Document 390110

Mobile Computing
(discussion points):
Security issues
Funding and Finance
Mobile Broadband
Processing power
Issues with printing
Compatibility (redesigning
interfaces/web pages)
Mobile operating systems
Management issues
Nano technology
Battery life
Software compatibility
Storage space
Social implications
Legal implications
Environment implications
You need to be able to discuss how
ICT has changed the way
organisations are run. You need to
be able to use examples and discuss
what future developments mean for
Discussion points for questions based
around the developments:
Mobile computing
Difficulty in future proofing
Cost implications
More complex tasks can be carried out
Software and hardware compatibility
Security issues
Job Security
Green Issues
Disaster recovery
Access (does everyone have it?)
Portability of devices
Increased globalisation
More efficient/productive
Expert Systems and AI
Past Paper Questions:
“ICT has developed rapidly over the last 20 years. Discuss the impact of
developments in ICT on the way organisations are run in 21st century”
“The rapid increase in the speed of broadband communications has changed the
way in which we live our lives and do business. Discuss the impact of the increase in
the speed of communication on business and society
“For most business applications mobile computing is a dream not a reality” Discuss
this statement
responsible for decision making and long-term planning and as such the information required would be at a
summary level of detail; their information needs would include details of: organisation and rival company
performance, accounting and financial information, technological developments with their potential effects
on the organisation, and the impact or forecast of any decisions made at strategic level.
The majority of this information will be supplied by a management information system (MIS)
Consists of middle management who are, for example in charge of one particular department or area of a
business. Obviously they have an input into decision making & planning and they will need their
information in sufficient detail to complete their tactical role. This will include detailed requirements of
senior management, the department resources allocated and associated budgetary provision, summary
reports on department and subordinate staff performance and, finally, reports on the availability of
products and services needed by the operation staff.
are most likely to have little impact on decision making as they are mainly responsible for the day-today planning and running of the production side of the business. To operate effectively they need
very detailed instructions from the tactical management regarding the operational requirements for
the organisation. They also need information about the day-to-day tasks that need to be carried
out, such as what needs to be produced, dispatched and ordered on a daily basis. In some cases
they will be responsible for their own performance and so will need data to analyse their
Back Office System
Legacy systems are
computer systems or
application programs which
continue to be used even
though more modern versions
exist; this is often due to the
high cost of replacement of
the system.
Back office systems are in
place to take care of the
administration processes of
a business. A typical back
office system is an
automated set of processes
run by a software
application on the company
computer network, for
example, an accounting
package which will: Record
sales transactions
Processing System
Batch processing
Legacy System
A Transaction Processing
System, monitors
transactions; the normal
series of events for a
transaction is that data is
collected and entered into
the system, where processing
takes places and the
resultant information is
Batch processing is
execution of a series of
programs on a computer
without human interaction,
such as the calculation of
Electricity Bills.
By way of contrast online
or interactive programs
which prompt the user for
E-Commerce System
E-commerce consists of the
buying and selling of
products or services using
the internet and the volume
of e-commerce or online
trading has grown amazingly
with the popularity of the
An online system is
basically a web-based
storefront where your
customers can browse and
purchase products.
An electronic document
management system
(EDMS) is a computer
system which is used to track
and store electronic
documents and/or images of
paper documents
You need to
be aware of
the different
type s of ICT
You need to
be aware of
the different
type s of ICT
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Management information systems are used by
managers at all levels of an organisation to assist
them in carrying out their responsibilities by:
monitoring performance, making decisions and
controlling company activities. Management
Information System (MIS) is a common term for
the computer systems in an organisation that
supply information about its business operation;
data for this process is obtained from internal and
external sources and the resultant information is
output in an suitable form for the use of business
MIS in school = SIMS
Data Processing Systems
Information Systems
Management Information
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Decision Support Systems
(DSS) are, as the name
suggests, an information system
that supports business and
organisational decision-making
activities. The main characteristic
of a DSS that it is an interactive
system intended to help decision
makers compile useful information
from raw internal and external
data, and to model ‘what if’
situations to predict the outcome
from a particular decision.
Carry out repetitive low level tasks on a day
to day basis. E.g. an electronic point of sale
display system (EPOS)
Summarise data for middle managers to
allow them to make medium term decisions
Help Senior management to make long term
An ICT strategy sets out a long terms vision for an organisation on
how they will make best use of the ICT available to them.
