Supporting Children who are Blind or have Low Vision

Supporting Children
who are Blind or have
Low Vision
Course Aim
The aim of this course is to provide you with the tools that will enable you to
develop your skill and knowledge in supporting a child who is blind or has low vision.
This course will explain how to work with each child's individual needs, provide
support to their family and understand how your role is essential to the child's
Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course you should be able to:
Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course you should be able to:
Identify the functional
implications of
blindness or low vision
for a child's
Identify customized
support strategies for
children who are blind
or have low vision and
their families
Identify strategies
which can be used in
the community to
support the
participation of a child
who is blind or has low
This course includes three topic areas:
Chapter 1 :
Childhood Development
Childhood Development
This chapter will outline the physiology of the eye and how vision works as
part of the sensory system. This chapter will include information relating to
vision and childhood development as well as how a child's needs change over
Sensory System
The sensory system
is a part of the
nervous system
responsible for
processing sensory
information and
allowing you to
perceive the world
around you.
The sensory system
consists of three
1. The sensory receptors, a sensory nerve ending that
responds to a stimulus in the internal or external
environment of a person
2. The neural pathways that act as a conduit of sensory
3. The brain which enables you to perceive the stimuli.
The five main senses are:
i. Sight
ii. Sound (Auditory)
iii. Touch
iv. Taste
v. Smell
Sensory System
The senses are transduces connecting the physical world to the part of the mind
where we interpret the information, creating our perception of the world.
Lets have a quick look at how the eye works with the brain to view an object….
There are three key elements to vision.:
1: an object to view
2: the eye
3: the brain
Lets have a look at how vision works……
We will start with a
basic object…a tree
The eye receives
the image of the
object as the light
rays focus on the
As the image hits
the back of the
eye it is flipped
The image is then
perceived by the
brain and
identified as a
Visual Processing
Visual processing or perception is the cognitive awareness and
identification of the external stimuli. Many factors will influence
Visual Processing
Perception helps us understand and relate to our world.
Learning how to understand what we perceive begins in
early childhood and is essential to development.
Vision develops in newborns with increasing attention to:
light, colour, movement, form and detail. Visual
development can be promoted by observing what the
child is attracted to and then offering lots of
opportunities for moving through these stages. E.g. If a
child is attracted to objects which catch the light, offer
many and varied objects which catch the light, and then
begin to offer bold and bright colours.
Function of Vision
For childhood development vision is…….
.. the
motivator for
many social
..the motivator
for movement
..the motivator
for reaching
..the most
and organising
Function of Vision
Additionally, the function of vision is to enable:
• Motivation to move towards something we see:
• we reach, grasp, manipulate and observe objects
• this develops fine motor skills
• we roll towards people and objects, we crawl, we walk towards objects we
see in our environment, we move to where we want to go
• Motivation to interact with people
• Understanding of the purpose of objects and how they work
• Observations of the world and things working around them
• Observations of cause and effect for own actions
• Development of a body representation/concept of self
Blindness in children may result in the risk of:
Blindness in children may result in the risk of:
Passivity and learned
Purposeful movement
Lack of Spatial Awareness
• With passivity and not reaching, children who are blind or have low vision can become more
interested in their own bodies.
• Characteristics such as hand flapping, shaking their head and eye poking can become
embedded in their behaviour.
• For example children may dislike some physical positions such as the tummy position. This
may then affect postural development.
• Children with are blind or have low vision like being placed on their back as that is where
they feel safe.
• This position does not facilitate support positions through arms and the weight shifting
required for reaching movements.
• A child who is blind or has low vision may have difficulty developing the concept of object
permanence and an understanding of space.
• Without object permanence, the child is not aware that an object exists when they are not
touching or seeing it.
• ‘Space is not a place” for a child who is blind or has low vision, it is a nothingness.
• A child who is blind or has low vision will need an awareness and understanding of what
space is before they will want to move from where they are through it.
Function of Vision
Children who are blind or with severe low vision may be at risk of delay across all
areas of development such as:
• Emotion
• Communication
• Physical
• Cognitive
• Social
• Independence
Function of Vision
Implications vary according to:
• Degree and type of impairment
• Age at the time of impairment
• Presence of other developmental or learning needs
• Childs personality and abilities
• Family environment and support
• Presence of early diagnosis intervention , support and engagement.
