The Chronicle CFR Hosts Procession of Leaders During UN General Assembly

The Chronicle
Newsletter of the Council on Foreign Relations — November 2014
CFR Hosts Procession of Leaders During UN General Assembly Page 1
Analyzing the Ebola Epidemic Page 5
Task Force Urges U.S. Leaders to Put North America First Page 8
Plus CFR Funding Underscores the Organization’s Independence Page 7
Foreign Affairs: The Politics Issue Page 10
G l obal Comm u nicat ion s
and Media r e l at ion s
Lisa Shields
Vice President
Iva Zoric
Director
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Deputy Director
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Associate Director
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Associate Director
Kendra Davidson
Assistant Director
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Communications Coordinator
Karina Piser
Assistant Editor
Megan Daley
Communications Associate
OFFI C E r s
Carla A. Hills
Co-Chairman
Robert E. Rubin
Co-Chairman
David M. Rubenstein
Vice Chairman
Richard N. Haass
President
Keith Olson
Executive Vice President
and Chief Financial Officer
James M. Lindsay
Senior Vice President,
Director of Studies, and
Maurice R. Greenberg Chair
Nancy D. Bodurtha
Vice President, Meetings
and Membership
Irina A. Faskianos
Vice President, National Program
and Outreach
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Vice President, Philanthropy and
Corporate Relations
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Di r ec t or s
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Editorial Director
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Steven A. Denning
Blair Effron
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Stephen Friedman
Ann M. Fudge
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Thomas H. Glocer
Richard N. Haass (ex officio)
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Production Editor
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Photography
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President Emeritus
and Board Senior Fellow
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Carla A. Hills
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Colin L. Powell
David M. Rubenstein
Robert E. Rubin
Richard E. Salomon
James G. Stavridis
Margaret G. Warner
Vin Weber
Christine Todd Whitman
Daniel H. Yergin
CFR Hosts Procession
of World Leaders During
UN General Assembly
For many years, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) has
marked the unofficial opening of the new programming
year at CFR, bringing an array of prominent visitors to New
York City and the Council’s meeting rooms. This year, CFR
hosted fifteen presidents, prime ministers, foreign ministers, and senior officials. Leaders from five continents spoke
on subjects ranging from the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria
(ISIS), Ukraine, and Asian stability to trade, disease, and
climate change. For many visitors, national security and the
economy were the most pressing subjects.
Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk of Ukraine gave an
assessment of his country’s options six months after Russia’s annexation of Crimea, as Kiev prepares for winter
amid questions regarding its access to Russia’s natural gas.
Describing Moscow’s agenda, he said: “President Putin is a
tough guy. And I feel that he believes that he’s committing a
CFR President Richard N. Haass
greets Iraqi President Fuad Masum at
the Council in New York.
The Chronicle, November 2014
1
A roundtable discussion with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
sacred mission of restoring the Soviet Union and of restoring the strength of former [the] Russian empire. . . . It’s clear
that he will never give up until we stop and contain Russia and
deter Russia from committing international crimes.”
Members also met with officials from countries directly
threatened by ISIS, including President Fuad Masum of
Iraq, who voiced his support for an expanded, multinational
effort in Syria and Iraq; and the president of Turkey, Recep
Tayyip Erdoğan, who explained his country’s contributions
to the effort against ISIS. Erdoğan also spoke to unraveling
regional stability: “What happened in Libya was not unforeseeable. What happened in Egypt and what is . . . hurting the
conscience of all the region happened with all of us watching. And the lack of interest on the part of the modern world
on the Syrian crisis led to hundreds of thousands of people
dying, and six million people being displaced.”
The foreign minister of Iran, Mohammad Javad Zarif,
underscored the need to view ISIS as a regional problem
while disagreeing with U.S. policy in Syria. “We are not saying that Assad or anybody else should be the future president of Syria. We are saying that if this man is so brutal,
allow the Syrians to kick him out of office. Put conditions
on how the elections should be run, not on who should run
The Chronicle, November 2014
2
in the election,” he urged. Zarif also commented on nuclear
talks with the United States, saying Iran was interested in
pursuing a compromise, but would reject sharp limits on its
ability to enrich uranium—and criticized U.S. and international sanctions.
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe discussed his
strategies for catalyzing Japan’s growth while emphasizing the potential of the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Newly
elected Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India outlined
his proposed economic reforms and discussed India’s relationships with both the United States and China. Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto gave a comprehensive
overview of his country’s ongoing effort to consolidate its
democracy, promising increased investments in infrastructure and continued reforms in sectors including energy and
telecommunications, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi
discussed his country’s efforts to reform and, in the process,
generate jobs and growth.
