kampala
Abstract
Hydraulic ram pumps can be used for pumping water for small-scale irrigation; basically 0.25 – 1 acre fields. Since
they do not need fuel or electricity to run, they are particularly relevant to rural areas, which are usually short of
conventional energy sources. However, hydraulic ram pumps cannot be installed at any random point along a
river/stream because they require specific minimum river/stream gradients, over a short distance, for installation
and operation. The most technically compliant locations for hydraulic ram pump installation are locations where
there are waterfalls but these are usually difficult to find along a stream; especially at an accessible location. This
study examines the application of digital elevation modelling analysis (DEMA) for generating a map of locations
along streams in Uganda where hydraulic ram pumps could work in principle. The immediate secondary benefit of
this work would be the identification of additional areas which be brought under small-scale irrigation. For
comparison of actual physical stream/river properties, with results from DEMA, technical engineering survey data
was collected from selected streams in the districts of Kapchorwa, Mbale, Kabarole, Kasese, Arua, Maracha and
Zombo. Data collected include: GPS location of waterfall along the stream; vertical height of the waterfall, width of
the stream at location of waterfall and flow. SRTM and ASTER DEM data at 90 m and 30 m resolution respectively
was used for the digital elevation model analysis. Model development was carried out using ArcHydro component
of ArcGIS 10.0 to generate watershed models of locations (and thus drainage lines) where technical engineering
surveys were done. A comparison between field measured data and their corresponding locations on the
watershed model was done. Key interests are: differences of waterfall height measured on site and GPS location
on the watershed map generated by DEMA. The accuracy differences between SRTM and ASTER DEM are also
examined with the intention of measuring error significance. Preliminary results show waterfall locations can be
generated by DEMA. However concerns about local minima that are missed by DEMA are valid questions that form
the basis of continuing work.
Key words: Ram pumps, applicable locations, Uganda
62
P193
Physio-chemical properties of rice varieties/brands/cultivars in Uganda: precursor for human health and
nutrition.
1
2
1
1
Masette M, Candia A, Mwase I and Katende D
Food Bio-Sciences Research Centre (FBA), P. O. Box 7065 Kampala, Uganda
2
Agricultural Engineering & Appropriate Technology Research Centre (AEATREC), P. O. Box 7065 Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
The physio-chemical properties of rice varieties/brands/cultivars in Uganda are poorly understood although they
can be enhanced as precursors for human health and nutrition. To establish their potential, duplicate samples of 7
imported rice varieties and 6 locally grown varieties were purchased from Kampala supermarkets and Cereals
Program, Namulonge respectively. Duplicate samples were analysed for digestibility and nutrient composition
using female weaning mice and AOAC methods respectively. The results indicated that the mean apparent
digestibility across the rice varieties was 95.8± 0.3%. Punjabi white rice had the highest digestibility at 97.4% and
Tilda Kibimba rice with the lowest at 93.5%. In comparison, the local varieties had lower digestibility index than
imported varieties although the difference was not significant at the 0.05 (p=0.8861). The macro-nutrients in all
rice varieties namely fat, ash and fibre were below 2%, protein content varied between 8-10%, carbohydrate
varied between 64-74% and mean caloric value was 4000Kcal/g. The micro-nutrients namely zinc and iron varied
between 10-30 mg/g and 25-60 mg of iron and zinc respectively with Nerica 10 & 1 presenting highest values.
There was a strong negative insignificant (r (8) = -0.52, p > 0.05) correlation between crude fibre and digestibility
index of all rice cultivars. It was concluded that though the digestibility index of local varieties was not significantly
different from imported varieties, the slight difference detected between local Supa and Tilda Kibimba and
imported Punjabi white may be used as an entry point for culinary improvement. Further research was
recommended to investigate the relationship between chemical constituents (fibre starch: amylose & amylopectin)
and digestibility.
Key words: Digestibility index, zinc, iron, rice cultivars and Uganda
P194
Thermo-chemical and physical properties of rice husks from selected rice varieties in Uganda
1*
2
3
2
P. W. Olupot , A. Candia , E. Menya , R. Walozi,
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology, Makerere University,
P.O. Box 7062, Kampala-Uganda
2
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Center, P.O. Box 7065, Kampala-Uganda
3
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Gulu University, P.O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda
*
Corresponding Author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This study set out to investigate the properties of husks from ten selected rice varieties in Uganda. Rice samples
were collected from one geographical region in Uganda, identically milled, and the husks finely ground for analysis.
The characterization involved physical, proximate, ultimate, thermal, lignin, hemi-cellulose and cellulose
composition analyses. These were executed in accordance with the relevant standard protocols for each. The
-3
samples exhibited bulk density of 23.3 to 41.8kgm , moisture content of 9.16 to 11.21%wb, volatile matter content
of 58.8 to 66.4%wb, ash content of 15.87 to 22.56%db and fixed carbon of 14.8 to 17.8%db, carbon content of 30
to 35%db and carbon to nitrogen ratio of 54:1 to 87:1. The higher heating values (HHV) of the husks ranged
between 12.8 to 14.54MJ/kg, lignin 10.6 to 13.5%db, hemicelluloses 11.4 to 20%db and cellulose 31 to 37%db. The
carbon, hydrogen and moisture contents make the samples desirable for energy applications. The low bulk
63
densities necessitate that the husks should be densified by briquetting or pelletizing, but this requires the addition
of binders due to their low lignin content. The low volatile matter content in samples is good for thermo-chemical
conversion processes particularly gasification due to a reduced risk of tar production, however the high ash
content of the samples may affect smooth operation of the gasifiers. The observed HHV offer good prospects for
converting rice husk fuel into renewable energy via either direct utilization for combustion or converting into other
forms of energy products prior to its utilization as a source of energy through gasification and pyrolysis among
others, yielding products such as char, bio-oil and pyrolysis gas. Although the low lignin and high cellulose contents
in the husks suit them for biochemical conversion processes, the carbon to nitrogen ratios are higher than required
for both optimum biogas production and composting.
Keywords: rice husks, energy, thermo-chemical, biochemical, briquetting
P198
Evaluation of power tiller in improving labour productivity of smallholder rice farmers for ploughing, seeding
and weeding
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
S. Okurut, R.A. Saasa, S. Nishino, T. Takahata, W. Okiror, I. Mutinda, , J. Olupot, and D. Kafeero,
1
Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda;
2
Japan Association for International Collaboration of Agriculture and Forestry, Japan;
Corresponding author: Samuel Okurut: [email protected]
1
Abstract
An empirical test was conducted at farmers’ fields in Seetabaale Village, Busukuma Sub County, Wakiso district in
Uganda. Operation time and fuel consumption were measured in order to evaluate labour productivity on
mechanical labour fields and manual labour fields during ploughing, seeding and weeding of rain-fed lowland rice.
A traction-type power tiller was used to work in the mechanical labour fields while and traditional manpower tools
were used to work in manual labour fields. Within 1 hectare of rain-fed lowland rice field, total labour productivity
for ploughing seeding and weeding improved by 37 times due to mechanization. The indices of improvement rate
using a power tiller for first ploughing with mouldboard plough, second ploughing with disc plough and manual
clod breaking, seeding with a 4-row seeder and weeding with a 2-row weeder were 17.5, 21.1, 39.3 and 82.9
respectively. Fuel necessary for farming labour per 1 hectare was approximately 22 litres which was around 77,000
Uganda shillings. The add-up cost of workers in order to complete the necessary work by manual operations is very
high. Farming land extension by manual work under family management is not possible for small-scale farmers.
Shortage of farm labour and low productivity in rice farming can therefore be enhanced through use of machinery.
Key words: Rice; Power tiller; Farming; Labour; productivity
64
SUB-THEME 1.7: LIVESTOCK SCIENCES
P013
Factors influencing acaricide failure in cattle in Uganda
1
1
1
1
1
1
Halid Kirunda *, Charles Ssekitto , Nelson Muwereza , Richard Alingu , Keneth S. Gyagenda , Patrick Emudong ,
1
1
1
Susan D. Kerfua , Paul D. Kasaija , and Fredrick Kabi
1
National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
Corresponding author*: Halid Kirunda: Phone contact: +256772927430; Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Uganda has recently had field reports of acaricide resistance by ticks and increased incidence of East Coast fever in
several parts of the country. Yet, resistance of ticks to acaricides (synthetic pyrethroids and amitraz) had also been
demonstrated in the country. This study was undertaken to establish factors influencing acaricide resistance by
ticks. It was conducted in 18 districts located in 8 of the 10 Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Uganda. Using a semistrctured questionnaire, 384 farmers/cattle attendants were interviewed. Generated data was analysed for
descriptive statistics and existence of relationships. Analysis was done using logistic regression computing for chi2
square (χ ) and odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence interval. The study observed that 9 factors were influencing
acaricide resistance. These included: sex of farmer, age of farmer, grazing system, method of restraint during
acaricide application, method of acaricide application, source of acaricide, class of acaricide used, acaricide
reconstitution procedure and farmer’s access to extension services. Factors influencing acaricide resistance were
spread across all the study AEZs. Policy reforms on choice, sourcing and use of acaricides, as well as improvement
of the extension services in Uganda are recommended.
P014
Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in cattle of different host factors in Eastern and Northern
Uganda in 2008 and 2013
1*
1
1
1
Halid Kirunda , Nelson Muwereza , Paul D. Kasaija and Susan D. Kerfua
National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), P.O Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
*Corresponding Author: Email: [email protected]
1
Abstract
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, Small Colony, is one of
the most important transboundary diseases of cattle in Uganda. A study was undertaken to establish the
prevalence of the disease during 2008 and 2013. This was undertaken in eastern and northern Uganda. Areas with
CBPP outbreaks during 2008 - 2013 were selected during each sampling visit. A total of 1,001 and 512 sera were
(R)
collected in 2008 and 2013, respectively. All sera were tested by Competitive ELISA and BoviLAT Latex
Agglutination Test. The study observed average prevalence of 25.1% in 2008 and 22.5% in 2013. Although age, sex
and functional status of host animal did not have influence on prevalence of cattle to CBPP, prevalence was lowest
among cattle of less than 1 year age of age and those above 10 years during both study periods. In female cattle it
was 53.0% during 2008 and 34.5 in 2013. Among males, it was 47.0% and 35.9% during 2008 and 2013,
respectively. Prevalence was highest in pregnant cattle in both 2008 (20.7%) and 2013 (38.1%). There has been no
much variation in the prevalence of CBPP in eastern and northern Uganda during the last 5 years.
65
P016
Isolation and Quantification of Enterohaemmorrhagic Escherichia coli in milk in Uganda
1*
1
1
1
1
1
NelsonMuwereza , Halid Kirunda , Tonny Kabuuka , Susan.D.Kerfua , Patrick Emudong and Paul D. Kasaija
*Nelson Muwereza, National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda;
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli including Enterohaemorrhagic serotype is one of the milk-borne zoonotic
pathogens that globally cause sickness to millions of people each year. While E. coli has previously been isolated in
the environment, milk and other foods, no study had confirmed isolation of the highly pathogenic
Enterohaemmorrhagic E. coli. Yet, the occurrence of this pathogen in milk in Uganda had earlier been
hypothesised. The study aimed at isolation and quantification of Enterohaemmorrhagic E. coli in milk from a
sampled district in the milk shed in Uganda. A total of 200 and 120 fresh milk samples were collected from zero
grazing units and milk collection centres, respectively. Culture and isolation were undertaken using Sorbittol
MacConkey. Presence of the pathogen was then confirmed using Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Simmons Citrate Agar and
Indole test. The amount of E. coli in milk was quantified by determining the colony forming units (CFUs) per 100
millilitres of the sample. From the samples, 5 field strains of Enteroheamorrhagic E. coli were isolated. The average
CFUs/100 millilitre of milk was 590,000. The study confirmed occurrence of Enteroheamorrhagic E. coli in milk
from the study district, suggesting a risk of consuming milk contaminated with Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli toxins.
P021
Value of Crop Residues, Agro-Industrial Byproducts and Non-Protein Nitrogen in Cattle Nutrition Under AgroPastoral Systems in Uganda.
Ocen George William, NaLIRRI, P.O. Box 96, Tororo
Abstract
Cattle play a pivotal role in social and economic welfare of the agro-pastoral communities in Uganda. The major
challenge to cattle production in the agro-pastoral systems however, is nutrition, yet in this country there exist
vast amounts of feed resources that can make a major impact on cattle production. This article describes the part
non-conventional feed resources (crop residues, agro-industrial byproducts and non-protein nitrogen) can play in
enhancing cattle productivity under the agro-pastoral systems in this country focusing on the principles and
strategies involved in their utilization. Special emphasis is given to the supplementation of maize stover with
cotton seed cake, molasses, urea, poultry waste and immature elephant grass. The paper also presents a strategy
that mobilizes available feed resources in the country to ensure sustainable cattle production - a strategy that is
backed by research data from both on-farm and on-station feeding trials using maize stover (crop residues); cotton
seed cake and molasses (agro-industrial byproducts); and urea and poultry manure (non-protein nitrogen
sources). Studies with these non-conventional feed resources show that there is an urgent need in this country to
develop low-cost feeding packages utilizing these resources especially for dry season feeding, and to adopt
integrated farming systems in which livestock production complements crop production for efficient and
sustainable use of resources and environment protection. From all studies conducted by the author it can be
concluded that non-conventional feed resources can be used economically and efficiently to support moderate
live-weight gains in cattle on poor natural pastures all year round.