Visual Acuity
Visual acuity is the ability to see detail. Children are considered to be legally blind
when they are unable to see at 6 metres a letter or symbol designed to be seen at
60 metres. In Australia it is expressed as a fraction between 6/6 and 6/60 or less for
either near or distance vision.
The following images have been simulated to represent normal vision (6/6), moderate
low vision (6/24) and legal blindness (6/60)
Normal Vision
Distance Vision
This means that one is able to see at 6 metres a picture designed to be seen at 60 metres
Visual Acuity
In the kindergarten environment, this means that while children with normal vision can
clearly see a toy car on a table from about 6 meters, children who have low vision
would need to be as close at 10 centimetres to see it with any clarity.
Normal Vision
Distance Vision
This means that one is able to see at 6 metres a picture designed to be seen at 60 metres
Common Eye Conditions
Vision impairment may be the result of disease, a birth defect, a genetic condition or
may be acquired through misadventure. The following slides depict the vision
experienced by those with common eye conditions and disease.
Normal Vision
Common Eye Conditions
Albinism is an inherited condition
affecting both eyes.
Lack of pigment, either
throughout the entire body
(oculocutaneous albinism) or
only within the eyes (ocular
albinism), does not allow vision
to fully develop.
Poor vision, nystagmus, need for
glasses and sensitivity to glare
(photophobia) may be associated
with this condition.
Common Eye Conditions
Cataract is an eye condition where
the lens of the eye becomes cloudy
and blocks the passage of light to
the retina.
Cataracts may be congenital (at
birth or shortly after) or develop
later in life. As the cataract
develops, vision gradually becomes
blurred and problems with glare
may occur.
When the cataract reaches a
certain density it can be removed.
Common Eye Conditions
Hemianopia, or Hemanopsia, is a
decreased vision or blindness in
half the visual field of one or both
eyes, usually on one side of the
vertical midline.
The most common causes of this
damage are stroke, brain tumour,
and trauma.
Common Eye Conditions
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is an
inherited, deteriorating condition
of the retina. It affects the
retina’s rods (photoreceptors)
which are responsible for night
There is usually progressive loss
of peripheral vision but central
vision is generally unaffected
until the final stages.
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)
RP can cause night blindness and
glare sensitivity.
Common Eye Conditions
Coloboma is a congenital condition resulting in the eyeball not completely forming in-utero. It affects different
structures of the eye. The severity of vision impairment depends on which structures are affected. This condition
can affect one or both eyes and it may be associated with other developmental abnormalities.
Cortical Vision Impairment
Cortical vision impairment is an umbrella term to describe vision impairment in normal healthy eyes. It is caused
by disruption to the parts of the brain which control vision. This often results in variable visual responses.
Nystagmus is continual, involuntary, fine movement of both eyes. It can be present by itself but is commonly
associated with other eye conditions that cause blurred vision. Children often instinctively adopt a head posture
so the eyes are in a position where there is less movement. This position is known as the null point. Poor health
and fatigue can make the nystagmus more pronounced thereby reducing vision further.
Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
Optic Nerve Hypoplasia is caused when the optic nerve, responsible for transmitting visual signals from the
retina to the brain, is not fully developed thereby passing less information from the retina to the brain. It may
coexist with other conditions such as septo-optic dysplasia.
Common Eye Conditions
Retinal Dystrophy
Retinal Dystrophy is a generic term indicating abnormality of the retina. The extent of vision loss from retinal
dystrophy can vary dramatically and is dependent on which area of the retina is affected. Examples of retinal
dystrophy are Leber’s Congenital Amaurosis, which can cause blindness or near-blindness and Achromatopsia
which can cause absence of colour vision and extreme sensitivity to light.
Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumour of the eye usually occurring before five years of age. The tumour may
affect one or both eyes and is usually hereditary. Laser and radiation treatment may be used to try and save the
eye and prevent the spread of cancer cells into other parts of the body. If unsuccessful, the affected eye is
removed (referred to as enucleation).
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
ROP is a condition affecting premature babies. It occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow in an area of the
retina where normal vessels have not yet grown. The new blood vessels may cause retinal scaring which result in
vision loss. In severe cases, detachment of the retina can occur. Laser therapy can help if diagnosis and
intervention occur early.
Microphthalmia is a genetic abnormality where the eyeball is significantly smaller than normal. The condition is
present from birth and does not improve with age. This condition can affect one or both eyes and is commonly
associated with other eye conditions.