These meetings and many other UNGA-related sessions (including President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia; Interim President Mohamed Moncef Marzouki
of Tunisia; Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad alThani; French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius; Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry; Israeli Foreign
Minister Avigdor Lieberman; and Sartaj Aziz; national
Italian Prime Minister Matteo
Renzi and Morgan Stanley Chief
Financial Officer and CFR Board
member Ruth Porat discuss ways
the United States and Europe can
spur economic growth.
The Chronicle, November 2014
3
Tunisian Interim President Moncef Marzouki discusses his country’s political transition with Reed Kramer, chief
executive officer of AllAfrica Global Media.
security advisor to the prime minister of Pakistan) generated a steady flow of content, including video, audio, and
transcripts. On-the-record events posted to our YouTube
channel attracted more than 240,000 views.
Nearly all of the on-the-record events were live-streamed
on CFR.org and members watching or participating by teleconference were able to submit questions to the presider in
real time. In addition to those watching online, member
turnout was impressive: over one thousand attended these
events in person, with nearly five hundred joining on the
phone or via video feed with CFR’s Washington, DC, office.
Look ing Forwa r d November 4: Former Secretary of State and National
Security Advisor Henry Kissinger speaks at a half-day
symposium to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the
fall of the Berlin wall.
November 5: Director of National Intelligence James
Clapper speaks on homeland security and counterterrorism.
December 3: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of
Dell Computer Corporation Michael Dell is featured in
CFR’s CEO Speaker Series. ■■
■■
■■
The Chronicle, November 2014
4
Laurie Garrett tells NBC’s Chuck Todd that many are vastly underestimating the potential spread of the Ebola virus in
West Africa: “It’s doubling every two weeks.”
CFR Experts Weigh In
on the Ebola Crisis
The Ebola outbreak—which killed more than
3,400 people in West Africa by early October and recently spread to the United States
and Europe—has sparked a global climate
of apprehension. Senior Fellow and Pulitzer
Prize–winner Laurie Garrett argued that
months of inaction and ineffective measures
provoked the disease’s expansion, placing affected countries in what she referred to in the
New Republic as a “collective state of siege.”
During a briefing on Ebola for the Joint
Chiefs of Staff, Garrett commended the
Obama administration’s decision to deploy
troops to help quell the virus’s spread, but
urged it to launch a response comparable
to the largest rescue mission in U.S. history
that was undertaken after the tsunami that
devestated Aceh, Indonesia in 2004.
The Chronicle, November 2014
The United States is not alone in providing support; Chinese financial assistance—
which the World Health Organization
(WHO) described as “a huge boost, morally
and operationally”—bolstered humanitarian efforts to fight Ebola. But Senior Fellow
for Global Health Yanzhong Huang maintains that Beijing’s generosity is limited by
weaknesses in its public–health sector, notably its disease reporting, response, and
surveillance capacities. “China cannot become Africa’s savior in the current crisis,”
he noted.
Budget cuts have paralyzed the WHO’s
emergency response units, argued Senior
Fellow and Director of the International Institutions and Global Governance Program
Stewart M. Patrick and Research Associate
5
A pregnant woman suspected of contracting Ebola in Freetown, Sierra Leone. (Bindra/UNICEF/Courtesy Reuters)
Daniel Chardell on the Internationalist
blog. UN member states, they maintained,
should fill the gaps in overstretched nongovernmental assistance, establishing a contingency fund to empower the WHO as a first
responder to transnational health threats.
International health diplomacy should
place greater emphasis on building horizontal, integrated healthcare systems to
avoid similar pandemics like that of Ebola,
according to experts Erica Penfold and Pieter Fourie on CFR.org. The researchers—
members of a South African think tank
that is part of CFR’s Council of Councils,
a group of twenty-four major policy institutes from around the world—stressed the
need for a revised international health-care
strategy grounded in preventive diplomatic
measures before crises become too large to
manage at national and regional levels.
The Chronicle, November 2014
With a reported infection in Texas on
September 28, “Americans fear[ed] that any
traveler coming from West Africa might
bring invisible viruses to their communities,” Garrett explained in Foreign Policy.
“In the age of globalization, there is no
simple way to bar viral entry across national
borders,” she added. To minimize further
contagion, she recommends the development of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic to
identify the Ebola virus in a single droplet
of blood. The test would serve as a device to
screen airline passengers, who would then
require a UN-authorized certificate of noninfection to proceed with their travels. Increased screening, she argued, “could put an
end to prolonged quarantines of uninfected
populations, airport fears, and talk of banning entire nations from traveling.” 6
A Letter From the President
CFR Funding Underscores
the Organization’s Independence
Many of you will by now have seen the article from the September 7 edition of the New
York Times on a number of think tanks receiving funding from foreign governments.
I would like to take this opportunity to reiterate the policy of the Council on Foreign
Relations on this and related matters. It is
important to also keep in mind that CFR is
unique—a hybrid that is a membership organization, think tank, and publisher.