Key words: crop residues, agro-industrial byproducts, non-protein nitrogen, cattle nutrition,
systems.
agro-pastoral
66
P034
In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility Using Rumen Liquor From Slaughtered Or Fistulated Cattle As The Inoculum
Source
1
2
2
2
G.A. Beyihayo , R. Omaria , C. Namazzi , A. Atuhaire
Makerere University Kampala, College of Agricultural and Environmental Studies
2
National Livestock Resources Research Institute-NARO
Corresponding author,E-mail:[email protected]
1
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to compare theIn-vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) of four diets using two
sources of inocula; 1) slaughtered and 2) fistulated steers. Four fistulated steers wereassembled and fed on four
experimental diets in a Latin Square change-over arrangement. The steers were fed on Brachiariamolato hay as a
basal diet supplemented with a 13% crude protein concentrate at 0% (diet 1), 10% (diet 2), 20% (diet 3) and 30%
(diet 4) of dry matter intake. The two-stage Tilley and Terry (1963) method of nutrient digestibility was
used.Rumen content from slaughtered cattle was collected into pre-warmed vacuum flasks immediately after
slaughter and transported to the laboratory within one hour. Rumen content from fistulated steers was collected
before morning feeding. In the laboratory, while flushing with CO2, rumen content from slaughtered and fistulated
o
cattle was squeezed through cheese cloth into beakers placed in a water bath set at 39 C. The overall INVDMD
significantly increased with dietary crude protein levels (P < 0.05). The diet-liquor source interaction did not differ
significantly (P > 0.05). Rumen fluid from slaughtered cattle as a source of inoculum can successfully replace use of
fistulated cattle as the source of inoculum.
Key words: Fistulated cattle, Inocula,In-vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD), rumen content.
P048
Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed Aflatoxin contaminated feed ration with calcium bentonite and
activated charcoal on aflatoxin M1concentration, excretion and carryover in milk
1
1
2
Swidiq Mugerwa , Jolly Kabirizi and Emmanuel Zziwa
National Livestock Resources Research Organization, Tororo-Uganda
2
Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa, Entebbe-Uganda
1
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to find out the concentration, total excretion and carry- over of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)
into milk as AFM1. Nine crossbred lactating goats were randomly divided into three groups of three eachbased on
the level of milk production. Commercial AflatoxinB1(AFB1) was administered to all groups at the rate of 100 ppb in
the diet. Group I served as control (T1). In group II (T2) calcium bentonite (CaB), and in group III (T3), activated
charcoal (AC), were added at the rate of 1% of DMI. There was no effect (P>0.05) of aflatoxin and/or adsorbent on
DMI (kg per day) and daily milk yield (kg per day) during the experimental period of 14 days. The AFM1
concentration (µ/l), excretion (µg per day) and carry-over (%) of AFB1 in T1 continued to increase with the passage
of time, whereas, the same was seen to decline in the adsorbent fed groups T2 and T3. The results are suggestive
that that supplementation of CaB or AC at 1% of DMI for lactating goats resulted in significant reduction inAFM1
content of milk and carryover of aflatoxin from feed to milk without causing any change in composition of milk.
67
P053
Gastro-intestinal nematode infections in commercial goat farms in Gomba District, Central Uganda
1
1
2
Nsereko Godfrey, Patrick Emudong and James Okwee-Acai
2
National Animal Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), P. O Box 96 Tororo, Uganda, Department of Pharmacy,
Clinical and Comparative Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, P O Box 7062, Kampala,
Uganda
1
Abstract
Fecal egg counts and morphologic larval identification in coprocultureswere used to estimate burden and
prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) in three (3) commercial goat farms in Gomba District of
Central Uganda. Fecal egg counts expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of fecal matter were used to study GIN
infection patterns according breed, age and sex of the goat (n=470). Overall, the mean GIN prevalence in the goats
was 44%. Breed and sex of the goats had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on worm prevalence or burden. However,
in kids below six (6) months of age, mean epg steadily decreased inversely with age of the goat. At above six (7-10)
months of age, mean epg steadily increased with age with the highest mean increase (700epg) occurring in goats
aged nine months. Haemonchuscontortus (56%), Oesophagostomum species (33%) and strongylodes species (11%)
were the only nematode species identified on coprocultures. In conclusion, haemonchosis remains the most
predominant GIN infection constraining goat production in commercial goat farms in Uganda. However, the low
prevalence (44%) and burden (406 mean epg) of GIN infections observed is indicative of a relatively effective worm
control measures on the study farms.
Keywords: Gastro-intestinal nematodes, commercial goat farms, Uganda
P072
Factors affecting conception rates in Bos indicus following embryo transfer
1, 2
1
2
2
3
3
Ongubo, M. N.* , Lusweti F. N. , Kios D. K. , Rachuonyo, H. A, Kitilit J.K. , Musee, K. , Tonui W. K , Lokwaleput I.
1
2
K. and Oliech G.O.
1
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 450-30200, KITALE
2
University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125, ELDORET
3
Agricultural Development Corporation, P.O. Box 917-30200, KITALE
[email protected],
Abstract
Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) plays an important role in improving productivity in dairy cattlele. The ETT
allows top quality female livestock to greatly influence genetic improvement of a herd or flock in much the same
way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires. The technology hastens genetic
enhancement by virtue of its capacity to reduce generation interval and is also useful in progeny testing
programmes. Commercial cattle embryo transfer in the world was established during the early 1970’s. In Kenya it
was first introduced in the 1980’s but very little is documented about its success. Since its introduction, over 70%
of the country’s Multiple Ovulations and Embryo Transfer (MOET) have been done at Agricultural Development
Corporation (ADC) farms. The ADC being the custodian of the National Cattle Stud Herd has been the leader in
adoption of new technologies and MOET is one of them. A retrospective study analyzed conception rates data
collected over a period of six years from 2007 to 2012. A total of 115 embryos had been transferred during that
period. The factors affecting conception rates (CR) studied included embryo developmental stage, deposit site and
2
stage of recipient in days after estrus. The deposit site had a significant effect on CR (χ =0.27395; p<0.05). The
68
quality and stage of the embryo development influenced the CR. Generally CR reduced as the growth of the
embryo advanced. Days after estrus also significantly affected the CR, whereby transfer on day 8 resulted in more
conceptions being reported on recipient animals. Even though ETT has several benefits and requires consistent
promotion, challenges such as lack of trained personnel and equipment for ovulation and packaging of embryos at
the farm site need to be addressed. Use of this technology can improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle.
Embryos from genetically superior cows can be harvested, frozen and conserved in a bank for future use.
Key words: Conception Rate, Dairy Cattle, Embryo Transfer Technology, Recipient Animal,
P158
Potential role of Tephrosiavogelii in controlling fleas (Echinophagaspp) in free-range poultry in Uganda
1
2
Isabirye R.A .and Mecleod E .
1
Animal Health Scientist, Mukono Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, National Agricultural
2
Research Organization, P.O. Box 295, Entebbe Uganda; Programme Director International Animal Health
University of Edinburgh.
Abstract
Chicken production is the leading type of poultry farming in Uganda. Diseases and parasites however, are a limiting
factor in poultry production. Ectoparasites in particular lead to reduced egg production, and reduced hatchability
since the hens at times abandon eggs after ectoparasitic infestation. Ethno-veterinary medicine can be the only
readily accessible and affordable alternative to controlling diseases in livestock in rural areas in developing
countries were access to western conventional medicines and extension service delivery are very poor. This study
was conducted in Luuka district located in eastern Uganda with the objectives of validating the efficacy of
Tephrosiavogelii (a shrub) in controlling fleas on free-range poultry; and to assess its long term effects.
Questionnaires were administered by research assistants to 66 poultry farmers. Results showed that ectoparasites
ranked second in causing losses in poultry only beaten by predators. Majority of the respondents had substantial
knowledge regarding ethno-veterinary remedies; side effects associated with using medicinal plants; and required
precautions during handling of drugs. In majority of households poultry was owned and managed by women.
About 82% of respondents had heard of Tephrosiavogelii as remedy in controlling agricultural pests while 68%
admitted having used it on their poultry farms. Most respondents preferred using herbal medicine as compared to
conventional medicine saying the former was accessible, affordable, effective and environmentally friendly. A
series of experiments were carried out and replicated in a completely randomized design. During experimental
trials it was found out that Tephrosiavogelii extracts with concentrations of 25%, 33.3% and of 50% w/v had long
term protective effect on poultry of up to 5 days; these concentrations were found responsible for killing 100% of
the fleas. The difference in re-infestation between the treated and control chickens on Day 6, 7 and 8 was found to
be significant with: [(p ˂ 0.001, F = 21.33, df = 2), (p ˂ 0.001, F = 20.443. df = 2); and (p ˂ 0.001, F = 29.924, df = 2)]
respectively. Other control experiments comprising of permethrin (a commercial ectoparacide) were also
conducted. It was found out that permethrin at recommended rates killed 100% of the fleas.
The rate of re-infestation by fleas was found to vary with concentration being higher at low concentrations for
both Tephrosiavogelii and permethrin. Analysis of variance for regression gave significant difference between reinfestation of chickens with fleas at 25%, 33.3% and 50 % concentration (p ˂ 0.05). There was no significant
difference in efficacy among chickens treated with dry leaves extracts as compared to those treated using fresh
leaves extracts at similar concentrations. Farmers can therefore harvest the leaves dry, and store in a cool dry
place for future use without fear of deterioration of stored stock. This can serve as reservoir for Tephrosiavogelii
leaves when anticipating long dry seasons or when the leaves are in limited supply. The LD 50 for the dried and
fresh leaves extracts were found to be 50 ml of standard extract in 1200ml and 800ml at room temperature
respectively. Data from all the sources was analyzed using SPSS software.
69
P199
Sero-prevalence and risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Uganda
1
1*
1
1
1
1
Nelson Muwereza , Halid Kirunda , Susan D. Kerfua , Paul D. Kasaija , Rogers Azabo , Charles Ssekitto , Robert
1
1
1
1
1
Sande , Patrick Emudong , Richard Alingu , John Walubengo , Tonny Kabuuka
1
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O Box 96, Tororo, Uganda.
*Corresponding author: H. Kirunda, Email: [email protected]
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causes economic devastation in affected countries through high costs in control,
livestock weight loss, decrease in milk production and loss in income. Restriction to participate in international
trade denies FMD endemic countries access to markets in the developed world. This cross-sectional study
investigated the sero-prevalence and risk factors for FMD in seven outbreak districts in Uganda during 2013-2014.
A structured questionnaire capturing data on 16 host, environment and management variables was administered
in 384 farm households. Sera were collected from 516 cattle in outbreaks herds and observed FMD clinical signs
recorded. Of the sera, 364 were from eastern, 111 from central and 41 from western.. Sera were analysed using
competitive ELISA to detect humoral antibodies against non-structural proteins of FMD virus. Statistical analysis
was done at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels by logistic regression. Average sero-prevalence was 27.5%
(CI: 23.8 - 31.5). Among other predictor variables, FMD outbreaks were more likely among herds of cattle moved
for more 2 km per day (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.21 - 16.0) and those allowed frequent assess to slaughter sites (OR=2.3,
95% CI: 1.13 - 4.70). Our study has revealed the factors that predispose cattle herds to FMD outbreaks in Uganda.
P200
Investigation of Polymorphisms of Selected Antigen Genes of TheileriaParva Circulating in Cattle in South
Western Uganda
a*
b
c
P.D. Kasaija , A.Nanteza , G. W. Lubega
National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO),
b
P.O.Box 96, Tororo, Uganda. Department of Biotechnical and Diagnostics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal
c
Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 , Kampala, Uganda. Department of
Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity
(COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 , Kampala, Uganda.
*Corresponding author: Tel: +256 782 087516, Email: [email protected]
a
Abstract
Theileria parva is a complex tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite causing an acute and often fatal disease in cattle
called East Coast fever. The success of vaccination-control of the disease by the Infection and Treatment Method
using the Muguga cocktail requires cross-protection against all known field strains. However, the parasite strains in
Uganda have not been fully characterized to ensure cross-protection. This study was therefore carried out to
investigate the polymorphisms at three important T. parva antigen gene loci; p104, p67 and PIM. Fifty T. parvapositive cattle blood samples from Kiruhura district were assessed for allelic diversity using PCR-RFLP for the p104
and PIM genes and dendrograms were generated. Diversity at the p67 locus was investigated by DNA multisequence alignment. Findings were compared to similar analysis of T. parva Muguga strain. A diverse population of
Theileria parva was predicted with respect to p104 and PIM antigen genes. Field Strains of T. parva that are
distinct from T. parva Muguga strain were also demonstrated. The study also suggested multiplicity of T. parva
infections in cattle unlike some previous reports. Similar studies should be generated from the different agroecological zones of Uganda to identify dominant parasite strains in T. parva populations that can be considered for
inclusion in the vaccine cocktail to improve cross-protection of the local cattle population.
70
P201
Prevalence of bovine trypanosome species and farmers’ trypanosomiasis control methods in South-western
Uganda.
1
2
3
2
3
Richard A. Alingu , Dennis Muhanguzi *, Ewan MacLeod , Charles Waiswa & Jenna Fyfe
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
2
Makerere University, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, P.O. Box 7062, KampalaUganda
3
Division of Pathway Medicine & Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine
& Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Chancellor's Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh,
EH16 4SB.
*Corresponding author: E-mail: [email protected], Tel. +256 772 331048
1
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted in south-west Uganda from September 2011 to May 2012 to determine
whether bovine trypanosomes is still a challenge where pyrethroid acaracides are frequently used in the control of
tick borne diseases (TBDs). A total of 295 blood samples were taken from cattle and analyzed using Internal
Transcribed Spacer rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (ITS1-PCR) to generate data on trypanosome species
prevalence. A structured questionnaire was administered to 55 farmers to generate data on acaricide and
trypanocidal drug use. All the farmers used acaricides on their farms. About 89.1% of the acaricides were synthetic
pyrethroids, which are effective in killing tsetse. Up to 50.9% of the farmers used trypanocidal drugs with Berenil™
being the most commonly used. The overall prevalence of trypanosome species was 2.4% (CI = 95%, 1.0-4.8%) with
T. vivax, 2.0% (CI = 95%, 0.7-4.4%) being the most predominant species. Prevalence of T. brucei Si was 0.3% (CI =
95%, 0.0-1.9%). Mixed infection of T. vivax and T. brucei Si was encountered in only one blood sample accounting
for 0.3% (CI = 95%, 0.0-1.9%). Farmers that regularly applied insecticides and chemoprophylaxis effectively
controlled bovine trypanosomes that kept the prevalence of the disease in cattle as low as 2.4%.
