Headland FEATURES of erosion Conflicts of Interest Bay

Headland : Flamborough head (chalk)
FEATURES of erosion at Flamborough Head :
Bay : Bridlington Bay (boulder clay)
Joint – Caves – Arch – Stack (Adam) – Stump – Wave-cut Platform
Conflicts of Interest : Different
coastal users who make problems
for each other.
PROCESSES of erosion at Flamborough Head :
Weathering : Freeze-thaw action Corrosion (salt spray), Chemical action (acid rain)
Erosion : Corrasion
Hydraulic action
PROCESSES of erosion of Boulder Clay cliffs along Holderness coast:
Slumping (rain lubricates slip plane, and makes clay heavy, slides down slip plane)
Undercutting : wave-cut notch
Coastal Protection (Hard Engineering) : Mappleton
£3 million scheme to protect the coastal road using 2 boulder groynes
to catch longshore drift material and make wider beaches; rock armour
at cliff base; cliff face landscaped at lower angle and seeded with grass
to stop slumping. BUT…it causes FASTER erosion further down the
coast by robbing sand and making their beaches narrower and more
easily crossed by waves so the cliff is eroded powerful undercutting
Shoreline Management Plan along Holderness coast
No Active Intervention : along most of coast – allowed to erode
•Oil refineries of S. Humber pollute
water for local fishermen.
•Ships coming up R. Humber cause
danger for tourist wind-surfers & jet
•Wind turbines at Easington can kill
migrating birds using Spurn for
Managed Retreat /
realignment : Paull, N.
bank of Humber estuary.
A new coastal barrier has
been built further inland
to allow sea level rise to
expand onto fields to
make salt marsh for birds
Hold the Line : at resorts like Withernsea & gas plant Easington
Managed Retreat / Realignment : At Paull (see box at side)
Feature of Deposition : Spit, Spurn Point
A long, narrow, low-lying beach of sand extending
into the Humber estuary from the Holderness coast
Multi-Use coastal area : The Humber estuary
has many different land uses attracted to it……
•Oil refinery attracted to flat land of South bank
•Fishing industry lands fish at Hull docks
•Tourist caravan sites at Patrington Haven
•Wildlife groups spot migrating birds at Spurn
•Retirement homes in Grimsby for seaside views
•Energy use : off-shore & on-shore wind turbines
use strong winds and gas storage at Easington
Process of deposition of the Spit at Spurn Head
Feature of Deposition :
Bar – Slapton Ley, Dorset
Feature of Deposition :
Tombolo – Chesil Beach,
•Cliff material is eroded from up the coast
•Longshore drift moves material southwards due to
prevailing NE winds and swash hits at an angle
Coastal Protection (Soft engineering) :
Pevensey Bay, Sussex
•Material is deposited where coast swings to the
west, and where the N. Sea current and the R.
Humber current meet.
Beach rebuilding – using dredge sea bed
•Turbulence slows down both currents and material
is deposited at end of spit
•Spit Neck gets narrower as it is eroded by waves
•Spit end is recurved westwards as N. Sea current is
stronger than Humber
Beach recycling – moving deposited beach
material back to where it was eroded from
Beach regrading / profiling – moving
beach material up to give a gentler beach
Protection (soft
engineering) :
Offshore reefs –
off Norfolk coast
Sea level rise : due to
melting ice-caps,
melting glaciers and
thermal expansion of
sea water. European
Response Plan shows
which coasts will be
protected eg Canvey
Island, Kent – building a
higher sea wall to
protect homes from
higher sea levels