Factors influencing an ICT Strategy:
 Business goals
 Available finance
 Legacy systems
 Geography of clients
 Business fulfilment
 External factors: compliance with external
organisations and relevant legislation
 Emerging Technologies
Eventually technology
becomes obsolete and
needs to be replaced.
The life span is short
An organisation that
acquires cutting-edge
technology may gain an
advantage over its
competitors. Buying it
at an early stage will be
more expensive. It may
make more sense to buy
it at the maturity stage
as costs come down and
more support will be
available, with bugs
A large organisation is likely to have a
CIO as a member of the company's
board at strategic level.
They are in charge of the ICT
resources and information services
They make all t he strategic ICT
related decisions
Chief Information Officers (CIO)
job involves:
Being responsible for the
technological direction of the
Responsible for ICT budgets
and projects
Making decisions regarding
staff training
Decisions about purchase of
hardware and software
Overall ICT leadership
Information Security
An ICT policy are agreed ways of
doing something that are put into place
to protect the best interests of the
ICT systems are vulnerable to all sorts of threats both
internal and external, so security policies are put in place
to reduce these threats and ensure all staff are able to
make the best use of the ICT resources.
Its needed:
To prevent misuse from occurring
To enable any misuse that did occur to be detected and
To lay down procedures that should prevent misuse
To establish disciplinary procedures to be used when an
employee has been found committing an act of abuse
You need to know what would be covered in an ICT
security policy
An organisation needs to have an ICT training strategy to
ensure that each employee has the skills necessary to carry
out their job
ICT policies are put in place so that
staff adopt sensible and legal
procedures for the use of ICT within
their area of work.
Most Organisations have
policies covering the
Procuring means acquiring – an
ICT procurement policy is
about the ways in which ICT
hardware, software,
consumables and services are
There are many
variations to t he
SLC. These are
generally the main
Review and
You need to know
what takes place at
each of these stages
the Solution
System Life Cycle
2. Feasibility
3. Analysis
4. Design
7. Installation
Conversion 8. Review and
5. Constructing
the Solution
how the new
This study
system will be
6. Testing
This is the
looks at the
Hardware is
existing and
Checking that installed, staff Once the new
Breaking down
1. Preliminary
the system is
the system
are trained and system is in full
the problems
produced by
into smaller
files are
operation it is
Considers five
carrying out
converted to
monitored to
development of
tests and
the new
These include
it meets
programs or
T - Technical
the originals
This is a brief
to the
test plans.
E - Economic
of software
study to look at
Clear time
Changes that
whether or not
L - legal
direct, parallel,
scales are
need to me
Hardware is
a new system is
made are know
O - Operational
See Testing
also installed.
prevent the
Work must be
S - Schedule
project from
monitored to
From the
over-running. A
ensure time
findings a a set
schedule is
Sheet for
scales are
of deliverables
usually put
more info
is agreed with
together at
the users
this stage
Involves finding
out about the
current system
of the users
Deliverables: Are a set of items promised under contract. Agree the content if the new system and prevents arguments later.
Questionnaires are a valuable
method of information collection,
where the opinion of many people
is required for a range of set
questions. The analysis of
questionnaires is straightforward
where the answers are multichoice or predefined, but seldom
give the depth of information that
can be obtained form an openended interview.
Interviews are a useful method and they can be
either structured (where the questions have been
determined in advance) or open-ended (where new
questions are decided on based on the response to
previous questions). A method of recording
answers is needed, such as tape recording so that
the final results can be input for analysis by an audio
typist. It is possible that several interviews will take
place across a range of staff, including users and
senior managers.
Observation of the use of the
current system can yield a lot
of information about its good
and bad points; this is an ideal
method to get the systems
analyst up to speed on
current system performance.
Inspection of Documentation is an
essential part of the process as user
manuals and procedures help the
systems analyst discover the intended
way the existing system operates and
may highlight any inadequacies in it.
Show the
movement of data
through the whole
Data Store
Data Flow
Drawing a Context (level 0)DFD
Step 1: Read the Scenario
Step 2: Draw your system as a single process box in the
Step 3: Identify your external entities
Step 4: Add you data flows in.
Drawing a Level 1 DFD
Step 1: You need to break down your single process
box into the different tasks that it carries out and place
them in separate process boxes.