Keywords: Acaracides, ITS1-PCR, South-West Uganda, Trypanosome species prevalence, Trypanocidal drugs
P202
Drivers and risk factors for circulating African swine fever virus in Uganda, 2012–2013
a,b,
b
b
c,d
e
a
T. Kabuuka *, P.D. Kasaija , H. Mulindwa , A. Shittu , A.D.S. Bastos , F.O. Fasina
Department of Production Animal Studies (DPAS), Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag
X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
b
National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI), National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO),
P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
c
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of
Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Cheshire
CH64 7TE, UK
d
Department of Theriogenology and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo
University, P.M.B 2254, Sokoto, Nigeria
e
Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science,
University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa
a
*Corresponding author: Tonny Kabuuka, E-mail: [email protected]/[email protected]
71
Abstract
We explored observed risk factors and drivers of infection possibly associated with African swine fever (ASF)
epidemiology in Uganda. Representative sub-populations of pig farms and statistics were used in a case-control
model. Indiscriminate disposal of pig viscera and waste materials after slaughter, including on open refuse dumps,
farm-gate buyers collecting pigs and pig products from within a farm, and retention of survivor pigs were plausible
risk factors. Wire mesh-protected windows in pig houses were found to be protective against ASF infection.
Sighting engorged ticks on pigs, the presence of a lock for each pig pen and/or a gate at the farm entrance were
significantly associated with infection/non-infection; possible explanations were offered. Strict adherence to
planned within-farm and community-based biosecurity, and avoidance of identified risk factors is recommended to
reduce infection. Training for small-scale and emerging farmers should involve multidimensional and
multidisciplinary approaches to reduce human-related risky behaviors driving infection.
72
SUB-THEME 1.8: FORESTRY
P122
Impact of fuel wood scarcity on livelihoods of rural communities ofNyarubuye sub-county in Kisoro district,
Uganda
1*
1
1
1
Grace Abigaba , George Niyibizi ,Turinayo Yonah ,Jude Sekatuba andSusan Nansereko
National Forestry Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 1752 Kampala
* Corresponding Author: [email protected]
1
1
Abstracts
Many people in developing countries rely on biomass energy sources, primarily fuelwood for their energy needs.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fuelwood scarcity on rural peoples’ livelihoods in Nyarubuye subcounty of Kisoro district. To accomplish the study objective, random and systematic sampling techniques were
employed to select participating households. Data was collected using direct observation and interviews using
structured questionnaires that were administered to 80 households in Busengo and Karambi parishes in
Nyarubuye Sub-county. Face to face semi-structured interviews were held with key informants using a checklist.
Results revealed that the impacts of fuelwood scarcity on livelihoods in the study area included: reduced
household incomes, low literacy levels among women,poor nutrition, poor health, reduced crop production and
domestic violence. Fuelwood scarcity in the area were due to indiscriminate land clearing for agriculture,
inadequate tree planting initiatives, poor methods of cooking and brick and charcoal making. Recommended
initiatives to reduce fuelwood scarcity in the study area include: promotion of on farm tree planting (agroforestry),
energy saving technologies and strengthening forestry extension services and creation of alternative income
generating activities.
P125
Suitability of Clonal Eucalypts Growing in Uganda for Fuel Wood
1
2
2
Turinawe H. B , Mugabi P , Tweheyo M
National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI) P.O. Box 1752, Kampala, Uganda
2
Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding author: [email protected]
1
Abstract
The increased demand for quality wood products in the face of dwidling naturalforest reosurces has necessitated
Uganda to fast track commercial forestry development. Fast growing clonal eucalypts have been promotedin
plantations and wodlots as a sure source of forest products such as utility poles, timber and fuel woodfor medium
term and future demands. Remarkably however, these cloneswere primarily developed in South Africa for pulp
and paper. This study therefore, examined their suitability for fuelwood. The objectives were to determine: (i)
basic density (BD); (ii) calorific value (CV); and (iii) cleavage resistance (CLR) parallel to the grain of widely adopted
clones i.e. GU7, GU8, GC540, GC550 and GC796 and to compare these properties with those of their parent
materials; i.e. Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cammaldulensis, and Eucalyptus urophylla. Tests were done
according to BS373(1957) and ASTM:E870-82(2006) procedures. Clone GC540 showed the highest BD (664Kg/m3),
GU7 had the highest CV (17800KJ/Kg), GU7 and GC540 had higher values for CLR (20N/mm). BD and CLR means
were in-between parent material means for GC clones. All clones had lower values of CV compared to parent
materials. It was concluded that clonal wood at 7 years is a viable alternative for fuelwood production.
Keywords: Hybrid Eucalypts, Density, Calorific Value, Cleavage Resistance, Uganda
73
P132
Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexoristagilvoidesin controlling Gonometapodorcarpi in conifer
plantations of Uganda
Kiwuso P., Tumuhimbise R. Sempala S.,Kakayi R., Gwokyalya R.,Namuyanja V,Mukwasibwe D.Mafabi W.
National Forestry Resources Research InstituteP.O.Box 1752Kampala
National Forest Authority P.O Box 70863, Kampala
Abstract
Widespread defoliation of plantation forests by insect pests causes economic losses throughout the world.
Successful outbreak management requires knowledge of effective management options. Currently, such
knowledge is inadequate for Gonometa podocarpi a pest that has devastated conifer plantations in Uganda since
the 1960s.Gonometa podocarpimoth is a serious defoliator of conifersin EastAfrica. It was first described from
Mt.Elgon, Kenya where its larvae were defoliating the indigenous conifer podocarpusspp .It has since adapted to
feeding on exotic conifers.T here have been several serious resurgences of this pest in Uganda the latest being
2011 and 2012.Diagnostic surveys carried out in 2011 in Kiriima and Mafuga Central Forest reserve (CFR) in South
Western Uganda identified a tachnid fly Palexorista gilvoides causing massive mortality among G. podocarpi larvae
within the ecosystem. Studies were conducted in infested sites and laboratory to establish the effectiveness of
Palexorista gilvoidesas a biological control agent against G. podocarpi. It was established that P. gilvoides is a larval
parasitoid, with parasitism levels of 43.0% and 62.0% in the field and laboratory, respectively. These levels of
parasitism are considered high enough to control the pest. However, causes of the pest resurgences need further
investigation.
Key words: Gonometapodocarpi, Pinuspatula ,Palexoristagilvoides, Parasitism, defoliation
P205
When is a stakeholder a stakeholder? A case of forest, soil and water management around Mt Elgon National
Park, Uganda
1
2
3
4
Stonewall Shaban Kato , James Okot Okumu , Paul Okullo and Joseph Obua
Makerere University, P.O Box 7062, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Kampala, Uganda,
2
3
Makerere University, Collage of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Kampala, Uganda, National Forestry
4
Resources Research Institute, Uganda and Inter-University Council for East Africa, P. O Box 7110, Kampala.
1
Abstract
In natural resource management, identifying key stakeholders and assessing their respective interests is crucial for
any community development programme to succeed. To manage resources that have multiple users, unclear or
open access property rights knowledge of key players is vital. In this work we present analysis of stakeholders that
augment the effort of community based organizations to manage forest, soil and water in areas adjacent to Mt.
Elgon National Park (MENP), Uganda. We used focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews to gather
information on the stakeholders and their roles they play with respect to the management of forest, soil and
water. Using institutional diagramming we characterize stakeholders based on their methods of work, powers,
interests, influence and inter-relationships. This information helps us to identify 11 key stakeholders that play
central role in forest, soil and water management. The key players include among there were Mt. Elgon National
Park, local community adjacent to the park, local government, NGO forum, research/educational institutions and
National Environment Management Authority. Overall, the local communities and the national park authority are
the main beneficiaries of programs or policy that target forest, soil and water management in our study areas.
Therefore interventions that target forest, soil and water management should consider MENP and its neighboring
communities as priority.
Key words: stakeholders, power sources, influence, relationships, local community, mount Elgon National park
74
P124
Status of Cashew Production and Potential for Expansion in Uganda
Denis Mujuni1*, Paul Okullo1, Samuel Ongerep1, Hellen Acham2, Andrew Ochen3, Florence Agwang2, Willem
Jacob Simonse4
1National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI), P. O. Box 1752, Kampala, Uganda
2North East Chilli Producers Association (NECPA), P.O Box 670, Lira Uganda
3Agency For Sustainable Rural Transformation (AFSRT) P.O.Box 263, Lira-Uganda
4AWay4Africa B.V (AWBV), Prickwaert 12, 3363 BC Sliedrecht, The Netherlands
*Author for correspondence: [email protected]
Keywords: Cashew, Production, Research and Development, processing and Value addition, Pests and diseases,
marketing
Abstract
Here we present a general review of the introduction and spread of the cashew in Uganda by considering 45 years
of data. We also evaluated and discussed impact of the recent work by the Regional Cashew Improvement
Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (RECINESA) on major cashew production constraints. We put forward
recommendation which should be implemented to improve cashew value chain. Our recommendations include
promotion of improved agronomic practices, increasing the volume of the nuts in the market, improving external
and internal markets for the nuts, securing equipment
75
SUB-THEME 1.9: FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
P024
The morphology and Histology of the digestive tract of Barbus altianals (Boulenger 1900)
1
1
2
3
4
C Aruho , V. Namulawa , C.D. Kato , J. Rutaisire and F. Bugenyi
1 National Fisheries Resources Research Institute, Kajjansi, PO Box 530, Kampala, Uganda
2 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3 National Agriculture Research Organization, P.O. Box 295, Entebbe, Uganda
4 Department of Zoology, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
* Corresponding author, e-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
The structure of the digestive tract of the Ripon Barbel, Barbus altianalis was described using simple morphological
observations and histological standard procedures. The digestive system of Barbus altianalis is a simple
stomachless and valveless digestive tube, progressively and uniformly reducing in size from the proximal to distal
end and is 3 times longer than its body length. The mouth is terminal and protrusible adopted to move swiftly with
flexibility to feed on both on detritus, animal and plant sources. These features characterize this fish as an
omnivorous species. The last gill arch is modified into pharyngeal teeth which together with pharyngeal palatal
organ make good machinery for crashing the hard food material before being pushed into the intestine through
the tough short muscular esophagus layers. Histology sections reveal the presence of taste buds from the lips to
the pharyngeal cavity and characterized by epithelial lining of a mixture of squamus, cuboidal and columnar cells.
The intestines are lined by simple columnar epithelia layer which is highly folded. Epithelia globular cells are
present throughout the entire digestive tract becoming more numerous in the pharynx and the proximal part of
the intestine. Lobes of pancreatic acinar are scattered among the liver cells characterizing it as a hepatopancreas.
Understanding the morphology and functional physiology of the gut system provides an insight of the digestive
capabilities of the newly domesticated B. altianalis as an initial basic step toward the development of the feed
technologies under culture conditions.
P036
Sustainable Strategy for Controlling Fish Disease Conditions using Banana (Musa Sp.) Leaf Extracts in Uganda:
Preliminary Findings
J. Walakira and E. Nankya
National Fisheries Resources Research Institute, Uganda.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Commercialization of aquaculture in Uganda is shifting management practices from subsistence to intensive levels.
Small scale fish farmers, like hatchery producers, are adopting new technologies to enhance fish production.
However, intensification of production systems is challenged with disease outbreaks that impact negatively on
economic returns. Similarly, the common practice of using chicken manure by catfish hatchery farmers to
produce zooplankton in nursery ponds is found to be a pathway for disease infections. Use of chemotherapeutants
in the food fish industry is becoming less popular especially towards the less resourced farmers. Bio-control
strategies are readily available and adaptable. Banana leaf extracts are used in a grow-out operation near Kampala
city to control diseases. Initially, disease episodes caused mortalities ranging 14-100% in Tilapia fry (1-3g) and
juveniles (20-50g). With repeated exposures to banana extract solution,the feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved
from 3.2 to 0.75-0.87 as well as survival rates of85%.Bio-assays using several materials including salt, formalin and
banana leaf extract to improve survival rates of catfish larvae were also evaluated. Addition of salt (1 mg/L) and
76
banana leaf extract (3.2ml/L) improved the survival of African catfish larvae cultured under aquaria conditions.
Formalin (400µl/L)treatment had the lowest survival rates. Resultss how banana leaf extracts have a potential to
be used in Uganda’s aquaculture industry. This is a simple technology which small scale fish farmers can adopt and
raw materials are locally available. Future research will focus on evaluating its chemical composition, effects on
fish growth performance and its feasibility in aquaculture systems.
Key words: Aquaculture, disease, Oreochromisniloticus, Clariasgariepinus, Banana-Leaf-Extract
P061
Culturing the African Lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) in Uganda: Effects of exogenous fish feed on growth
performance in tanks
1
2
3
3
2
J. Walakira , J. Molnar , J. Terhune , R. Phelp , N. Isyagiand J. Curtis .
1=National Fisheries Resources Research Institute, Uganda.
2= College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Auburn University, USA.
3= College of Agriculture, School of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, USA
Abstract
Culturing fish species resilient to drought and stressful water quality conditions may be a significant part of the
future of African aquaculture. African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) is a good candidate but initiatives to raise
this fish in ponds resulted into low yields. Growth performance of wild caught African lungfish fingerlings (9.58 ─
9.95g) fed three commercial diets 1. 2 and 3 (29, 33 and 36 % crude protein) cultured in tanks was investigated.
Experimental fish accepted exogenous sinking pellets but marginal increase in average body weight was observed.
Mean (±SE) final weight (15.86± 0.80g) for fish fed the commercial diet-3 was significantly higher (p< 0.05) than
fish which fed on diet-1 and diet-2. Specific growth rates (SGR) for diet-2 (0.50 ± 0.06%/d) were significantly higher
(p< 0.05) than diet-1 (0.27 ± 0.03%/d), and marginally more(p < 0.05) thandiet-2 (0.37± 0.04%/d). Feed conversions
were similar for fish fed diet-1, 2 and 3. Survivals after an 11-week culture period were relatively low (< 60%) but
2
generally increased (R = 0.667, P = 0.0071) with increasing dietary proteins. Diet-3 (57.50 ± 2.85%) had a
significant higher survival rate (p< 0.05) than diet-1 (45.83 ± 3.44%) and diet-2 (40.84 ± 2.10%). All water quality
parameters were within recommended aquaculture ranges. Poor yields experienced in this study may be due to i)
sub-optimum dietary protein levels, ii) cannibalism, iii) disease infections, iii) density, iv) contaminants in the feed
and, iv) wrong management protocols. This study demonstrates how the sinking fish feed can be used to raise
wild-caught African lungfish in captivity. However, more research is important to improve yields of this fish before
qualifying it good aquaculture candidate.