With regard to the think tank, the Council
on Foreign Relations does not accept funding from foreign governments, a policy that
has been in place since 2008. Additionally,
CFR does not accept money from the U.S.
government except for funds to cover some
of the costs for six visiting scholars (five
military fellows and one intelligence fellow)
who are employees of the U.S. government
and who spend an academic year at CFR in
New York. These policies were put in place
to maintain and underscore the organization’s independence in regards to its agenda
and what is written and said by its fellows,
authors, and speakers.
CFR has diverse sources of funding. The
$62 million annual operating budget can be
broken down as follows: approximately 10%
member dues, 14% annual fund, 24% endowment draw, 11% corporate, 23% grants, 13%
Foreign Affairs revenue, 5% miscellaneous.
Gifts to CFR are accepted on a case-by-case
basis from individuals who are not U.S.
citizens or corporations or foundations that
are not based in the United States, including from companies participating in CFR’s
The Chronicle, November 2014
Corporate Program or men and women on
the Global Board of Advisors. The majority of this funding goes to general operating
support; for those gifts earmarked for particular projects, CFR is transparent in listing the support. CFR’s conflict of interest
policies call for strict independence from
donors in all areas of our work. A full list of
CFR donors can be found on the member
website, and a print copy is available to anyone upon request.
We are proud of the work produced at
CFR and are committed to independent,
nonpartisan research and scholarship. You
will find a wide range of views and opinions
from our scholars, on our website, in our
meetings and conferences, and in the pages
of Foreign Affairs. Our policy to decline government funding means we must forego
certain sources of support in an increasingly
competitive environment. By necessity
doing so places a somewhat larger burden
on our members. I hope and trust you will
agree with us that this is well worth it. I welcome your reactions.
Richard N. Haass
President
7
Task Force Led by Petraeus and Zoellick
Urges U.S. Leaders to Put
North America First
A new CFR-sponsored Independent Task
Force report, North America: Time for a New
Focus, asserts that elevating and prioritizing
the U.S.-Canada-Mexico relationship offers
the best opportunity for strengthening the
United States and its place in the world.
“It is time to put North America at the
forefront of U.S. policy,” the Task Force
report says. “The development and implementation of a strategy for U.S. economic,
energy, security, environmental, and societal cooperation with its two neighbors can
strengthen the United States at home and
enhance its influence abroad.”
Chaired by David H. Petraeus, retired
U.S. Army general and chairman of the
KKR Global Institute, and Robert B. Zoellick, former president of the World Bank
Group and chairman of Goldman Sachs’s
International Advisors, the Task Force is
composed of a diverse and distinguished
group of experts that includes former government officials, scholars, and others. The
project is directed by Senior Fellow for
Latin America Studies Shannon K. O’Neil.
The Task Force proposes a comprehensive set of recommendations for deepening
North American integration, concentrating
on four pivotal areas—energy, economic
competitiveness, security, and community.
These include:
Capitalizing on North America’s
promising energy outlook. The North
American countries need a regional energy
strategy to strengthen the continent’s energy infrastructure, expand energy exports,
The Chronicle, November 2014
support Mexico’s historic reforms, improve
safety, and encourage harmonized policies
to promote energy conservation and reduce
carbon emissions.
“For economic, environmental, and diplomatic reasons, the Task Force recommends that the U.S. government encourage
increased energy connections with Canada
and Mexico. The U.S. government should
approve additional pipeline capacity, including the Keystone XL pipeline,” the report notes.
Bolstering economic competitiveness
through the freer movement of goods
and services across borders. Upgrading
infrastructure and policies across borders
would interconnect national economies
securely and efficiently. Recognizing trilateral economic interests, the United States
should also include Canada and Mexico in
its negotiations for the Transatlantic Trade
and Investment Partnership and other freetrade agreements.
Strengthening security through a unified continental strategy. While working
toward the goal of a unified security strategy
for North America, the United States and
Canada should support Mexican efforts to
strengthen the democratic rule of law, dismantle criminal networks, contribute to the
development of resilient and cohesive communities, and reduce arms smuggling and
drug consumption.
Fostering a North American community through comprehensive immigration
reform, workforce development, and the
8
Task Force co-chairs David Petraeus and Robert Zoellick and project director Shannon O’Neil urge policymakers to
prioritize the North American relationship at the report launch in New York.
creation of a mobility accord to facilitate the movement of workers. “The Task
Force strongly recommends the passage of
comprehensive federal immigration reform
that secures U.S. borders, prevents illegal
entry, provides visas on the basis of economic need, invites talented and skilled people to settle in the United States, and offers
a pathway to legalization for undocumented
immigrants now in the United States.”
The co-chairs and project director will
present the report in Ottawa and Mexico
City in November. The full text of the report is available at
www.cfr.org/North_America_Task_Force.
French- and Spanish-language editions are
also available.
