Fortification of bakery products

Fortification of bakery products
K. Madhavan Nair, PhD
Scientist E
Micronutrient research group
Department of Biophysics
National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR)
Bakery Products
Definition : Bakery products, which
include bread, rolls, cookies, pies, pastries,
and muffins, are usually prepared from
flour or meal derived from some form of
grain and cooked by dry heat process ,
especially in some kind of oven.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
Bakery Industry in India
The largest of the food industries with an annual turnover of
about 700 million US$
The second largest producer of biscuits after USA.
The biscuit industry comprises of organized and
unorganised sectors.
Bread and biscuits most popular - 80% of total bakery
products produced in the country.
Mainly concentrated in the States of Maharashtra, West
Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.
The per capita consumption is very high in States like
Maharashtra and West Bengal.
Development Commisioner (MSME) Ministry of Micro , Small and Medium
Enterprises . Government of India.
Market Potential
Bakery products are the cheapest of the processed
ready to eat products in the country.
Nearly 55% of the biscuits are consumed by rural
The production of bakery products has increased from
5.19 lakh tonnes in 1975 to 18.95 lakh tonnes in 1990
recording four-fold increase in 15 years.
The growth rate is estimated at an average of 9.8% per
Development Commisioner (MSME) Ministry of Micro , Small and Medium
Enterprises . Government of India.
Rationale for micronutrient fortification
of Bakery products in India
NNMB Technical Report No.24, Diet and nutritional status of population --, 2006
Bakery products are cereal based
Cereals are the major contributor of energy in Indian diets and
consumption is very high
Intake is particularly high in low income /rural population
Micronutrient deficiency in India
Do not occur in isolation but rather concurrently
NNMB Technical Report No.24, Diet and nutritional status of population --, 2006
Market Potential
Encouraging trends in consumption of bakery
products by population of lower and middle
income groups indicate vast scope for
consideration of micronutrient enrichment of
bakery products.
Why fortify bakery products with
micronutrients ?
Easy reach to specific target
They can be centrally
Low cost technology- premix
addition relatively easily and
ensure an even distribution
within batches
Are used relatively soon after
production, thus having better
vitamin retention and lesser
sensory changes due to the
need for only a small overage
Baked products are not
consumed by large
proportion of population
They are not consumed on a
regular basis, in adequate and
consistent amounts
Bakery Fortification : It can be Target
Fortification or Market Driven Fortification
In targeted fortification- specific subgroups
of the population rather than that of the
population as whole.
WHO/FAO, Guidelines on food
fortification with micronutrients. 2006.
Market driven fortification : Business
oriented initiative
• To increase nutritional value and appeal
to the health conscious consumer.
• Has potential to play positive role in
public health but has been very modest in
developing countries
• Expected to have an impact in the near
future , largely as a natural consequence
of increasing urbanization and availability
of such foods
Choice of bakery products
The industry needs to determine:
• Identify products which are consumed by the majority in a given
Selection of micronutrients ?
• Should be evidence based
• Multiple micronutrients may be required rather than iron alone for
anemia control
• Vitamin D works with calcium.
Role of Micronutrients
Iron, vitamin B12, folic acid,
vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin
C, riboflavin, Pantothenic
acid, vitamin B6, zinc,
Nutrients like Vitamin C and A enhance
dietary iron absorption.
Bone Health
Zinc, Vitamin D, boron, Cu
calcium absorption. Zinc, iron , boron,
copper helps certain enzymes
vitamin A , vitamin E , vitamin functioning of immune cells. particularly
B6, vitamin C, Zn.
T helper cell
Iron, zinc, vitamin E, C and B neurotransmitter, synaptic transmission,
and Omega-3 fatty acids Like membrane fluidity and signalDHA
transduction, protect membranes from
lipid peroxidation and affect synaptic
Vitamins B6, B12, folic acid
Folic acid , Vitamins B6 and B12 reduce
homocysteine levels
Insulin Action
Chromium , zinc, vitamin C
and E.
required for the synthesis of
chromodulin, a molecule that also
potentiates the action of insulin
.Antioxidant vitamins C and E diminish
protein glycoxidations.
Setting Level of Fortification for
Market Driven Fortification
micronutrient content
per serving size
[ UL* - (Amt of micronutrient provided by the diet + amount
of micronutrient provided by fortified foods in the context of
an ongoing mass fortification programme) ]
Number of servings
*As UL is not defined in Indian context RDA can be used as a guideline.
