Christian Magallon, Fhaiza Raza, Carla N. Saldana, and Rahul Ragu WRITING 101, University of California, Merced Introduction Our main focus in this study is: bias in the workplace concerning leadership, power, and perception. By Definition: Bias Leadership Power Perception Fact or Fiction Men & Women are Equal? In 2006 men held 98% of the CEO positions in large corporations with only 2% women CEOs (Eli, 2006). Methodology Our research was obtained through many searches on the University of California, Merced’s library data base. Over 278 studies preceded using key descriptive words: women, power, perceptions, gender bias, sexual discrimination and leadership. Leadership & Power Characteristics more male oriented (Koch, Loft, and Kruse, 2005). Men perceive appropriate characteristics to male oriented (Brenner , Tomkiewicz and Schein, 1989). Employers prefer masculine gender characteristics to feminine characteristics (Goktepe & Craig, 1989). Leadership & Power contd. Idea of an accepted gender bias This lack of stimuli results in a reduction in chances of women to take on a leadership role (Carbonell & Castro, 2008). Intimidation and feeling of doubt or inadequacy Leadership & Power contd. Occupational Climate (Katz, 1987). Applied pressures People follow trends Perceptions Top down (Trentham, & Larwood 1998) Manager’s qualities (Prime, Jonsen,Carter, & Maznevski 2008) Management ratings (Shore 1992) Perceptions contd. Gender role (Wolf, & Flingstein 2009) Gender qualities (Johanson 2008) Past/future measures (Tougas, & Beaton 1993) Best Perceived Candidate (Haslam & Ryan, 2008) Conclusion Despite the belief that men and women are equal, statistics and research show otherwise. Shows that biases contribute to perceptions of leadership, and power that keep men and women from reaching equality. The extensive data collection through research are FACTS not FICTION. However, results of studies and interpretation are subject to biases. Limitations Biased interpretations of results of supporting research articles. Biased interpretations of results of supporting research articles. False belief in glass ceiling hypothesis. Women who are surveyed will give socially acceptable answers. Organizations may not want to be studied. Future Studies & Implications Studies today focus only on negative stereotypes (Hoyt & Blalscovich, 2007). New research should include: early intervention, mentoring, programs to increase early exposure and support for effected individuals Leadership development Improving the situation at the lower levels of hierarchies References Adler, M. A. (1994). Male-Female power differences at work: A comparison of supervisor and policymakers. Sociological Inquiry, 64(1), 37-55. Avolio, B. J., Mhatre, K., Norman, S. M., & Lester, P. (2009). The moderating effect of gender on leadership intervention impact: An exploratory review. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 325-341. 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