Document 394506

I2
Dffirent Metbods
oflbe Balance
of Power
The balancing process can be carried ot eit$er bv diminishing tl|e weight ol
the heavier scJe or bv incresing the u'eight of the lighte' one'
DIVIDE
AI]D NUI.Ê
The former method has found its classic manifestation, aside from the impo
peace Ûeaties âtd the incitement to tr€asor
sition of onercus conditions in "àivide
and rule." It has been resorted to by
and revolution, irl the maxim
natioûs who tried to make or keep their cemPetitors weak bv dividing them
or keeping them divided. The most consisrent and importânt policies ol tlus
k;nd in m-odern times are the policv of F ance with respect to Germanv tnd
the oolicv of the Soviet Union with respect to the rest of EuroPe From tto
century to the end of the Second World wal it h&s been ar
".uât.."ttt
unvarying principle of French foreign policv eithe-r to fLor the divisioa oftbe
r"." a number of smÀl ndependent states or to-p1ev9ntû!
Ëipr*
è"'-L
coalescenceàf such states into one tniffed nation. The support of th€ Prot€t'
tant Drinces of Germany by Richelieu, of tbe Rhinebund by Napoleon I'
rh" priri.e" of Southern Germany by Ntpoleorr lll' of tlle abortlve separa
mo'Lme'ts alier the First world war. and the opPositlon to tùe
hâve th€ir common det(
of Germany after the Sec'ond World War-all
po\À'er
in
Europe, which France
of
the
balance
of
in
considerâtions
tor
the Soviet Union ÊoÎ
Similarlv,
state.
Cermân
by
a
strong
threaten€d
twenties to É" p.""""1 hâs consistently opposed all plans for the uniffc-a
of Eùrope, (
European .É
UDion sùch
I
The otb,
adding to th(
Dy hvo difen
if not surpass
Se power of,
A, in which c
policies with r
or compensatil
ter, by the po,
COMPE]
Compensations
and nineteenth
or was to be,
lreaty of Utrec
sron, recpgnizei
ryw_erby wayo
"r
!h: sp""i"5 I
and
the Bourbo
prrt it.
- The three D
marJ( the end
;t
snar| discrrss late
;::,,:'Jîi'"J
to the exctusion:hree nations âsrr
oution of powe;
l
ti*.ffh
were- used as
obiec
iiï: ,iî:x,,,
9o"s'*" orvi"i"i
I shjistical -.-t"
Uur,q'ai,y,l;
Di.ïerent
Methods of the Balance <,f pouer
rss
;i:1i"''r^'""i;l';r,ir
riJ,i;
fui:,lti:iÏïiî;:ïi:li,Tii"r:;r..
ïti ï;ili:ffT,.r[-ï;:;
;:il.ilïï:!i,]1'ilt;;r::':lT
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iï:t:i*ruÏi;q'Ë:{irî,*ii:r'#l
l;':*;::il:i:i:i':"""*3:lr3:"::*:*l*;ilx;ir:l:
COMPENS1{TI()NS
rf
ris
rd
of
ist
nd
he
mm**çf****nffi
nllll;+tru*:n:.,'lruiiiif
**ffi*ffi
2(n
L!ûitarioîs
oî Nationdl ?o,)el:
Pooet
The Balance ol
ment is likely t
difÊculties in r
Washington N:
Japan, France,
political and t€
AI ]-IANI
The historicâll
#$#.',$Ëffi#$
The Gen
multiple-state
**g'-;gm
the adversary.
A.RMAMENl]S
a policy of allir
believes that i
of tlre commit
vantages to br
that, throughc
States hawe n
tions.
L)ift..,i
i1,,th..1s 1l lik
&Ltan..
ù.ptr..r
ral
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..crr 'riiâinan.ir,reLrù*cd
5ht.s hak
',ihair!e.l l;onr eriernrg
ini(, p,:a..ctinr.,:rlliâr.es
wirh ()rhe) ,i.