Step 2: Identify which data stores your will need
Step 3: Add you data flows to and from the data stores
A data store should have at least one arrow going into it and one
leading from it as data is being written to it and read from it.
Data cannot flow directly from a data store to an external entity
Entity: An object of the real world
that is relevant to an ICT system,
e.g. a place, object, person,
customer, invoice, product, course,
Points to Remember
A relationship is the way in which entities in a
system are related to one another.
Use capitals for
entity names
Entity names should
be singular. E.g.
Crows feet on the
many side
Many - Many
If you have a many to many relationship
these cannot be implemented as there will
be repeating groups in the entities. A
database cannot be implemented. You need
to introduce a link entity which lies in
between the 2 original entities.
Label the
m:m would be
re-drawn as:
• Each
part of the
system is
Module Testing
Functional testing
• Sometimes called
black “box testing”
– in which it is
checked that the
outputs are
correct for the
given inputs
• Sometimes called
“alpha testing” – in
which the
developers test the
system as a whole
to make sure it
meets the
System Testing
User Testing
• Sometimes called
“beta testing” – in
which potential
users test the new
software on their
own computers
using real data.
in which
software is
tested in its
Why is Beta Testing Used?
Is used often to test a new piece of commercial software before it goes on sale. The company
provides the software free of charge to selected users outside the company who will test the
new software. Beta tester gets to use the software for free and it may be rewarding to be
involved in this process
Scalability Testing
Ensures that the
software can be used
with a variety of
hardware specifications
and operating systems.
For example browser
software that can work
in both vista and XP.
Test that the system will
still perform as required
even if the system has to
deal with an increased
workload such as
increased users, large
number of transactions
and files
Simulated Environments
Volume testing
Means producing a
scaled-down, simple
version of the software
which is used to show
how the new system will
work. The prototype
can be constructed and
tested in a short time
Test that the new
system works with large
volumes of data. After a
long period of use, data
files may become very
large. Volume testing
tests that this does not
affect the performance
of the software
Multiplatform testing
Test Harness
is a collection of software
and test data configures
to perform specific tests
in a module of a program
by running it under
different conditions,
comparing actual outputs
to expected outputs
With various inputs and
outputs can be used to
test software in as
realistic environment as
It is necessary to carefully plan the
changeover from the old to the new
system and it is first necessary to ensure
that users are adequately trained, user
support is in place and all files needed for
the process have been converted.
4 Methods: Direct, Parallel, Phased, Pilot
In Direct conversion the original system is switched
off and the new system started on the same day at a
pre-arranged time.
Although this changeover takes the least time, it is
the most risky approach as it is difficult to revert to
using the old system again if there are problems;
consequently direct conversion is not recommended
where continuity of service is critical.
Using a Phased conversion is less risky than a direct
conversion as there is a period when both systems are
operating, which allows for an easy reversion to the
original system where problems take place. This
strategy has additional costs, as both systems have
to be operated and synchronised to ensure they are
both up to date. The amount of overlap of the two
systems makes the conversion a moderate risk.
switched off
New System
goes live
Original System
New System comes
It is necessary to carefully plan the
changeover from the old to the new
system and it is first necessary to ensure
that users are adequately trained, user
support is in place and all files needed for
the process have been converted.
4 Methods: Direct, Parallel, Phased, Pilot
Original System
This is where a suitable part of the organisation is
chosen to conduct a pilot study (often called a
prototype) and to transfer to the new system. The old
system continues to be used throughout the rest of the
organisation. As the results of the initial pilot study are
analysed more pilot studies take place throughout the
organisation. Although this is a time-consuming process
the risks of failure are minimised and problems or bugs
within the new system are fixed as they occur and prior
to extending the use of the new system.
Pilot Conversion in one
part of company
Pilot Conversion in
other part of
Original System
In this case the new system is run in parallel with the
old system. The outputs from both systems are
compared and the old system operated until such time
as the new system is deemed to be reliable. In this
case the risk of failure is the lowest of the
changeover methods, but it is also the most expensive
as both systems have to be operated which requires
additional labour and computer resources.
New System comes online in
parallel with old system
You need to be aware of the training
and support methods that are available.
You need to be able to discuss which
methods would be most suitable and
Training may be needed when a new
system is introduced, to learn more
advance features, changes in
functionality, procedures and
Support Methods:
Existing user base.
User support from
software producers.
Support articles (e.g.,
computer magazines,
books, FAQ, etc.).
