CYPOP 21 and Unit 305: Work with parents, families and carers to support their children’s speech, language and communication development Learning Outcome 1 Understand the importance of parental support for the development of speech, language and communication Speech, language and communication – a reminder Speech Language Communication 3 How do children and young people develop their speech, language and communication skills? Develop through interacting with others Develop right from birth Follow expected patterns Speech, language and communication Continue developing through adolescence How do children and young people develop their speech, language and communication skills? • They relate what they hear to what they see, feel, experience and know. • They try their skills out and see what happens and how they work. • The responses they get shape what happens next • As they learn skills, they practise and consolidate them, extend them and build on them Attachment Theory • Attachment is an emotional bond to another person • Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist • Theory states that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally • Infants become attached to adults who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age Why is attachment important? • If a responsive adult consistently comforts a child, meets their needs and helps them calm down, a secure attachment forms. • Through a secure attachment children can gain; basic care, safety, emotional warmth, stimulation, guidance and boundaries, and stability (Department of Health 2000). • The inability of either the parent or the child to be responsive can impair attachment • Lack of attachment can impact on behaviour, emotional development, language and interactions Children progress through several key stages as they grow up Newborn Starting school Puberty and early adolescence Becoming separate Early childhood Late adolescence .....continued Newborn Starting school Puberty and early adolescence Becoming separate Early childhood Late adolescence Activity 1a The nature of the parent-child relationship at each stage • In pairs, choose one of the stages of parent/child relationships. • Using your knowledge of speech, language and communication development, identify the important features of parents’ roles in supporting their child’s communication in this stage. • Share your thoughts with your group to gain an overall picture of each stage Activity 1a: The nature of the parent-child relationship at each stage Childhood stage Newborn Becoming separate Early childhood Starting school Puberty and early adolescence Late adolescence Parental role The four styles of parenting Four styles of parenting were identified by Diana Baumrind (1967) and Maccoby & Martin (1983) • • • • Authoritarian parenting Authoritative parenting Permissive parenting Uninvolved parenting The impact of parenting styles Authoritarian Authoritative • styles generally lead to children who are obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence and self-esteem. • parenting styles tend to result in children who are happy, capable and successful (Maccoby, 1992). Permissive • parenting often results in children who rank low in happiness & self-regulation. More likely to experience problems with authority; tend to perform poorly in school. Uninvolved •parenting styles rank lowest across all life domains. They tend to lack self-control, have low self-esteem and are less competent than their peers. Activity 1b The influences of parenting styles on speech, language and communication development • Consider the information that you have been given about the 4 different styles of parenting. In small groups of 3 or 4, think about how each of the different styles of parenting might affect the way a child develops their speech, language and communication skills. • Reflect on some parents that you have worked with in your settings, and share your experiences of different parenting styles you have encountered. How did this impact on a child’s development of their speech, language and communication skills? Parental involvement is essential There is a good deal of research that shows the importance of parental involvement on a child’s development. This will include the development of their speech, language and communication skills Parental involvement is essential The 1995 Hart & Risley Study Key findings: 1. The variation in children’s IQs and language abilities is relative to the amount parents speak to their children. 2. Children’s academic successes at ages nine and ten are attributable to the amount of talk they hear from birth to age three. 3. Parents of advanced children talk significantly more to their children than parents of children who are not as advanced. Parental involvement is essential Parental involvement in early learning as part of daily family life at home has a greater impact on children's wellbeing and achievement than any other factor, such as poverty, parental education or school environment. Supporting parents to provide a positive home learning environment is therefore a vital part of improving outcomes for children, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Activity 1c Parental involvement is essential Consider the information that you have been given about parental involvement in children’s development. Work with a partner to share ideas about how effective speech, language and communication support could contribute to a child’s development. Consider all aspects of speech, language and communication and the relationship between the parent and child. For example, parents may be more likely to play with their child if their speech, language and communication skills are developing well, as they can communicate more effectively. Portfolio activity 1.1 • Develop an information leaflet, or a brief presentation for your setting to raise awareness of the importance of parental support for speech, language and communication development. Include An outline of parent-child relationships at different stages of a child’s life in relation to speech, language and communication What the influences of different parenting styles on children