WHO/FAO, Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. 2006.
How Much to Add ?
Since bakery products do not form staple part of Indian
diet and their consumption is inconsistent , there can be
no generalized formula to derive level of fortification
LoF should be fixed for specific population and product based on :
Percent inadequacy in intake (below RDA) of micronutrient
Usual consumption of the chosen food vehicle by this group
The risk of excessive intakes that would be expected at different levels
of fortification
 Bioavailability of the selected fortificant
Other Factors To Consider When
Deciding Fortification Level
o Safety limits
o Technological limits
o Cost limits
Fortifying Bakery Products : Challenges
Challenges w.r.t. product:
Challenges w.r.t. fortificant :
•Interference during
•Processing losses
•Product acceptability
•Nutrient interactions
Challenges for the product
Premix Stage :Blending ingredients with different
particle sizes is that bulk density and variable particle
sizes can lead to segregation.
For fat soluble nutrient like Vitamin D , it is necessary to
have some fat and/or hydrocolloids to suspend it
properly into a finished product’s matrix
Baking Process : Several fortificants like calcium pose
rising challenges in products like bread and muffins by
disrupting bubble formation stage.
Product Quality : Incorporating fortificant may lead to
alteration in taste, texture , shelf life and thus over all
product acceptability.
Challenges for the Fortificant
Processing losses
Though mineral salts are relatively stable to heat
treatments , vitamins are heat labile .
Heat degradation of folic acid during baking is
between 21.9 per cent and 32.1 per cent
Anderson et al . Internat J Food Sci Technol
Published online ahead of print: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02226.x
Nutrient Interactions in Multiple Fortification
In Food Matrix
Vit D-fat
Vit A-fat
At Physiological Level
Iron-Vit C
Vit D-Fat
Iron –Vit A
Vit A-fat
Factors affecting bioavailability of nutrients
Stability and solubility of the fortificant at high
(intestinal) pH - Example Vitamin D, Iron , calcium
Interaction with food matrix : Inhibitors like phytates
combine with minerals and renders them insoluble
Emerging evidence : Products of maillard reaction
reduce iron availability (Garcia et al , 2009)
Certain bakery additives like vanilla , chocolate, baking
powder have the potential to inhibit bioavailability .
Role of processing :
•In the process of bread making phytic acid decreases due to action of
phytases in the dough.
•Reduction in phytic acid content in different bread types varies
between 13-100%.
Lopez et al . J Agric Food Chem (2001), 49: 2657–2662.
Maillard Reaction
Processing of foods rich in
protein and carbohydrates
and/or fat favors the
development of Maillard
Reaction and the formation of
browning products , which
can improve food palatability
The final product of the
reaction are high molecular
weight colored compounds,
Melanoidins have ability to
complex iron.
Studies have shown that it
reduces iron bioavailability in
adolescent males .
Garcia et al. Mol Nutr Food Res(2009) 53(12): 1551–1560
Vanilla as Inhibitor ?
Vanilla extracts contain appreciable amounts of
iron binding polyphenols thus it may be a
potential inhibitor
Chocolate as Inhibitor ?
Chocolate contains alkaloids such as
theobromine and phenethylamine
Binding of theobromine onto transferrin could
probably inhibit or block the receptor site for
Nwanjo et al . Internat J Hematology. 2007 Volume 3 Number 2
Innovations to overcome challenges
Microencapsulation to improve nutrient availability
Beadlet Technology : For Vitamins highly susceptible to oxidation
this technology cross-links the vitamin inside a gelatin-based matrix,
protecting it from oxidation.
Newer fortificants to combat inhibitors : Sodium iron chlorophyllin
Improved absorption promoters like ascorbyl palmitate
Miret J Agric Food Chem (2010) , 58(2): 1327-32
Pizzaro et al. AJCN, 2006. 84, No. 4, 830-834,
There is scope for bakery products as a means of
improving micronutrients of the needy population.
Due importance should be given with respect to the food
habits of the population, resources available in the region
and the new technologies.
Multiple micronutrient deficiencies can be addressed.
The challenge is to create evidence for the public health
impact of fortification of bakery products.
Implementation of such new initiative should
complement the existing strategies in the region.