Audio and video recordings of the New York
and Washington, DC launch events can be
found online at CFR’s Events page.
For more information, please contact Chris
Tuttle, director of the Independent Task Force
Program, at [email protected]
The Chronicle, November 2014
Task Force Members
Bernard W. Aronson, ACON Investments
Jodi Hanson Bond, U.S. Chamber
of Commerce
Robert C. Bonner, the Sentinel HS Group, LLC
Jason Eric Bordoff, Columbia University
Timothy P. Daly, Western Union
Jorge I. Domínguez, Harvard University
Stephen E. Flynn, Northeastern University
Gordon D. Giffin, McKenna Long & Aldridge LLP
Neal R. Goins, Exxon Mobil Corporation
Kenneth I. Juster, Warburg Pincus LLC
Marie-Josée Kravis, Hudson Institute
Jane Holl Lute, Council on CyberSecurity
Jason Marczak, Atlantic Council
Diana Natalicio, University of Texas at
El Paso
Shannon K. O’Neil, Council on Foreign Relations
(project director)
Maria Otero, Independent Consulting
James W. Owens, Caterpillar, Inc.
David H. Petraeus, KKR Global Institute (co-chair)
Adrean Scheid Rothkopf, Millicom
Clifford M. Sobel, Valor Capital Group
James S. Taylor, Vianovo
Robert B. Zoellick, Goldman Sachs & Co. (co-chair)
9
America in Decay
By Francis Fukuyama
“The U.S. political system has decayed
over time because its traditional system of
checks and balances has deepened and become increasingly rigid,” writes Fukuyama
in his explanation of the sources of political rot eating away at Washington. He concludes on a somber note: “The depressing
bottom line is that given how self-reinforcing the country’s political malaise is, and
how unlikely the prospects for constructive incremental reform are, the decay of
American politics will probably continue
until some external shock comes along to
catalyze a true reform coalition and galvanize it into action.”
Crashing the Party
In the
September/October Issue
“American politics today are marked by dysfunction, discontent, and ideological churn
on both sides of the aisle,” write Gideon
Rose and Jonathan Tepperman, the editor and managing editor, respectively, of
Foreign Affairs, in their introduction to the
package on the state of American politics.
“Since the distraction and paralysis of the
world’s hegemon has such obvious global
significance, we decided to turn our focus
inward, exploring the sources and contours
of the American malaise.”
The Chronicle, November 2014
By David Frum
The Republican Party has grown older and
more ideologically extreme, charges Frum,
a senior editor at the Atlantic and a former speechwriter for President George W.
Bush. In order to start winning elections
again, the GOP will have to change its ways.
“Conservatives may not be optimistic by nature. But even they should at least appreciate that Americans have never had so much
worth conserving,” he writes. Concludes
Frum, “The liberal surge of the Obama
years invites a conservative response, and a
multiethnic, socially tolerant conservatism
is waiting to take form.”
10
Halfway There
By Michael Kazin
“Since its earliest incarnations appeared
nearly two-hundred years ago, the American left has pursued two overarching goals:
expanding individual rights for people in
historically subordinate roles . . . and creating a new economic and political order
based on an equality of outcomes and motivated by a spirit of social solidarity.” Its
success has been mixed, argues Kazin, the
co-editor of Dissent magazine. On the one
hand, “Homosexuals now serve openly in
the U.S. military and can legally marry in at
least nineteen states and the District of Columbia, and discrimination against them in
other areas of public life is rapidly diminishing.” On the other, “In recent years, unions,
widely viewed as collectivist, coercive, and
class-bound, have had to repeatedly reestablish their right to exist and prove their ability
to represent working people.”
The Populist Threat
to Liberal Democracy
By Yasha Mounk
The far-right political parties in Europe and
the Tea Party movement in the United States
have evolved in parallel, writes Mounk, a
New America Foundation fellow. “Over the
past two decades, populist movements in
Europe and the United States have uprooted
traditional party structures and focused
ideas long regarded as extremist or unsavory
onto the political agenda,” he contends. Yet
the proliferation of these zealous factions
has “represented . . . a populist turn—one
that will exert significant influence on policy
and opinion for decades to come.”
The Chronicle, September/October 2014
Why the Ukraine Crisis Is
the West’s Fault
By John J. Mearsheimer
Most Westerners have the Ukraine crisis
backwards, argues Mearsheimer, a professor of international relations at the University of Chicago; Western provocation, not
Russian aggression, is to blame. “The taproot of the trouble is NATO enlargement,
the central element of a larger strategy to
move Ukraine out of Russia’s orbit and integrate it into the West,” he writes, explaining
Russian President Vladimir Putin’s annexation of Crimea. Russia’s moves should have
been predictable: “Imagine the American
outrage if China built an impressive military alliance and tried to include Canada
and Mexico.”
