The Inventors Sex Toys, Fertility & Fertility Control Maria Ultreras Hector Ortiz

The Inventors
Sex Toys, Fertility & Fertility Control
Maria Ultreras
Hector Ortiz
Christina Masso
Nancy Shahmoradian
Monique Rodriguez
Dominique Deville
History of Sex Toys
“Men, as often observed, can find pleasure or at least release in the
briefest encounter. Women on the other hand, take longer, needing more
subtle stimulation from a talented and caring lover”(Stanley 208).
Maria Ultreras
Early Stories
 Coaxer and Tribal Mother
 Polynesian Goddess Hina
Maria Ultreras
Art
 25,000 BC: Stone carvings depicting women with greatly oversized
breasts, hips, buttocks and vaginal lips.
 Fertility goddess
 May mean something else
 2,500 BC: Egyptian art shows female’s dancing nearly
naked with dildo’s held over their heads.
 Agricultural fertility ritual
 May mean something else
Maria Ultreras
Lubricants
 Around 300 BC: The use of olive oil as sexual
accessory. It was previously used as means of
contraception.
Then
Now
 In 1980 KY Jelly was introduced as sexual lubricant but
was originally used for comfort during pelvic exams.
Maria Ultreras
Olisbos
 Around 500 BC: There are many stories depicting the
use of dildos whether for a ritual or for self pleasure.
 Cultures with powerful Goddess
 Salish Indian myth
 3rd century B.C. in Greek
 Middle ages in Europe
 European nuns of the 16th century
Maria Ultreras
Early Inventions
 Penis Extenders: Around 300 A.D.
 Ben Wa Balls: Around 500 A.D.
 Swings
Maria Ultreras
Technology & Sex Toys
 Around 1200 Proto-cock ring
 Around 1600 Cock ring and clitoral stimulator
 1869 First Vibrator
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1882 Down sized
1899 First advertisement of home electric vibrator
1921 First advertisement aimed at men
Late 1920’s vibrators appear more as porn than as massagers
1930 vibrator advertisement seized
Around 1965 It came back
Late 1990s sex toys outlawed
Maria Ultreras
Technology & Sex Toys
 1890’s motion picture
 1907 penis stiffener
 1948 Polaroid-Land camera
 Forgotten in 1970 with home video cameras
 1953 Playboy magazine
Maria Ultreras
Maria Ultreras
Fertility Promoters
 Three traditional plants:
 Pomegranate
 Date Palm
 Moghat
Maria Ultreras
Menstruation
If men menstruated, there would be a National Institute of Menstruation
within a year.-Dr. Penny Wise Budoff, 1980
Hector Ortiz
Menstruation
 Women menstruate monthly during their reproductive
years.
 In some cases women may not menstruate
 Aside form some exceptions, every woman bleeds, but
does not die.
 Roughly once a month for 30 years
 Women have devised techniques for dealing with
menstrual flow
Hector Ortiz
Purpose of Menstrual Blood
 Religious
The words Rite, Ritual and Sabbath derive from
words for the menstrual period.
 Hunting and trapping
Blood was used to attract or repel
 Horticulture
Judy Grahn, suggests that the first clothing may
have been a menstrual belt and fiber pad.
Hector Ortiz
Early Inventions
 Native Americans used tampons of soft
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moss
Mediterranean women used small sponges
Women of Alor used pads made of dry
porous banana bark
Japanese women used paper tampons (812 per day) held in place by a kama
(bandage)
Indonesian women used vegetable fibers
Roman matrons used cloth bandages or
soft wool tampons
Egyptian women used papyrus.
Hector Ortiz
Men’s Appropriation of Power
 Attempts of male appropriation of
women's power
 Australia, New Guinea,
The Philippines and Africa
 Initiation rights
 Takeover
 Babies were believed to be made of an
accumulation of menstrual blood.
 Later was believed that babies were
produced by an accumulation of semen
during pregnancy.
Hector Ortiz
th
19
th
20
&
Century
Contributions
 1890s British menstrual napkins
were made of the same cloth that
a baby diaper was mad of.
 From 1883 to 1894
 LWP(list of women patentees)
shows that 16 women patented
menstrual devices
 1896 Johnson and Johnson
developed a “sanitary napkin” but
failed to sell because it could not
be advertised.
 During the 20th century pads,
tampons and cervical caps all
prevailed.
Hector Ortiz
Pads
 French army nurses
 Cellulose wadding used for surgical dressing
 Adapted wadding into menstrual absorbers
 Kimberly-Clark, producer of the surgical
wadding, exploited the nurses invention, and
Kotex was established.
 Marketed in 1920
 Improvements to the pad
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Anna Brand
Landy and Seidler
Carolyn R. Mobley
Eleanor J. Fendler
Pamela F. Baum
Billie J. Matthews
Barbara Oakley
 These women contributed to how we know
Hector Ortiz
the pad today
Tampons
 Tampons were preferred by active women.
