Document 385411

Characteristics of the Marine
• cover 71% of the Earth’s
• Some places of the ocean
floor are deeper than Mt.
Everest is high.
• 96.5% of the ocean is pure
• 3.5% is dissolved minerals
Factors Effecting the
Composition of Marine Waters
• Air
– The levels of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the
water are greatly effected by the air
• Disasters
– Hurricanes, typhoons, and tsunamis weather and
erode the coastal regions washing sediments into the
• Human activities
Discuss with your neighbors.
– What activities affect marine biomes?
– What are some biotic and abiotic components of
marine biomes?
Components of the Marine
• Abiotic (nonliving)
– Water
– Sunlight/darkness
– Minerals
– Dissolved gases
• Biotic (living)
– Producers
– Consumers
– Decomposers
Obtaining Energy in the
Marine Biome
• Autotrophs- phytoplankton
and plants capture energy
from the sun
• Chemotrophs- some
Archaebacteria obtain
energy from the chemicals
around deep sea vents
• Heterotrophs- consumers
obtain energy by feeding on
other living organisms
Producers of the Ocean
• Two types of Producers
– Photosynthetic
• Organisms living close enough to the
surface to obtain energy from the sun
• Convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugars
• Ex. Phytoplankton, diatoms and kelp
– Chemosynthetic
• Organisms living around deep-sea vents
• Have no light for photosynthesis
• Convert hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and
elemental sulfur into organic molecules
• Ex. Archaebacteria
Photosynthetic vs. Chemosynthetic
Primary Consumers
• Eat the producers herbivores
– Sea urchins – eat kelp
– Sea butterflies – feed on
– Parrot fish – eat algae
Secondary Consumers
• Eat the primary consumers –
carnivores or omnivores
– Jelly fish – eat small fish
– Clown fish – eat small
– Sea otters – eat sea urchins
• Eat the secondary
– Polar bears – eat
seals, walrus, and
beluga whales
– Great White sharks –
eat dolphins, sharks,
whales, sea lions, sea
turtles and sea birds
– Bull sharks – eat
dolphins, rays, sea
turtles and sea birds
• Filter Feeders – remove dead
materials floating in the water
– Ex. Tube worms and anemones
• Bottom Feeders – break down
dead materials that has made its
way to the ocean floor
– Ex. Sea Cucumbers and Star Fish
Let’s put this together…
• Based on what you know
– Draw an example of a food chain in the
Marine Biome.
– Give examples of things that would alter your
food chain.
Flow of Energy in the Ocean
Sun or Deep Sea Vent
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
Tertiary Consumers
Flow of Matter and Energy
in the Ocean
Adaptations to the
Marine Biome
• Adaptations of organisms in the
oceans that help survival.
• These include…
Breathing in water
Sensory adaptations
Exchange of Gases
• Deep Sea Worms –
exchange gases directly
through their bodies
• Plants –exchange O2 for
CO2 through specialized
openings in their leaves
• Vertebrates – exchange
CO2 for O2 through gills.
Examples of Plant
• Kelp (sea weed) –
– Holdfast
• Root like structure to
anchor the plant the ocean
• Not for absorbing nutrients
– Gas Bladders
• Bubble-like structures filled
with air
• Allow the plant to float at
the surface of the water
– Stoma
• Opening where gases are
exchanged between the
plant and the environment
Examples of Animal Adaptations
• Hermit Crabs
– Live inside the
shells of others
for protection
– Behavioral
– Crab lifts anemones onto its shell
so that anemone provides
– The anemone benefits can feed on
the crabs leftovers
• Sea Anemone
– Have special
stinging cells
for attack and
Click here for movie
• Coloration –
– Camouflage
• Chemical –
– Bitter tasting
– Poisonous
• Avoidance –
– Speed
– Large numbers
– Bioluminescence
provides a way for
creature of the deep to
Click image
• Deep Sea Creatures
• Dolphins
Click image
– Vocalize using clicks
and squeaks
1. How is a marine biome different from a
freshwater biome?
– Marine biomes are larger, interconnected, and
contain dissolved minerals like salt.
2. What are the two ways Producers get food?
– Autotrophs get energy from the sun, Chemotrophs
get energy from chemicals found in deep vents.
3. Name three organisms of the marine biome
and discuss two adaptations of each.