and young people’s speech, language and communication development might be The benefits for the parent-child relationship and the child’s overall development at home of parents supporting their child’s speech, language and communication. Transfer into practice 1 • Identify one thing that you found the most useful or interesting • Identify one thing that you will change about your practice as a result of this learning • Record in your portfolio how you think your work with parents will improve as a result of this learning Learning outcome 2 Be able to work in partnership with parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development. Working with parents is essential Health Visitor Parent Social Worker Teacher Parent Parent Parent Nursery staff Parent Childminder Activity 2a Challenges for parents • Read one of the case studies in the learner handbook. • What might be preventing this parent from supporting their child’s speech, language and communication development? Possible answers Challenge This may mean...... Little knowledge of communication skills development Parent may be unaware that there may be an issue as they don’t know what to expect Poor understanding of importance of communication development Parent does not prioritise speech, language and communication skills as they do not understand their importance for learning, behaviour and socialisation Parent’s speech language and communication skills are poor They may not fully understand what you mean. They may struggle with own language skills and so be unsuccessful in their communication with you. Parent may lack confidence in their parenting skills They lack the confidence to try something different and are concerned that they would not do it the right way. Parent may feel intimidated by professionals May be reticent to attend meetings or discuss their child’s development Possible answers continued Challenge This means...... They may have had a negative experience of working with professionals in the past They are anxious about discussing their child with someone. They may feel that they are being judged or that their child’s delay will be considered their fault. Family life may be very hectic Speech language and communication skills are not seen as a priority, e.g. for a single parent trying to juggle three small children and work There may be social issue within the family, e.g. drug abuse, domestic violence Speech, language and communication skills are not prioritised within the family. There may be cultural differences The family may feel for example that strategies using for example, gesture to support communication are not seen as acceptable. Activity 2b Supporting parents: overcoming challenges Consider possible solutions to the challenges that you have identified. How can you help this family to support their child’s speech, language and communication? A parent’s role in developing speech, language and communication • Children’s language develops best in a parent-child relationship • Parents know their child better than anyone. They know what motivates their child to communicate • There are lots of opportunities for developing speech, language and communication skills through everyday activities and routines at home • Supporting speech, language and communication skills at home means everyone can be involved, including dads, grandparents etc • Children spend most of their time at home or out of school How can parents support speech, language and communication development? Understand the importance of supporting speech, language and communication Know what to expect at different ‘ages and stages’ Support speech, language and communication as part of everyday activities and routines Make communication a high priority – include times and activities with a specific focus on communication Examples of practical ideas you could share with parents Listening Walks– what can you hear? • I spy games with descriptions rather than sounds ... “something you can cut with” • Story telling activities – make up your own stories, having as much fun as you like. What would happen if the Gruffalo bumped into Snow White whilst he was out on a walk? • Do some baking – talk about what happens first, next, last. Which ingredients are heaviest, lightest? Talk about sequences and consequences “what happens if the cakes are in the oven for too long?” • Have a treasure hunt, and write down some clues about where you have hidden your treasure. Older children will enjoy having more cryptic clues for example “you make me every day, but not with paper and glue” (bed) Activity 2c Parents supporting speech, language and communication In pairs: • Think of two examples of how a parent could support speech, language and communication through an everyday event or activity. • Think of two examples for parents of a time or activity which has a specific focus on communication. • Share these ideas with the rest of your group. Ways to help parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development • There are many different ways to support parents • Some ways will work for some parents more than others • Challenges for parents may affect how well they access advice and support • Some parents may be ‘hard to reach’ • It’s important to consider what will work best for the parents you work with – this may need flexible approaches and creative ideas Activity 2d Ways to help parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development • Think about the different ways that you work with parents in your setting. This might be ways that you meet with them, communicate with them or involve them in activities in your setting. What works well for them? • Based on this, how could you use these ways to help parents support their child’s speech, language and communication development? • Are there any other ways you could effectively help parents in this area? Activity 2d: Some ideas Things we have done or used How this could help parents support their child’s communication skills Home-Setting diaries Up to date information about how we feel a child is developing. Can suggest ideas and activities to do Workshops Ideas and activities can be demonstrated and