Fortification of bakery products K. Madhavan Nair, PhD Scientist E Micronutrient research group Department of Biophysics National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR) Bakery Products Definition : Bakery products, which include bread, rolls, cookies, pies, pastries, and muffins, are usually prepared from flour or meal derived from some form of grain and cooked by dry heat process , especially in some kind of oven. Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/49547/bakery-product Bakery Industry in India The largest of the food industries with an annual turnover of about 700 million US$ The second largest producer of biscuits after USA. The biscuit industry comprises of organized and unorganised sectors. Bread and biscuits most popular - 80% of total bakery products produced in the country. Mainly concentrated in the States of Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. The per capita consumption is very high in States like Maharashtra and West Bengal. Development Commisioner (MSME) Ministry of Micro , Small and Medium Enterprises . Government of India. Market Potential Bakery products are the cheapest of the processed ready to eat products in the country. Nearly 55% of the biscuits are consumed by rural sector. The production of bakery products has increased from 5.19 lakh tonnes in 1975 to 18.95 lakh tonnes in 1990 recording four-fold increase in 15 years. The growth rate is estimated at an average of 9.8% per annum. Development Commisioner (MSME) Ministry of Micro , Small and Medium Enterprises . Government of India. Rationale for micronutrient fortification of Bakery products in India % DEVIATION FROM SUGGESTED INTAKE MEN, MODERATE ACTIVITY) (ADULT 40 20 -60 -80 NNMB Technical Report No.24, Diet and nutritional status of population --, 2006 FATS MILK NVEG. NUTS -40 FRU -20 VEG. 0 P&L C&M Bakery products are cereal based Cereals are the major contributor of energy in Indian diets and consumption is very high Intake is particularly high in low income /rural population % DEVIATION Micronutrient deficiency in India Do not occur in isolation but rather concurrently NNMB Technical Report No.24, Diet and nutritional status of population --, 2006 Market Potential Encouraging trends in consumption of bakery products by population of lower and middle income groups indicate vast scope for consideration of micronutrient enrichment of bakery products. Why fortify bakery products with micronutrients ? Merits Easy reach to specific target group They can be centrally processed Low cost technology- premix addition relatively easily and ensure an even distribution within batches Are used relatively soon after production, thus having better vitamin retention and lesser sensory changes due to the need for only a small overage Demerits Baked products are not consumed by large proportion of population They are not consumed on a regular basis, in adequate and consistent amounts Bakery Fortification : It can be Target Fortification or Market Driven Fortification In targeted fortification- specific subgroups of the population rather than that of the population as whole. WHO/FAO, Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. 2006. Market driven fortification : Business oriented initiative • To increase nutritional value and appeal to the health conscious consumer. • Has potential to play positive role in public health but has been very modest in developing countries • Expected to have an impact in the near future , largely as a natural consequence of increasing urbanization and availability of such foods Choice of bakery products The industry needs to determine: • Identify products which are consumed by the majority in a given population. Selection of micronutrients ? • Should be evidence based • Multiple micronutrients may be required rather than iron alone for anemia control • Vitamin D works with calcium. Role of Micronutrients Hematopoiesis Iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, zinc, Nutrients like Vitamin C and A enhance dietary iron absorption. Bone Health Zinc, Vitamin D, boron, Cu calcium absorption. Zinc, iron , boron, copper helps certain enzymes Immune Functions vitamin A , vitamin E , vitamin functioning of immune cells. particularly B6, vitamin C, Zn. T helper cell Cognitive Functions Iron, zinc, vitamin E, C and B neurotransmitter, synaptic transmission, and Omega-3 fatty acids Like membrane fluidity and signalDHA transduction, protect membranes from lipid peroxidation and affect synaptic plasticity. Cardiovascular Health Vitamins B6, B12, folic acid Folic acid , Vitamins B6 and B12 reduce homocysteine levels Insulin Action Chromium , zinc, vitamin C and E. required for the synthesis of chromodulin, a molecule that also potentiates the action of insulin .Antioxidant vitamins C and E diminish protein glycoxidations. Setting Level of Fortification for Market Driven Fortification Maximum micronutrient content per serving size [ UL* - (Amt of micronutrient provided by the diet + amount of micronutrient provided by fortified foods in the context of an ongoing mass fortification programme) ] = Number of servings *As UL is not defined in Indian context RDA can be used as a guideline. WHO/FAO, Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. 