An Army to Defeat Assad
By Kenneth Pollack
“Syria is a hard one,” admits Pollack, of the
Brookings Institution. “The arguments
against the United States taking a more active role in ending the vicious three-year-old
conflict there are almost perfectly balanced
by those in favor of intervening, especially
in the aftermath of the painful experiences
of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.” But
there is a feasible way to help: Pollack calls
on the United States to recruit and arm a
Syrian opposition force capable of defeating Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s
troops and the militant Islamists also fighting the government. ForeignAffairs.com
11
Renewing America Scorecard:
How to Halt Climbing U.S. Debt
“By 2040, public debt is projected to top 110
percent [of GDP], equal to the highest levels reached during the Second World War,”
warned Rebecca Strauss, associate director of CFR’s Renewing America Initiative
in a new progress report and scorecard.
“Absent any policy changes it will likely keep
climbing afterward into uncharted territory
for the United States.”
The U.S. debt-to-GDP ratio has nearly
grown to the Group of seven (G7) average,
according to the scorecard. At its current
rate, that ratio will be higher than all G7
countries except Japan by 2040.
While other large wealthy countries
have been retooling their entitlement programs, the United States has left Medicare
and Social Security mostly untouched. Recent U.S. budget reductions have instead
focused on discretionary spending, which
goes toward areas such as education, infrastructure, and research and development—all of which constitute investments
in future economic growth.
Americans will have to make difficult
choices to get the public debt load under
control.
Sequestration, which took effect in
2013, only affected government spending projected to decline as a share of GDP.
Meanwhile, U.S. policymakers left cutting
entitlements or increasing tax revenues
largely off the table, despite the fact that
entitlements will account for nearly all new
federal spending in the future.
“To slow debt growth to the rate of GDP
growth (or a steady debt-to-GDP ratio)
from today through 2040, changes to current policy would have to be dramatic: cut
entitlements by 10 percent, cut discretionary spending by 23 percent, increase tax revenue by 6 percent, or some combination of
the three,” Strauss added. “Adjustments to
actually lower the debt-to-GDP ratio would
be even more painful.” Infographic: Although U.S. debt as a share of
GDP will be steady in the near term, it will
skyrocket in the medium and long term to
levels higher than average for peer countries.
The Chronicle, November 2014
12
New Foreign Affairs Ebook Catalogues
Evolving Palestinian-Israeli Violence
The recent reconciliation deal between rival Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas opens a new chapter in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians.
As observers remark on the prospect of Fatah leading Gaza once more, Foreign Affairs has published
a comprehensive ebook, Clueless in Gaza, which
situates current developments in historical context
and looks at what lies ahead. “The title references
Aldous Huxley’s 1936 novel Eyeless in Gaza, a story
about disillusionment and search for answers. It
appropriately captures the situation because both
sides lack good strategy, and their fighting leaves
everyone worse off than before,” explained Foreign
Affairs Editor Gideon Rose.
Contributors to the collection’s twenty-one articles include two-time U.S. Ambassador to Israel
Martin Indyk, Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Daniel Byman, former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs and now
CFR Senior Fellow Robert M. Danin, former
Israel Defense Forces Brigadier General Michael
Herzog, Washington Post Correspondent Yuval “If Israel implements Prime Minister
Elizur, and former advisor to the late Palestinian Ariel Sharon’s plan to withdraw from
leader Yasser Arafat Mark Perry.
the Gaza Strip, Palestinian society
The anthology is divided into four sections: will fragment even more, lose the
“After Oslo” (2003–2006), commentary on the benefit of unified representation,
failure of the Oslo peace talks; “Gaza Under and very possibly lapse into bloody
Hamas” (2006–2012), a retrospective on Hamas’s infighting. The Israelis will not get the
rise to power; “The Fire This Time” (2014), reflec- security they want and will be forced to
tions on the violence of summer 2014; and “What confront a Hamas empowered by the
Now?” (2014 and Beyond), potential long-term PA’s [Palestinian Authority] collapse.”
strategies for conflict management. —Khalil Shikaki, director of the
Palestinian Center for Policy and
Clueless in Gaza is available on Kindle, iTunes, and
Survey Research, 2004
other ereader platforms, as well as print-on-demand
through Amazon.com.
For more information, please visit
www.foreignaffairs.com/cluelessingaza.
The Chronicle, November 2014
ForeignAffairs.com
13
Back to School With CFR Education
The Council’s fifth annual Back-to-School
event drew three hundred students and professors from universities in the tristate area,
including Columbia, New York University,
and West Point, among others.
The highlight of the event was a conversation on the Sunni-Shia divide with NPR
Foreign Correspondent Deborah Amos
and dean of the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University
Vali R. Nasr. The discussion was moderated
by CFR.org Editor Robert McMahon.
