Adaptations Adaptations for survival Adaptations for survival in deserts and the Arctic. Adaptations to cope with specific features of the environment. Extremophiles Observe adaptations of a range of organisms. Explain how organisms are adapted to survive in their habitat. To be able to identify special adaptive features of animals To appreciate how adaptations allow an animal to survive in hostile environments To recognise the adaptations of plants for different environments Living things adapt to their environment. Watch the video clip, and then try to fill in the table explaining how the creature is adapted to it’s environment. Anima l Adaptation How this helps them survive Look at the animals on the worksheet, for each one try to give where it lives and an example of how it is adapted for survival in its environment. Look at the animals on the worksheet, for each one try to give where it lives and an example of how it is adapted for survival in its environment. You need to be able to: Explain how animals are adapted for survival in arctic and desert environments in terms of: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Body size and surface area Thickness of insulating coat Amount of body fat Camouflage Explain how plants are adapted to survive in arid conditions Suggest how organisms are adapted to the conditions in which they live. Surviving in different environments. Read all information carefully Answer questions 3 - 9 Hibernation – animals build up a fat layer and sleep through the worst of the winter months. Migration – animals move off to warmer climes. Insulation – many animals grow thicker fur. Leaf shedding Food storing Describe and explain adaptations for survival in the Arctic. Describe and explain adaptations for survival in a desert. An adaptation is a feature that allows an organism to survive in the environment in which it lives. Examples Polar bears and Arctic foxes are adapted to survive in the Arctic A camel and the Fennec fox are adapted to live in hot arid (desert) conditions Small head and ears White fur Thick layer of fat Compact body shape Thick layer of fur Thin hair on top of body Fatty hump Nostrils which can close Two rows of eyelashes Long legs and neck No hair on underside of body Sandy colouring Little body fat A camel’s hump is a fat store. It can break down fat to release water. A camel can drink large amounts of water. Its mouth is tough so that it can eat thorny plants like cacti. Coarse wool on top of its body protects the camel from the sun. Short hair underneath the camel lets heat escape. Big flat feet stop it sinking into the sand. For each of the adaptations labelled on the polar bear and the camel Explain how each adaptation helps the animal survive in the conditions where it lives Adaptation polar bear White fur Survival Advantage Radiates less heat energy – prevent heat loss Adaptation Survival Advantage Fatty hump Metabolic source of water Nostrils which can close Close for protection during sandstorms Long legs and neck Increase surface area for heat loss Thin hair on top of body Allow heat loss Sandy colouring Camouflage from predators Two rows of eyelashes Prevent sand from entering the eyes No hair on underside of body Makes heat loss easier Little body fat Increase heat loss from skin capillaries Adaptation Survival Advantage A small head and ears Smaller surface area to reduce heat loss Compact body shape Smaller surface area to volume ratio to reduce heat loss Thick layer of fur Traps air, which is a good insulator Thick layer of fat Insulates against heat loss Acts as a food reserve during hibernation White fur Camouflage Reduce heat radiated from the body Fleshy green leaves Short stem Waxy, shiny outer covering to the leaves Long roots Leaves reduced to spines – to reduce water loss through stoma Swollen stem stores water Wide spread root systems to increase surface area for absorption. For each of the adaptations labelled on the house leek Explain how each adaptation helps plant survive conditions on a rocky outcrop. Adaptation Survival Advantage Adaptation Survival advantage ARCTIC FOX FENNEC FOX Adaptation to extremes encompasses all the special behaviours and physiologies that living things need to withstand the planet's harshest conditions and environments. Whether it's a lack of oxygen at altitude, the searing heat of deserts or the bitter cold of the polar regions, plants, animals and other organisms have evolved a multitude of coping strategies. Adaptations Watch the video clips Make notes on the adaptations shown by the animals or plant in the video clips The environments shown will include Altitude tolerant Chemical tolerant Cold tolerant Dry tolerant Fire tolerant Heat tolerant To draw labelled diagrams of a plant or animal, describing the adaptation and detailing the survival advantage of each adaptation. Define the term extremophile and be able to give general examples. Environmental extremes for small plants and animals on the Antarctic Peninsula Write out a list of environmental conditions you think that an organism living on the Antarctic peninsula Extreme cold in the winter Fairly mild summers (up to 45 °F), with rock and moss surface temperatures of up to 70 °F Very short growing season each year for the plants that provide food for small organisms Intense ultraviolet light due to the hole in the ozone layer High winds on small islands Extreme dryness Exposure to high acidity, due to immersion in penguin guano (waste) during summer breeding season Possible immersion in both salt and freshwater due to weather and tides in the summer Draw a labelled diagram of an animal or plant adapted to survive on the Antarctic peninsula. This organism can be real or fictitious Extremophiles are adapted to live in extreme environments. Extremophiles can be tolerant to High salt levels High temperatures High pressure As the conditions are extreme, there are very few other organisms to compete with. Extreme high temperatures can be found around hot springs or hydrothermal vents. Most organisms will die at temperatures about 40oC because proteins and enzymes in their bodies breakdown (denature). Bacteria that can survive in these places have enzymes that do not denature at high temperatures of greater than 60oC. Deep in the ocean, water pressure is great and there is no light. Bacteria are the producers in these communities and they make sugars using chemical energy released from the hydrothermal vents (chemosynthesis). Populations and competition Organisms require materials from their surroundings and from other organisms to survive. Plants compete for light, space, water and nutrients. Animals compete for food, mates and territory. List factors that affect the survival of organisms in their habitat. Give examples of resources that plants and animals compete for in a given habitat. Describe adaptations that some