On-screen help.
Specialist bulletin
Internal and External Users
Users who work for the organisation
that owns the ICT system are called
internal users.
Any users who may not work in the
organisation that owns the ICT
system are called external users.
Different levels of staff will need
different training. E.g. managers will
need to learn how to use the MIS.
Operational staff may need to know
how to use the EPOS system
Training Methods
classroom training.
One-to-one training.
Cascade training.
training (CBT).
Distance learning.
Use of manuals,
books, software
One to One
On The Job
Instructor Based
(can be external or
internal courses)
Manuals/ Books/ User
Teaching specific
skills and needs
Large number of
users. Low level of
risk with task involved
Suit specific needs
External courses can
avoid distractions in
the workplace
learn on a flexible
Use for problem
solving when needed
Develop skills further
in free time
 May only run at
fixed times and have
to travel to them
External courses may
be expensive
 Can feel isolated, no
Suitable For
A large number of
Small number of
users. Managers
Practical tasks,
smaller number of
 Work at own pace
 When and where
they want
Cheaper than
sending staff on
Assessment available
 Effective as lots of
time can be spent on
staffs specific needs
 Easy to learn doing
practical tasks
 Do not have to
Ask for training when
 People may not
respond well as they
like to ask for help
when stuck
 No evidence of how
well they responded
to course
Task Based
Operational level
staff carrying out
practical tasks
 Expensive
Skills Based
Analytical skills to
extract data that
can be used across
systems. Managers
 Time consuming to
train large number of
3 Methods: Perfective, Adaptive and Corrective
 Perfective maintenance
implies that while the system
runs satisfactorily, there is
still room for improvement
and features can be added
Adaptive maintenance
All systems will need to adapt
to changing needs within a
Corrective maintenance
Problems frequently surface
after a system has been in
use for a short time, however
thoroughly it was tested
Once the system has been delivered
and installed, it is measured against the
system requirements documentation
and its performance monitored.
Inevitably some aspects of
performance will be unsatisfactory and
maintenance will be required for
reasons including:
Bugs may be identified that were not
spotted during the testing phase
Users may find aspects of the
software unacceptable after using the
system for a while
More efficient ways of operating the
system may be required
It may be necessary to integrate the
system with new software and
New legislation may be introduced
that requires system modification such
as tax changes implemented onto an
account package
Security issues may force changes to
be made to protect the system from
external threats
Management Involvement
Senior management must be involved throughout
the project. Managers need to understand
clearly what specific problem the solution is
aiming to solve. They need to have a knowledge
of ICT systems and be involved at the stages of
the system development
End User Involvement
End User Involvement is an important aspect in
developing ICT solutions, as the project can be
centred around getting the information that the
end user wants and needs. End user involvement
is also critical in establishing an interface design
that is straightforward to use and has high
usability. It has also been shown that there is an
increased acceptance of the developed product
if there is an early involvement of the users in the
project creation.
Effective ICT Team Work
An effective ICT team is a key factor in the
success of the project development process;
most projects are broken down into small tasks
and teamwork is essential to link the process
Inadequate Analysis
sufficient time and effort should be made available so that
appropriate research is carried out. End users should be involved
at the start of the project and the management must ensure that a
co-operative environment exists to ensure accurate and relevant
data gathering takes place
Unrealistic Project Plan
Every project has a plan that lays down which team member carried
out which task. Clear timescales and agreed deliverables need to be
established. Thought needs to be given to give enough time and
realistic planning. If not then the project may run over time and over
Insufficient Monitoring
The project leader needs to monitor the progress of the project.
Unexpected problems may arise or task needs to be done that were
overlooked. The project manager will need to adjust the schedule
and maybe change around the team members and allocation of tasks.
Lack of Standards
A lack of professional standards can lead to missed deadlines and a
system that does not function as was intended. All stages of the
project need to be carried out using agreed methods that everyone
works to.
Loss of Control
Many projects fall behind schedule when the team leader loses
control of the project plan. This can happen if agreed deliverables
are not produced or if when a mile stone is reached management are
not satisfied and do not approve moving on to the next stage.