2006. How Much to Add ? Since bakery products do not form staple part of Indian diet and their consumption is inconsistent , there can be no generalized formula to derive level of fortification (LoF). LoF should be fixed for specific population and product based on : Percent inadequacy in intake (below RDA) of micronutrient Usual consumption of the chosen food vehicle by this group The risk of excessive intakes that would be expected at different levels of fortification Bioavailability of the selected fortificant Other Factors To Consider When Deciding Fortification Level o Safety limits o Technological limits o Cost limits Fortifying Bakery Products : Challenges Challenges w.r.t. product: Challenges w.r.t. fortificant : •Interference during processing •Processing losses •Product acceptability •Nutrient interactions •Bioavailability Challenges for the product Premix Stage :Blending ingredients with different particle sizes is that bulk density and variable particle sizes can lead to segregation. For fat soluble nutrient like Vitamin D , it is necessary to have some fat and/or hydrocolloids to suspend it properly into a finished product’s matrix Baking Process : Several fortificants like calcium pose rising challenges in products like bread and muffins by disrupting bubble formation stage. Product Quality : Incorporating fortificant may lead to alteration in taste, texture , shelf life and thus over all product acceptability. Challenges for the Fortificant Processing losses Though mineral salts are relatively stable to heat treatments , vitamins are heat labile . Heat degradation of folic acid during baking is between 21.9 per cent and 32.1 per cent Anderson et al . Internat J Food Sci Technol Published online ahead of print: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02226.x Nutrient Interactions in Multiple Fortification In Food Matrix Positive Vit D-fat Vit A-fat At Physiological Level Negative Positive Iron-Iodide Iron-Vit C Vit D-Fat Iron –Vit A Vit A-fat Negative Iron-Ca Iron-Zn Bioavailability Factors affecting bioavailability of nutrients Stability and solubility of the fortificant at high (intestinal) pH - Example Vitamin D, Iron , calcium Interaction with food matrix : Inhibitors like phytates combine with minerals and renders them insoluble Emerging evidence : Products of maillard reaction reduce iron availability (Garcia et al , 2009) Certain bakery additives like vanilla , chocolate, baking powder have the potential to inhibit bioavailability . Bioavailability Role of processing : •In the process of bread making phytic acid decreases due to action of phytases in the dough. •Reduction in phytic acid content in different bread types varies between 13-100%. Lopez et al . J Agric Food Chem (2001), 49: 2657–2662. Maillard Reaction Processing of foods rich in protein and carbohydrates and/or fat favors the development of Maillard Reaction and the formation of browning products , which can improve food palatability The final product of the reaction are high molecular weight colored compounds, Melanoidins. Melanoidins have ability to complex iron. Studies have shown that it reduces iron bioavailability in adolescent males . Garcia et al. Mol Nutr Food Res(2009) 53(12): 1551–1560 Vanilla as Inhibitor ? Vanilla extracts contain appreciable amounts of iron binding polyphenols thus it may be a potential inhibitor Chocolate as Inhibitor ? Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine Binding of theobromine onto transferrin could probably inhibit or block the receptor site for iron. Nwanjo et al . Internat J Hematology. 2007 Volume 3 Number 2 Innovations to overcome challenges Microencapsulation to improve nutrient availability Beadlet Technology : For Vitamins highly susceptible to oxidation this technology cross-links the vitamin inside a gelatin-based matrix, protecting it from oxidation. Newer fortificants to combat inhibitors : Sodium iron chlorophyllin Improved absorption promoters like ascorbyl palmitate Miret J Agric Food Chem (2010) , 58(2): 1327-32 Pizzaro et al. AJCN, 2006. 84, No. 4, 830-834, Conclusion • There is scope for bakery products as a means of improving micronutrients of the needy population. • Due importance should be given with respect to the food habits of the population, resources available in the region and the new technologies. • Multiple micronutrient deficiencies can be addressed. • The challenge is to create evidence for the public health impact of fortification of bakery products. • Implementation of such new initiative should complement the existing strategies in the region.
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