2014 – 2025
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Table of contents
Youth in Tanzania
The national response
2.1 Policy environment
2.2 Kilimo Kwanza
The Youth empowerment through self-employment in agriculture program
3.1 Background
3.2 The opportunity
3.3 Program goal
3.4 Program objectives
3.5 Program strategy
3.6 Program implementation plan
3.7 Program management, monitoring and evaluation
3.8 Program budget (2014 – 2019)
4. Annex
5. Bibliography
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1. Tanzanian Youth and the Problem of Unemployment
According to the 2012 Population and household census, the youth (15 to 35 years of age)
comprises 35% of the total Tanzanian population.
According to the Tanzania Integrated labor Force Survey 20061, unemployment rate for the whole
country is 12.9 percent. Almost half of the unemployed live in urban areas, for example 46.5
percent of active people in Dar es Salaam are unemployed, unemployment for the other urban
areas is 25.5 percent, and for rural areas is 8.4 percent.
Of the unemployed, the youth are the most affected. Data from the 2010 Tanzania demographic and
health survey2 showed that; one-thirds of young women and men aged 15-24 were unemployed in
the 12 months before the survey, and that unemployment status is more of a problem to the youth
than to older individuals. For example, 48% of young women age 15-19 did not work, compared to
19% of young women age 20-24.
Most youth grow up in the rural where the culture is typically not supportive of entrepreneurship.
With inadequate job opportunities in the rural, the youth resort to migrate to nearby cities and
towns to seek employment. When the young persons cannot find meaningful jobs in towns, they
engage in high-risk behaviors such as petty theft, armed robbery, drug abuse and unsafe sex;
behavior that results on to other social problems such as unwanted pregnancies, sexually
transmitted diseases and, HIV/ AIDS.
2. National response to Youth Unemployment
2.1 Policy environment
There are several pro-youth employment policies. These includes; Tanzania Development Vision
2025, National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, The National Employment Policy,
The Youth Development Policy, The Local Government Reform Agenda, National Population Policy,
The Agricultural Sector Development Strategy and, the Small Enterprise Policy.
2.2 Kilimo Kwanza (“Agriculture First”)
On the 3rd of August 2009, the President of the United Republic of Tanzania; His Excellency Jakaya
M. Kikwete, launched “Kilimo Kwanza” program, to accelerate agriculture transformation in the
The “Kilimo kwanza” program comprises a holistic set of policy instruments and strategic
interventions towards addressing the various sectorial challenges and taking advantage of the
numerous opportunities to modernize and commercialize agriculture (crops, livestock, fisheries,
forestry, and bee keeping) in Tanzania.
National bureau of statistics: Tanzania - Integrated Labor Force Survey, 2006
National bureau of statistics: Tanzania demographic and health survey, 2010
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- Provides livelihood to more than 70% of the Tanzanian population,
- Accounts for approximately 24% of GDP,
- Accounts for 30% of exports earnings, and
- Controls inflation, by holding down food cost (food contributes about 50% of inflation).
“Kilimo Kwanza” can truly become the central pillar in achieving Tanzania’s Vision 2025.
For those facts listed above, Agriculture is the most effective empowerment tool whose success
would transform the economic and social well being of the Youth in Tanzania.
In order to achieve the goal and strategic objectives of Kilimo Kwanza, the Government of Tanzania
through the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperative Development is implementing a
number of strategic interventions:
a) Improvement of access to farm inputs
b) Construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure
c) Promotion of agricultural mechanization
d) Support services and farmer empowerment
e) Involvement of the youth in Agriculture
3. The Youth Empowerment through self-employment in agriculture program
3.1 Background
In cognizance of moral decay problem and the chronic unemployment problem among youth in
Tanzania, WAPO Mission International (WMI - a not for profit organization), has come up with a
grand strategy called National Young Generation Rescue Programme (NYGRP) with the aim of
carrying out various projects and programmes which will lead to sustainable economic
empowerment and moral restoration among Tanzanian youth.
Structurally, NYGRP is characterized by a network of small groups of youths (popularly known in
Swahili as Mtandao wa Vikundi Vya Maadili na Uchumi Tanzania (MVIMAUTA); that were put
together for morals training and economic empowerment.
The implementation of the NYGRP program is planned for ten years, and is carried out by two
sister companies affiliated to WMI (BSHG Consultants Limited and, Bishop Gamanywa Foundation
- Bishop Gamanywa Foundation (BGF - a registered charitable organization), work to
mobilize funds, manages and, administers the projects.
- BSHG Consultants Limited; functions as a technical implementer, directly responsible for
running agricultural projects on behalf of MVIMAUTA.
The project is in a pilot stage: And following the inauguration by H.E. Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete
(the President of the United Republic of Tanzania); a total 4,000 youths in Dar es Salaam were
registered, and divided into 220 youth groups.