Keywords: African lungfish, aquaculture, exogenous feed
P062
Aquatic Pathogens Affecting Aquacultural Farms in Uganda
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
J. Walakira , P. Akoll , M. Engole , M. Sserwadda , J. Rutaisire , M. Sserwadda , D. I. Naigaga & D. Birungi
National Fisheries Resources Research Institute-National Agricultural Research Organization.
2
College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity -Makerere University, Uganda.
3
College of Natural Science, Department of Biological Science, Makerere University, Uganda
3
1
Abstract
Improving aquaculture productivity in Uganda is increasingly challenged with disease outbreaks that are causing
economic losses to commercial fish farms. This study identifies fish pathogens affecting hatcheries and grow-out
systems located in three Agricultural Ecological Zones (AEZs); Eastern, central, north and western of Uganda. An
epidemiological survey was conducted to assess health profiles of sampled commercial fish farms and adjacent
natural ecosystems. Interviews were also conducted to understand factors that influence health management
77
issues in aquacultural establishments. Bacterial pathogens isolated includeFlavobacter spp., Aeromonus sp.,
Edwardsiellaspp, Psuedomonus sp. Steptococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp., Proteus sp., and Vibrio sp. A high
incidenceofFlavobacter spp. exists on both asymptomatic and symptomatic fish.Parasites include protozoans
(Ichthyopthiriusmultiphilis, Trichodina spp. and icthyobodo spp.), Trematodes (Cleidodiscusspp and
Gyrodactylusspp) and fungus (Saprolegnia,Fusariumspp, Apergillosisspp). About40% fish farms encounter
diseaseoutbreaks that cause low survival rates (0-30%) especially in catfish hatcheries. Health management issues
are not well understood in most farms, with some failing to detect diseased fish. Strategiesbeing used to control
and prevent fish diseases include the use of chemo-therapeutants and antibiotics without veterinary advice.
Diagnosis and control of aquatic pathogens of production systems necessitates the adoption of a comprehensive
biosecurity strategy. However, regional efforts effectively avert risks of spreading economicdiseases across the
region. Capacity building, research and strict policy guidelines will improve productivity and profitability of fish in
the region.
Key words: Aquaculture, pathogens, Tilapia, African catfish
P081
The decline of Alestes baremose and Hydrocynus forskahlii (Pisces) stocks in Lake Albert: Implications for
sustainable management of their fisheries
1
1
1
1
1
2
*H. Nakiyende *, D. Mbabazi , A. Taabu-Munyaho , S. Bassa , E. Muhumuza , and J. Efitre
National Fisheries Resources Research institute, P.O Box Jinja, Uganda
2
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala.
*Corresponding author: [email protected], 0782168887
1
Abstract
The fish stocks of Lake Albert face immense exploitation pressure which has led to “fishing-down” of their
fisheries, with some larger species having been driven to near-extinction, while others such as Citharinus citharus
have almost disappeared. Both A. baremose (Angara) and H. forskahlii (Ngassia) historically formed the most
important commercial species in Lake Albert until the early 2000s but recent Catch Assessment Surveys (20072013) revealed sweeping decline in their contribution to the commercial catch from 72.7% in 1971 to less than 6%
in 2013.The catch per unit effort also registered a two-fold decline from 45.6 and 36.1 kg/boat/day to 22.6 and
18.1 kg/boat/day for A. baremose and H. forskahlii respective between 1971 and 2007. Over50% of illegal gillnets,
below the legal minimum limit of four inches (101.6 mm) used on Lake Albert target the two species. Gillnet
experiments found the three inch (76.2 mm) gill net mesh size suitable for sustained harvest of the two species.
The study concludes that optimal utilization of the two species and probably other non target fish species is
achievable through species specific management strategies, coupling species specific licensing, and controlling
harvest of juvenile individuals, overall fishing effort and fish catch on Lake Albert and protecting the vulnerable fish
habitats.
Key words: Albert/Albert Nile, native species, recruitment overfishing, stock collapse, ecosystem approach to
fisheries
78
SUB-THEME 2: PARTNERSHIPS AND OUTREACH
SUB-THEME 2.1: PEOPLES’ KNOWLEDGE AND PERSPECTIVES
P064
Assessment of the Socio- Economic Value of Aquaculturein the West-Nile Agro Ecological Zone of Uganda
1
1
2
2
2
2
N. Kasozi , G. I. Degu , H.Opie , P.Ejua , K.Atibuni and J.
Mukalazi
Livestock and Fisheries Research and Development Program, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development
Institute, P.O. Box 219, Arua-Uganda
2
Farming Systems and Livelihood Analysis Program, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute,
P.O. Box 219, Arua-Uganda
Author for correspondence:[email protected]
1
Abstract
This work examines the costs, returns and constraints affecting aquaculture production in the West-Nile region of
Uganda. A sample of 36 fish farms in the districts of Maracha, Zombo, Arua and Koboko were purposively selected
for this study, however for the assessment of profitability, only 20 farms were considered. Data was collected in
2012 production season through administration of questionnaire to the fish farmers. Analysis of the data was done
using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The data revealed that on average a small scale fish farmer in
West Nile incurs81.3% of the variable costs and 18.7% of the fixed costs with the majority of the variable costs
attributed to feeds and fingerlings. The comparison of performance across the four districts using average values
of the net farm incomes indicate that aquaculture is a profitable enterprise that on average, a fish farmer in
Maracha district earns a higher net profit of Shs. (Uganda shillings) 2,444,393 compared to a farmer who earns
Shs.1,111,314for Koboko, Shs.809,536 for Arua and Shs.407,169 for Zomboin a production cycle that ranges
between 7-12 months. Although the results show that on average, a small scale fish farmer making profits, the
estimated net profits are relatively small.Themain factors identified as hindrances to aquaculture development in
the study region included expensive feeds, inadequate financial capital, lack of technical knowledgeand insufficient
farm equipments.It is recommended that the government should venture or even encourage other investors into
the production of good quality and affordable feeds and fingerlings to reduce on the huge variable costs incurred
by farmers.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Costs, Fish Farmers, Net Profit, Uganda, West-Nile
P085
Challenges and Opportunities for quality seed potato availability and production in Uganda
A.R. Aheisibwe, A. Barekye, A. B. Arineitwe and P. Namugga
Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute
P.O. Box 421, Kabale Uganda
Abstract
Potato yields in Uganda have remained low at 7.5 tones as a result of pests and diseases, low yielding varieties,
poor management practices and lack of quality seed potatoes. This study was conducted to ascertain the
challenges and opportunities of quality seed potato availability and production in the southwestern highlands
79
agro-ecological zone (SWHAEZ). A total 15 groups out of the 41 were randomly selected from a sample size of 200
farmers. Data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means separated using the least
significant difference (LSD).The results of study indicated that high transaction costs (43.5%), lack of clear seed
delivery system (40.5%) and limited information on the source of seed (14.0%) were main constraints limiting
farmers’ access to and use of quality seed potato. It was noted that 93% of the farmers in SWHAEZ use home saved
seed from previous harvests and conventional ware potato markets whose quality is not guaranteed. Although
over 70 % of the farmers are convinced that quality of seed has a positive effect on yield increase, 72% of the
farmers still use poor quality seed which is often infected with bacterial wilt. In addition, 52% of farmers in the
region lacked specific storage facilities for potato seed and this further lowered the grade of the seed quality.
However, a number of opportunities exist for production and access to quality seed production including; various
proven technologies for producing quality potato seed and ready demand for potato seed and ware potato in and
beyond SWHAEZ. Of the seed potato production technologies, positive selected seed (PSS) seemed to have the
highest quantity of seed while basic seed produced heaviest tubers than the rest of the technologies. Based on our
findings, weproposea delivery model where public private partnerships can be initiated, tested and key players
trained to ensure sustainable potato seed production and availability in Uganda.
Key words: Seed potato, challenges, opportunities, delivery model
P096
Using Farmer-Prioritized Management Options of Vertisols Forenhanced Crop Production in Central Kenya
Joab Onyango Wamari, JNK Macharaia, IV. Sijali
National Agricultural Research Laboratories
P.O. Box 14733 Nairobi
Abstract
Trials and questionnaire analysis of small scale farmers’ management knowledge were instituted to demonstrate
enhanced production in vertisols of lower Kirinyaga County (Mwea East and Mwea West districts). Drainage was
recognized as the best option although a reduced number of farmers used drainage and furrows/ridges, manuring,
fertilizer and shifting options. Unavailability of labour and cost for instituting these options was indicated as a
hindrance to adoption of the yield enhancing options. Labour force consisted mainly of family and hired (64.2%)
although 28% and 5.2% used hired labour family alone respectively. The male role was minimal at weeding while
the youth role remained insignificant and altogether absent at marketing. Despite the need for labour at earlier
activities (especially when management options needed to be instituted) it was at the marketing stage that this
force was directed. Soils were considered infertile by 60%, 40 indicated enough fertility. Analysis with ridging FYM
and fertilizer (DAP) improved fertility via P and zinc enhancement reduced alkalinity and sodicity. Green gram
yields increased under Ridges and FYM application by between 17-25% which significantly enhanced household
incomes significantly.
P109
Farmers’ Knowledge and Management of Rice Diseases under Lowland Ecology in Uganda
S. E. Adur-Okello, M. Otim, M. Ekobu and J. Lamo
National Crops Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This paper looks at farmers’ knowledge and management of rice diseases using data collected in September to
October 2011 from farmers in Northern (Lira, Dokolo, Otuke and Alebtong Districts); Eastern (Iganga, Bugiri and
Kamuli Districts) and Central (Kayunga District) regions of Uganda. One main rice growing Sub County was selected
from each District, targeting 3 parishes from each sub county. 10 households were drawn from each parish giving a
80
total of 240 households but 224 were used in the analysis. The purpose of the study was to generate baseline
information for initiatives focusing on improving rice productivity in lowland ecology. The main diseases in order of
importance were rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), leaf blast, brown spot, sheath rot, panicle blast, bacterial leaf
blight, false smut, sheath blight, grain rot, leaf scald, neck blast, bacterial leaf streak and narrow leaf brown spot.
60% identified the symptoms of RYMV with particular occurrence growth stages while less than 40% could
distinctively record the symptoms of each of the other diseases and the specific occurrence growth stages. About
10% observed symptoms of diseases on weeds in/around rice fields. The diseases noted on weeds included leaf
blast, brown spot, bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, sheath rot and grain rot, whereas weeds infected were
sedges, goat weed, biden pilosa, “pupul” and leersia spp. Less than 30% of farmers employed control measures
with the main ones being early sowing, adjusting fertilizer dosage, destruction of wild rice, use of resistant
varieties, burning of stubble, use of insecticides, fallowing, rotating rice with beans and uprooting diseased plants
across these diseases. The paper concluded that: the main varieties grown in this ecology are local ones; farmers’
knowledge of diseases comes with experience, a sustainable management strategy can be achieved if developed in
a participatory manner, recognizing farmers as the key stakeholders; research should incorporate the alternative
host plants for rice diseases as part of management strategy.
Key words: Knowledge, Management, Diseases and Symptoms
P160
An assessment of farmers’ knowledge of, and preferences for, planting materials to fill gaps in banana
plantations in southwestern Uganda
Hannington Lwandasa, Anne M. Akol, John W. Mulumba, Rose Nankya, Carlo Fadda and Devra I. Jarvis
Godfrey H. Kagezi (Corresponding author)
Abstract
Previously, banana plantations in central Uganda remained productive for 30-100 years. Due to the banana weevil
(Cosmopolites sordidus1), however, life spans have fallen to only ≤5 years. This forces farmers to establish new
plantations or replant existing ones, usually using infested materials. To determine farmers’ knowledge and
sources of planting materials and how they clean them, we surveyed 80 households in southwestern Uganda. Most
(99%) reported C. sordidus as their major pest and at least 50% reported gap filling mainly due to land and banana
weevil pressure. Most (>80%) obtained planting materials from home/neighbors’ gardens. Corm paring
(recommended for cleaning) was minimal, with 87% of farmers just trimming a few roots from the suckers. Most
(90%) farmers preferred maiden suckers for gap filling - believing that they establish and mature faster and
withstand weevil damage better. This is supported by an on-station study which showed higher survival rates
among maiden suckers in infested fields. Research and extension organizations currently recommend sword
suckers, corms and tissue culture plantlets. However, based on farmer experience and the results of on station
work, we recommend encouraging the use of maiden suckers when replanting in already infested plantations or
those at risk.
Key words: Banana-weevil-infestation, Cosmopolitus-sordidus, farmers’-perception, maiden-suckers, replanting
P167
Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region, Uganda
1
2
1
Charles Byaruhanga , James Oluka , Stephen Olinga
Nabuin Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 132, Moroto, Uganda.
2
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
Corresponding author: Charles Byaruhanga, email: [email protected], Telephone:
782679729/+278611883539
1
+256
81
Abstract
A study was conducted to understand the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso sub-region of
Uganda. Data was collected by using a questionnaire administered to 114 randomly selected goat owners in five
districts. Majority (87%) of de fecto household heads were male. About 41.2% of the farmers were aged 51 years
and more. The average number of goats per household was 9.2 ± 6.38. Most farmers (63.2%) owned five or less
acres of land. Indigenous goats were mainly acquired by buying (85%) while exotic goats and their crosses were
acquired from government programmes (34%). Goats have a number of roles, though mainly kept as a source of
regular cash income (98.2%), followed by socio-cultural values (69.3%). A large percentage of farmers (67%)
earned UShs 150,000 or less from goat production. The biggest problem in marketing of goats was high taxation.
Fewer cases (average 15.14%) of women that owned goats independently were reported. Women and children
participated less in decision making, although they were responsible to many goat production related activities. In
conclusion, goat production can plays an important role in improving the livelihoods of the Teso communities.