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The benefits of early intervention
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The benefits of early intervention
Learning starts from birth (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000), and skills develop cumulatively, so that those acquired early form
the basis for later skill development (Cunha et al., 2006).
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The benefits of early intervention
Thus, the skills children develop in the early years contribute to a chain of effects that either reinforces and
amplifies their initial skills and dispositions, or exacerbate initial difficulties and even produces new ones (Rigney,
2010; Stipek, 2001, 2005; The Marmot Review, 2010).
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The benefits of early intervention
Children need multiple opportunities to practice functional skills in everyday environments.
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The benefits of early intervention
Because children’s learning is cumulative, early functioning is predictive of later functioning however, behaviour
and functioning at any point in time are also more strongly influenced by the immediate social and physical
environment than by past experience.
(Feinstein & Bynner, 2004; Lewis, 1997, 2005. Macmillan et al., 2004; van Jzendoorn & Juffer, 2006).
Source: Moore, T.G. (2012). Rethinking early childhood intervention services: Implications for policy and practice. Pauline McGregor
Memorial Address presented at the 10th Biennial National Conference of Early Childhood Intervention Australia, and the 1st AsiaPacific Early Childhood Intervention Conference, Perth, Western Australia, 9th August .
Impact of Vision Impairment on
It is useful to note the following when working with children:
• up to 80% of learning is gained through vision integrated with other senses
• approximately 65% of the population are visual learners
• the brain processes visual information 60,000 times faster than text
• 90% of information coming to the brain is visual
• 40% of all nerve fibres connected to the brain are linked to the retina
• visual aids in the classroom improve learning by up to 400%.
Source: Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind,, 21/5/2012
The above statistics indicate the significant impact limited vision can have on a child's ability to understand
concepts, learn language, move about with confidence, and develop and grow in a variety of ways.
Impact of Vision Impairment on
Many factors can affect the way a family cares for their child, responds to their vision impairment and accepts
assistance from external service providers.
These may include:
Family Background
Individual and families’
understanding and
acknowledgement of
vision impairment.
Social networks and
Communication style
of the parents and
Family support
Impact of Vision Impairment on
The basis of Vision Australia’s family-centred practice is awareness and sensitivity. Recognising individual
difference and supporting each family’s needs are essential to this approach. When staff listen to individual
family’s priorities, positive outcomes are more likely.
There may be many other people involved in the child’s life. So in addition to working with the child who is blind
or has low vision, it is important to consider the whole family: parents, carers, siblings, grandparents and
extended family members. For some families this may be many people.
Checkpoint 1
Vision is important to childhood development as it develops….(Choose all correct
Understanding of the purpose of objects and how they work.
Observations of the world and things working around them.
Greater development of other senses such as hearing.
Development of a body representation/concept of self.
Answers 1, 2 and 4 are correct
Checkpoint 2
Which elements of a child's family situation are important to development?
Family background.
Communication style.
Social networks.
All of the above.
Answer 4, All of the above is correct.
Checkpoint 3
When is the optimal time to start support for a child?
When they start school.
When they have begun to respond to sounds and touch.
When are old enough to wear glasses.
None of the above.
Answer 4 is correct, children should start intervention immediately, early
intervention is important to development.
Chapter 2 :
The role of service providers is to help parents understand their child’s
unique mode of learning in order to assist their overall development. It is
crucial everyone working with the family has accurate information about the
child’s functional vision, what they can and cannot see, and how they use this
vision for practical everyday activities.
Some carers may not know what to look for, disregarding the child’s vision
impairment, as they appear to be functioning well. This may lead to them
thinking the child’s vision impairment has little or no impact on everyday life.
This chapter will outline strategies you can use when caring for children who
are blind or have low vision.
When working with children who are blind or have low vision, you may need to develop
strategies to check and test the child’s understanding of their vision impairment and the
functional implications.
A functional assessment to assist you to understand what the child can and cannot see is
a good start. This is important as you may observe and conclude that some children are
functioning well, however they may need additional support.
Children who are blind or have low vision need to be given time, space and
encouragement with realistic expectations and consequences.
Feedback and praise is vital but staff and carers must be mindful this is not overdone as
it can set up an unrealistic view of life for a child and their family. Attempts to overprotect children from harm may also teach them they are helpless, i.e. learned
As the child grows and matures, they develop their own way of managing with their eye
condition. This will vary across individuals, age groups and eye conditions. They can only
tell you from their perspective what they see. If they do not have anything to contrast
their vision against, then they cannot be expected to understand and communicate the
full impact of their impairment.
