Discuss the relationship between climate and biomes.

Discuss the relationship
between climate and biomes.
1.2 What are the temporal
patterns of climate change?
• Short term climate change
• Long term climate change
• How has climate changed in the past?
• How do we know climate has changed in
the past?
• Past
• Present
• Future
Characteristics of ice ages:
Characteristics of interglacial:
• Climate changes naturally through a
series of cycles.
Colour code the causes to
differentiate between human and
physical causes
Key Question:
• What is short term climate change?
Causes of short term climate
Individually these mechanisms cannot
explain the Little ice age but a
combination of these and other factors
will have caused cooling:
» Volcanic eruptions
» Variations in solar energy
» An increase in the Albedo
Volcanic eruptions:
• Can effect climate for a year or two
• They inject large quantities of sulphur
dioxide and dust into the stratosphere
• Aerosol effect- incoming solar radiation
is reflected.
Variations in solar radiation
• 11 year cycle of sunspots
• During LIA, there was a
decrease in sunspots
Increase in Albedo
• Low temperatures cause more snow and
• This causes positive feedback
• http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/ngfl/200708/geog/G1%20Climate%20change/index.
• http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/200910/geog/climate-change/eng/
• http://www.wjec.co.uk/uploads/publications
Short-term climate change
Short-term climatic disruptions that some people think
are becoming more frequent and intense
because of global warming.
La Nina
• El nino
Refers to warmer than average waters in
the eastern Pacific.
• La nina:
Refers to colder than average waters in
eastern Pacific
These events distort jet
stream flows
Short-term climate change
• http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/200910/geog/climate-change/eng/short-termclimate-change-1-global.html
Long-term climate change
In the last billion years there have
been 6 or more ice ages lasting
between 100-300 years. Between
these ages there have been periods
of global warming referred to as
inter-glacial periods. These periods
are much shorter in time length.
Vostok ice core
What mechanisms influence
Earth’s climate on this scale.
Milankovitch theory
The Milankovitch theory is an explanation of
long term climate change.
Precession is the change in orientation of the
Earth's rotational axis. In simple terms
precession is simply a wobble.
Obliquity is the variation of the tilt of the
earth's axis away from the orbital plane. The
tilt varies between 22.1° and 24.5° and the
average is 23.5°.
Eccentricity is a term used to describe the
shape of Earth's orbit around the sun. The
variation of Earth's orbit around the sun ranges
from an almost exact circle to a slightly
elongated shape.
Geometry of the Oceans
Thermohaline circulation