Li,l)i,,).,,, n ,ir:,ùI.,''fnr
u 1 ! r n ,l'm,,s.,i
rf ,r..rr, j 1i{rit
1 , ,{ t r r f n
r '"l
2(n
I'tnitatuns
Bdlance of Pott'î
of NationôI Poaeî: The
threat to tt
similar châr
strâctly des
The ty
*eg*$;g,Ïlu*ts
last decades
H*m*s*
ïïft
îftT*iï*frfl*rÈïi*:**
could, in ot
foe wo'rld k
tions. Had I
tion in Euro
been as indr
Not ev(
il;:;Y*+iTï:ç{"}:t';1E:Hii!,';tïi
*'
Âed throùgh
alliance is 'r
well as the ,
distinguishe(
relationship,
to the total n
and their ef
,E$*N*figr*
ideological ir
sided, genel
ative alliânce
The AtlÉ
erample of â
l|er-the
pr€
tive of the ot
*+1*t*rî**$g*çi
ests. For the
scope of the
neighbors.
The pure
Holy Âlliance
down general
t)illtrcù
M.thoù
oj.the Butar.e .)f potûer
2a3
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XM
Liûitati.B
of Natrotot
pouer:
Thz [email protected]
of pounr
ence, and general objecrives whose reatizarion they pledged
themsetves
seek. The Treaty of tbe Arab Leasu€_of lses p,"--a."ï
."?,._";.*;
;
ple of an alliance. expressing, since rhe war against
Israel of f9a8,
ideoloeical solidaritv.
Much more typicâl is rhe addition of ideologicâl commitments
ro matedd
"îT. t.:lty
a|liance.irhus ,r,. rr,*.
:ï"-.1:^?1.j9
lh:, for mititaryof
Leâgue-ofl87o p-rovided
assisr*."
e-p"-J
"-""t e""u.,;;#i.';;
ot attack on any of them ând, ar the same time. emphasized
:T"
I"""",.'l
the solidarity
of
the three monarchies .g"i"", ..p"Uri"""-."r"1.";;;:ï^;
times. the id.eologicalcommirmenr asainst comm;nisr s,U""^r"",-m""i.jï
rrea.res or a !ânce. p€rlorms a similar function. The ideological
faclor âl5o
manifests itselfin the-officiat interpretation ofan âlliance. S*"i,"",
-TËrri
interests.- in terms of ân ideologicâl solidarity transcending
tf," fi_i,"ti.".?
ma.rerrat
s. Ihe conception of the Anglo_American alliânce, comlnon
,rnlerest
*r9*
lntish
invasion of Egypt in 1956, as all_inclusive and world.
.*.
emDracrng, based upon c\ommon cultùre, political institutions.
and ideals, ise
As con elns the political eFect of this ideologicâl facto! upon
.
an alliance.
rhree possibilities rnusr be distinguished. A purety,a.A.gij
Jir.r*.-r"*
rared to marerial interesrs, cânnot but be stillborn: it is unable
to deterrnim
policies or guide actions ând misleads Uy p.""u"u"g
*" "p[;;;;;;i,;
câl solidùity where there is none. r:t'. ia""rgt"o
ri"to., ;b;;i;
";-":;posed upon an actual communiy ofinrerest". â
|e"a.i*.gu,;;;ii;;
Dy mârshâtrng morat convictions ând emotional preferences ro
its support. lt
can also.weaken ir by obscurins the n.t,,.."a
rt-;*" "rit..";;;ffi;";
wnrch rhe al|iance was supposed to make precise and by raisjng
exDectâhons.
oound to be disâppointed. for the extent of concerted policies
and acbons.
For both these possibilities, the Ânglo-Âmericar aùiance can
"e.r";;-;
'fhe
distribution of benefits within an aliânce should ideâltv
be one of
complete mut'rality: here the seruices perfo,*.a Uv *"
o.,r"" Ë; ;"il;
are commensurate with the beneffts rec€i""a. rr,i" iaJi"
-;
tË;;.-,iu
approximâted in ân alliance concluded among "q""t. r"
*J-l"_rr"
o"*..
idenrical interestsi here rhe equat *""",.""