Most young children function quite well within a familiar environment. Some parents
may not understand the full impact of their child’s vision impairment because they
mostly interact with them at home where the child is moving within a familiar
The implications of the child’s vision impairment may only start to become noticeable
when they venture away from home and start to move around in unfamiliar
environments. This will be evident when younger children go to childcare or
kindergarten or when older children transition to school or community and social groups
and activities
All children learn by their experiences, good and bad, and children who are blind or have
low vision will benefit from being encouraged to develop self-confidence, a strong ego, a
desire to explore and feelings of success.
When you model positive behaviour in the way you relate to the child it will encourage
others to do the same.
Children learn about themselves and their environment by active movement and
Active learning through active participation helps to develop object permanence,
spatial awareness, body awareness and active purposeful movements.
It is important to create a developmentally
appropriate environment for the child and
encourage motor, cognitive and communication
In ‘Skills for Success’, Dr Karen Wolffe lists five critical aspects to consider when working
with young people:
development of
compensatory skills
Provide realistic
feedback –
Avoid unwarranted
Convey high
expectations –
Don’t over-protect
opportunities to
Source: Wolffe, K.E. (Ed). (1999). Skills for success: A career education handbook for children and adolescents with visual
impairments. New York: AFB Press.
Hands off
“to hold a blind child’s hands
effectively blindfolds them”
Change to a
careful that when we facilitate movements
for the child we are not encouraging learned
helplessness and passivity.
To empower children towards independence
an object should be brought to the child,
rather than the child’s hand taken to the
Source: Nielsen, L (1990). Are you
blind? Copenhagen: SIKON.
The child experiences the
sensations of the adult’s hands
rather than their own sensory
Considerations – Low Vision
Visual and physical fatigue
Short periods requiring concentrated visual
attention interspersed with a less taxing
activity will assist a child to remain on task
when required.
Considerations – Low Vision
Reduction of glare
Looking into the light can be uncomfortable
and impact on a child’s vision. It is important
to provide adequate light but be aware of
excess glare form windows or wet surfaces
and off table tops or floor surfaces.
It is important for a child to be seated with
their back to a window, so their level of vision
is not compromised by the interference of
A child may need more time to adjust when
moving between locations where there are
differing levels of lighting such as moving from
outside to inside.
The picture above of 2 children
facing the window shows a
situation where there is high glare
from the open window. It would be
best to close the curtains and
remove the glare or have the
children face the other way.
Considerations – Low Vision
High contrast
Objects presented on a high contrast
background are easier to see. For example,
bright toys on a white surface as opposed to
white objects on a white surface.
The picture above of food in a
white bowl on a white table shows
a low contrast table setting as
viewed with vision impairment.
The white bowl blends into the
white table top, however the
brightly coloured jelly beans
provide good contrast.
A black background can be used to provide
high contrast. Contrast can be provided on
steps and stairs and used to mark obstacles
such as poles.
Considerations – Low Vision
Facial expressions
It is difficult for a child with low vision to see
and understand facial expressions and slight
gestures, particularly at a distance.
It is important for a person interacting with a
child to move close to them when talking. If
communicating from a distance, use clear
language and not facial expression alone.
Considerations – Low Vision
Children may need extra time to absorb
information and to physically move around to
find information.
Considerations – Low Vision
Normal vision
with a high
clutter / low
It is easier to locate people, objects, or
pictures in a book if the background is not too
busy or cluttered.
Profound vision
with a high
clutter / low
Objects which are simple, singular, bold and
bright are more easily seen.
Literacy and Learning
Braille and adaptive technology
Braille is the medium by which children who are unable to access print can efficiently
learn to read, write and communicate.
“With a tactile medium such as braille comes
literacy, spelling, writing, and broad
communication possibilities are open and
available. With literacy comes the possibility of
freedom. With freedom comes the possibility
of endless achievement from pleasant living to
significant social contributions.”
Source: Clyke, F.K. (2001). Braille into the next Millennium (an
anthology) from National Library Service for the Blind and Physically
Handicapped Individuals in North America, Washington DC, Foreward.
Literacy and Learning
Braille and adaptive technology
Feelix Library is a library of book kits produced in braille, print and audio.
Feelix exposes children and their families to braille and tactile formats at a very early
age, to open the world of possibilities for children who are blind or have low vision.
It shows families how their children will
learn as it exposes children to language
rhythm and patterns that will encourage
them to love books and being read to.