The event was part of CFR’s ongoing
educational outreach efforts to foster a
deeper understanding of international relations and the role of the United States in the
world. Irina A. Faskianos, vice president,
National Program and Outreach, presented
The Chronicle, November 2014
CFR’s online gateway to the latest tools and
resources for teaching and learning about
U.S. foreign policy.
The site offers an expanded menu of
teaching notes to accompany select CFR
books, reports, and meetings as well as
issue packages designed to assist professors
and teachers in developing course syllabi
and curricula. The notes include discussion questions, classroom activities, essay
prompts, and supplemental reading lists.
Nearly fifty teaching notes address topics
such as the civil war in Syria, sustainable energy development in the Arctic, the crisis in
Ukraine, child marriage, and democratization in Nigeria, all of which are available free
of charge at www.cfr.org/education. 14
Spotlight on Child Migration
Tens of thousands of unaccompanied minors,
mostly from Central America, arrived in
the United States illegally in recent months,
adding severe stress to the U.S. immigration
system. The influx—nearly twice as many
migrants as last year—revived a rancorous
national debate on immigration policy, riled
critics of President Barack Obama’s proposed immigration reforms, and stretched
social and legal services thin.
“A lethal and tragic mix of gang violence,
drug wars, weak judiciaries, corrupt security institutions, grinding poverty and
inequality, and the failure of the American
political system” underpins the crisis, Senior Fellow and Director for Latin America
Studies Julia E. Sweig wrote in Brazilian
newspaper Folha de São Paulo. The United
States lacks the comprehensive immigration law that current and previous administrations promised, she added, and cited
other sources driving the crisis, notably the
black market for child trafficking in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.
In July, Obama requested that Congress
amend existing legislation, to grant the
Department of Homeland Security the authority to promptly deport many of these
children. In the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Adjunct Senior Fellow
for Human Rights Mark P. Lagon and
Research Associate Patrick McCormick
warned that adapting immigration policy
to the volume of children crossing the border should not compromise human rights:
“Unaccompanied children have special
needs . . . and therefore authority for their
custody and care should not reside with
those charged with border enforcement. . . .
Lawmakers and the wider American public
must not permit the desire for efficiency in
processing immigration cases to obscure
the fundamental dignity of these children,
nor their right to due process under both
national and international law,” they urged.
CFR.org’s Backgrounder, “The U.S.
Child Migrant Influx,” is a useful tool for
navigating the debate, detailing the factors
driving young migrants from Central America—violence, poverty, and human smuggling—as well as the legal framework that
dictates their fate and the actions U.S. lawmakers have taken to manage the crisis. Migrant children asleep in a holding cell at a U.S.
Customs and Border Protection processing facility in
Texas. (Eric Gay/Pool/Courtesy Reuters)
The Chronicle, November 2014
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New Policy Innovation Memos
Policy Innovation Memoranda present bold
thinking on pressing foreign policy problems,
and aim to shape the public debate with hardhitting, innovative policy ideas.
How to Make Fue l S ub s idy
Reform Succeed
“Fuel subsidies are a scourge,” Senior Fellow
and Director of the Civil Society, Markets,
and Democracy Initiative Isobel Coleman
asserts in her recent memo. Costing half a
trillion dollars a year globally, subsidies “distort markets, strain government budgets,
encourage overconsumption, foster corruption, and harm the environment while doing
little to remedy inequality or stimulate development.” The solution “hinges on an effective communications strategy that builds
domestic support by clearly articulating the
goals and benefits of reform.” Since most
governments are unable to provide the marketing skills to implement public awareness
campaigns, Coleman proposes the creation
of a Global Subsidy Elimination Campaign
within the World Bank. The public-private
partnership would serve as a central knowledge hub and work with governments “to
execute country-specific communications
programs that would build the case for fuel
subsidy reform among citizens.”
De signing a Coali t ion
of Medicine s Regulat or s
“Globalization has transformed the marketplace for medicines in recent decades, giving
rise to new threats, including the poor traceability of global supply chains, counterfeit
and substandard medicines, and antibacterial resistance,” write Senior Fellow and
Director of the International Institutions
The Chronicle, November 2014
and Global Governance Program Stewart
M. Patrick and Research Associate Jeffrey
A. Wright. They describe how the expanding drug market has resulted in a globalized
supply chain in which medicines may be
“processed, packaged, sold, and resold multiple times before reaching consumers.”
Patrick and Wright call for a coalition to
oversee international drug supply chains,
which would comprise the U.S. Federal
Drug Administration and its counterparts
in other countries, as well as private firms
and nongovernmental organizations to
serve as observers or affiliate members.
Br eak ing t he S ta l emat e
in U . S . - ROK Nu c l ear ta l k s
The Republic of Korea (ROK) wants the
United States to grant it the right to enrich
and reprocess U.S.-origin nuclear fuels, but
U.S. reluctance to comply with South Korea’s request has slowed otherwise smooth
efforts to renew the existing U.S.-ROK nuclear cooperation agreement.