"râr.'.."["dË
;; .;J;;;;:
-the
tives. serue one single inreresr. Tbe orher extreme in
disiriU"t;". .ii.".
effts is one-sidedness, a sociztas leonta in which one p"r.y
;.;;-;;
;;ï;i
share of benents while the other bears .r," -"i" u"nliÉ"J;;".;:;
Ë';
the obFct ofsuch an alliânce is the presewation of the territoriat
and potitiJ
Ùre receivins party, such an alliance is indisrinsuishabti
Èom a
ol cya:anree. complementry interesrs lend rhemsetv;s most
eâsilv to
!::a?
rlùs krnd ot disproportton. since they are by deGnition different
in substance
ano Inerr compâratrve assessmen( is likely to be distorred by
subjective inrer-
-.""i'-îï:*it*"1ff:*""Jl,l}î'iï ï;1if ;:Ë'"au"'t"""" "t'*"' ^,.rr"-*'o
The distr
within
a good ch
and i
allian(
the Un
trveen
'-'
However
lrest value fo
ïhe former is
cdmpletely or
tccent histon
regard to bas,
.lso illustrâte
of total wâr,
total interest!
wer and the
to be limited
which mây o'
À tx>ica
ests of the o
them, others
Thus a tlpicr
stretgth of tl
interests of I
policies witù
General
ing throùgh
the traditior
only such a
Dilf.rcat
Method,
of the Betûnce of [email protected]
2O5
sùperioritv in power is bound
to arld weisht to such
i"*:.î,,t"ï**o
The distrjbûtion of beneffts ;s
t
;;
;i:ri."ir
l'ï::i';:î.'J
n'.,".*,,*Ï*l*i*.$Ë'Ïr'lr
i*mdi'",,".:+l*-,*if-îii,lq,'.'
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"1À.
Pri,.e, Ch.pter 2t
206 Unitatro
Tlû Balnîae of Pot'Ni
' of Na'ltonol Po1tel:
Alliance
while the bsl
gle for power
starting in th'
teenth and ni
erally as a pn
pendence, agr
lgmrusrug**gg,yf
potentially
thr
mans, the Car
The Carth
.
Sicilisn do
(
of its major allies'
,fl
'ffil.f'!!i:ï"nrH,i
*iv'$rml'i*"x'mt
:""::Ëi**i{iàlËi:-":lçfffi:'r''r':-'""+l'fi
liliii
'J,*
.it *t'"t' thealiânæ"^
Dilferent MethoA, of the Batancè [email protected]
af
2oT
Alliances vs. World
Domination
,''ffi['trtfrïj;,;:$,,*
.çii$;*rffi
îï*ififfiddfit*[ïrt]Ïiffi
1..gfrT_{+,r-ffiH",,*:
[l-#l*ï$iii:**-.,-*':ii';i#;ïil*j,:i
-tt----------t-..
The Balarûe oî Poùel
"*:iËîli:
w;'*:
* iË"::i
rr*:îii:î$îî#iiîr*
2o8 I'hfiations
of Natiotutt Pouet
*#mffi
Âlliancer
The struggte
against one p(
to which the t
or both pursui
mernbers aga
most frequent
To mentn
that fought th
imperiâlistic â
settling the âi
balance of por
thê period be
Polând of 17t
Utrecht had er
rise of Prussiar
changes in th€
historians and
principled and
policy that W
Yet the p(
of the bala\ce
period that mc
that the princ,
principle to gr
g;ffffi'{"t,*-f*
ffi$frm$*,u-l#ffiffi
fiç***,r*****t***,s'
t#ilrut'++*ru***
thing, in tl
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21o Lini,a,"ians
o,,*
r,r-".
'$i"dji:rjjiiîËf[i:,'}:ïjt{HJi.
ilriiifr
ffi*N*ffiffi
which mi8
called the
First World
its origins ex
gium, locater
approaches t
petition. Th,
power in Eu
the others. 1
its independ
Prussia, and
declared on
imposed up(
had become
European b:
In furth
îr'*lr**mtrËHfifi**
.u-*i*****+er*aur
âUy neutral
d€claration
the other si
Differcnt
Methods of the Batonce of ptuer
21r
*âtion in lturopcàn politics. Soûe yeas âfter thât agâin, prussia became
not ônlv
â sùbstantive! but a preponderating monarchy._Thus,
while rhe baldce ;f
power continued in principle the sâû€, the meâns of adjusting
i! b""._.
;;
w r d a " d . n t a ' q r d T h . ) h ê c a m ee n t d É ê d . i n p r o p o r r i o n , " , f r " .
,".r*"J
"""-l
npr or.on\r\tp bk.^çtar.. _r! p,.,t,orriun,I ma) say. to the
numher of$eishts
w n r h m ' g r r rh e s r ' i f t ê . itn r ! .r h e , , n p o , r h ê o t h e r s . â l e .
