Writing into the Day Guernica

Writing into the Day
•What is the mood of the
•What symbols can you make
out in the painting?
•What do these symbols mean?
•What is the Purpose of this
•What is the value of this
painting as a historical primary
•What are the limitations of a
painting in terms of its value as
a historical primary source?
Starnes 29 Quiz
This was an artistic movement of the 1920s, most notably characterized by the
work of Pablo Picaso.
This intergovernmental organization is made up of Canada, South Africa,
Australia, and other former members of the British Empire (Mozambique and
Rwanda excepted).
This was an ultra nationalist right wing movement developed under Mussolini.
He was a Mexican Revolutionary and President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913.
This group led the October Revolution(Which happened in November on
western Calendars) in Russia, establishing communist rule.
He was a survivor of the Long March who founded a new type of communism in
He was the Nationalist opponent of communism in China, we was ultimately
defeated and retreated to Taiwan
What was the significance of the Sudetan Land and the Rhineland?
This populist nationalist leader came to power in Argentina in 1946
He was the nationalistic Prime Minister of Japan during WWII
Let’s Review…
• Liberalism was a reaction to feudal society, involving:
focus on the individual, idea of responsible gov’t,
support for Laissez-Faire capitalism, belief in individual
rights and freedoms
• Conservatism was a reaction to Liberalism, involving:
desire to preserve tradition, support for common
values, belief in strong gov’t control, idea that
hierarchy and inequality were natural, support for
aristocracies, suspicion of Laissez-Faire capitalism
Comparing the two…
• man is naturally good
• gov’t should interfere as
little as possible in
economic and social lives
• individual rights are most
• people give gov’t the
authority to rule, and can
take it away if they are
• man can be evil
• gov’t should control
economic and
social/moral lives
• stability and order of
society most important
• class hierarchy is natural,
and so right to rule is
• a reaction to the Industrial
Revolution, characterized by:
– rejection of the idea that the wealthy “deserve their
wealth” because they created it - but instead an
argument that wealthy exploit working classes
– vision of society based on economic equality
– belief in cooperation, production for benefit of all
– idea of public ownership of means of production
Socialism vs. Liberalism
AGREE that…
• all people deserve equal treatment
• unlike Liberalism, Socialism did not believe
people could develop individually
• Socialism is not suspicious of the state – in
fact, Socialists rely on gov’t to regulate
services and to provide for common good
Marx and Socialism
• German Socialist writer (1818 – 1883)
• believed society wasn’t made up of individuals,
but of CLASSES (based on economics)
• argued some classes were oppressed by others
• during his lifetime, he looked at the working classes
and argued they were oppressed by the capitalist
classes – and that this was wrong
• Marx envisioned the working class taking over the
gov’t (through revolution) and then the gov’t taking
over all industry
Marxism to Communism
Many Socialists disagreed with Marx’s ideas on:
• need for revolution
• complete abolition of all private ownership
Marx and Engels publish the
The immediate aim of the Communists is the… formation of
the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois
supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat." Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, 1848
Communism is characterized by:
• idea that history is guided by class struggle
• desire to establish a classless, stateless society
• belief in the abolition of all private ownership,
• belief that this will come about through revolution
Communism vs. Socialism
• Communism emerged out of Socialism – and
early communists considered themselves
• For modern communists: Communism is an
advanced stage of Socialism  Socialism is the
stage between Capitalism (which is bad) and
Communism (which is perfect)
• Communism in practice has moved significantly
away from the theory – disconnecting it from
• a reaction to the rise of Liberalism,
Socialism and Communism
• developed in Italy under Mussolini
• flourished in economically unstable countries
prior to WWII
Fascism vs. Communism
Both were dictatorial in nature and both deprived
individuals of their rights within society… BUT
• proposed revolution to
overthrow capitalism
and ban private
• called for a ‘withering
away of the state’ with
eventual cooperative
public control
• gov’t works within
capitalism – works with
people who control
production to improve
state economy
• exalted the state above
all, and used police and
military to control
Why did Fascism object to Liberalism,
Conservatism, Socialism and Communism?
• Fascists saw these other ideologies as having
failed because they couldn’t bring stability
• Fascism is based on idea of absolute state
• In a fascist state, citizens are obliged “to
believe, to obey, to combat” for the good of
the state – this is the direct opposite of the
19th century ideals of individual liberty and
Let’s Summarize…
• man is naturally good – a
bad environment makes
people bad
• gov’t should regulate
economy – public
• equality is important, but
the common good is the
ultimate goal
• people give gov’t
authority, and can take it
away  change happens
through REFORM
• man is perfectible
• eventually, the state will
wither away and people
will not need gov’t
• all goods will be held in
• equality is important, but
the common good is the
ultimate goal
• people consent to be
governed until the state
withers away – starts
To continue…
• man needs to be controlled
• the state is all important – the individual is only
important insofar as how he contributes to the state
• the gov’t controls all aspects of life – this brings
stability and order
• the people have no control over gov’t, and no right to
rebel against gov’t
• enemies of the state will be dealt with harshly
A short list of Communist and fascist
leaders of this period:
Benito Mussolini
Francisco Franco
Chiang Kai-shek
Vladimir Lenin
Mao Zedong
Joseph Stalin
Juan Peron
Hideki Tōjō
Josip Broz Tito
With God on our Side
• What commentary does this song make on
the motivations of nations to go to war?
• What is meant by a nation thinking they “have
God on their side.”
• Does the writer think that any war is ever
really justified? Why?
• Why did he include the verse on Judas