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These youths are subjected to multi-discipline tutorial and practical training modules to equip
them with the necessary knowledge and skills to efficiently run their own sustainable agribusiness
activities once they graduate in a program.
It is envisaged that MVIMAUTA program will significantly contribute to the government’s efforts
towards reducing unemployment rate (especially among youth), with a positive impact on
improving socio economic condition of people involved in the program. Further impact will be
observed to the surrounding communities, as the multiplier effect of the agricultural activities done
at large scale. The program is intended to stimulate youth’s involvement in agricultural activities
as the key and primary way of improving their lives whilst contributing to the country’s economy.
3.2 The opportunity
It is estimated that Tanzania has 44 million hectares of arable land, with 77% of it still under
utilized. Currently, only about 23% of the Tanzanian arable land is being utilized effectively.
3.3 Program Goal
The goal is to empower 10million Tanzanian youths to legally own one hectare of land and be selfemployed in running their own agricultural enterprise in ten years period (2014 to 2025).
3.4 Program Objectives
By 2025, 10 million youth in Tanzania will:
- Own an hectare of arable land for farming
- Have the capacity to own and run a profitable agricultural business
- Be self-employed in agriculture.
Further, the program will
- Establish a sustainable agricultural support services
- Establish Agricultural cooperative societies at the district level.
- Strengthen the ability to manage, monitor and evaluate small-scale agricultural enterprises
3.5 Program Strategy
3.5.1 Land Acquisition and Ownership
Access to arable land is an impediment for youth in agriculture. Traditional systems bestow land
ownership to family heads, invariably the senior male of the household. This restricts ability of
youth to access land on which they can control and invest.
It is envisaged that through MVIMAUTA mobilization and membership, Youth in each district in
Tanzania, will individually acquire and own a minimum of one hectare of land to be used for
modern agricultural activities.
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3.5.2 Capacity Development
All youth under this program will be trained, mentored and coached in the following vocational
- Moral ethics and leadership, agricultural mechanization, agricultural irrigation schemes,
principles of commercial agriculture, agriculture value chains, commodity marketing
techniques, modern animal husbandry, modern bee keeping, ICT in agricultural production
and marketing, and other emerging priorities.
The program will establish practical agricultural centres of excellence in each geographic and
climatic zone of Tanzania. These centres will also be known as demonstration farms (“Shamba
darasa”). These centres will provide practical training from farm preparation to harvesting, after
harvest storage, marketing and selling.
3.5.3 Self-Employment in Agriculture
The thrust of the program is for each youth to be self-employed after acquisition of land and
completing the appropriate training in agricultural vocational skills. The youth will be the ownermanager of the farm.
After appropriate counseling, each youth will be free to decide and choose on their won
agricultural enterprise and production system of choice.
In the initial phases of the program, priority will be directed at irrigated and mechanized
agriculture as opposed to unpredictable rain-fed agriculture. Since each youth will own at least one
hectare, small-scale market oriented commercial farming and production system will be adopted.
ICT application in agriculture, especially the use of mobile phones, will be a useful tool for routine
communication among the youth, contacting agricultural officers, money transfers, and access to
market price, information on agricultural inputs and other commodities.
3.5.4 Sustainable Agricultural Support Services
The self-employed youth will receive the following support services from the program:
i) Information on appropriate agricultural inputs
ii) On job training and couching by approved agricultural officers
iii) Access to financial/credit information and services
iv) Agriculture information and communication technologies
v) Agricultural markets (local and international) and market prices
vi) Information on national policies and strategies
vii) Appropriate repair and maintenance of farm equipment
viii) Legal aid
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3.5.5 Cooperative Societies at the District-level
After graduating from MVIMAUTA programme, self-employed youth will be encouraged to organize
themselves into primary cooperative societies and register the same as SACCOS. Each district-level
membership-primary cooperative society will have its own constitution. Only self-employed youth
in agriculture will be eligible for membership. In accordance with the constitution, the primary
cooperative society will be self-governing by the registered and active members. Leadership and
tenure of leaders will be dictated by the constitution.
Self-employed youth will use their primary cooperative society to manage and expand their
business operations through access to credit facilities, farm inputs, national and international
markets, and legal services.
3.6 Program Implementation Plan
The program will be implemented in Tanzania mainland in accordance with membership
enrolment into the progamme and land acquisition in the respective districts.
