SPORT AFTER 1800 • The main thrust of the industrial revolution started in the middle of the C18th and continued through the C19th. During this time, the population shift to the towns and cities that was triggered off by industrialisation, saw England move from being an Agricultural economy to an Industrial one. The changes were not only economic, the structure of society also changed which influenced recreational patterns across the classes. THE URBAN REVOLUTIONS •With the move to the Towns, the pattern of recreation for the Labouring classes changed drastically, but it was some time before this new change was addressed. •The delay in the development of any meaningful infrastructure meant that for some time there was a certain amount of social disorder. THE PACE OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE •At first many working class people refused to be denied their leisure activities they had enjoyed before. The institution of a day of recreation known as “Saint Monday” appeared. •With the exception of the large textile areas of Northern England, where steam power took hold quite early, much of industrial Development took place in small workshops.Many workers were paid by the “piece”- doing “piece work” as it became widely known. •They took the day off- often on Mondays- to attend the Prize fights, baiting contests, race meetings and pedestrian races held in the locality- just as they always had. •To make up their pay, they simply worked harder towards the end of the week. •Eventually steam power became widespread and workers were then harnessed by the factory whistle for 60 or more hours per week. •As the towns grew, the former recreation spaces disappeared to make way for factories, workshops and cheap housing. •Municipal parks or private pleasure gardens were often strategically placed to provide a screen between slums areas and more genteel ones, allowing the middle classes pleasant walks. SOCIAL CHANGES •Eventually the lower classes lost the two most valuable recreational assets they had enjoyed in Rural Villages- Time and Space. Throughout this study of the history of sport, it is important to consider the sports discussed in the context of the society that played and was entertained by them. Think also of why the society played the sport, how it was developed, popularised, codified and transmitted to other cultures CONSIDER THESE ASPECTS:• • • • • • • • • What is the nature of the sport? Why a sport is played? How the sport developed? How was it popularised? How was it transmitted to other cultures? How and why was it codified? How did it reflect society? Where/How does it reflect society today? What part did it play in society? EXAMPLES of Sports • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Bull running Dog – cock fighting Hunting Fishing Wrestling – Boxing Pigeon Shooting (Clay) Horse Racing Mob football Archery Tennis Hockey Eton wall games Fives Rugby TRADITIONAL GAMES Court Games • Real tennis (played only by the wealthy) Mob activities • Before the influence of public schools in the 19th C invasion games such as mob football were largely raucous and were often surrounded by drinking and gambling “mob games had no clear game pattern compared with today” 1] They had simple rules.Why did this work? 2] They still had a sense of “Battle Excitement”. What is this? 3] There is a loose distinction between players and spectators. Discuss. 4] What is the balance between physical force and skill? 5] Regional variations in rules, playing area and objectives was a necessary freedom we can not afford today.Discuss. 6] Group identity dominated in the old days. Reasons? MOB STICK GAMES • Can you pick out the characteristics of these games. • The first picture is the Annual Mob Hockey game at Lutterworth in Leicestershire • The second picture is Shinty played at Blackheath in London •In addition, the attitude of the new middle classes to leisure activities was very different from that associated with “Merrie England”. •Their lives were based on serious purpose, the creation of capital wealth and good Christian living. •To this end, recreations had to be seen as constructive and worthwhile in order to be acceptable. •These terms became implicitly associated with the term recreation. MASS TRANSPORT •The development of the railways in the 1840’s and of cheap fares had considerable benefits for the ordinary worker. •An escape to the countryside or the seaside became possible. •The mountains and the seaside resort, both the domains of the middle and upper classes, had now become accessible to ordinary workers and their families.
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