modelled. Parents can see ways to work with their child and ask questions if they need to Open mornings Parents can see language targets that are being worked on. They can gather ideas about ways that they can help at home Story sacks/ lending libraries Parents can support the language that children are learning at school/nursery by being involved in their learning through home based activities Activity 2d: Possible answers Things we have done How this could help parents support their child’s or used communication skills Parents evenings/ curriculum events Parents have the opportunities to be told about, and ask questions about, the language their child needs for their learning Lads and dads projects e.g. a bike repair session The emphasis could be on developing problem solving and developing interaction skills/talking together Text reminders about Parents are more likely to remember to attend a open evenings, session school events Engages parents in their child’s learning. Parents can Research and enquiry support learning and communication skills through homework hands-on work with their child Helping parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication skills Children and young people’s speech, language and communication progresses best when parents, practitioners and the other adults involved with the child share information and collaborate to monitor a child’s development and make decisions about support if needed. Portfolio task 2.1 • Prepare some guidance for your setting about ‘Partnerships with Parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication’ • Include some information explaining the challenges for parents which may influence how they support their child’s communication • Explain different ways to work with parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication. Make sure you consider how you can overcome any of the challenges raised to ensure these ways can work effectively for parents Developing and maintaining a parent’s confidence in supporting their child’s speech, language and communication development Parents will be more confident if: • They understand why they are doing something • They know what to expect from their child’s speech, language and communication skills • They feel that they have access to support if they need it • They have had a demonstration, or have observed what they are being asked to do • They have had the right amount and type of feedback from those they are working with Portfolio task 2.2 • Keep a reflective diary of your work with parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development. This will cover assessment criteria for learning outcomes 2 and 3. In your diary, show clearly how you have supported parents to understand their valuable role in supporting their child’s speech, language and communication Show clearly how you developed and maintained a parent’s confidence in their support for their child’s speech, language and communication Transfer into practice 2 • Identify one thing that you found the most useful or interesting • Identify one thing that you will change about your practice as a result of this learning • Record in your portfolio how you think your work with parents will improve as a result of this learning Learning Outcome 3 Be able to support parents to use activities and approaches to support their child’s speech, language and communication development General approaches for working with parents Give them the facts Be positive Share targets Working with parents Explain strategies Regular contact Be honest about concerns Small steps Be solution focussed Advice for parents on how to support speech, language and communication • There are many different resources aimed at helping parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development • Some of these offer general advice • Others are targeted at particular ages and stages of a child’s development • A number of these resources have been developed by national organisations • Local services may also have developed resources which will be available to learners. General advice to support speech, language and communication • Give plenty of time for a child to respond • Model good production – don’t correct • Don’t ask too many questions, use encouraging comments or open questions, like ‘tell me about your day’ • Make time for communication every day – have a quiet time in the day where distractions are minimised • Get their full attention when you are talking to them • Build on what children say by adding one or two words to their sentence, for example ‘car’ “yes, a red car” • Use everyday routines and activities to practise communication skills, things like bath time and mealtimes are great • Explain phrases and words a child doesn’t understand • Model good listening and make time to listen to them Supporting speech, language and communication when children are learning more than one language • Continue to use all language that have been introduced to the child or young person • Mixing languages in one sentence is natural for bilingual speakers • Be consistent in your choice of words in sentences though - use the same word that you have already used in a sentence • Keep the focus on your child feeling successful in giving or receiving a message • Continue speaking the language you are most fluent and comfortable with, even if your child responds in English Activity 3a Advice for parents on supporting speech, language and communication • Choose one of the recommended resources which provides information for parents on how to support their child’s speech, language and communication development. • Summarise for your group, the main points it raises • Consider if and how this resource may be useful for the parents you work with Showing parents how to use activities and approaches • Different ways to work with parents were discussed in Learning outcome 2 • It will be important to consider parents’ needs and experiences, as well as any challenges, when choosing ways to show them how to use activities and approaches to support their child’s speech, language and communication Evaluating your own role in supporting parents • As with any area of