Prunus laurocerasus (Taflan) Prunus laurocerasus, also known as cherry laurel, common laurel and sometimes English laurel in North America, is an evergreen species of cherry (Prunus), native to regions bordering the Black Sea in southwestern Asia and southeastern Europe, from Albania and Bulgaria east through Turkey to the Caucasus Mountains and northern Iran. Prunus laurocerasus is a vigorous, large, spreading evergreen shrub with handsome, glossy dark green leaves to 15cm in length. Small white flowers in erect racemes to 12cm in length are followed by cherry-like glossy red fruits soon turning black. Cultivation Easy to grow in any moist but well-drained moderately fertile soil in sun or partial shade. Superb hedging shrub but may become chlorotic on poorer, shallow chalky soils. Soil -Moist but well-drained or Well-drained -Acid, Neutral or Alkaline -Chalk, Loam, Sand or Clay Crataegus (Alıç) Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 metres (16–49 ft) tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. Ecology Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorns are also used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see List of Lepidoptera that feed on hawthorns. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Crataegus (Alıç) Uses Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine, and there is considerable interest in testing hawthorn products for evidence-based medicine. The products being tested are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not necessarily distinguishing between these species, which are very similar in appearance. The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in naturopathic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function. Forsythia (Altın Çanağı) Sunny splashes of bright yellow flowers are forsythia's calling card, announcing the return of spring. The blooms on this olive family member are slightly bell-shape and range from butter yellow to gold. To nurture forsythia's graceful vase shape, careful pruning is required. Otherwise, new growth sprouts straight up into a "bad hair day" effect. The toothed leaves will deepen into purple tints just before they drop in late fall. To encourage the best flowering, plant forsythia in full sun and provide plenty of water during the growing season. For a spring spectacle, train forsythia against a warm wall as an espalier. Cold-winter gardeners should look for cold-hardy cultivars to guarantee plenty of blooms come spring. Forsythia (Altın Çanağı) Two species of forsythia are at the heart of the selected forms, for both species are variable, and garden hybrids: Forsythia suspensa and F. viridissima. "These two species are, as it were, the founder-members of the forsythia family" writes Alice Coats; they were the earliest species brought into Western gardens from the Far East and they have each played a role in the modern garden shrubs. Uses Forsythias are popular early spring flowering shrubs in gardens and parks. Two are commonly cultivated for ornament, Forsythia × intermedia and Forsythia suspensa. They are both spring flowering shrubs, with yellow flowers. They are grown and prized for being tough, reliable garden plants. Forsythia × intermedia is the more commonly grown, is smaller, has an upright habit, and produces strongly coloured flowers. Forsythia suspensa is a large to very large shrub, can be grown as a weeping shrub on banks, and has paler flowers. Many named garden cultivars can also be found. Forsythia is frequently forced indoors in the early spring. Ardıç (Juniperus) Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious. Classification The number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving very different totals, Farjon (2001) accepting 52 species, and Adams (2004) accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though (particularly among the scale-leaved species) which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going. -Juniperus sect. Juniperus: -Juniperus sect. Sabina: Ardıç (Juniperus) Cultivation and Uses Many of the earliest prehistoric people lived in or near juniper forests which furnished them food, fuel, and wood for shelter or utensils. Many species, such as J. chinensis (Chinese Juniper) from eastern Asia, are extensively used in landscaping and horticulture, and as one of the most popular species for use in bonsai. It is also a symbol of longevity, strength, athleticism, and fertility. Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium rust disease, and can be a serious problem for those people growing apple trees, the alternate host of the disease. Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica) Culture Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Best flowering occurs in full sun. Adapts to a wide range of soil conditions, but prefers well-drained loams. Established plants tolerate some dry soils. Plants bloom on old growth. Avoid heavy pruning. Prune to shape as needed in spring after flowering to stimulate growth of flowering spurs which will improve bloom for the following year (although such pruning will reduce fruit production for the current year). Promptly remove root suckers to control possible spread. Noteworthy Characteristics Japanese quince is a low-growing, densely-branched, deciduous shrub with spiny, often-tangled, gray-brown twigs. It typically grows to 3’ tall but spreads to 6' wide. Five-petaled, orange-scarlet flowers (to 1.5” across) with creamy white stamens bloom before the leaves unfold in an often showy early spring floral display. Flowers are followed by hard, greenish-yellow fruits (1.5” pomes that are commonly called quinces) which ripen in early autumn. Ripe quinces are fragrant. Quinces are edible, but usually are considered too bitter to be eaten directly from the shrub. Quinces are sometimes used to make preserves and jellies. Coarsely-toothed, broad-oval, green leaves (to 2” long). No appreciable fall color. Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica) Problems Susceptible to fungal leaf spot (particularly in years with heavy spring rainfall) which can cause considerable leaf defoliation. Fireblight and scab can be problems in some areas. Aphids can cause significant damage to new growth. Lesser pests include scale and mites. Chlorosis (yellowing of foliage) will occur in high pH soils. Flower buds are susceptible to significant damage from early spring frosts. Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica) Lonicera etrusca is a species of honeysuckle known by the common name Etruscan honeysuckle. It is native to Europe and it is known elsewhere, including the Pacific Northwest of North America, as an introduced species where it has escaped cultivation. It is kept in gardens as an ornamental plant. This is a deciduous perennial climber which can reach lengths of 6 meters. It is lined with oval leaves several centimeters long and bears dense spikes of flowers with pairs of fused leaves at the bases. Each flower has an elongated tubular corolla up to 5 centimeters long divided partway into two lips. The flower is light yellow to pale reddish-pink. The stamens and style protrude from the flower's mouth. The fruit is a bright red rounded berry. Cornus mas(Kızılcık) Cornus mas is a slow-growing, small tree or large shrub preferring sun or partial shade and a well-drained soil. Flowers are produced in northern areas but most of the south lacks the chilling hours required to set flower buds. `Spring Glow' is the one cultivar which will flower in the south. The growth rate is moderate and young plants transplant easily. Bark is very showy and is often displayed by removing lower foliage. A height of 15 to 25 feet and spread of 12 to 18 feet can be expected, eventually. The yellow flowers produced in very early spring are similar to Forsythia and are followed by red fruit which is edible and partially hidden by the foliage. The fall color is red. Cornus mas responds well to pruning and may be used as a hedge plant. Cornus mas(Kızılcık) Use and Management The once popular species has fallen out of the trade recently but deserves a comeback. It is pest free and grows well on a variety of soil including clay. Soil should be kept moist with good drainage. Mulching encourages better root growth and moderate drought tolerance. But not considered highly drought tolerant by any means. Grows in sun to part shade. Use it as a specimen or in a monoculture group planting or shrub border. The fruit makes an excellent tart jelly - also attracts birds. Makes an excellent patio tree in the yard and should be planted more. Cornus mas(Kızılcık) Rosa canina is a variable deciduous shrub, native to Europe, West Asia and Africa. Its arching, thorny stems produce pinnate leaves, approximately 6-7cm long, comprised of 5-7 oval-shaped leaflets, with serrated margins. Small leaf-like appendages - known as stipules - are present on all rose family plants. Habitat Rosa canina loves to grow in woodlands, copses, scrub, and hedges, throughout Britain, up to altitudes of 550 metres. Where offered support, they can climb high into trees. The smaller Hedgehog rose (an introduced species), will be found growing at altitudes of up to 400 metres. All roses can be grown in sun or light shade, and thrive in well-drained, slightly acid soil. Cornus mas(Kızılcık) Uses The astringency of rosa canina can help relieve dysentery and diarrhoea. In addition, the various flavonoids, coupled with the Vitamin C, have potent antioxidant action and help protect the body from numerous internal and external stresses. The high vitamin C content of rose hips will therefore be extremely useful in preventing and fighting infections, colds, flu, and pneumonia, (syrup is the classic way to preserve hips). Rosa canina also have mild laxative and diuretic properties, and can help treat urinary infections. The iron content in rose hips makes them an excellent supplement for menstruating women. The seed oil extracted from rose hips is of value in reducing scar tissue and stretch marks caused by pregnancy and birthing, due to its tissue regeneration properties. Mahonia(Mahonya) Mahonia was named by Thomas Nuttall after an Irish political refugee, Bernard M'Mahon who set to work in America by opening a seed shop in Philidelphia, and published the American Gardener's Calendar in 1806. Mahonia is a genus of about 70 species of evergreen shrubs found in woodlands and rocky areas of the Himalaya, East Asia, Central and North America. They are common garden shrubs, grown for their attractive foliage, bright, fragrant flowers, and decorative and edible fruits. The flowers look like yellow lily-of-the-valley and the foliage is dark green and shiny. The mahonia's blue-black, clustered fruits give rise to its common name of Oregon grape. These acidic fruits can be eaten raw or cooked, but are rather nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, they have relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds! Mahonia(Mahonya) Berberin, present in the roots of mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Berberin is also reported to have anti-tumour properties. Several species are popular garden shrubs, grown for their ornamental, often spiny, evergreen foliage, yellow flowers in autumn, winter and early spring, and blue-black berries. The flowers are borne in terminal clusters or spreading racemes, and may be among the earliest flowers to appear in the growing season. The berries are edible, and rich in vitami C, though with a very sharp flavor.
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