There is need to encourage and develop the participation of women and youths in the goat production and
marketing sector, and promote commercialization so that farmers can increase their present holdings for improved
profitability.
Key words: Goat production; farming system; benefits; Uganda
P178
Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on rice insect pests and their management in Uganda
Simon Alibu, Stella E. A. Okello, Michael H. Otim, Moses Ekobu, Jimmy Lamo, Godfrey Asea
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
Abstract
Rice is a relatively new crop in Uganda, but has quickly grown in importance. In 2010, the total area under rice
cultivation in Uganda was estimated at 140,000 Ha, which was 94% higher than in 2000. However, increasing area
under rice cultivation may favor growth in economic importance of rice insect pests, yet far too little attention has
been paid to assessing the prevalence and importance of rice insect-pests in Uganda. In this study, we surveyed
farmers’ rice-fields for incidence and severity of insect-pests. We also interviewed the farmers about their
perceived insect-pest problems and control measures employed, if any. A total of 240 rice farming households
from 8 districts within the Northern, Eastern and Central regions of Uganda were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. Respondents ranked insect pests as the number one production constraint, with stem
st
nd
borers and the African rice gall midge (AfRGM) perceived to be the 1 and 2 most detrimental insect pests.
However, 64% of the respondents could not recognize symptoms of the AfRGM, while 36% were not familiar with
damage caused by stem borers. The farmers respond to insect pest problems by sowing early, adjusting fertilizer
rates, burning rice stubble and using insecticides. Findings from this study provide baseline information about pest
incidence and insect pest management strategies used by farmers in Uganda. This will guide development of
sustainable and cost effective IPM strategies.
Key words: Farmers’ perceptions, rice pests, Uganda
P181
Farmers’ knowledge, practices and associated perceptions in managing pest and disease pressures on phaseolus
vulgaris in Uganda
1*
2
1
4
3
Mulumba, John Wasswa Nankya, Rose , Adokorach, Joyce , De Santis, Paola , Fadda, Carlo , Jarvis, Devra I.
National Agricultural Research Organization, (NARO) Entebbe, Uganda
2
Bioversity International, Sub-Regional Office SSA, Kampala, Uganda
3
Bioversity International, Regional Office SSA, Nairobi, Kenya
4
1
82
4
Bioversity International, Maccarese, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding Author ([email protected])
Abstract
Traditional knowledge forms the basis for decision making in natural resource management practices by farmers.
Erosion of this knowledge may be key threat to the capacity of farmers to cope with natural disasters including
pests and diseases that fluctuate with time. The study was carried out in Kabwohe and Rubaya sites in Uganda to
understand farming practices, knowledge and perceptions in managing pests and diseases for Phaseolus vulgaris.
Farmers exhibited wide knowledge about host resistance of different varieties to specific pests and diseases.
Farmers’ perceptions on varieties’ resistance under different management conditions; and in pests and diseases
identification differed significantly. Intra-specific spatial and temporal practices used to manage pests and diseases
were documented. Correlations between the number of practices per farmer with the weighted damage indices
for Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot were not significant. This calls for rigorous participatory research into
varietal arrangements, proportions and varieties, effective when packaged with particular temporal practices.
Key words: livelihoods, technologies, remedy, answers
83
P027
Facing the Challenges of Promotion of Organic Cocoa Production in Central and Eastern Uganda:
A. Nambuya, M.P.E. Wetala, H. Luzinda, S. Olal C.Kabole.and Ekwaro
National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) National Coffee Research Institute (NaCORI) P.O. Box 185
Mukono, Uganda.
Dr. M.P.E Wetala
National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO)/National Coffee Research Institute (NaCORI)/, P.O. Box 185
Mukono, Uganda. Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The emergence of organic cocoa niche market and the higher price offered has led to the promotion of organic
cocoa in Uganda in areas such as Bundibugyo. A biological and socio economic survey was carried out in 2007/2008
to establish the situation with regard to agronomic practices, pest and diseases, marketing and any other
information relevant in the preparation for certification of farmers for production of organic cocoa in the districts of
Mukono, Mayuge, Jinja and Kamuli. Research methods employed was quantitative using survey methods. The data
was analyzed using frequency tables and statistical graphs. Findings comprised of (a) cocoa yields were generally low,
below 500 kg of dry beans/ha/year (b) The use of chemicals of the farmers in Mukono district for controlling pests;
and diseases in the districts of Mukono and Jinja respectively. While farmers were willing to produce organic cocoa
there were challenges some of which were contributing to low yields which included: (a) poor accessibility to
planting materials (b) poor agronomic practices (c) lack of control of diseases such as pod rot and Verticillium wilt.
(d) Lack of control of pests such as pysllids, scales, and capsids (e) Lack of control of vertebrate pests such as
squirrels, monkeys, poor harvesting methods (f) poor fermentation methods (g) and poor drying methods for were
the major challenges facing the Promotion of Organic Cocoa in Mukono, Jinja, Mayuge and Kamuli districts of
Uganda. Finally the major interventions suggested by the farmers in the above named districts were the use of
organic inputs like pesticides, fertilizers and fungicides in controlling pests and diseases. It is suggested that there is
need to use sustainable training methods such as use of farmer field schools to address the challenges to cocoa
production in general and organic cocoa production in particular.
Key words: Organic cocoa, Survey, Uganda, .pests, diseases, yield
P028
Production Challenges Facing Tea Growing In Central and Western Uganda
A. Nambuya, M.P.E. Wetala, G.J. Hakiza, A. Kangire P.Kucel, H. Luzinda, S.Olal., A.Nabaggala, and C.Kabole. National
Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) National Coffee Research Institute (NaCORI) P.O. Box 185 Mukono,
Uganda. Telephone: +256 772 895 445,[email protected]/ [email protected] (Corresponding
author)
Abstract
Tea is the third (3rd) income earner for the country. In the year 2011, Tea fetched in excess of USD 93,000,000. The
production and value of tea increased from 43,636 tons worth US $ 59 million in 2007 to 45, 680 tons worth US $ 76
million in 2008. Due to its economic importance, it is a means of rural poverty eradication supporting about 400,000
besides employing women, as tea plantations owners. A biological and socio economic survey was carried out in
2007/2008 to establish constraints on tea production and processing practices. The main growing districts were:
Bushenyi, Kabarole, Kyenjo, Mukono, Mityana, Mubende, Kanungu, Hoima, Kibaale and Masaka. The survey focused
on the use of a structured questionnaire. Among the findings were (a) average yield of made tea /ha/year for small
farmers was less than 1500kg compared to large plantations from 2000 to 2500kg in 2006.).(b) Soil sampling for
representative fields for all the major tea growing districts indicated incidences of nutrient deficiency: Bushenyi
calcium, Kabarole & Kyenjonjo Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium, Kanungu Potassium and Mangenisium,
Mityana, Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium Mubende Phosphorus and Potassium, Mukono Organic matter
Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium Hoima Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium. However, about the
84
respondents indicated using inorganic fertilizers in improving fertility at 11.5 bags NPK / ha/ year instead of the
recommended 20. Despite farmer’s willingness to grow tea as source of income, they cited a number of challenges
among which include: (a) the presence of diseases in form of die-bark, wilting and root rot (b) dominant pests being
termites. ’Locusts probably Grasshoppers’. (c) Major activity suffering labor bottlenecks was harvesting (d) marketing
especially low prices of green leaf and lack of transport. Conclusions: The study looked at the planting materials used
by the farmers, tea spacing, practices of bringing tea into bearing, pruning, soil fertility management, identification
supply centers for fertilizer, tea diseases, tea harvesting, challenges in marketing green leaf, tea processing, labour
bottlenecks in tea production, availability of improved tea production technologies and organizations that promote
tea production as discussed in the key findings. Multiplication of improved promising clones are a pre-requisite to
help fight disease (Xylaria sp Fungus) causing dry band around stems. These challenges to production (disease, pest,
and soil amendment) require urgent intervention of research backed with sustainable training methods.
P197
Analysis of cassava seed production and marketing in Uganda: Baseline report
Ekiyar1*, V., Beine1, P., Pariyo1, A and Bua1, A.
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256772677077 or +256757677077)
1
Abstract
A baseline of cassava seed production and marketing is analysed here using data from a survey of 717 cassava
farmers inform future interventions. Results show that growing of improved cassava varieties is high among and the
improved varieties mostly grown by included NASE 14, NASE 3, TME 14 and NASE 13. The planting materials are
currently being obtained from fellow farmers; NAADS and farmer own gardens. About 41% of farmers are engaged in
cassava seed production either for planting on own farm (72%), or sale (23%). The selling price per bag is about UGX
15,000 for the improved varieties that include NASE 3(45%) and NASE 13 (31%). The preferred varieties of cassava
that most farmers are satisfied with are NASE 14, NASE 3 and TME 14. Very few farmers involved in cassava seed
production received field inspection (7%), of which (61%) and (23%) obtained inspection services from NAADS and
NAADS respectively. About 21% of farmers were satisfied with the inspection of improved seed; 20% were satisfied
with seed distribution systems by government agencies’ and NGO system; 43% were satisfied with farmer to farmer
system and 34% satisfied with seed entrepreneur system. We recommend strengthening seed inspections and
enforcing regulations.
Key words: cassava baseline, cassava seed, production, marketing, Uganda
85
SUB-THEME 2.2: AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND FINANCING
P005
Markets and Alternative Utilization of Agricultural Commodities; Emerging Insights from Sorghum, Cowpea and
Green Gram Value Chains in Uganda
1
1
1
1
2
2
*Opie, H , Olupot, J.R ., Ebiyau, J ., Obuo, J.P ., Rwomushana, I and Opio, F .
Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 219, Arua-Uganda
2
Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in East and Central Africa (ASARECA)
*Corresponding author: [email protected]; [email protected]; +256 777255208
1
Abstract
This paper discusses insights from a market study conducted for Sorghum, Cowpea and Green grams in Eastern,
Northern Uganda and Kampala. The main Objective was to analyze the market opportunities of these crops in
Uganda. The specific objectives were to establish demand, consumer preferences, grades and standards in selected
markets and the key quality parameters required by consumers. Using the value chain approach, semi structured
questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to capture data on the demand and utilization. Key findings
indicate the major quality attributes desired by different buyers and users of sorghum, cowpea and green grams
include grain color, size, cleanliness and no pest damage. The price received by farmers is low and is attributed to the
use of non-standard measurement scales and failure to adhere to required grades and standards thereby resulting in
a shift of this responsibility to middlemen who eventually earn a higher price offered by the ultimate consumer.
Despite the low prices, there has been as steady increase in the prices of sorghum compared to cowpea and green
grams. The demand for sorghum and cowpea is projected to grow over the years at a rate of 3.5 and 4% respectively.
The use of sorghum in livestock feeds is very low and this is attributed to its high tannin content and lack of
knowledge on varieties and potential uses. Cowpea and green gram crop residues are to some extent used in
combination with sorghum stalks as stover for livestock feeding. For increased utilization, the existing knowledge gap
among key stakeholders needs to be addressed through collaborative modalities involving all actors in the value
chains.
Key Words: Utilization, demand, quality attributes, consumer preferences
P074
Effects of Financing Mechanisms in Enhancing Commercialization: The Case of Banana Marketing in Kenya
1*
2
1
Tabby Karanja-Lumumba , Gem Argwings-Kodhek and Festus Murithi
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), P.O. Box 57811, Nairobi, Kenya
2
Future Agricultures Consortium, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE UK
*
corresponding author: [email protected] Tel. +254 722 490978
1
Abstract
The initiative to promote tissue cultured banana in Kenya was taken up by several Research and Development (R&D)
agencies in the last two decades with an aim of improving the income and welfare of smallholder resource-poor
farmers in the region. Most interventions focused on improving production and producers’ incomes. While farmers
have intensified production and are marketing their produce, little efforts have focused on development of local
markets, which are vital in spurring commercialization. Inadequate financing has been constantly cited as a major
factor constraining agribusiness ventures. A study was conducted to assess financing mechanisms and their effects
on banana businesses within the period March – April 2012. A total of 205 banana traders were randomly sampled
from banana markets in Kirinyaga, Meru, Kisii and Nairobi Counties. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to
collect data from the sampled traders. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize banana entrepreneurs and
enterprises. The study revealed that the majority of traders (82.4%) financed banana business activities through their
savings while 17.6% accessed credit. However, the commercial level of operation of those who accessed credit was
significantly higher than that of those who used their own savings. Thus, credit is important in supporting expansion
86
of banana businesses and mobilizing banana trader associations for savings and credit access by members is likely to
complement commercialization efforts.
Key words: Commercialization, banana, traders, financing
P097
Analyzing Consumer Preferences for the Quality Characteristics of Sorghum Grain in Eastern Uganda: A Choice
Experiment Approach.
Kakuru K Medard, Fredrick Bagamba and Patrick Okori1
School of Agricultural sciences, Makerere University Kampala.
1
Abstract
Sorghum is an important staple cereal crop in Eastern Uganda and Uganda as a whole. It can be consumed as
porridge, paste, beverage and used to manufacture animal feeds. However, all these opportunities have not been
fully exploited due to undesirable varieties. The current varieties have un desirable consumer characteristics, a factor
that limited consumption of sorghum foods. To understand consumer preferences for quality characteristics of
sorghum, a choice experiment was conducted using a Bayesian efficient design. Results revealed that white, brown
and cream colour attributes all had a positive but varying effect on the consumer preference, with white having the
largest effect. Big grain size, good smell and elastic/extensible texture also had a positive effect on the consumer
preference. Preferences for sorghum attributes were also found to be heterogeneous across the consumers.
Consumers’ preferences for various hypothetical varieties were derived to assess the value of potential varieties. The
findings have important implications for policy on development of new varieties in Uganda and other countries that
face similar sorghum consumption challenges.
Key words: Choice experiment, Multinomial conditional logit, Mixed Logit, Willingness to Pay, compensating surplus.
