HDCS 4393/4394
Dr. Shirley Ezell
What should leaders do?
Get results!
• New research by consulting firm Hay/McBer draws
on a random sample of 3,871 executives from a
worldwide data base of 20,000 global executives.
• The research found 6 distinct leadership styles
coming from emotional intelligence. These styles
appear to have a unique impact on the working
atmosphere of a company.
What should leaders do?
Get results! (Cont.)
• The research indicates that leaders with the best
results do not rely on only one leadership style.
They use most of them based on the business
• Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage
ourselves and out relationships effectively.
• The 4 capabilities are: self-awareness
social awareness
social skills.
What are the Six Leadership Styles?
Brief grouping includes:
Coercive: leaders demand immediate compliance.
Authoritative: leaders mobilize people toward a vision.
Affiliative: leaders create emotional bonds and harmony.
Democratic: leaders build consensus through participation.
Pacesetting: leaders expect excellence and self-direction.
Coaching: leaders develop people for the future
How do we Measure
Leadership’s Impact?
David McClelland (Harvard) found that
leaders with strengths in a critical mass of
6 or more emotional intelligence
competencies were far more effective than peers
who lacked such strengths.
• When he analyzed division heads of a global food
and beverage company, he found that among
leaders with a critical mass of emotional
intelligence, 87% placed in the top 3rd for annual
salary bonuses based on their business
performance. These leaders and their divisions
outperformed others by 15 to 20%.
What was McClelland’s
Research Trying to Find?
The research was trying to find links
among leadership and emotional intelligence, and
climate and performance.
• Climate refers to 6 key factors that influence an
organization’s working environment including
flexibility (how free employees feel to innovate)
responsibility to the organization, standards that
people set, clarity that people have about the
mission and values, and commitment to a common
What were the Findings of the Research?
A. All 6 leadership styles have a measurable effect on
each aspect of climate.
B. There was a direct correlation of the impact of
climate on financial results such as return on sales,
revenue growth, efficiency, and profitability.
C. Leaders who used styles that affected
the climate positively had decidedly
better results than those who did not.
D. Climate was not the only driver of
performance, equally important were
economic conditions, and competitive
dynamics. But climate accounts for
nearly a 3rd of the results.
The Leadership Style
A. Coercive style is the least effective
in most situations. Flexibility is the hardest hit, and
the leader’s extreme top-down decision making kills
new ideas on the vine. Coercive leadership has a
damaging effect on the rewards system, it erodes
employee pride. In addition it undermines motivating
people who want to see how their job fits into a grand
shared mission.
When should the coercive style be used? To change
the immediate direction of a company losing money, or
when a hostile takeover is looming and with problem
employees with whom all else has failed.
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
B. The Authorative Style: Of the 6 leadership styles,
research shows that this style is most effective in
driving up every aspect of climate. The Authorative
leader is a visionary, that motivates people by making
clear to them how their work fits into a larger vision.
People working for authorative leaders understand
that what they do matters. This style maximizes
commitment to the organization’s goals and strategy.
An authorative leader states the end but generally
gives people plenty of leeway to devise their own
means. It works well in almost any business
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
C. When doesn’t the Authorative style work?
When leaders are working with a team of
experts or peers who are more experienced than
the leader is.
If a manager trying to be authorative becomes
overbearing, he can undermine the egalitarian
spirit of an effective team.
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
D. The Affiliative Style’s general positive impact
makes a good all-weather approach. Leaders
should use it when trying to build team harmony,
increase morale, improve communication, or repair
broken trust.
It should not be used alone and when
people need clear directives to navigate
through complex challenges. This style
leaves them rudderless.
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
E. The Democratic Style helps a
leader spend time getting people’s
ideas and buy-in and builds trust ,
respect and commitment. This style has
it’s drawbacks: it can result in endless meetings to
build consensus. The democratic style works best
when a leader is uncertain about the best direction
to take and needs ideas and guidance from able
employees. It does not make sense when
employees are not competent or informed enough
to offer sound advice.
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
F. The Pacesetter Style should be used
sparingly. It often destroys climate
because many employees feel
overwhelmed by the demands for
excellence. As for rewards, the pacesetter
either gives no feedback on how people are
doing or jumps in to take over when they
think they are lagging. This approach
works well when all employees are selfmotivated, highly competent, and need little
direction or coordination.
It is a style that should not be used by
The Leadership Style (Cont.)
G. The Coaching Style is used least often. Many
leaders feel they don’t have the time in this highpressure economy for the slow and tedious work
of teaching people and helping them grow. But
actually, after a first session, it takes little or no
extra time and has a positive impact on climate
and performance.
This style is not effective when employees are
resistant to learning or changing their ways and it
flops if the leader lacks the expertise to help the
employee along.
Leaders Need Many Styles
• Generally, the more styles a leaders uses the
better. Mastering the authorative,
democratic, alleviative, and coaching
styles help create the very best climate and
business performance.
• A leader can build a team with members who
employ styles they lack.