 Internal menstrual absorbers allowed free
physical movement
 1933 tampax established
 Women of the 60s and 70s used natural
menstrual sponges.
 Modern women have adapted to cellulose
sponges
 Alice Bay Laurel
 In the mid 70s artists sponges
 Improvements to tampons
 Dr. Judith Esser-Mittog
 o.b. tampon
 Virginia A. Olsen
 Virginia A. Corrigan
 Billie J. Matthews
Hector Ortiz
Menstrual Caps
 Menstrual caps began as old diaphragms
to catch the menstrual blood instead of
absorbing it.
 Leona Chambers
 Dancer in NYC
 Developed the Tassette with her brother
 Barbara Waldron
 Invented the Tassaway, disposable version
of the Tassette
 The tassaway co. was an important player
Hector Ortiz
in ending the radio and television ban on
advertising of sanitary-protection products.
 Nov 1972
Menstrual
Extraction
 Women of the self help clinic in 1971
 Used plastic cannula and plastic syringes
to suction out the contents of the uterus.
 Primitive women used herbal medicine to
achieve a similar effect
 Squawroot was used to speed up and
ease menstruation
 As of 1977 menstrual extraction has
remained experimental
 Women who are associated with this
method
 Carol Downer
 Invented and patented the Del-Em
 Lorraine Rothman
 Added a by-pass bottle and a valve-andtubbing system
 To prevent air-embolism
Hector Ortiz
Remedies
 Herbs, teas, massage techniques and
pressure points that every culture uses as a
remedies for any discomfort to
menstruation, or lack of.
 Herbs have been used to cure
 Pre-menstrual tension
 Dysmenorrhea (painful, excessive menses)
 Dr. Katharina Dalton
 1948. Treated pre menstrual syndrome with
progesterone
 Dr. Michelle Harrison
 Dietary treatment
 Hypoglycemia diet
 Dr. Marcia Storch
 Low salt intake as well as vitamin b-6 helps
prevent headaches in 80% of her cases.
Hector Ortiz
Pregnancy and
Childbirth
Monique Rodriguez
Pregnancy Care
Herbs used to prevent morning sickness:
•Lavender
•Peppermint
•Spearmint
Herbs used to prevent miscarraiges:
•Peach Leaves
•Blue Cohosh
•Star Grass
•Star Grass
Herbs used to strengthen pregnancy, prevent complications:
•Motherwort
Monique Rodriguez
Birth Care
Although birth was considered painful by primitive women,
they gave birth with ease. Two likely reasons for easy
childbirth in earlier cultures:
• Mother's high level of physical activity right up to the
beginning of labor
•Squatting or semi-upright position assumed for birth
Monique Rodriguez
Physical Aids
The Role of women's massage technology has not been given the
attention it deserves. Massaging is an important technique used to
prevent both perinea tearing and the episiotomy.
Heat
Heat was used to help relax the muscles during labor. For example,
Modoc Indian women gave the women large quantities of warm water, or
placed heated stones on her abdomen and beside her bed.
Monique Rodriguez
Mechanical Aids
Different tools were developed by women in order to make
the labor process easier.
•Birth Ropes
•Foot-rests
•Abdominal Bands
•Birth Stools and chairs
Monique Rodriguez
 Herbal aids used for difficult births
• Balsam Fir Bark
• Birth Root
• Black and Blue Cohosh
• Cotton Root
• Squaw Vine
Monique Rodriguez
Aftercare: postpartum remedies and
technology
Care of the newborn
Most groups have some sort sort of cleansing or washing procedure for newborns.
Many groups use cold baths. Cold baths could be seen as an attempt to see if the
infant was strong enough to survive. It is also believed to strengthen breathing and
fully inflate the lungs.
•Alorese midwives clean newborns with thick juice squeezed from banana bark
•Hopi mothers sprinkled the baby after its bath with volcanic ashes
•Tiwi babies were rubbed with milk and then with charcoal
Monique Rodriguez
 Recovery care of the mother
 Effective techniques for getting back
into shape:
• Massage
• Exercise and bathing
• Abdominal binding
• Herbal treatments
• Special diet
• Heat treatments
Monique Rodriguez
Nursing Technologies
Used to stimulateand increase flow of milk :
•Castor Bean Leaves
•Wild Ginger Fennel
•Barley Water
•Saw Palmetto Berries
•Maple Bark
•Cottonseed Tea
•Alfalfa
•Baneberry Leaves
•Tall Blue Lettuce
•Skeleton Weed
•Atole
Used to decrease milk supply:
•Red Sage or Wild Alum
Root rubbed on the
breast
•Teas of Cinnamon
•Parsley Leaf
•Walnut Leaf
•Huckleberry Leaf
Monique Rodriguez
Poultices for caked or painful
breasts:
•Elderberry Flowers
•Grated Raw Potato
•Star Root
•Poke Root
•Alder Leaves
Monique Rodriguez
Contributions by Women
•Louyse Bourgeois- First to number and systemize the various birth
positions
•Angelique du Coudry-Inventor of the anatomical mannikin used to teaching
gynecology and obstetrics
•Marie-AnneVictorineBoivin- Invented a new pelvimeter and vaginal
speculum. She was also one of the first to use a stethoscope to listen to the
fetal heart.
