Document 388715

Prunus laurocerasus (Taflan)
Prunus laurocerasus, also known as cherry laurel, common
laurel and sometimes English laurel in North America, is an
evergreen species of cherry (Prunus), native to regions
bordering the Black Sea in southwestern Asia and southeastern
Europe, from Albania and Bulgaria east through Turkey to the
Caucasus Mountains and northern Iran.
Prunus laurocerasus is a vigorous, large, spreading evergreen
shrub with handsome, glossy dark green leaves to 15cm in
length. Small white flowers in erect racemes to 12cm in length
are followed by cherry-like glossy red fruits soon turning black.
Easy to grow in any moist but well-drained moderately fertile
soil in sun or partial shade. Superb hedging shrub but may
become chlorotic on poorer, shallow chalky soils.
-Moist but well-drained or Well-drained
-Acid, Neutral or Alkaline
-Chalk, Loam, Sand or Clay
Crataegus (Alıç)
Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15
metres (16–49 ft) tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny
branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young
individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow
ridges in older trees.
Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and
mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding
insects. Hawthorns are also used as food plants by the larvae of a
large number of Lepidoptera species; see List of Lepidoptera that feed
on hawthorns. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly
thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the
seeds in their droppings.
Crataegus (Alıç)
Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine, and there is
considerable interest in testing hawthorn products for evidence-based medicine. The
products being tested are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related
Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not necessarily distinguishing
between these species, which are very similar in appearance. The dried fruits of Crataegus
pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in naturopathic medicine and traditional
Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata
(Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Other species
(especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to
strengthen cardiovascular function.
Forsythia (Altın Çanağı)
Sunny splashes of bright yellow flowers are forsythia's calling card,
announcing the return of spring. The blooms on this olive family member
are slightly bell-shape and range from butter yellow to gold.
To nurture forsythia's graceful vase shape, careful pruning is required.
Otherwise, new growth sprouts straight up into a "bad hair day" effect.
The toothed leaves will deepen into purple tints just before they drop in
late fall. To encourage the best flowering, plant forsythia in full sun and
provide plenty of water during the growing season. For a spring spectacle,
train forsythia against a warm wall as an espalier.
Cold-winter gardeners should look for cold-hardy cultivars to guarantee
plenty of blooms come spring.
Forsythia (Altın Çanağı)
Two species of forsythia are at the heart of the selected forms, for both
species are variable, and garden hybrids: Forsythia suspensa and F.
viridissima. "These two species are, as it were, the founder-members of the
forsythia family" writes Alice Coats; they were the earliest species brought
into Western gardens from the Far East and they have each played a role in
the modern garden shrubs.
Forsythias are popular early spring flowering shrubs in gardens and parks.
Two are commonly cultivated for ornament, Forsythia × intermedia and
Forsythia suspensa. They are both spring flowering shrubs, with yellow
flowers. They are grown and prized for being tough, reliable garden plants.
Forsythia × intermedia is the more commonly grown, is smaller, has an
upright habit, and produces strongly coloured flowers. Forsythia suspensa is
a large to very large shrub, can be grown as a weeping shrub on banks, and
has paler flowers. Many named garden cultivars can also be found. Forsythia
is frequently forced indoors in the early spring.
Ardıç (Juniperus)
Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low
spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with needle-like
and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious.
The number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving very
different totals, Farjon (2001) accepting 52 species, and Adams (2004) accepting
67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though (particularly
among the scale-leaved species) which species belong to which sections is still
far from clear, with research still on-going.
-Juniperus sect. Juniperus:
-Juniperus sect. Sabina:
Ardıç (Juniperus)
Cultivation and Uses
Many of the earliest prehistoric people lived in or near
juniper forests which furnished them food, fuel, and wood
for shelter or utensils. Many species, such as J. chinensis
(Chinese Juniper) from eastern Asia, are extensively used in
landscaping and horticulture, and as one of the most
popular species for use in bonsai. It is also a symbol of
longevity, strength, athleticism, and fertility.
Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium rust
disease, and can be a serious problem for those people
growing apple trees, the alternate host of the disease.
Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica)
Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soil in full sun to part
shade. Best flowering occurs in full sun. Adapts to a wide range of soil conditions,
but prefers well-drained loams. Established plants tolerate some dry soils. Plants
bloom on old growth. Avoid heavy pruning. Prune to shape as needed in spring
after flowering to stimulate growth of flowering spurs which will improve bloom
for the following year (although such pruning will reduce fruit production for the
current year). Promptly remove root suckers to control possible spread.
Noteworthy Characteristics
Japanese quince is a low-growing, densely-branched, deciduous shrub with spiny,
often-tangled, gray-brown twigs. It typically grows to 3’ tall but spreads to 6'
wide. Five-petaled, orange-scarlet flowers (to 1.5” across) with creamy white
stamens bloom before the leaves unfold in an often showy early spring floral
display. Flowers are followed by hard, greenish-yellow fruits (1.5” pomes that are
commonly called quinces) which ripen in early autumn. Ripe quinces are
fragrant. Quinces are edible, but usually are considered too bitter to be eaten
directly from the shrub. Quinces are sometimes used to make preserves and
jellies. Coarsely-toothed, broad-oval, green leaves (to 2” long). No appreciable
fall color.
Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica)
Susceptible to fungal leaf spot (particularly in
years with heavy spring rainfall) which can
cause considerable leaf defoliation. Fireblight
and scab can be problems in some areas.
Aphids can cause significant damage to new
growth. Lesser pests include scale and mites.
Chlorosis (yellowing of foliage) will occur in high
pH soils. Flower buds are susceptible to
significant damage from early spring frosts.
Bahar Dalı(Chaenomeles Japonica)
Lonicera etrusca is a species of honeysuckle known by the
common name Etruscan honeysuckle. It is native to Europe
and it is known elsewhere, including the Pacific Northwest of
North America, as an introduced species where it has escaped
cultivation. It is kept in gardens as an ornamental plant. This is
a deciduous perennial climber which can reach lengths of 6
meters. It is lined with oval leaves several centimeters long
and bears dense spikes of flowers with pairs of fused leaves at
the bases. Each flower has an elongated tubular corolla up to
5 centimeters long divided partway into two lips. The flower
is light yellow to pale reddish-pink. The stamens and style
protrude from the flower's mouth. The fruit is a bright red
rounded berry.
Cornus mas(Kızılcık)
Cornus mas is a slow-growing, small tree or large shrub
preferring sun or partial shade and a well-drained soil. Flowers
are produced in northern areas but most of the south lacks the
chilling hours required to set flower buds. `Spring Glow' is the
one cultivar which will flower in the south. The growth rate is
moderate and young plants transplant easily. Bark is very
showy and is often displayed by removing lower foliage. A
height of 15 to 25 feet and spread of 12 to 18 feet can be
expected, eventually. The yellow flowers produced in very
early spring are similar to Forsythia and are followed by red
fruit which is edible and partially hidden by the foliage. The fall
color is red. Cornus mas responds well to pruning and may be
used as a hedge plant.
Cornus mas(Kızılcık)
Use and Management
The once popular species has fallen out of the trade recently but
deserves a comeback. It is pest free and grows well on a variety of
soil including clay. Soil should be kept moist with good drainage.
Mulching encourages better root growth and moderate drought
tolerance. But not considered highly drought tolerant by any
means. Grows in sun to part shade. Use it as a specimen or in a
monoculture group planting or shrub border. The fruit makes an
excellent tart jelly - also attracts birds. Makes an excellent patio
tree in the yard and should be planted more.
Cornus mas(Kızılcık)
Rosa canina is a variable deciduous shrub, native to Europe, West
Asia and Africa. Its arching, thorny stems produce pinnate leaves,
approximately 6-7cm long, comprised of 5-7 oval-shaped leaflets,
with serrated margins. Small leaf-like appendages - known as
stipules - are present on all rose family plants.
Rosa canina loves to grow in woodlands, copses, scrub, and
hedges, throughout Britain, up to altitudes of 550 metres. Where
offered support, they can climb high into trees. The smaller
Hedgehog rose (an introduced species), will be found growing at
altitudes of up to 400 metres. All roses can be grown in sun or
light shade, and thrive in well-drained, slightly acid soil.
Cornus mas(Kızılcık)
The astringency of rosa canina can help relieve dysentery and diarrhoea. In
addition, the various flavonoids, coupled with the Vitamin C, have potent
antioxidant action and help protect the body from numerous internal and
external stresses. The high vitamin C content of rose hips will therefore be
extremely useful in preventing and fighting infections, colds, flu, and
pneumonia, (syrup is the classic way to preserve hips).
Rosa canina also have mild laxative and diuretic properties, and can help
treat urinary infections. The iron content in rose hips makes them an
excellent supplement for menstruating women. The seed oil extracted from
rose hips is of value in reducing scar tissue and stretch marks caused by
pregnancy and birthing, due to its tissue regeneration properties.
Mahonia was named by Thomas Nuttall after an Irish political refugee, Bernard
M'Mahon who set to work in America by opening a seed shop in Philidelphia,
and published the American Gardener's Calendar in 1806.
Mahonia is a genus of about 70 species of evergreen shrubs found in
woodlands and rocky areas of the Himalaya, East Asia, Central and North
America. They are common garden shrubs, grown for their attractive foliage,
bright, fragrant flowers, and decorative and edible fruits. The flowers look like
yellow lily-of-the-valley and the foliage is dark green and shiny.
The mahonia's blue-black, clustered fruits give rise to its common name of
Oregon grape. These acidic fruits can be eaten raw or cooked, but are rather
nice raw, especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, they
have relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds!
Berberin, present in the roots of mahonia species, has marked
antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Berberin is also
reported to have anti-tumour properties.
Several species are popular garden shrubs, grown for their
ornamental, often spiny, evergreen foliage, yellow flowers in
autumn, winter and early spring, and blue-black berries. The flowers
are borne in terminal clusters or spreading racemes, and may be
among the earliest flowers to appear in the growing season. The
berries are edible, and rich in vitami C, though with a very sharp