P143
Socio-economic status of livestock production in West Nile
H. Opie, D. Asizua, P. C. Ejua, P. Oba, M. Kalenzi, and J. Mukalazi
Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute P. O. Box 219, Arua
*Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract
Livestock serve many purposes in the livelihoods of rural communities which are a crucial potential pathway for
poverty reduction for rural communities. A study to establish the socio-economics of livestock production in the
West Nile agro ecological zone was carried out. The study was carried out in all the eight districts in the region and
data collected using a semi structured questionnaire and checklist for key informant interviews. The analysis
revealed that livestock production was still largely subsistence and the main livestock species kept were goats, cattle
and chicken. Indigenous breeds were pre-dominant managed under mainly extensive production practices. The
production practices included tethering, scavenging and communal grazing. Livestock diseases and feed scarcity
were reported by respondents as the major challenges to production. Meanwhile, the need for cash was reported as
the major reason why households were keeping livestock. The region has numerous opportunities for livestock
production which include an existing ready market for livestock products within and beyond the region. Other
opportunities include the proximity to the large water bodies of Lake Albert and Albert Nile that can provide water
ensure sufficient supply of supplementary feeds such as silver fish and oyster shells. It is therefore, apparent that
while livestock production provides the much needed cash among smallholder communities in West Nile, production
is still in the hands of smallholders. However, opportunities for commercial like production still widely exist.
Key words: Livestock, production, constraints, opportunities.
87
SUB-THEME 2.3 FARMERS’ LIVELIHOODS
P082
Improving Food Security in the Marginal Areas of Kenya through Enhanced Cowpea Production
R. Wangari1* and Catherine Murithi2, Joash. Wafula3
KARI – Katumani, P.O.Box 340 - 90100, Machakos
2
KARI – Embu, P.O.Box 27-60100, Embu
3
KARI – Katumani, P.O.Box 340 -90100, Machakos
1
Abstract
Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) is the most important pulse crop in eastern region of Kenya where it is mainly grown
under intercropping with cereal crops. It is rich in protein, minerals, and vitamins.. A number of improved varieties
have been developed with combining diverse plant types and different maturity periods, with resistance or tolerance
to several diseases, insect pests, and possessing other agronomic practices. Despite this farmers in Kenya experience
extremely low yields ranging between 150 to 300 kg/ha compared to yield potential of between 1500 - 1800 kg/ha
from improved varieties. This study aimed at raising farmer adoption of improved agricultural technologies that
enhances ecological resilience in the face of the variable and changing climatic condition through farmer
participatory evaluation for increased cowpea productivity in the hunger-prone communities. A participatory study
was carried out during the short rains of 2011 through long rains of 2013. The stakeholders worked with the farmers
in testing two improved varieties K80 and KVU27-1 including their local check in on-farm to popularize and
disseminate promising improved varieties in five districts in Makindu, Yatta, Makueni, Kathozweni Mwala and
Tharaka South in three focal research development areas per district. These districts are located in agro-ecological
zones IV and V which receives very low and erratic rainfall. The trials were laid in randomized complete block design
and every district signified a replicate. Results indicated that there was significant differences (P<0.05) among
cowpea varieties within each district in grain yield parameter. Notable, resilience of cowpea crop was observed
compared to beans and cereal crops which were affected by low rains received during the three consecutive
seasons. The potential average yield for both cowpea improved varieties was 1.2 – 1.5 t/ha for K80 and 1.1 – 1.7 t/ha
for KVU27-1 compared to their local varieties. The results showed that the improved varieties K80 and KVU27-1 were
favoured by farmers because of their high grain yields. One way of measuring the adoption of improved varieties by
the farmers was through purchase of seeds from KARI Seed Unit (KSU) and the FresCo Seed Company. Cowpea
certified seeds worth of KES 220,000 was purchased by farmers during the 2012 long and short rain season.. The
result from this study has shown that the two improved cowpea varieties is not only superior to the local practices
but also appropriate to the socio-cultural practices of the resource poor farmers.
Key words: cowpea, farmer participatory evaluation, improved varieties, grain yield
P101
Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications of coffee leaf rust disease in Uganda
Luzinda Harris1, Nelima Moreen1, Wabomba Aron1, Kangire Africano1, Musoli Pascal1 and Musebe Richard2
National Coffee Research Institute (NaCORI)/National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) P.O. Box 185
Mukono, Uganda.
1
2
CABI Africa Regional Center, P.O. Box 633-00621, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya.
Author for correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract
Coffee leaf rust (CLR) still remains a serious threat to the economics of coffee farming in Uganda. The disease is more
severe on Arabica at mid and low altitude (1500m and below) where crop losses may go up to 50%. This study
documents the disease impact on coffee productivity, farmer’s knowledge about the disease and their coping
strategies across the Arabica growing zones in Uganda. Overall, 83.8% had knowledge of the disease. They reported
88
rust causing premature defoliation and loss of photosynthetic surfaces, appearance of pale yellow spots on the lower
surface of the leaves (72.3%) and expanding berries failing to fill up and young berries shedding off (11.5%). Results
further revealed that rust incidence led to a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in Arabica coffee productivity and income
by 49.2%. As cope up strategies, farmers practiced; timely weeding (81.5%), chemical spraying mainly using
Bordeaux mixture (20.8%), increasing plant spacing and field hygiene (8.1%), concoctions (10.4%), fertilizer
application (12.4%) and planting tolerant varieties (9.2%). The use of concoctions and improving field hygiene and
plant spacing significantly (p < 0.01) reduced impact of the disease on productivity. Implication of these findings on
the development and promotion of sustainable CLR management strategies are discussed.
Key words: Impact, Indigenous knowledge, disease management, control-options
P119
Contribution of mangoes and oranges to the household incomes and food security in the eastern lowlands of
Uganda
1,*
2
1
1
1
1
Vincent I. Opolot , Clement Okia , Paul Okullo , Hillary Agaba , Richard Oluk , Samuel Ongerep , Kenneth Eryau
1
Abstract
Mangoes and oranges are important fruit trees in Uganda that have traditionally been an integral part of most
homegardens playing significant roles to household income and food security. Despite their importance to
household livelihood, the yield and marketability of these important fruits remained largely unknown. This study
evaluated seven mango and five orange cultivars in the eastern lowland agro-ecological zone (AEZ) of Uganda to
establish the yields and marketability. Yield of mango and orange cultivars each were compared using ANOVA. Bire
yield was one and half times higher compared to Tommy Atkins the poorest. However, in terms of marketability,
Ngowen was superior to Bire and earned twice higher than Alfonso. For oranges Tangelo Seminole yield was highest
closest by Hamlin then Valencia, but three times and close to twice higher compared to Nova and Hamlin
respectively. The demand for Valencia was twice higher compared to Tangelo seminole and more than three times
and twofold higher than Nova and Washington navel respectively. Overall, both mangoes and oranges performed
best in Kumi but were easily marketed in Tororo. It was recommended that for higher yield and income farmers
should grow Bire and Ngowen mango varieties, and Valencia and Hamlin orange varieties.
Key words: Mango, Orange, Cultivar, yield, AEZ, Uganda
P157
Tackling the spread of HIV infections among hard-to-reach fishing communities
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
F. Ajok Odoch , F. Herbert Kazibwe , S. Mashate , S. Kironde , A. Mugume , R. Kimuli T, Odong , H, Ndagire , D,
1
1
2
3
Businge , T. Ojulong , P.Magoola , J. Balidawa .
1
Authors’ Affiliations JSI Research &Training Institute, INC. (JSI)/ Strengthening TB and HIV&AIDS Responses in East
2
3
Central Uganda (STAR-EC) Ministry of Health, Namayingo local Government of Uganda National Fisheries Resources,
research institute (NaFIRRI)
Author for correspondence: [email protected]; [email protected]
Abstract
About 25% (n-42,000) of people in Namyingo District in East Central live in the Islands of Sigulu on Lake Victoria.
Typical of any islands, transport means is a major hindrance to accessibility. The majority of inhabitants in the islands
are migrant fisher-fork who have daily access to disposable income which in turn tempts them into transactional sex.
They are highly mobile and with low risk perception about HIV. These factors culminate into health related problems
with reported high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Access to health care services remains a bottleneck among these communities because the islands are hard-to-reach
(due to poor transport networks); lack adequate health facilities and short supply of essential medicines and
89
commodities and therefore the community is more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections including HIV&AIDS
and other diseases. To mitigate the limited health care provider and transport challenges affecting access to health
services in Sigulu islands, STAR-EC a USAID funded program implemented by JSI entered into a working partnership
with NaFIRRI in 2011. The latter provided water transport vessel to facilitate transportation of health workers,
medical supplies and equipment during quarterly week long health service delivery outreach camps. Among the
services included behaviour change communication and counselling, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), condom
promotion and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over the past years of
implementation of integrated health services, fisher folk living in Sigulu islands have shown positive trends in their
health seeking behaviours and thus translating into reduced HIV positivity recorded.
P169
Cassava market structures and dynamics in Uganda
Ekiyar1*, V., Oba2, B. & Bua1, A.
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
Department of Extension and Innovation Studies, School of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256772677077 or +256757677077)
2
Abstract
In Uganda, market structure, marketing channels, price spread and marketing efficiency of cassava have not been
studied. Data from a survey of 1,211 cassava market agents were used in this study. Results indicate that most
business in cassava is increasingly becoming urbanized with many players at various marketing channels signifying
marketing efficiency in cassava and cassava based product markets.
Key words: cassava, market channels, marketing efficiency, Uganda
P175
An analysis of technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Uganda
1*
2
1
1
Hamba S., Elepu G., Ekiyar V., & Bua A.
1
National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, School of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
2
*
Author for correspondence ([email protected]; +256772891392)
Abstract
Cassava production efficiency levels have not been determined in Uganda. A stochastic frontier is used here to
investigate technical efficiency and its determinants based on survey data from 240 cassava farmers. Results showed
that cassava farmers were 54% efficient, minimum being 27% and maximum 74%. Significant determinants of
technical efficiency were farm size, household size and improved cassava varieties.
Key words: Technical efficiency, cassava farmers, Uganda
90
P186
Scaling out control of banana Xanthomonas wilt from community to regional level.
1
Kubiriba, J.,1Erima, R., 2Turyagyenda, L. 3Lagu, 4Alosius, B. and 1Tushemereirwe, W.K.
National Agricultural Laboratories Institute, P.O. 7065, Kampala, Uganda.
2
Mbarara Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 389, Mbarara, Uganda.
3
Zonal NAADS, Mbarara Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 389, Mbarara, Uganda.
4
Production and Maketing Department, Isingiro, District, Uganda
1
Abstract
Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) was first reported in Uganda’s Southwestern region in 2005. It is the region that
produces more than 60% of Uganda’s bananas annually (Kalyebara et al., 2006). BXW prevalence was kept below
5% between 2005 and 2008 (Kubiriba et al 2012). This was due to combined use of farmer field schools and
Integrated Agricultural Research for development (IAR4D), also often referred to as community action using cultural
practices. The focus of the stakeholder mobilization approaches were the communities with the involvement of the
subcounty and district players. The process kicked off with development and implementation of BXW action plans,
focusing on the communities supported by the subcounty and district action plans. In 2010, BXW prevalence in the
region increased to 34% due to incomplete and distorted information reaching the farmers; inadequate systems for
surveillance of the disease and inadequate mobilization of stakeholders to control the disease. In 2012, the strategy
for BXW control changed to formulating BXW control action plan focusing on the region (10 districts of the Ankole
region) rather than the community (100-300 farmers) by a mix of stakeholders from the region (farmers, political
leaders, extension officers and administrators). Then the action plans of districts and subcounties were designed to
achieve the goal set in the regional action plan. The overall implementation of the regional plan was spearheaded
and coordinated by the regional taskforce, instituted by regional stakeholders. BXW prevalence reduced from about
45% in June 2012 to about 13% in September 2013, with banana production recovery of 40% from the peak of BXW
epidemic in all the 10 districts. There is need to assess the economic impact of BXW resurgency and control in Ankole
region. Drivers and lessons of successful control of BXW will then be identified and promoted to further reduce
BXW incidence in Ankole and adopted to scale out BXW control to other main banana growing areas in Uganda.
P196
Household Wealth Status and Determinants of Use of Fungicides for Control of Late Blight among Potato Farmers
in Uganda. A Heckman Selection Procedure
Ollen Wanda, Peter. A. Beine
Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated factors that influence adoption of improved technologies by small scale farmers.
A good deal of such studies has highlighted socio-economic, demographic and agro-ecological factors as critical for
influencing the decision of a farmer to select and use an improved technology. Basing on the wealth status of potato
farmers, this study econometrically investigates determinants of probability of use and level of use of fungicides for
control of late blight. The study covered a sample of 504 respondents from the four districts of Kabale, Kisoro,
Kanungu and Rukungiri. Basing on the common livelihood assets of the communities, the households were
categorized into poorly and well endowed wealth groups using the principal components analysis method. A
Heckman selection procedure was then specified and estimated for each wealth group to assess factors influencing
the adoption and use intensity of fungicides among potato farmers in the control of late blight disease. The results
suggest that factors influencing the adoption and use intensity of fungicides among the 59.9% of the poorly endowed
households differed from those observed for the well endowed households. The results, therefore, draw attention to
the need to design wealth group specific interventions to improve the adoption and use intensity of fungicides
among potato farmers in Uganda.
Key words: Wealth index, Heckman Selection model, potatoes, Uganda
91
SUB-THEME 4: CROSS AND EMERGING ISSUES
SUB-THEME 4.1: SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
P011
Use of Mucuna Pruriens to Improve Soil Fertility for Cotton Production in Uganda
Elobu, P1; J. Nalunga2, P. Musunguzi3, J.R. Ocan1 and J. Olinga1
National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI), P.O. Soroti
2
National Organic Agricultural Movement of Uganda (NOGAMU), P.O. Box 70071, Kampala
3
Makerere University (Soil Science Department), P. O. Box 7062 Kampala)
1
Abstract
Trials to test effectiveness of Mucunapruriens (referred to in this paper as Mucuna) in improving soil fertility,
especially for cotton (Gossypiumhirsitum L.)production were conducted at the National Semi Arid Resources
Research Institute (NaSARRI) and on Farmers’ fields in Northern Uganda. During the 2008/2009 cotton season, trials
were conducted at NaSARRI and in Lira, whereas work was done in Gulu district during the 2010/2011 and 2011/12
cotton seasons. At NaSARRI and Lira, Mucuna was intercropped with cotton at two densities and periodically cut
down to decompose under the cotton crop. Under the on-farm trials in Gulu, Mucuna was planted and allowed to
grow for 1-2 months before ploughing it down. Cotton was then planted on the post- Mucuna plots for comparison
with the control plots. Soil analyses from depths of 0-30 cm and 30-45 cm before and after the growth of Mucuna
revealed changes in levels of various nutrients in the Gulu trials. Some were reduced, while others were increased.
