Fall 2014 ...

Fall 2014
Exam Dec/Jan 2015
Masters of Business Administration
Semester 3
BK ID-B1700
Q 1. Research is a sequential method of enquiry, directed towards a clear implicit or explicit objective. Describe in
detail the steps to be carried out in a typical research study.
Meaning of Research:
Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive
investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the
doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts.
Listing the steps:
With due concern for the economical completion of the research study, the design in such studies must be rigid and
not flexible and must focus attention on the following:
Formulating the objective of the study
Designing the methods of data collection
Selecting the sample
Collecting the data
Processing and analyzing the data
Reporting the findings.
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Explanation of the steps in a research study:
In a descriptive / diagnostic study the first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the
data collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully, the study may not provide the desired information. Then
comes the question of selecting the methods by which the data are to be obtained. While designing data-collection
procedure, adequate safeguards against bias and unreliability must be ensured.
Whichever method is selected, questions must be well examined and be made
unambiguous; interviewers must be instructed not to express their own opinion; observers must be trained so that
they uniformly record a given item of behavior.
Q 2. What are descriptive research designs? Explain the different kinds of descriptive research designs.
Descriptive Research Designs:
As the name implies, the objective of descriptive research studies is to provide a comprehensive and detailed
explanation of the phenomena under study. The intended objective might be to give a detailed sketch or profile of
the respondent population being studied. For example, to design an advertising and sales promotion campaign for
high-end watches, a marketer would require a holistic profile of the population that buys such luxury products. Thus
a descriptive study. Descriptive research thus are conclusive studies. However, they lack the precision and accuracy
of experimental designs, yet it lends itself to a wide range of situations and is more frequently used in business
research. Based on the time period of the collection of the research information, descriptive research is further
subdivided into two categories: cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies.
Kinds of Descriptive Research Design
Types of Descriptive Research Design Methods
There are three main types of descriptive methods:
 observational methods,
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 case-study methods and
 survey methods.
1. Observational Method
With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior is closely
observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory
The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural
environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations.
2. Case Study Method
Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to
testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause
and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
3. Survey Method
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After
participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both
reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they
are clear and easy to comprehend.
Q 3. The procedure of testing hypothesis requires a researcher to adopt several steps. Describe in brief all such
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a
specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look
at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study
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is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who
are not sleep deprived."
Steps for procedure of testing hypothesis:
Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing:
1. Specify the Null Hypothesis
2. Specify the Alternative Hypothesis
3. Set the Significance Level (a)
4. Calculate the Test Statistic and Corresponding P-Value
5. Drawing a Conclusion
Step 1: Specify the Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis (H0) is a statement of no effect, relationship, or difference between two or more groups or
factors. In research studies, a researcher is usually interested in disproving the null hypothesis.
There is no difference in intubation rates across ages 0 to 5 years.
The intervention and control groups have the same survival rate (or, the intervention does not improve
survival rate).
There is no association between injury type and whether or not the patient received an IV in the prehospital
Step 2: Specify the Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis (H1) is the statement that there is an effect or difference. This is usually the hypothesis
the researcher is interested in proving. The alternative hypothesis can be one-sided (only provides one direction,
e.g., lower) or two-sided. We often use two-sided tests even when our true hypothesis is one-sided because it
requires more evidence against the null hypothesis to accept the alternative hypothesis.
Step 3: Set the Significance Level (a)
The significance level (denoted by the Greek letter alpha— a) is generally set at 0.05. This means that there is a 5%
chance that you will accept your alternative hypothesis when your null hypothesis is actually true. The smaller the
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significance level, the greater the burden of proof needed to reject the null hypothesis, or in other words, to support
the alternative hypothesis.
Step 4: Calculate the Test Statistic and Corresponding P-Value
In another section we present some basic test statistics to evaluate a hypothesis. Hypothesis testing generally uses a
test statistic that compares groups or examines associations between variables. When describing a single sample
without establishing relationships between variables, a confidence interval is commonly used.
Step 5: Drawing a Conclusion
1. P-value <= significance level (a) => Reject your null hypothesis in favor of your alternative hypothesis. Your
result is statistically significant.
2. P-value > significance level (a) => Fail to reject your null hypothesis. Your result is not statistically significant.
Hypothesis testing is not set up so that you can absolutely prove a null hypothesis. Therefore, when you do not find
evidence against the null hypothesis, you fail to reject the null hypothesis. When you do find strong enough
evidence against the null hypothesis, you reject the null hypothesis.
Q4. a. Distinguish between:
i. Schedules and Questionnaires
ii. Open ended and closed ended questions
b. Explain the questionnaire design process.
Q5. a. What is the analysis of variance? What are the assumptions of the technique? Give a few examples where
the techniques could be used.
b. The following data represents the number of units produced by four operators during three different shifts:
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Perform a two-way analysis of variance and interpret the result.
Q 6. Explain the Structure of the Research Report. What are the guidelines for effective report writing?
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