In his memo, Senior Fellow for Korea
Studies and Director of the Program on
U.S.-Korea Policy Scott A. Snyder contends that the impasse strains Washington’s
relations with Seoul just as rising regional
tensions make cooperation essential. He
suggests extending the agreement until the
conclusion of a joint study on methods to
handle spent fuel that ends in 2021. “That
would give the United States time to develop what South Korea is looking for: a
consistent framework for nuclear cooperation with states that have advanced nuclear
power industries and are committed to nonproliferation.” 16
New Fellows at CFR
N e w Yor k
Edward R. Murrow Press Fellow—Barbara Demick is joining CFR after
completing a seven-year tour as the Los Angeles Times bureau chief in Beijing. Previously, she was assigned in Korea for the newspaper; earlier for
the Philadelphia Inquirer, she covered the Middle East and Eastern Europe.
She is the author of Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea, which
won the UK’s Samuel Johnson Prize for nonfiction and was a finalist for
the National Book Award and National Book Critics Circle Award, and of
Logavina Street: Life and Death in a Sarajevo Neighborhood.
National Intelligence Fellow—Deborah A. McDonald most recently was
assigned as a senior geospatial intelligence officer at the National GeospatialIntelligence Agency (NGA) in Springfield, Virginia. She is the lead human geographer and provides NGA with expertise on human geography tradecraft,
data development, and international production. She has held various assignments at NGA, including NGA liaison duties at the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo.
She is a graduate of City College and Lehman College in New York.
Distinguished Fellow—Lord Mervyn King is former governor and chief
economist for the Bank of England, and was previously a distinguished visiting fellow at CFR. He was governor of the bank and chairman of the monetary and financial policy committees from 2003 to 2013, where he helped
shape UK monetary policy during the global economic recession. Previously, King was deputy governor from 1998 to 2003, and served as chief
economist and executive director from 1991 to 1998. He was also a nonexecutive director of the bank from 1990 to 1991. King is a professor of economics and law at the Stern and Law Schools at New York University. He
received a master’s degree in economics from King’s College, Cambridge
University and was a Kennedy Scholar at Harvard University.
Military Fellow—Captain Pat DeQuattro, U.S. Coast Guard, most recently served as executive director to the deputy commandant for mission
support, where he was responsible for all facets of support for Coast Guard
human capital, engineering, acquisitions, and information technology
programs. DeQuattro is a graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, the
University of Illinois, the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College
seminar program, and the RAND Corporation’s Federal Executive Fellowship program.
The Chronicle, November 2014
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Military Fellow—Colonel Samuel C. Hinote, U.S. Air Force, commanded
the Eighth Fighter Wing at Kunsan Air Base in the Republic of Korea, where
he was responsible for over three-thousand U.S. and Korean personnel at a
forward-deployed base. He received his PhD in military strategy from Air
University and is also a graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, the John F.
Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the Air Command
and Staff College, and the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies.
Military Fellow—Colonel Stephen E. Liszewski, U.S. Marine Corps,
recently commanded the Eleventh Marine Regiment at Camp Pendleton,
California. In this position, he was responsible for all artillery capability
and fire support coordination in the First Marine Division. He also deployed
with the I Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward) in support of Operation
Enduring Freedom and deployed as a battalion commander in Operation
Iraqi Freedom. Colonel Liszewski is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy,
the U.S. Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School, the Australian Command and Staff College, and the U.S. Naval War College.
Military Fellow—Captain Robert A. Newson, U.S. Navy, was assistant
chief of staff for plans, assessments, and strategy at the Naval Special Warfare Command. He was commissioned through the University of Kansas
NROTC in 1989 and completed Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL
training the same year. On graduation, he was assigned to SEAL Team Five,
and has been deployed extensively to the Pacific, Africa, Middle East, and
the Balkans. He is a graduate of the Naval War College and Naval Postgraduate School. Captain Newson is also a PhD candidate at the University of
San Diego School of Leadership and Educational Sciences.
Military Fellow—Colonel Michael W. Rauhut, U.S. Army, served as the
Assistant Chief of Staff, International Security Assistance Force in Kabul,
Afghanistan, where he was responsible for ensuring that the direction and
guidance of the commander and chief of staff were understood, communicated, coordinated, and executed by the multinational and joint staff. His
previous assignments include service in the Second, Third, and Fourth Infantry Divisions and a range of other operational, institutional, and combat
assignments. Rauhut is a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West
Point, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Naval War College.
The Chronicle, November 2014
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Wa s hington , DC
Senior Fellow for Global Governance—Miles Kahler will research and
write on the role of emerging economies in global governance. At CFR,
Kahler was previously a senior fellow for international political economy
from 1994 to 1996, an international affairs fellow in 1984, and has been a
life member since 1991. Kahler writes on international politics and political
economy and is a member of the editorial boards of International Organization and Global Governance. He also serves as a distinguished professor at
American University’s School of International Service. Kahler earned an
AB summa cum laude from Harvard University, an MPhil from Oxford
University, and a PhD from Harvard University.
