Authored by Andrea White, PhD and

Authored by Andrea White, PhD and
Valerie West, EdD for the C3 Initiative
Teaching Team Skills:
Goals for Today
 Introduction to Team
Competencies/ Content for
 Team exercise – as an example
 Observation and Feedback
 Review Handbook Contents
 Questions and evaluation
What is a Team?
•Two or more individuals
with a high degree of
interdependence geared
toward the achievement
of a goal or the
completion of a task.
•Teams make decisions,
solve problems, provide
support, accomplish
missions, and plan their
How is a Team Different from a
Group or Committee?
• Teams embody a collective action arising out of
task interdependency
• Members of the team agree on the goal
• Members agree that they must work together to
achieve the goal
• Each member is viewed as having one or more
important roles to play to successfully achieve
the goal
• There is less hierarchy within the unit than in
most work groups
Why is Teamwork Important in
 While our healthcare delivery system has the
potential to be outstanding, our system currently is
not as safe, effective, or efficient as it should be.
 Promoting teamwork and good communication
among health professionals can dramatically
improve healthcare delivery, resulting in much better
outcomes for our patients.
 How do we know this?
There are Many Types of Teams
 Examples of Teams:
 Athletic Team – people working together to win a
Natural Work Group – people working together every
day in same office with similar processes and
Business Team – cross-functional team overseeing a
specific product line or customer segment
Improvement Team – ad hoc team with responsibility
for improving an existing process
Healthcare Team – several healthcare professionals
working closely together for the benefit of a patient or
group of patients
When to use a team?
Quality and Acceptance
Low Quality/
Low acceptance
Flip a coin
Low Quality/
High Acceptance
Group decision
High Quality/
Low acceptance
Ask an Expert
High Quality/
High acceptance
Team Consensus
group behavior
 Group Content - what is being said, the words, the
 Group Process - how the group works, methods,
ways of making decisions, how people participate
Aspects of Group Process:
 Who talks to whom?
 Who interrupts and how is it handled?
 How are quiet members treated?
 High and low participators? Shifts in
participation levels?
 Do people look at each other when they talk?
 How are new members treated?
Aspects of Group Process:
Decision -making
 What process does the group use to make
 Is the process agreed upon by everyone?
 Does the process change as group proceeds?
 Does anyone make a decision and carry it out
without agreement from the others?
 Is there evidence of a majority pushing a decision
 Are minority opinions heard?
Aspects of Group Process:
 Does the group take time to understand the
 Is the problem well articulated?
 Is there time for brainstorming creative
 Can the group move to from problem
identification, identifying possible solutions, to
selecting solutions and implementation?
Group Problem Solving
•Generate ideas
•Involve people
•Listen for common
• Organize ideas
•Evaluate alternatives
•Monitor progress
• Manage conflict
• Find resources
•Get information
•Assign responsibilities
• Develop plan
Recognizing Dysfunctional Behavior
 Blocking
 Aggression
 Dominating
 Withdrawing
 Out of field behavior
Team Roles: Task
Seeking and Giving Information
Consensus Taking
Team Roles: Relationships
• Communication Gatekeeping
• Encouraging
• Resolving Conflict
• Acknowledging Feelings
• Setting Standards/Norms
• Openness
Attitudes for Effective Teamwork
 Appreciation for value of team decisions
 Respect for team members
 Mutual trust
 Openness to feedback
 Reflection on group process and interest in
 Shared vision
Team Exercise
 Instructions for
 Instructions for Team
 Team Exercise
 Scoring, Team
members and
Observer comments
 Discussion
What are Characteristics of Effective
Members have a clear goal
The focus is on achieving results
There is a plan for achieving the goal
Members have clear roles
Members are committed to the goal
Members are competent
They achieve decisions through consensus
There is diversity among team members
Members have effective interpersonal skills
They know each other well and have good relationships
More Characteristics
 Each member feels empowered to act, speak up, offer
Each member has a high standard of excellence
An informal climate and easiness exists among members
The team has the support of management
The team is open to new ideas
There is periodic self-assessment
There is shared leadership of the team
The team is a relatively small size
There is recognition of team member accomplishments
There are sufficient resources to support the team work
Effective Team-Building Takes Time
 There must be
frequent and
prolonged contact
 Team members come
together around a
specific goal or project
 Effective teams go
through four stages of
team development
What are the Four Stages of Team
 Forming
 Storming
 Norming
 Performing
 Every effective team
goes through these
life cycle stages
 Team members are
introduced and begin
getting to know each
 Goals and tasks are
 Generally polite
behavior among
 Norms are not
 Members are sizing
each other up and may
feel more comfortable
and voice their views
 Members may compete
for team roles
 May argue about goals
or how they should be
 May choose sides
against other members
 Once issues are
resolved, agreement
occurs around team
norms and
 Trust and common
interests are
 Roles and objectives
are clarified and
 Members make
contributions and are
motivated by results
 Leadership is shared
according to members’
knowledge and skills
 Norms and culture are
well understood
 Tasks get accomplished
effectively and efficiently
 Thiagarajan, S. and Parker, G. (1999). Teamwork and Teamplay. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
 Dean, P., LaVallee, R., & McLaughlin, C. (1999). Teams at the core of
continuous learning in McLaughlin, & Kaluzny, A. (eds.) Continuous Quality
Improvement in Health Care: Theory, Implementation, and Applications, 147
– 168.