•Dr. Roberta A. Ballard- Contributed greatly to the treatment of
respiratoy distress caused by immature lung development in premature babies
and created the firsts in-hospital alternative birth center and intensive-care
nursery.
Monique Rodriguez
18th Century Birth
Control
Ways in which women protected themselves from
pregnancies
Dominique D
Contraceptive Methods
Cultural
Mechanical
Herbal & Chemical
Dominique D
Cultural Method
 Postpartum coarse- making sexual intercourse taboo
until child is weaned.
 Breastfeeding- Nursed children (also serving as wetnurse) well into toddlerhood to space out pregnancies.
 Ridicule- women would be shamed for being pregnant
too soon.
 Celibacy- to not have sex temporarily or permanently.
Dominique D
Mechanical Method
 Barriers- grass, moss, tampons, and plant-fiber to block
menstrual flow.
 The Sponge- soaked in sperm-killing ingredients such as
lemon. Eventually adding a ribbon
for easy removal.
 Cervical Cap
 Fits over cervix and
blocks sperm.
Dominique D
Cont.
 Deep massage- tipping uterus backwards
 Chastity belt- rope signify to males not interest.
 Douches- is a method where women direct their own
urine to flush out vagina
 Acupuncture- known to ancient Chinese, a point 2
inches under navel.
 Condoms- Mary Ann Leeper
who headed the team.
Dominique D
Herbal & Chemical Method
 Pessaries- Substances used include elephant or
crocodile dung, leaves, and seaweed.
 Oral Contraceptives- A potion of some sort achieving
anti-fertility.
 Musquash/beavers poison swallowed for four days
and the women was sterile for life.
Dominique D
Force Abortion
Women would consume Tansy and/or Pennroyal to bring forth an
abortion. Both are very beautiful flowers but poisonous to all women.
Dominique D
Gerald and Selmaree Oster
Developed
the Body Aware system of natural
birth control, with simple saliva and
urine tests to detect ovulation.
Dominique D
19th Century Birth
Control
Methods of birth control and ways in which they terminated a
pregnancy
Dominique D
Anti- Fertility Technology
 Passaries invented by Emiline T Bringham 1867, Alice
O. McCord (automatic stem) 1887, and Eliza Kirwin
1892.
 Diaphragm helped develop the vulcanized rubber
diaphragm. This device have been called the greatest
advance in birth control since the condom.
Dominique D
Pregnancy Prevention
Abortifacients
Substance taken orally to end pregnancy.
Ex: Turpentine, castor oil, and rusty water.
Coitus Interruptus
The process in which a male will remove his
penis from vagina before ejaculation.
Pessaries
An object and solutions were used to block the
cervix. It created a gum like substance that
prevented sperm from entering.
Condom
Made of a variety of different materials including
rubber and leather.
Infanticide
Killing a baby after birth
Dominique D
Rituals and/or Myths
 Holding the breath and drawing the body back during sex so
the sperm could not penetrate the mouth of the uterus.
 Dislodging the sperm by jumping backwards seven times after
intercourse
 Sitting down on bent knees in order to provoke sneezing
 Olive oil, pomegranate pulp, ginger, and tobacco juice
smeared around the vagina was a well-known spermicide.
 Urine and animal parts and poisons such as mercury, arsenic,
and strychnine were also used as oral contraceptives.
Dominique D
20th Century Anti-Fertility
Technology
Nancy Shahmoradian
20th century anti-fertility technology:
 IUD: It is a small "T-shaped" device inserted into the uterus to
prevent pregnancy. It was first used in 1908. It is safe, effective and
long lasting and must be inserted by a health care provider. The IUD
affects sperm movement and survival in the uterus (womb) so that
they cannot reach the egg to fertilize it. The IUD also changes the
lining of the womb so that it is not suitable for pregnancy and
prevents an egg - if it does become fertilized - from developing. It is
98% effective.
Nancy Shahmoradian
Natural or cyclical methods:
 For some people hormonal methods are always a source of
uneasiness. For those the less intrusive methods can become the
better.