. w."rt"."n""rt".
node of rcsÈtânæ, thàn by â direct attâck upon Frânce_or try
. **
. U"
,nd,rrâk.nnnrh."ô,j.ùf\nain?wt,at if th. pos$\\ion ot
S p â i nm , g h r b ê r . n _
r"rpd harmrês\ ,n ,iv.l hand._ hdrmte,, r, ,, gaded ",_a.a
"at""ie* ro ttre
possessors?Vight not coDpensâtion for dispâragemcnt be obrâined
bv
neâns better âdapted tô the prese.t time? If Frânce ()lspied Spatn, was it
,n odê, ro rvord rhe (oni.quen.ê\ ofthâr (Kupâri;n_ rh;r wc,houtd
,n"e$d:'.
N o . I l o o k ê { l " n o t h . r w a v . t \ â w m a r e r i a l sf o r o m p e n s â t i o n i n
M n t h r . h c m À p h e r . C o r r r e F p l â t , n gS p a j n \ u c h â s o u r â n e \ l o r s h a d k n o q
hcr,
Lc\ol\cd rhdr ir F'ân.e hail Spain. ,t shoutd nor he spain ùith the
Indies. I
r a r r e dr h e v . u \ 1 o , l d i n r o e r i s t e û c , . r o r e d , , . \ . t h ê b a l a n . , . o f t h c o t d '
This development roward â world-wide batance of power operating
by
neans
ofalliances and coùnteraliânces wâs consummated in tb" .à"^.
"ith"
Fi$t Wo d war, in. which practicâly al nations of the
world p.;,-l;;i;;
sct'velyon one or the orher side. The very designation
of tUt *ar a" a
'\vtrrld
war points to the consummâtion of the deve'loDment.
In contrastto the Second world war, however, the First World
War had
orisù,sexclusively in rhe fear of a disturbance of the r","p.u"
Uau,]". of
r. uhrh was rh,êarened in rwo resiuns: Bctsium ând tf," e"lkr;".
À"i_
. lo,atêdàt the northeâsternfrontier of Frânce and guârding rhe ea\tern
loâchesto the English Channet, found itself a f"""t p"i.t
"f"e*"t p"*";
rpetition,without-being-strong enough to parricipate acti""ly
; tlai com_
r That the independence of Belgrum ;"
".""."..y
ro. il," U"t*,.. or
rt i!,urope was axiomatic. Its annexâtiôn by any of the greât
Eùropean
onswould of nece$ity make that nâtion too porerful
f"."tf," *.".tÇ
"f
others.Thh was recognized from the very moment whe" nelgi",n gai'"J
in*pen1lïce with the active ""ppo.t .i c.""i
ssra,,aDdIrânce.
These nations,
assembled
n",.-.-e""iÀ,'f;;,
at a co
erence i"
f,""a"",
on FehruaryJ9. In3t. thar'TÏ,ey hâd the right. and the cvents
upon lhem lhc dutv to çee to it thar rhe Belgian provinces.after
they
bemmeindependen
|. did not
ie,rpardize,r." i..la
,".,.iiv ""a'ii.l
.
"'
Peanhalance ot Dôwêr
In furtherance of thât aim, in 1839 the Êve nâtions conccrned
conctuded
lr€atyin vhich,rhey.dectared
Betgium to t e ..an independe"t
."a p"À"t*
neutralstate ùnder the colectivc guaranty of the five "ig""t".i.".'Thi"
alationsoùght to prevent Belgium forever from participating,
on one or
rn. Luropean bataDcc ot fower
It $â\ the Cerman viola
':f,îi:;"i'!:,ï:*:::
i:#::xiïi::,s":)":i:
\î;i:iilil;,IÏl# sl,.iî;,"
Thus tl
sign of the
theory the
perseded b
tually, collr
abolish the
alliance âg
of which tl
tain indivi(
ber of the
quently, c
âggression
individuâl
the disint(
illustrate t
THE
and this h
ûetaphor
the stâtus
erally ope
The t
"holder"
identiÊed
balance v
rcales. Tl
union
llXÏi.t'* ;" soviet
æ4(kndonlHisMàjest's
Diffele'tt M.ithôds of the Bdldnce of [email protected]î 213
the two world w{rs stânds it fact uDder the
Thus the pêriod bets..û
alttrougb in
sien of the balance o1 power by alliances and couticralliances,
have
been sulh€ory the principlc of the balance of powcr was supposed to
ol collective secùritv.- Yet, ac
perseded bv thc League of Nations Pf,.iplc
irally, cotlc,ctivc secu.ity, as will be shown lâter in greâter dctâit,a did not
âboljshihe balance ofpower. Rather, it rea{Iirmed it in the form ofa universal