Districts will further be grouped on to 5 administrative zones:
- East/Coast zone
- Lake Victoria Basin zone
- Lake Tanganyika Basin zone
- Southern Highlands zone and,
- Rift Valley zone
Each zone will be dedicated to specific crop(s), especially horticulture, oil seeds and grains
according to the climatic and geographic conditions of the area. Farming will be mainly on contract
basis, whereby production will be based on confirmed orders. The process for each zone will
include the following key activities:
Land acquisition by youth in the respective district
Agricultural vocational training for six months
Supportive supervision, coaching and mentoring
Establishment of Zonal and district program coordinating offices
Export market
Program monitoring and evaluation
The implementation of the programme will be done in phases, starting with a pilot phase involving
four (4) thousands hectares, then a first phase involving two (2) million hectares, done in two years
(2016 -2017). Then followed by four (4) phases each involving two (2) million hectares covered in
a total of eight years (2017 – 2026). A detailed annual action plan will be developed, each in
collaboration with various stakeholders and development partners.
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3.7 Program Management, Monitoring and Evaluation
a) Program management
The Bishop Gamanywa Foundation will manage the program within the framework of PublicPrivate Partnership. BGF will be responsible for youth membership enrollment, capital
development, production and marketing. The Government of Tanzania, through Local Government
Authorities, will provide land and facilitate relevant training e.g. modern agriculture and
There shall be established national, zonal and district program coordinating offices.
National Coordination Office
The national coordination office will be responsible for overall program development and
management, policy and policy guidelines, training and coaching, legal services, fund raising,
financial management, human resource management, research, monitoring and evaluation.
Zonal Coordinating Office
The program will be divided into geographical zones. The Zonal coordinating office will be
responsible for program coordination in the Zone, administrative support to regional coordinating
offices, and technical assistance to primary cooperative societies. Each Zone will have an employed
Zonal Coordinator. The following will be the implementation zones:
i) Eastern coast zone: This will comprise of the following administrative regions: Dar es Salaam,
Coast, Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Mtwara and Lindi. The Zonal office will be within the Dar es
Salaam region.
ii) Southern highlands: This will comprise of the following administrative regions: Iringa,
Njombe, Ruvuma, and Mbeya. The Zonal office will be located in Njombe region because of being
geographically in the centre of the four regions.
iii) Lake Tanganyika Basin/Western Zone: This will comprise of the following administrative
regions: Rukwa, Katavi, Kigoma, and Tabora. The Zonal office will be located in Kigoma town
where the Lake Tanganyika basin development program is based.
iv) Lake Victoria Basin Zone: This will comprise of the following administrative regions: Mara,
Mwanza, Simiyu, Shinyanga, Geita, and Kagera. The Zonal office will be located in Mwanza city
where the Lake Victoria basin development program for Tanzania is based.
v) The Rift Valley/Central Zone: This will comprise of the following administrative regions:
Morogoro, Dodoma, Singida, and Manyara. The Zonal office will be based in Morogoro town to take
advantage of expertise from the Sokoine University of Agriculture.
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a.3 District Coordinating Office
Each administrative district will have a District coordinating office with appropriate staffing. The
role of the District coordinating office is to directly support the individual self-employed youth in
that district on daily basis through couching and problem solving. The District coordinating office
will also support and provide technical assistance to the primary cooperative society.
b) Program Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation is the process by which data are collected and analysed in order to
provide information to policy makers, program implementers, and other stakeholders for use in
program planning and management.
Program monitoring involves the collection of routine data that measure progress towards
achieving program objectives. Monitoring tracks program implementation activities and efficient
use of resources.
Program evaluation on the other hand measures how well the program activities have met
expected objectives and/or the extent to which changes in outcomes can be attributed to the
program or intervention.
For this program, monitoring and evaluation will be at the following levels: Input, Process, Output,
Outcome, and Impact (long term effect of the program over time).
The following measures of coverage and program quality will be periodically assessed:
1. Coverage – number (or proportion) of youth who are self-employed in agriculture and
receiving appropriate support services.
2. Program quality – In each program setting, assess technical performance against
program outcomes.
3. Measures of cost – estimate program costs and cost-effectiveness based on
financial data, expenditure analysis and program performance data.
A separate Monitoring and Evaluation Plan will be developed that will detail the following:
 Objectives of the M&E Plan
 Interventions developed and being implemented
 Descriptions of M&E procedures at various levels (national, Zonal, etc)
 Expected results related to goal and objectives
 Description of Indicators and indicator definitions
 Data needed and sources
 How data will be collected and analysed
 How information will be used (utilization)
 Resources required to implement the M&E plan
 Accountability to stakeholders
 Dissemination plans
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Mechanisms for updating/revision of the M&E plan
At a national level, within the National Coordination Office, there shall be established an
independent Monitoring and Evaluation Unit that is answerable to the Chief Executive Officer of the
Bishop Gamanywa Foundation. The M&E Unit will be responsible for overall planning, monitoring,
evaluation, and research for the program. The M&E Unit shall be allocated with 5-10% of the total
program budget.
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