Mucuna increased soil available P at the 30-45 cm depth by up to 106 % in some sites. Use of Mucuna increased seed
cotton yields by an average of 36.9 % in the Gulu trials and this was attributed, mainly, to the increase in available P.
Mucuna intercropped with cotton at low and high densities at NaSARRI reduced cotton yields by 19 % and 30.1 %
respectively compared to an increase of 25.9 % when Mucuna was cut from elsewhere and applied to cotton. From
the Lira trials, Mucuna at the two densities increased yields from one out of four sites but reduced yields from three
out of the four sites. The study concludes that (1) Mucuna is a potentially cheapand sustainable method of providing
nutrients (especially P) to cotton and increasing seed cotton yields in areas where fertility is a limitation. (2)
Intercropping Mucuna with cotton is not feasible and should be discouraged until better management methods are
developed. (3) Mucunal needs to be established early and given sufficient time to form biomass before it may be
knocked down and a subsequent crop planted.
P083
Land Use Dynamics and their Impacts on Agrarian Livelihoods in the Western Highlands Of Kenya
Morgan C. Mutoko, Lars Hein and Harm Bartholomeus
Abstract
Promoting sustainable land management requires a thorough understanding of land use change drivers, processes
and effects over time. An integrated approach was therefore tested to analyse land use dynamics, combining
satellite images, an in-depth quantitative survey, stakeholder interviews and local statistics. Analysis of land
dynamics and agricultural production covered a 25-year period in Vihiga County, Western Kenya. Specifically, the
study examined how land use has changed in this period, the main drivers for land use change and the main effects
of these changes on agricultural production. Results show that the county has undergone rapid land use change in
the past 25 years. In particular, there has been a major conversion of forest and bare land to agricultural land use.
Often, it is expected that increasing population pressure would trigger agricultural intensification; however, the
study found little evidence of such a process in Vihiga County. Overall, per capita food crop production dropped by
about 30% during the past two decades. The study shows that high and increasing population pressures do not
necessarily lead to agricultural intensification, and that there is a need to consider more explicitly off-farm income in
development and land management policies and projects in Africa.
92
Keywords: Integrated knowledge, landscape change, remote sensing, technological change
P129
Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of Ca-bentonite
Semalulu, O., M. Magunda and D.N.Mubiru
National Agricultural Research Laboratories – Kawanda. P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda.
[email protected]
Abstract
Soil moisture shortage is a major limiting factor to agricultural production, in view of increased drought incidences
and seasonal rainfall variability. This study evaluated the potential for Ca-bentonite (a 2:1 clay mineral) as a possible
amendment for increased moisture retention by sandy soils in drought stricken/prone areas. The objectives of this
study were: to assess the effect of bentonite application on soil moisture and other soil properties, and evaluate the
effect of Ca-bentonite on maize growth and yield following its application on sandy soils in drought prone areas of
Uganda. The study was conducted both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse (27-30oC), Cabentonite was mixed with a sandy soil in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight, replicated three times. The
mixtures were watered to field capacity (30% water) then maize (Longe V) planted and left to grow for 5 weeks
without any additional water application. Under field conditions, Ca-bentonite was applied on sandy soils in the
drought-prone Lwabiyata sub county, Nakasongola district in central Uganda. Treatments included: Ca-bentonite
applied at 0, 1.25 and 2.5 t ha-1; DAP at 0, 62.5 and 125 kg ha-1; urea at 0 and 60 kg ha-1; and farmyard manure (FYM)
-1
at 0, 1.25 and 2.5 t ha , arranged in arandomized block design with three replicates. Under greenhouse conditions,
Ca-bentonite application significantly (P<0.05) increased the soil moisture retention, pH, N, P, Ca and Mg content,
and subsequently, maize dry matter yield. Under field conditions, Ca-bentonite application significantly (P<0.05)
increased maize grain yield by 40%. Yields were even higher (65 to 108% above the control) where bentonite was
combined with FYM and/or DAP. The results suggest that Ca-bentonite has potential asa soil amendmentfor
moisture conservation, neutralizing acidity, and improving N, P, Ca and Mg contentin sandy soils, and consequently
support crop growth and yield. Thus calcium bentonite presents a possible amelioration for sandy soils of low fertility
in drought stressed environments. It is a promising technology for climate change adaptation in drought prone areas.
Key words: Climate change adaptation, drought mitigation, moisture stress, soil moisture conservation, soil fertility.
P165
Optimizing fertilizer recommendations in Uganda
Kayuki Kaizzi1, Lydia Wairegi2, and Charles Wortmann3
National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), P.O. Box 7065 Kampala, Uganda
Email: [email protected]
2
Centre for Agricultural Biosciences International, P.O. Box 633-00621, Nairobi, Kenya.
3
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 213 Agriculture Hall, Lincoln,
Nebraska, USA 68583
1
Abstract
Application of mineral fertilizers is an effective means to reverse soil nutrient depletion, supply nutrients to plants
and improve land productivity and has been credited for much of the sustained increases in per capita food
production in Asia and Latin America. Fertilizer use in combination with other soil management measures using an
Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) approach is necessary to combat the poor soil fertility and increase
-1
-1
yields. Unfortunately fertilizer use is low at Uganda is less than 1 kg ha yr compared to an average for sub-Saharan
-1
-1
Africa of 8 kg ha yr .Existing fertilizer recommendations are high, and/ not site, or crop specific, do not take
account of agro-ecological conditions or the soil type in which the crop is being grown with no information on how to
adjust fertilizer use for different cropping systems, crop rotations, and other soil fertility management practices such
as use of manure and farmers’ financial status. New fertilizer recommendations must consider cropping systems and
ISFM practices. Optimizing Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa (OFRA) aims to develop and fine-tune fertilizer
recommendations within an ISFM framework to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farmers.
OFRA builds on achievements of AGRA supported research by NARO in Uganda with UNL collaboration where a
Fertilizer Optimization Tool (FOT) was developed and currently is being migrated to mobile platforms in collaboration
93
with Grammen Foundation. OFRA operates in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria,
Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. NARES are working with Centre for Agricultural Biosciences
International (CABI) and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL). The FOT has been adapted to maize, upland rice,
sorghum, beans, soybeans and groundnuts so far. More crops (cassava, coffee, banana, simsim, fingermillet, etc.)
will be added to the FOT by generating nutrient response functions from available data or by conducting trials.
94
SUB-THEME 4.2: CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT
P059
Trends and variability of extreme rainfall and temperature in the cattle corridor of Uganda
1,2*
1
3
4
Owoyesigire, B. D. Mpairwe , P. Ericksen and D.Peden
Department of Agricultural Production, School of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences (CAES), Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda
2
Buginyanya Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (BugiZARDI),Uganda
Tel:+256772345830 E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
3
International Livestock Research Institute ILRI, P.O Box 37009,Nairobi, Kenya
4
International Livestock Research Institute ILRI, P.O Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
1
Abstract
A study was conducted to determine trends of extreme rainfall and temperature indices in order to inform
stakeholder’s decisions in planning for better adaptation strategies to climate change. Daily rainfall and temperature
data sets from 1970 to 2010 of three different locations were used. Data were subjected to a timeseries analysis
using RClimdex software. Annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT) index revealed non significant increasing trends (P >
0.05). Frequency of heavy precipitation days (R10mm) were on rise and only significant in Soroti (P > 0.05).
Consecutive dry days, CDD revealed weak increasing trends in Mbarara and stronger significant increasing trends in
Soroti (P < 0.05). Trends in annual temperature indices showed significant increases in hot days (TX90p) and warm
nights, TN90p (P < 0.05). The number of warmest nights (TNx) and hottest days (TXx) was also significantly increasing
(P < 0.05). Mean diurnal temperature range, DTR showed significant decreasing trends in Mbarara and Masindi (P <
0.05) while in Soroti it was significantly increasing. The observed trends in precipitation index showed that the
southwest part of the cattle corridor was slightly getting wetter.
Key words: Climate change, precipitation index, hot days and warm nights
P080
Effects of fish cage culture practices on water quality, algae and invertebrate communities in northern Lake
Victoria Uganda
Mwebaza-Ndawula, Lucas, Vincent Kiggundu, Godfrey Magezi and Janet Naluwayiro, Willy Gandhi- Pabire,Henry
Ocaya
Corresponding Author:Mwebaza-Ndawula Lucas
National Fisheries Resources Research Institute (NaFIRRI), P.O. Box 343, Jinja Uganda; [email protected]
Abstract
Growing of fish in cages is a recent practice in Uganda, having been introduced in northern Lake Victoria in 2010. It is
not exactly known what influence the practice may have on the surrounding environment especially since fish grown
in cages are fed on external enriched feed. An environment monitoring study was undertaken at Source of the Nile, a
private cage fish farm, in Napoleon gulf, northern Lake Victoria. The objective was to investigate possible impacts of
cage fish operations on the water environment and aquatic biota. Field sampling was done once every quarter
during 2011.In-situ measurements of key environment variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity
and secchi depth) were made at three transects: Transect 1- the site with fish cages (WC); transect 2- upstream of
the fish cages (USC-control) and Transect 3- downstream of the cages (DSC). Upstream and Downstream sites were
located approximately 1.0 km from the fish cages. Sampling and analysis for algae, zooplankton, macro-benthos
were concurrently done using standard operating procedures of the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization.
Environment parameters varied across study sites and field dates but were generally within expected and safe
ranges for freshwater habitats. Higher concentrations of SRP (0.015-0.112mg/L) occurred at USC during February,
September and at DSC in November; NO2-N (0.217- 0.042 mg/L) at USC and DSC in February and November; NH4-N
(0.0054- 0.065 mg/L) at WC and DSC in February, May and November. TSS values (1.16-7.3 mg/L) showed no clear
95
pattern between study sites. Algal community was dominated by blue-green algae with significantly higher biomass
(ca.36, 904 ug/L) at WC (F2, 778; P = 0.010). Zooplankton species numbers were consistently lower at WIC with a
significant difference between the control site and WIC (P = 0.032).Macro-benthos abundance was consistently
higher at the site with cages where mollusks and low-oxygen and pollution-tolerant chironomids were the dominant
group. Higher algal biomass, concentration of low-oxygen/pollution-tolerant macro-benthos and depressed
zooplankton diversity at WC suggested impacts from the fish cages on aquatic biota.
Key Words: Cage fish culture, water quality, algae, invertebrates
P091
Climate Smart Forage Technologies for Improving Dry Season Feeding in Smallholder Dairy Systems
1
2
1
2
3
Kabirizi, J,; Zziwa, E.; Mugerwa, S.; Ndikumana, J. and Lukwago , G.
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda
2
Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), Entebbe, Uganda
3
Eastern Africa Agricultural Productivity Project (EAAPP), National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), P.O.
Box 265, Entebbe, Uganda
1
Abstract
Sustainable fodder production is a constant problem in smallholder dairy systems in Eastern and Central Africa
particularly during the dry season when traditional fodder like Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cannot cope.
Maize stover has a great potential in cushioning livestock farmers against climate variability and change, however, its
low crude protein (CP) content (<5%) is a major challenge to dairy cattle nutrition. Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato
(Brachiaria), a drought tolerant forage and Pennisetum purpureum were intercropped with Centrosema molle and
Clitoria ternatea, respectively and compared to Napier grass monoculture (control). The three forage technologies
were randomly assigned to 24 smallholder farms in a Randomised Complete Block Design. In another study 0.2
ha/season of an intercrop of maize and Lablab purpureus (ML) and 0.1 ha/season of maize monocrop were
established on each of the 12 farms and managed using methods described by Mpairwe (1998).) Composted cattle
manure (1 ton/ha/year) was applied to all experimental plots. Data was collected on fodder dry matter (DM) yield
(Kabirizi, 2006) and crude protein (A.O.A.C., 2001) and analysed using SAS (2001). Intercropping Centrosema with
Napier grass increased fodder availability by 52% and crude protein concentration by 20%. Supplementing Napier
grass-forage legume mixtures with 0.5 ha of Brachiaria-forage legume mixtures on farm, elevated household
production levels and led to economic returns of US$677/cow/year. Intercropping maize with lablab increased
(P<0.05) stover DM and grain yield by 26 and 7%, respectively compared to monocrop (4,373 kg/ha/yr and 2,912
kg/ha/yr, respectively). The CP content was 1.9 times higher (P>0.05) in ML than monocrop (4.0% CP). In conclusion
supplementing Napier grass forage banks with drought tolerant, high-quality deep-rooted forage legumes and
drought-tolerant Brachiaria and integrating forage legumes in cereal cropping systems are promising strategies for
year-round feed supply
Keywords: Napier grass, forage legumes, Brachiaria, milk yield, income
96
P093
Drought Mitigating Technologies: Lessons Learnt From Sorghum Productivity in Drought Prones Areas of Eastern
Kenya
1
Njeru P. N. M, 2Mugwe J, 2Mucheru-Muna M, 3Maina I, 4Mugendi D, 1Lekasi, J.K, 1Kimani S. K, 1Miriti J, 3Esilaba A.O,
3
Oeba O.V and Muriithi F.