aggrcssor, the prcsumptioD being that such an
allian.. âsâinst any pote.tial
security difièrs,
alljance rvoukl àl$,â-vs outu'.,igh the agg:essor' Collective
however, f.o'n the balu.c.: rtl power in th. principle of $sociation by virtue
ofwhn,h the alliarce i! formed. Bâlanq: of power allianccs are fonned by ceriaùi individurl nàtions agâiDst othcr individÙâl nations or an allia.<'c of them
o r h - l a s r . u l $ h r l r h ' , . F r ' , , l j v : d , r à ln u r r o D s' c ç d r d a s l h . i r . e p d t î 1 . n â t i o n a l
secr.rrity is the respect for the
interesis. Tbe o.g.nizing principle of.r)llective
moraland legal obligatiot to consid€rr an attack by aty nation ùpon âny member of the alliâDce âs an attack upon all rnembers of the alliânce Consethat is,
quentlv, collective sccurity is supposed to oPe.atc automâticâlly:
proat
once
and,
the-efore,
aggressioncalls the counteralljancc into operation
Alliances
within
greatest
possible
efficiency.
iectspeace and security with the
a balancc-of rxrver systern. on the other band, âre frequently ùncertàin in
actualoperâtion. since they are dependent upon political corsiderations ofthe
individùâl rations. The defection of ltaly from the Triple Alliancc in 1sl5 ând
the disirtcgration o{ the French system of àlliànces betveen 1935 and ls39
illùstrâte this weakness of the balaDce of power.
THE
'HOLDER"
OF TNE BENEUCE
whenever the balance of power is to be reâlized by means of an allianceandthls has been generatly so throughoùt the history of the western worldTo use the
i',o possible vâriations of this pattcrn have to be distinguished
in eâch of
of
two
scales'
metaphor of the balance, the s)'stem mâv consist
policv of
with
the
same
identiÊed
which âre to be found ttro nation or nâtio.s
'fhe
genof
Europe
have
Dations
continental
the stâtus quo or of imperialism.
way.
erâilyoperat€d the balance of power in this
The system may, however, consist of two scalcs plus a third element, the
lh. balancer rs nor p.rmanentlv
b"lanccr"
holJe' ol the b'rlanc" or rh.
identified with the policies of eithet nation or groùp of nations lts onlv objective within the system is the ûaintenànce of the balance, regardless of the
co.crete policies the balancc will serve ln consequence, the holder of the
balancewitl throw its weight at one time in this scâle, at another timc in the
relâtive position of the
other scalc, euided only by one cortsideration-the
thât
secms to be higher
scales.Thus it will put it! weight âlwâys nr tbe scale
other hând, l
VIII were ab
The ide
in Eûslând
and of the (
1554 for ins
death o{ Ct
"ke
tri€d to
weak Ênd ;
Italiats in
The c
Creât Britl
(he whom
holding in
oc'cupied I
weight reâ
i,j+[$***;#'s*o**ltr*
jijH;':.rr*;
ffi5*u.t**
*-$î13ïËlp$!3#r*rt
Europe an
French pa
beth and
Charles V
and by ho
, i . , ,
. i , ! ,
t /
, ,
, : , . i . r
2t6
Iimitdttoîs of Nottonal Pooer: The Balance of Pooel
new aspirânt for the ffiiversal
With the appearance of l-Æuis XtV as a
in England and 'k-'fr":,t'
monârchy, it became more ano
Europe bv. keepiÛs the
the English mission to âcr as ârbiter of
îriâà"ti
criticsrrv
in balance This sâme standard was applied
."a i'i"."
il;ils
or charresrr and ramesrI' who madecommoncause
ii-ii" ?ài"ts; "J'"i..
power' against the Nerherta::ds
with l-ouis ) v, the stiongesl nvar or ôriush
rhewar o{the
;fï.
l'l;'tilil;-"
.",i-i*"'t'
p"t;"i"""r wnti" ut With
into a dogma' especiallvin
SDanishSuRession. thal stanctardwas erected
prac'
as applied to ever new combinationsor pow-ers
;;;"""d.