When children start school they should be
on a level playing field with their sighted
peers. Feelix works to make this happen for
children who are blind or have low vision.
Literacy and Learning
Technology plays a key role in learning and is always evolving. Some of the reading and
writing tools available to children who are blind or have low vision include:
Enlarged print
Magnification such as hand held magnifiers, CCTV’s (Closed Circuit Television)
Smart phones and tablets
Screen enlargement and screen readers
Braille writers and transcriptions
Working with Children 0 to 6
Parents are their child's first teacher and guide their early understanding of the world.
They know what their baby needs when they cry, what specific facial expressions mean
and what makes them happy, anxious, fearful or confident. Encouraging parents to offer
their unique perspective will empower them to support their child’s growth and
Children learn through play. This is no different for a baby or child who is blind or has
low vision. Any activity that provides the child with sensory experiences involving touch,
sound, smell and taste assists them to make sense of their world.
Working with Children 0 to 6
When interacting with infants and young children
who are blind or have low vision:
• say the child’s name to gain their attention
• introduce yourself
• use clear and precise language
• understand they may tire sooner than other
• tell them when you are leaving.
Working with Children 0 to 6
Allow the child:
• time to get used to you being near them
• time to listen to your voice and prepare for your interaction
• time to respond - without visual stimulation more time is
required to process what is happening around them
• extra time to complete a task, locate and identify materials,
and to integrate information from their other senses
• to learn skills that are meaningful to them
• to learn new skills step by step
• time to practice and repeat - skills develop when they
are repeated and practiced frequently
• the freedom to accept or reject an object rather
than having it forced upon them
Working with Children 0 to 6
“When Veronica was asked to nod, she put
one hand on one side of her head, and tilted
it back and forth. This was her experience of
nodding with an adult doing the action to
her. Given the opportunity to feel an adult
nodding, she understood and repeated the
Source: Haughton, L. and Mackevicius, S.
(2001). I’m Posting the Pebbles, RVIB.
Working with Children 6 to 12
During this life stage children continue to build on the
experiential learning gained in early childhood.
Life, social and motor skills continue to develop as the child
spends more time undertaking structured school activities and
interacting in the community.
Working with Children 6 to 12
When working with primary school aged children who are blind or
have low vision encourage them to develop independent life skills
by promoting:
• self-confidence and resilience
• socially appropriate behaviours by encouraging participation in
after school programs and groups such as Guides, Scouts,
youth and kids clubs
• friendships and social interaction with other children by
encouraging parents to organise for other children to visit
• negotiation, communication and problem solving
• appropriate skills for personal hygiene, self-care and
• improved motor skills by participating in recreation
and social groups
Working with Children 6 to 12
• organisational strategies for school life such as looking after
their schoolbag, lunch box, dressing for swimming/sport
• appropriate communication and social interaction – lifting
their head, facing toward person they are speaking to and
shaking hands where appropriate
• appropriate communication strategies to teach what is in
and out of context
• awareness of their individual strengths and differences
• improved mobility and spatial awareness to safely and
confidently access their environment: stairs, outdoor
equipment, getting to and from the classroom and
• mastery of new and existing technology
• work and career awareness
Working with Children 6 to 12
In a recent group session one child
commented that it was “so nice to be
doing the same task as everyone else”.
Source: Vision Australia employee, October
Working with Children 12 to 18
Young people learn through engaging with the world.
There is a vast contrast between primary and
secondary school. Some families find this move
daunting and feel anxious about how they and their
child will cope. It is often more difficult to coordinate
all relevant staff at this stage and families can feel
disconnected even though secondary schools run
regular meetings to update them on how their child’s
individual needs are being addressed.
There is also a significant shift in the decision making
process; the family is still central but the young person
is encouraged to have greater control over the
decisions that affect their life.
Working with Children 12 to 18
When interacting with secondary school children who
are blind or have low vision encourage them to:
• work toward greater independence
• participate in recreation activities
• undertake reproductive and sexual health
• work toward career and work readiness
• assist with self-advocacy
Working with Children 12 to 18
“What you do with them today, when they are
two, three, four, five or six or sixteen years of
age, will determine what they will do at age
twenty-four, thirty-four or forty-four. You are
raising adults ”.
Source: Dr Phil McGraw 2004:11 (television program).
How can I help?