1
KARI Muguga South, P.O Box 30148-00100, Nairobi
2Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844, Nairobi
3KARI Headquarters, P.O Box 57811-002004, Nairobi
4
Embu University College-Nairobi University, P.O Box 6- 60100, Embu
5
Kenya Forestry Research institute, P.O Box 20412-00200 Nairobi
E-mail of corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected] and
[email protected], Tel: +254725956963
5
Abstract
The lower parts of Embu County in Eastern Kenya are characterized by poor crop harvest due to unpredictable,
unreliable and poor rainfall distribution patterns. The decline in crop productivity has been as a result of inadequate
understanding of intra-seasonal rainfall variability to develop optimal cropping calendar. A study was conducted
during Long rains 2011 to determine the effect of various water harvesting and integrated soil fertility management
technologies on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) productivity in Mbeere South Sub-County. The field
experiment was laid out in Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Design (PBIBD) with a total of 36 treatments
replicated three times. The treatments of tied ridges and contour furrows under sorghum alone and intercrop plus
external soil amendment of 40 Kg P /ha + 20 Kg N /ha + manure 2.5 t/ha had the highest grain yield of 3.1 t/ha. The
soil fertility levels differed significantly from one another (p=0.0001) in terms of sorghum and cowpea grain yield.
Generally, all experiment controls had the lowest grain yields as low as 0.3 t/ha to 0.5 t/ha. Therefore, integration of
minimal organic and inorganic inputs under various water harvesting technologies could be considered as an
alternative food security initiative towards climate change mitigation for Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County in
Eastern Kenya.
Key words: Climate change, food security, soil amendments, Mbeere south sub-county, Eastern Kenya
P177
Bridging gaps in historical weather data of Uganda
1
1
1
1
1
E. Komutunga , J.K. Oratungye , E. Ahumuza , D. Akodi and C. Agaba
National Agricultural Research Laboratories - Kawanda, P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda
Author for correspondence: [email protected]
1
Abstract
Existing historical weather data in most developing countries have gaps as a result of missing/old equipment and
shortage of trained observers. This confounds analysis of climate change trends, extreme events and climate risks. In
order to grapple with the problem, automatic weather stations, weather generating software, have been routinely
used as alternatives to fill data gaps. However, there has been limited effort in harmonizing these datasets to come
up with a concise climate data set to be used for Climate Science and Modeling. This study therefore seeks to analyze
the association between the various datasets and to develop adjustment algorithms in order to generate a single, fitfor-purpose climate data set. Daily historical precipitation & temperature data (1991–2013) were obtained for 4
purposively selected weather stations from the National Meteorological Authority archives; Adcon telemetry
automatic weather data (2010-2013) were obtained from the National Agricultural Research Organization archives.
Software generated datasets were obtained from Weatherman and MarkSim programs. These data sets were then
re-arranged into suitable formats using RClimDex. Pairwise correlation (r) and linear regression (R-squared) were
used to compare monthly summaries of rainfall data; where as paired samples t-test was used to compare monthly
mean temperature data. All comparisons were assessed at 95% confidence level using SPSS 18. There was a strong,
positive, statistically significant relationship between the original and simulated/automatic weather data (r>0.7,
p<0.05). Over 60% of the variation in the generated weather data was explained by the actual data set (R-squared).
The generated/automated mean monthly temperature did not significantly differ from the original mean monthly
97
temperature (p>0.05). Hence manual and automated/generated data can be used in conjunction as a continuous
data set. It is therefore recommended to use weather generators and automatic stations in filling out weather data
gaps and harmonizing climate data.
Key words: data-gaps, original, generated, automatic, comparison and weather
P204
Anthropogenic pressure in Mountain Elgon Ecosystem: Detecting Land cover changes during 1973-2014 by means
of Landsat satellite data.
Ejiet John Wasige ([email protected]) and Richard Bavakure ([email protected])
P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda, National Agriculture Research Laboratories (NARL) Kawanda (Uganda)
Mount Elgon ecosystems are considered as one of the most significant global ecosystems, providing huge amount of
benefits to humans via various ecosystem services and products. In the past four decades, this region has
experienced rapid land cover changes being powered by agricultural expansion. Considerable uncertainty remains in
our knowledge of human impacts on this ecosystem. In this study, we processed and interpreted Landsat satellite
imagery for the period between 1973 and 2014 to characterize the types, rates, and temporal variability of land
cover change over a 40-year period. We identified where vegetated land surface has changed significantly during the
past 40 years in response to direct human impacts. We highlight areas manifesting highly significant changes in land
cover. The most dominant LUCC processes were more than a double gain in farmland areas from 14 % in 1973 to 34
% in 2014 and nearly 40% net reduction in dense forest and Banana-Coffee (22 % to 14 %) between 1973 and 2014.
Hotspots of continuing loss of natural forest are concentrated at forest edges. Forest degradation rapidly occurred
during 1973 (17 %) and 2003 (14 %) but was only 2 % in 2014 as the forest re-grew between due to forest
conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases from 6 % to 16 between 2003
and 2014. In the discussion, we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. This
research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on changes in biodiversity, carbon stocks,
nutrients and sediment dynamics.
Key words: Anthropogenic pressure, Ecosystem, Forest degradation, Land use/cover change, Remote sensing
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MESSAGE FROM EDITOR IN CHIEF: UGANDA JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES (UJAS)
Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) was born in 1993, with its first publication in December.
This was the beginning of a long and prosperous journey for UJAS, an initiative that was created by
Professor Joseph K. Mukiibi, the first Director General of the National Agricultural Research Organisation
(NARO) and Editor-In-Chief of the journal. Professor Mukiibi’s inspiration arose out of the need to give
Ugandan scientists a platform to publish their manuscripts since many couldn’t afford the publication fees
required by reputable journals in developed countries. In addition, scientists and other stakeholders in
Uganda, to whom the information would be most relevant couldn’t access such publications and so the
country wouldn’t benefit from this research.
Principally, UJAS aspires to become one of Africa’s major hubs for disseminating and advancing new
knowledge and innovations in agricultural and environmental sciences. UJAS’s journey thus far has been
phenomenal but not void of challenges. Nonetheless, the journal has attracted scores of manuscripts from
scientists working in the various fields of agricultural and environmental sciences in sub-Saharan Africa
and from all over the world. The journal publishes original work in plant science (crop and forestry),
livestock sciences, fisheries, engineering, environmental, food and social sciences of relevance to
agriculture. UJAS also publishes short communications and research reports, plus original results
warranting publications as full papers. In every publication, UJAS publishes a book review on relevant
topics. As a print and online edition, UJAS is therefore able to cater for a vast readership and ably
contribute to the development of a knowledge-led economy in Uganda.
Unfortunately, UJAS’ smooth operations were prematurely interfered with by reforms of Uganda’s
agricultural research systems between 2002 and 2005. During this time, NARO underwent a major
institutional reform which stalled UJAS’ progress from 2005 to 2010. But in 2011, Dr. Denis Kyetere the
then Director General of NARO, revitalized the full operation of UJAS and appointed a new Editorial Board.
This reaffirmed NARO’s commitment to making UJAS the fulcrum for the dissemination and advancement
of new scientific knowledge and innovations in agricultural and environmental sciences in Uganda and
beyond. Consequently, to achieve this objective, NARO has developed a ten year Strategic Plan for UJAS
(2014 – 2023). This plan will guide NARO to nurture and support the journal’s growth into an effective,
credible, reputable, and impactful publication in Uganda, Africa, and in the world. This will be achieved
among others by focusing on institutional development of the journal, establishing a competent Editorial
Board, a publishing house with office space for the journal editors, timely publication of high quality
competitive scientific publications and establishing effective marketing system for the journal.
I therefore call upon you to participate in UJAS’ journey and help us write a remarkable success story by
continuing to publish with UJAS. I also warmly welcome researchers and scientists to support this
indigenous publication by inviting and recommending new publications so new knowledge and
information generated is easily accessed for “home consumption”. This will accelerate and quickly
strengthen the impact of the investments in agricultural research in sub-Saharan Africa.
Yona Baguma (PhD)
Ag. Deputy Director General Research Coordination and Editor-in-Chief, UJAS
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CONFERENCE SPONSORS
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CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
No.
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Name
Dr. Imelda N. Kashaija
Deputy Directory General, Technology Promotions and
Innovations, NARO
Tel: +256 772 465 070
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Dr. Yona Baguma
Ag. Deputy Directory General, Research Coordination, NARO,
Editor-In-Chief Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Tel: +256 772 930 185
E-mail: [email protected]
Prof Justus Rutaisire
Director Corporative Services, NARO
Tel:
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Dr. Dismas Mbabazi
Principal Research Officer, Officer-In-Charge Aquaculture Research
Center, Kajjansi, NARO
Tel: +256 772 393 452
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
Eng. Alphonse Candia
Senior Research Officer, NARO
Associate Editor, Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Tel: +256 772 328 519
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Ms Violette Nakawesa
Secretary to the NARO Council
Tel: +256 775 765 737
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Mr. Joshua Mugeziaubwa Guina
Senior Management Information System, NARO
Tel: +776 832 368
E-mail: [email protected]
Ms Catherine Nabakooza
Records Officer, NARO
Tel: +256 777 682 421
E-mail: [email protected]
Ms Jessica Kafureeka
Adminstrative Assistant, NARO - Secretariat
Tel: +256 772 432 854
E-mail: [email protected]
Ms Jane Kagoro
Senior ….. NARO
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Julius Emaru
Procurement Officer, NARO – Secretariat
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Anguzu Robert
Tel: +256 772 409 975
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Responsibility
Chair of Organizing Committee
Assistant Chair of Organizing
Committee
Member
Team Leader of Scientific Subcommitte
Team Leader - Conference Program
and Book of Abstracts
Member
Member
Secretary to the Organizing
Committee and Archives
Assistant Secretary to the Organizing
Committee
Member
Team Leader, Procurement
Team Leader, Publicity
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SCIENTIFIC COMMITTE
No.
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Name
Dr. Dismas Mbabazi
Principal Research Officer, Head Aquaculture, Kajjansi, NARO
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
Eng. Alphonse Candia
Senior Research Officer, NARO
E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]
Dr. Yona Baguma
Ag. Deputy Directory General, Research Coordination, NARO,
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. John Balirwa
Director, National Fisheries Resources Research Institute, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. David Hafashimana
Director, Bulindi Zonal Agric Research & Development Institute
E-mail:
Dr. Andrew Kiggundu
Head: Biodiversity and Biotechnology Program, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. Ananias Bagumire
Head ..
E-mail:
Dr. Godfrey Asea
Head: Cereals Program, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. Stephen Nkalobo
Senior Research Officer, Legumes Program, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. Onesmus Semalulu
Principal Research Officer, Soils and Metereology Program, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. Jerome Kubiriba
Head: Banana Program, NARO
E-mail:
Ms Margaret Masette
Head: Food Bio-sciences and Agri-business Program, NARO
E-mail:
Dr. Bernard Obaa
Colleage of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere
University (MAK)
E-mail:
Dr. Abel Akawense
Colleage of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, MAK
E-mail:
Prof Achileo Kaaya
Colleage of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, MAK
E-mail:
Mr. Juma N….
Biometrician NARO
E-mail:
Responsibility
Team Leader , Scientific Subcommitte
Assistant Team Leader, Scientific
Sub-committe
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
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NARO AT A GLANCE
The National Agricultural Research Orgnization (NARO) is the principal institution for the coordination and oversight
of all aspects of agricultural research in Uganda. NARO is an agency of the Government of Uganda, under the
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries. NARO comprises of the council as its governing body,
committees of the council as its specialized organs, a secretariat for its day-to-day operations with the semiautonomous public agricultural research institutes under its policy guidance.
NARO COUNCIL
NARO council comprises of 16 members drawn from a wide range of stakeholders that include representatives of
farmers, the private sector, the Uganda Non-Governmental Organizations Forum; Local Government, Universities,
Public agricultural research and private agricultural research service providers; the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of
Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF); the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Finance, Planning and
economic development (MFPED); the Executive Director NAADS, the Executive Secretary, Uganda National Council
for Science and Technology. NARO council conducts its business through four committees namely: Finance
Committee, Scientific Committee, Users Committee and audit committee.
NARO SECRETARIAT
NARO secretariat based in Entebbe is headed by the Director General who is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and
the Chief Accounting Officer of the organization. The DG deputized by two Deputy Director Generals in the day to
day operations of the organization. One Deputy Director is in charge of Technology Promotion and Innovation
Support (DTPIS) and one in charge Research coordination (DRC). Director General is further assisted by a technical
and administrative team consisting of the Directors of Corporate Services, Finance, Human Resource and Head
Internal Audit.
PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Public Agricultural Research Institutes (PARIs) are semi-autonomous research management entities under the policy
guidance of NARO Secretariat for the purpose of providing agricultural research services. PARIs are semi
autonomous in their operations relating to the implementation of their research programmes, allocation and
management of resources in accordance with the approved annual programmes and budget by the council.
Public Agricultural Research Institutes (PARIs) are semi-autonomous research management entities under the policy
guidance of NARO Secretariat for the purpose of providing agricultural research services. PARIs are semi
autonomous in their operations relating to the implementation of their research programmes, allocation and
management of resources in accordance with the approved annual programmes and budget by the council.
VISION
“A market-responsive, client-oriented, and demand-driven national agricultural research System”
MISSION
“To generate and disseminate appropriate, safe and cost effective technologies”
NARO CORE VALUES
In pursuance of its mission and vision, NARO is guided by the following core values:
INCLUSIVITY
Inclusivity creates opportunities and conducive environment for all interested stakeholders to participate in research
service delivery. The mechanisms to be used include Competitive Grant Scheme (CGS) and strategic allocation of
core funds to facilitate public-private sector partnerships.
SUBSIDIARITY
NARO now coordinates a pluralistic NARS, subsidiarity will be key to increasing stakeholder engagement and equity,
and to give all constituents a sense of belonging.
TRANSPARENCY
Transparency is a vital value for enhancing mutual trust and building healthy partnerships. NARO has established
mechanisms for participatory resource allocation, peer review, information sharing and allow open discussion on
resource mobilization ventures. The organization’s pursuit for transparency ensures integrity in all aspects. This
promotes professionalism and ethics in agricultural research service delivery. NARS stakeholders are encouraged to
share credit, benefits and risks and manage conflicts of interest.
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ACCOUNTABILITY
NARO promote the principle of value-for-money in resource allocation, utilization and reporting among the various
NARS actors.
EXCELLENCE
NARO pursues excellence and design modalities to ensure that pluralism accentuate research processes and outputs.
NARO ensures that all service providers comply to standards of excellence and will provide conducieve environment
for creativity in the frontiers of science.
Map of Uganda showing Institutes
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