A Risk Analysis Involves
Identifying each element of an information system
Placing a value on that element
Identifying any threats to that element
Assessing the likelihood(or probability) of such
threats occurring
The organisation should then take measures to protect
data that are appropriate to the risk
The set of procedures
that are in place to
restore data that is
The processes that
have to be in place to
allow recovery to
Contents of a Contingency Plan:
•Alternative computer hardware
•Backup procedures
•Recovery Procedures
•Staff Responsibilities
•An Alternative working location
Know the potential threats to a system
Understand the considerations in a backup
Know what is a risk analysis is
Know the contents of a recovery and
contingency plan
Threats to a System:
Hardware Failure
Software Failure
Telecommunications Failure
Computer Crime and Abuse
Invalid Data
System Design Failure
Disk Mirroring: Identical data is stored on two different
disks. Whenever data is stored to disk, it is stored on both.
If the main disk fails, identical data is available on the
second disk. The mirror disk does not have to be located
in the same place as the first.
Recovery Options:
In House Provision
Subscription Service (cold /hot start)
Reciprocal Agreements
Backup and Recovery Procedures need to be
tested and roles need to be clearly identified
• A strategy will cover the following
Aspects of a Backup Plan
What Data
is to be
Backed Up:
Data files,
operating system
files, application
When Will
Backup be
Systems that run
all the time need to
be backed up
while they are
running. Systems
that run during the
day need to be
backed up at night
What Type
of backup
should be
Full Backup,
What Media
will be used
for the
Backup Up:
Need to
consider speed
and volume
Where the
backup will
be kept:
There is no point
storing the
backup in the
same place as the
Who is
for the
backup and
testing the
frequent will
the backup
take place:
Every day,
weekly etc. Need
to consider how
valuable the data
Small scale systems can use relatively simple backup procedures such as copying nightly transactions
onto an external hard disk. Large scale systems such as stock exchange or banks need an extensive and
complex backup and recovery strategy
You need to be aware of the various
laws and the impact they have on
Implications of the Laws on organisations:
What are the Laws I
need to know?
Data protection act
(1984 & 1998)
Computer Misuse
Copyright Designs
and Patent Act (1988)
Health and Safety at
Work Act (1974)
Freedom of
information act (2000)
Copyright Design & Patents Act:
Organisations have to check there is not unauthorised software on their
They have to ensure that employees are not downloading copyright material
They have to make sure they have the correct number of licences and not running
software on more machines
Health & Safety Act
Appointing a safety officer
Regularly inspecting workstations against health and safety criteria
Carry out regular staff training regarding health and safety with regard to
computer use
Ensuring that all software is appropriately designed
Prodding memos, leaflets or posters to advise on good health and safety practice
Establish procedures that ensure faulty equipment is replaced in a timely manner
Computer Misuse Act
Carry out audits
Ban on downloading any programs
Ban on using someone else username and password
Use software and hardware measures
Data Protection Act
Appointing a Data Protection Officer to monitor systems
Establishing procedures to follow up possible breaches
Establishing security methods such as firewalls, the use of passwords and data
Including a clause in the code of practice stating that employees should not build
up their own databases of personal data
Using a variety of methods to educate staff of their responsibilities in keeping
data private. Establishing and circulating disciplinary measures
Outsourcing is when a business contracts another firm to carry out a
particular task for it. For example, a law firm may ask an IT
company to manage its network facilities so that the lawyers can
concentrate on legal matters and do not have o worry about
repairing machines or installing software.
Some companies may choose to employ a team to take care of their
systems where others prefer to outsource. The decision will be
based on which is the most affordable and cost-effective option.
 Solves the problem of trying to recruit and retain suitable ICT
 Allows organisations to concentrate on core business
 The organisation does not have to worry about legislation
applying to that part of the business
 The company may not have to purchase expensive hardware
and software
 Outsourcing can mean existing ICT staff may no longer be
 The quality of outsourced work may not be as high as work
done in house
 The organisation has not direct control over staff employed by
the outsourcing company
 It could compromise the privacy and security of data held
Offshoring means moving certain business
processes performed in a company, in one
country to the same company or a
completely different company in a
different country
Bulk printing
Specialist companies provide a service to carry out
bulk printing for example payroll and billing systems
Similar to renting.
You pay a fixed amount per month.
You never own the goods being leased.
At the end of the period you can either rent at much
lower rental or start up a new lease with more up-todate hardware and software
Contracting/Buying Outright:
When you purchase goods or services.
For hardware/software when the contract ends the
goods belong to you.
Managing Internal resources
All organisations rely on managing their
resources as efficiently as possible.
Involves managing the following:
Facilities and Power