organisms have to avoid being eaten. Interpret population curves. An ecosystem is an environment where living organisms can survive. Each ecosystem is made up of Habitats and Communities Habitat - This is the place where the organisms live. It has the conditions that they need to survive. Community – all the living organisms that live in the habitat. Each ecosystem has a set of environmental factors. Organisms live, grow and reproduce in places where, and at times when, conditions are suitable. These factors vary according to the time of day and the time of year. Availability of water Temperature Few living organisms can grow outside the range of 0oC to 40oC. Light Intensity photosynthesis in plants, animals need light for visibility. Availability of carbon dioxide and oxygen Environmental factors affecting life Read all the information supplied on the sheet carefully. Answer questions 3-5 and 8-11 in full sentences. A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular habitat at the same time. The number of individuals present in the population will depend on how they can interact with two types of factor. Biotic (living) food, disease, predation, mates, effects of humans, and competition Abiotic (non living) water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, temperature and light intensity Populations need things called resources to grow. Organisms that are better suited (adapted) to compete are more likely to survive and have offspring Plants and animals compete for resources. Plants often compete with each other for space, and for nutrients and water from the soil. Animals often compete with each other for space, water and food. Competition between members of the same species ▪ Organisms produce more offspring than can survive ▪ This leads to competition ▪ If there is plenty of food the population is likely to increase, if food is depleted it is likely that population size will decrease VS Gannets are sea birds that catch fish by diving head first into the water. They live and breed on remote cliffs Gannets compete for space on the rocks The nests are distributed “pecking distance” apart Plenty of fish more young gannets are raised Increase competition for nesting sites in future years VS Competition between members of different species Several species might rely on the same food source or space ▪ E.g. primroses flower early in the year to avoid competition for light. They also produce leaves, flowers and seeds before the tree leaves open and put them into shade Predation will limit the prey population. Disease can spread quickly through large populations. Animals that kill and eat other animals are called predators. The animals that they eat are called prey. Predators are usually bigger and fewer in number than their prey. List five things that make a good predator: List five ways prey have adapted escape from predators: 1. 2. 3. The prey has plenty of food. It breeds and increases in number. The increase in prey means that there is more food for the predator. So the predator breeds and increases in number. There are now lots of predators so more prey will be eaten. The number of prey goes down. 4. 5. There are now less prey for the predator to feed on. Food will be scarce and many predators starve. With fewer predators, more prey survive to breed. The prey numbers increase The cycle continues… Environmental Change Environmental change and the distribution of organisms. Environmental changes due to living and non-living factors. Indicators of pollution – lichens and invertebrates. Measuring environmental changes. Evaluate data on environmental change and the distribution and behaviour of living organisms. Give examples of how an environment can change. The distribution of plants and animals can be affected by changes in their environment. Environmental changes could be due to Non-living factors – temperature, rainfall, light and oxygen levels Living factors – predators, disease, introduction of new species Interpret data on lichen distribution and sulfur dioxide levels. Interpret data on invertebrates and water pollution. Living organisms can be used as indicators of pollution The presence or absence of particular organisms can indicate the level of pollution in an area. These are called Indicator Species Biological indicators of air and water pollution can give a longer term view of changes than chemical sampling. Freshwater invertebrates can be used as indicators of freshwater pollution Lichens can be used as indicators of air pollution due to their sensitivity to sulfur dioxide. Indicator Species Animals found in water with low levels of oxygen ▪ Sludge worm ▪ Rat-tailed maggot ▪ Blood worm Animals found in water with high levels of oxygen ▪ Mayfly nymph ▪ Stonefly nymph ▪ shrimp What could cause the oxygen concentration in a river to decrease? Yup, that’s right SEWAGE or organic pollution Organic waste (sewage) provides food for bacteria, which allows them to grow and reproduce Bacteria use up the oxygen in the water when they respire There is less oxygen for other organisms such as fish and insects. Animals such as fish, stonefly nymphs and shrimps decrease in number. As the concentration of sewage pollution rises, the population of bacteria rises. This is because the bacteria feed off the sewage which provides raw materials and energy for growth and reproduction. At the same time the concentration of oxygen falls. This is because the bacteria use up the oxygen in respiration as they break down the organic waste in the sewage. Animals such as fish and stonefly nymphs decrease in number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What effect does domestic sewage have on the number of bacteria in a river? How do the bacteria numbers affect the level of dissolved oxygen in the water? How does the reduction in oxygen level affect the numbers of fish and invertebrate numbers in the river? What name is given to an organism whose presence or absence gives information about the level of pollution in a river? Name two organisms that can live in water where the oxygen level is low. Name two organisms that can only live in water that is unpolluted. To explain how lichens can be used to indicate air pollution To analyse data on air pollution and draw conclusions The presence or absence of particular organisms can indicate the level of pollution in an area. These are called Indicator Species Lichens Different types of lichen have different sensitivities to sulfur dioxide gas. 3 main types – crusty, leafy and shrubby Indicator species present Crusty lichens only Crusty and leafy Shrubby Appearance of lichen SO2 concentration High Medium low Lichens as indicators of Air Pollution Carrying out a pollution survey Look at the air pollution map, and explain the distribution of the different types of lichen.
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