Senior Fellow, Center for Geoeconomic Studies—Jennifer M. Harris was a former member of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff,
where she advised secretaries Hillary Rodham Clinton and John Kerry on
geoeconomic issues. At CFR, she will focus on global markets, geoeconomics, energy security, and trade and investment. Harris earned her law degree
from Yale Law School and her masters of philosophy in international relations from Oxford University, where she was a Rhodes scholar. She studied
economics and political science at Wake Forest University.
International Affairs Fellow—Benjamin Brake is a foreign affairs analyst
in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research at the U.S. Department of State.
He previously worked in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the U.S.
Senate Office of the Legislative Counsel. He received his BA from Vassar
College, his MSc from the University of London’s School of Oriental and
African Studies, his JD from Cornell Law School, and his MA and PhD
from Cornell University.
Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow—Adam Mount’s research is on the force
structure necessary for contemporary deterrence and the politics of nuclear
disarmament. Previously, he worked on nuclear elimination contingencies at
the RAND Corporation. His work is forthcoming in the Nonproliferation Review, and has appeared in Intelligence and National Security and Democracy:
A Journal of Ideas. He recently received a PhD from Georgetown University.
Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow—Caitlin Talmadge is an assistant professor of political science and international affairs at George Washington
University, where her research and teaching focus on U.S. defense policy and
strategy, civil-military relations, nuclear proliferation, and Persian Gulf security issues. Previously, she worked at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Brookings Institution, and as a consultant to the Office
of Net Assessment at the U.S. Department of Defense. She holds an AB from
Harvard College and a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The Chronicle, November 2014
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CFR Is Pleased to Announce Its
2014–2015 International Affairs Fellows
Hosted by O t he r I n s t i t u t ion s
Melissa G. Dalton, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Kristin Fabbe, U.S. Department of State
Van A. Jackson, Center for a New American Security
Scott Moore, U.S. Department of State
Nathaniel Myers, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Bart M.J. Szewczyk, U.S. Department of State
Ariella Viehe, Center for American Progress
I n ternat iona l Affai r s Fe llows in Japan ,
s ponsored by H i tachi , Ltd .
Jennifer Friedman, Meiji Institute for Global Affairs
Andrei Greenawalt, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry
Marta L. McLellan Ross, Japan Institute for International Affairs
Daryl G. Press, National Institute for Defense Studies
Brent D. Sadler, National Institute of Defense Studies
I n ternat iona l Affai r s Fe llows in Nu c l ear Sec u r i t y,
sponsored by t he S tan ton Fo u ndat ion
Austin Long, U.S. Department of Defense
Sharon Weiner, White House and U.S. Department of Defense
Reminder, Call for Applications:
2015–2016 Fellowship Programs
CFR is seeking applicants for two upcoming fellowship competitions. The application deadlines are:
■■
■■
Stanton Nuclear Security Fellowship: December 15
IAF in Nuclear Security, sponsored by the Stanton Foundation: January 16
Program details, eligibility requirements, and application instructions
can be found online at www.cfr.org/fellowships. For more information,
contact [email protected]
The Chronicle, November 2014
20
Now In Paperback: The Power Surge
by Michael A. Levi
In a new epilogue to the paperback edition, Levi chronicles developments in the energy sector, from the accelerating boom in U.S. oil
and gas production and the resulting debates to breakthroughs in
renewable energy and electric cars. Embracing the best of both old
and new energy sources, he believes, is still the strongest strategy
for success.
Teaching notes for the book can be found at www.cfr.org/education. For more analysis on the science and foreign policy surrounding climate change, energy, and nuclear security, read Levi’s blog,
Energy, Climate, and Climate, at blogs.cfr.org/levi. Net Politics Blog:
Decoding Digital Governance
Adam Segal and other experts from CFR’s Digital and Cyberspace
Policy Program investigate the effect of information and communication technologies on security, privacy, and international affairs.
Net Politics analyzes the growing importance and complexity of
Internet governance, digital policy, cybersecurity, and cyber warfare. Read more at blogs.cfr.org/cyber. CFR’s 2014 Annual Report Available Online
CFR members can view and download the 2014 Annual Report at
www.cfr.org/about/annual_report. The digital version is also available for the Kindle, Nook, iPad, iPhone, Android, and other devices.
Bound print-on-demand copies can be purchased on Amazon.
For further information, contact publications at 212.434.9613 or
[email protected] The Chronicle, November 2014
21
The Chronicle — November 2014
Cover photos, left to right: Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Indian Prime
Minister Narendra Modi, Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto
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