 Louise Lacey is a California women who took pills for many years,
but forced to stop after developing some medical problems. So,
she decided to do some studies including the moon’s effects on
human sexual and menstrual cycles. She recognized the
importance of Edmund Dewan’s work on artificial light for
regulating menstrual period. The only difference was Dewan’s goal
was fertility, but Lacy’s was anti-fertility. So, she devised a system
of using artificial light to regularize ovulation and thus avoid it for
intercourse.
Nancy Shahmoradian
Mental/psychological methods:
 It is when women dream-control over both conception
and birth. Barbara Brown suggests that human brain
can exert control over the body and its functions. She
thinks women should theoretically be able t close her
cervix against sperm until spermicidal douche could be
administered, or keep a fertilized ovum from implanting.
She observed a rhythm of change in the skin’s
electrical potential that seems linked to the menstrual
cycle. This may lead to a natural and simplified method
for birth control.
Nancy Shahmoradian
Recent years researches:
 One of the more pressing research goals in the recent
years is a good male contraceptive. The Chinese
gossypol is used as one of the ingredient in one of the
most promising male contraceptives et developed.
Clinical tests on 4000 healthy men suggest that
gossypol may be more than 99% effective in
controlling male fertility. It takes about two months to
reach full effect and about three months for the sperm
count and viability tor return to normal. The side effects
seem to be less serious than those seen with the
women’s pill. Why not let the men take it?
Nancy Shahmoradian
Margaret Sanger and the Birth
Control Movement
Christina Masso
Margaret Sanger
 Margaret Sanger was born in Corning, New York, in 1879. Her
mother Ann Higgins died at age 50 after bearing 11 children, and
Sanger attributed her early death to the burden of too frequent
pregnancies.
 She had three children, 2 boys and one girl.
 She worked as a visiting nurse in the lower east side of New York
 She realized that unrestricted births were putting a crushing
economic and health burden on working class women.
 In 1914 Sanger began publishing a radical feminist monthly called
The Woman Rebel, which included appeals for the right to practice
birth control.
Christina Masso
 Sanger was under the Comstock Laws, which forbade the
dissemination of information about contraception.
 She jumped bail and spent a year in Europe and visited a birth
control clinic in Holland where they were being fitted with a new
type of diaphragm, and she later imported them into the United
States.
 She returned to the United States in 1915 to face charges against
her. The charges were dropped because of the public sympathy
for Sanger, because her only daughter died that year
 In October of 1916 Sanger opened the country’s first control clinic,
the Brownsville Clinic in Brooklyn, New York.
 The police closed it down after just 9 days of operation.
 Christina Masso
 In 1917 Sanger began publication of a monthly, the Birth
Control Review, and in 1921 she founded the groups she
considered “unfit.”
 Served as the president of the international Planned
Parenthood Federation from 1952-1959.
 She also arranged for funding for research in hormonebased contraceptives that paid off in 1960.
 She set an example of non-violent direct action.
Christina Masso
Condoms and the Barrier Method
 The male condom is a disposable sheath that is placed over the penis before
coitus.
 The Male Condoms come in a variety of types, sizes, and even flavors.
 It works simply by preventing semen from entering the vagina thus it is
described as a barrier method of contraception.
 Some condoms come pre-coated with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 which kills
sperm chemically.
 The amount of spermicide on coated condoms is probably not enough to be
effective in the event that the condom breaks, however the presence of the
spermicide shortens the shelf life of the condom and increases the cost.
Christina Masso
Condoms cont.
 Most condoms are made of latex
 Some are made of polyurethane plastic, and some of animal
intestinal tissue.
 Latex condoms are the cheapest
 They are an effective contraceptive and they also provides
substantial protection against transmission of STDs including HIV.
 Condoms should be used with a water based or silicone lubricants
only.
Christina Masso
Advantages of the Female
condom
 The female condom is the only contraceptive controlled by
the woman that offers substantial protection from STDs
including HIV.
 Its disease preventing action may be even better than that of
the male condom because it covers part of the vulva.
 It can be inserted ahead of time
 It does not require a man to maintain an erection during use.
Christina Masso
Disadvantages of the Female
Condom
 It reduces erotic sensation and generates nonerotic
noises
 The entire condom may be drawn out into the vagina
during coitus.
 Male and female condoms can not be used together
because one will be pulled out of place.
Christina Masso
 A diaphragm is a barrier placed over the cervix as a
contraceptive.
 Lea’s shield is a type of diaphragm with a one way valve.
 FemCap is a type of cervical cap that has a raised brim.
 Cervical Cap is a small rubber or plastic cap that adheres by
suction to the cervix, used as a contraceptive.
Christina Masso
Christina
Masso
The End
Maria Ultreras
Hector Ortiz
Christina Masso
Nancy Shahmoradian
Monique Rodriguez
Dominque Deville
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