Vision impairment has a significant impact on the amount and quality of visual
information that a child receives. Consequently a child’s development, education and
socialisation may be affected in various ways and may cause developmental delay
and isolation.
The following strategies could be considered both in the home or when planning
educational programs.
• Provide maximum contrast between objects and backgrounds using bright plain
• Reduce glare with curtains and blinds and ensure the child's back is to the
• Notice clutter and pattern. It may be difficult to locate people and objects if the
background is busy.
• Provide time for children to look closely at objects and people, and to touch and
explore so they can add to their visual knowledge. Provide sensory experiences touch, kinaesthetic and vestibular.
How can I help?
• Allow extra time - a child who is blind or has low vision will require more time to
complete tasks.
• Allow for repetition.
• Use the child’s name at the beginning of your interaction to gain their attention. Tell
the child who you are.
• Be specific with your instructions and explanations.
• Be aware of the effects of visual and physical fatigue on the child.
Checkpoint 4
Which of the following strategies are best practice when working with children who are
blind or have low vision? (Choose two responses.)
Providing extra time for them to learn
Completing the task for them so they keep up with others in class
Offering lavish praise
Allowing them the opportunity to reject or accept an object
Answers one and four are correct. You should always allow extra time and not
complete tasks for children. Praise should be appropriate and the same as offered
to other children of that age group.
Checkpoint 5
Assume the following image is your office or classroom, what would you change to
support a child with low vision? (Choose two responses.)
1. Nothing, it is a typical classroom
2. Remove clutter
3. Place the child at the red desk to
create contrast against books
4. Change the curtains
Answers two and three are correct. Remove clutter from the wall and around the
room to create clear definition and high contrast, place the child at the red desk
in order to create a contrast against the white pages of a book.
Checkpoint 6
Complete the following sentence. When providing care or support it is important to…
(Choose one response.)
Have high expectations
Provide clear instructions and repeat if necessary
Discourage inappropriate behaviours
All of the above
All of the above (4) is correct, do not be afraid to have high expectations of a
child or to discourage inappropriate behaviours.
Chapter 3 :
Community Participation
Community Participation
Inclusion involves embracing human diversity and welcoming all children and adults as
equal members of a community.
It Involves valuing and supporting the full participation of all people, recognizing and
upholding the rights of all, and understanding human diversity as a rich resource and an
everyday part of all human environments and interactions.
It is an approach that is free from discriminatory beliefs, attitudes and practices.
Community Participation
Through active involvement within the community both the individual and community
benefit as an outcome. It is important to have a commitment to meaningful
participation of those who are blind or have low vision. Meaningful participation
involves more than being present; it involves promoting engagement in play and
Participation is more than being present in different environments. The person must be
actively engaged and their involvement must be more than tokenistic. For participation
to be meaningful, the person’s role and contribution must be valued by all those
involved in the activity, including the person themselves.
The reason we want children to be meaningful participants in everyday environments is
because meaningful participation is the engine of development and the key to attaining
a true sense of belonging and a satisfactory quality of life.
Community Participation
Most community programmes do not need to be modified significantly to accommodate
the needs of a child who is blind or has low vision.
Community Participation
Take a break from this course….. Take a few minutes to look
around the room or office, get a drink and walk around.
Consider while you do this…..
• How would you accommodate the needs of a child who is
blind or has low vision?
• What would you change?
• How would these changes benefit your current space?
• What action can you take today to ensure inclusion?
Please return within 10 minutes
Community Participation
You should have come up with a few ideas! If possible write
them down and schedule time to action these.
Your ideas may benefit everyone.
Community Participation
It is important to recommend support that is customized to the child's needs. Consider
what type of intervention you could recommend to assist the child and support their
participation within the community. These may include:
Attending swimming classes
Joining a social group such as Scouts or dance classes
Meeting with other providers such as physiotherapists
Learning to play a musical instrument
Recommending specific play time at home that involves the introduction of new
objects, activities or playmates
Think of a few
others and
create your
own list
Community Participation
• For additional support there are many specialist vision agencies with relevant
information. Please contact a vision specialist agency in your local area.
• Vision Australia may be contacted on 1300 847 466.
Congratulations! You have completed this course.
This course has provided you with the tools that will enable you to develop your skill
and knowledge in supporting a child who is blind or has low vision.
Following this session take a few minutes to consider your plan for assisting with
children and families of children who are blind or have low vision, and develop some
action points that you can apply during their next visit.
Ensure you understand that
your role is essential to the
child's development.