practice, it is important to evaluate the ways in which your work with parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication is effective • Your own reflections are important for this, as well as observing any outcomes from your work. • You should also consider how to gain feed back from parents and children and young people themselves as part of this evaluation Portfolio activity 3.1 • Keep a reflective diary of your work with parents to support their child’s speech, language and communication development. This will cover assessment criteria for learning outcomes 2 and 3. • Describe at least 3 ways that you have supported parents with activities and approaches for supporting their child’s speech, language and communication skills. • Include information on: • The context and your aims for the support • The type of support and why you have chosen it • Your evaluation and reflection on the support Transfer into practice 3 • Identify one thing that you found the most useful or interesting • Identify one thing that you will change about your practice as a result of this learning • Record in your portfolio how you think your work with parents will improve as a result of this learning Learning Outcome 4 Understand the importance of working in partnership with parents of children with speech, language and communication needs and relevant professional agencies What are speech language and communication needs (SLCN)? • Most children follow the expected pattern of development for their speech, language and communication at the expected times. Some, however, do not. These are described as having speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). • SLCN can impact on all areas of a child or young person’s development including their learning, social and emotional development and their behaviour. Children with SLCN • We know that working in partnership with parents is important for the development of all children. • For parents of children with SLCN there may be additional factors that make this partnership working even more crucial. Activity 4a: Working with parents of children and young people who have SLCN • Consider the needs of a parent of a child with SLCN. You might want to draw on any experience of working with a parent in your setting. Write down some thoughts about why it is important to work closely with this parent; you will need to think about the parent, the child and your setting. Activity 4a Parents Child / young person Setting Activity 4a Possible answers Parents Child /young person Setting Parents will probably be on an emotional journey as they come to terms with their child’s difficulties The child or young person may not be able to talk with their parent about their day; you can help You will need to share language and communication targets with parents Parents may struggle to understand the nature of their child’s problems and need your help to explain them; terminology may be complicated The child or young person may have emotional or behavioural needs that mean you need to talk with parents to ensure consistent management You will have useful information for parents about the way their child communicates in your setting. You will need to share this. Parents may have their own SLCN which means they need additional support You will need to discuss the need for involving other professionals eg speech and language therapy Activity 4b Sources of information and support • There are a number of organisations and support services for supporting parents of children with SLCN. These may be local or national • Research two different sources of support for families of children with SLCN. One should be a national organisation/resource and one should be a local service. Give a brief summary of the organisation/resource and what they do to the rest of your group. • As each person feeds back, record the different sources of information and organisations that you have heard about or used. Collate the information together to use in the portfolio task 4.2 Information and services for parents of children with SLCN - examples National • I CAN • Talk to your baby • Stoke speaks out Early • RCSLT Support • Afasic Programme • Early Support Programme • The Hello campaign Local • Sure start centres • Local speech and language therapy services • Special educational needs services Portfolio task 4.1 • Produce an information leaflet or poster for parents of children with SLCN. It needs to contain a list of helpful organisations and sources of information that the parents will find useful. • Include a statement about each organisation and what parents can expect to find there • Include local and national examples Partnership working for children with SLCN Parents Settings Child/ young person Agencies Professionals Activity 4c Partnership working for children with SCLN • Consider the role of parents, practitioners and agencies in supporting children with SLCN. • What would happen if these different people did not work together to support a child with SLCN? Portfolio task 4.2 • Write a statement explaining the importance of partnership working for children or young people with SLCN. • Include information on why it is important for you to work in partnership with these parents • Explain partnership working across other professionals and agencies with parents. • The statement could be included into the special needs policy that exists in your setting. Transfer into practice 4 • Identify one thing that you found the most useful or interesting • Identify one thing that you will change about your practice as a result of this learning • Record in your portfolio how you think your work with parents will improve as a result of this learning Hello 2011 is the National Year of Communication ‘Hello’ is a national campaign run by The Communication Trust, complementing the Government’s commitment to support children with speech, language and communication needs. Please visit www.hello.org.uk for more information on how you and your setting can help improve the communication skills of children and young people – so that they can live their life to the full.
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