;i;ft.-I,
the
or
middle
the.
irie Manehester riberars after
;:ff;;ili.;;J;ntir
the
detâchment.Ëom
permanent
nineteenth c€ntury advocaledc'ompre(eand
or
principre.
the
Ë".;p"ân continent-that is' isolationism-as
#;;;ffi;
this
diplomacv
th" t'adiuo" and pracrice of British
ttt*;;'Ëirlvla"
d;sappearedonlv -in rec€Dt
ol
variew of tbe balance power seems to iave
or à'iu't', aDd the growth or Anerican and lus-sl:o
,t'.1;t.
;:;;;
si' win'
ir'"ï t'"arr;"" and practice were about to disappear'
f,i;:'i'.i'ti";
conservative
the
to
it mosieloquentlv in a sp€€-ch
iË,, A";tlï';;*a;zed
Afrairs in March 1936'
Foreign
on
ù"mbers Commlttee
of Engtând hs beeD to opplse ihe
For fiour hundred veaB the foÊign Policv
Power on tbe continent. andfsrthdominâtina
-o", .gg*",ive. most
"oort"r,.
i"to r-ue hânds of such a Powei
hlli-"g
countries
l.v
i,r"*iîî
"."*J-tr"
"r ristory thcseroùr centuriesor @nsisteni
itï.i-*'ii"li"r'i
and ."ndiuons' mus*ad(,,
"i'cumstances
;-;;-.s and'racrs
fi;;Ë".i
.of
of sy @e' mtion' staù'
ône of the most remÙl€ble eprsæes which the records took the more ditlicul|
EDglsd
", o"opf. * "ft"* Moreover' on all ocs'ions
r
rh
xrv^undd willi*
Iiuis
âsâinst
sPain'
Ir
of
PhiliP
b"
::"ïÏË
n|w
wN'd
it
cermmv
of
lI
williÊt
.8;"", Napoleon aeainst
;;b";ô
join with the strcnser sd lmre
i"î" .*" i"à 'i*, r,*e been very temPuns to
the [email protected]Ùre' johed
"ir,o oDquest However' *" 'l*av' took
,lï'Lnj
delefteo
*ith
the less slong
I'ià'Ë",liiJ
;i;:-it'"
Powers' mâde a @mbination
âmong them'
md
thus
ii.'c-""ti.eit"r -irit"v tvrantwhævdhe :ï'.$Y-:ï'T11:
tb"
we prese'ed rhe ltberties of EuoP€' Proiecred
Ï"ji;"J"":'. i;iJ";;;:
ry*-Ï::
*q-i
tenibre"T'd::
*li-.--."e.a after'rour
sdery
wiâening Empire' aûd with the bw countlies
r"-";a
"".T*.*r*
H"* is the wondortul unonscious *aditio' 0r
'Td;';-il";."a.""e.
il;J,;
'All
d
our thoushts resr in rhat tradrtion rodav l rdov
ËÏi"i ê*i-'n;tt"t.
'!d
valour
j*tice'
wisdom
Ë* o'.c'o"d to 'lter or weaken tbe
."ir'--'îiiïl
h6 hapP€nod
whdch our mcestors æred I loow or nothina that
"-"
;;;..
(ttduof^the-ir
valrditv
the
âlters
desree
in the slishtest
ilr'
"Ii'*
ijîîïii
wniù
f'd
sctentiÊc
in militârv' polid:al' economic or
"r "-r,-s
1i""". i'r.""ï
;î";..#Ë
,h";;; i. r"* *ôL
or nothinswhich'*-'ï
I kn-ow
tr
iii.Tài'J"lii:;;::.';;;";:i:ï.,ï;u:',"""*;.';lml"::-li
very general p.oposition before vou becau
."J'yir'i"e .r"" Ë"--"s
much more simPle
son this point, s€e the detailed discussion in Chtptèr
2l'
Dilfo.ent rrcthù.is oJ.th.
Baldnce t)f pobcl
2r7
il
j;ïi:
:,r
j,i:ïr,
ïiîï1
,,,ri',1
;li ;:ru1îi
iîiir;
r
:1,:;
m:HlihTîj:;*.:
''ir;,
;,.1îir
;;|;[1rr;[;:r;
ii
î ri"li,
I;r:ri:lrr,;ii:::l,il,l'i*qr-.#
rlilîii,
5'\h r,{, 5
Chukhnl
n, o r D h n N r r u n r . u
. tq48r,